Steel Bridge Examination BEP 04

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					          Discipline                                                                                                      Category
          Engineering Standard                                                                       Bridges & Structures



                              Steel Bridge Examination
                                                            BEP 04
                                                                Applicability
                                                ARTC Network wide
                                                New South Wales                           
                                                Western Jurisdiction
                                                Victoria


                                                         Primary Source
                                                (RIC Standard TS 4154 Version 2.1)

                                                     Document Status Record
               Status             Date            Prepared     Reviewed                       Endorsed               Approved
                                                                                                  GM
                                                                        Manager                                         Safety
              Issue 2                            Standards &                                 Infrastructure
                                 Oct 05                                Standards &                                    Committee
             Revision 0                            Systems                                     Strategy &
                                                                         Systems                                      10/10/2005
                                                                                             Performance

                                                        List of Amendments
               Issue              Date              Clause                                   Description
                 1.1          01/09/2004                              Reformatting to ARTC Standard
                 1.2          09/03/2005          Disclaimer          Minor editorial change
                                                                      Document reformatted
                 2.0          04/10/2005                9             Replaced reference to Weekly Summary of
                                                                      Exceedents form with reference and link to Defect
                                                                      Report from PP-166. Cover pages reformatted and
                                                                      disclaimer amended per Safety Committee




                                                                     Disclaimer
 h o u n i o i ra u e y h u t ln a Ta k op rt n t “ T ”o l n
  s            s      t                       ri
T id c me t frnen l s b teA s aa R i rc C roai Ld( R C ) n a dma n t erldo b a y te p r . R C
                                                         l                o      A           y                    i
                                                                                                        y o b ee n y n oh r at A T :      y
 1. does not accept any liability or responsibility whatsoever for this Document in respect of any use or reliance upon it by any other party; and
                                2. does not provide any warranty as to the accuracy or reliability of this Document.
Engineering Standard –NSW
Bridges and Structures                                                                                                     BEP 04
Steel Bridge Examination


Contents

1.    General .................................................................................................................... 3

2.    Steel Degradation..................................................................................................... 3

3.    Examination Methods ............................................................................................... 3

4.    Examination Procedure ............................................................................................ 3

5.    Member Examination................................................................................................ 4
      5.1      General ........................................................................................................... 4
      5.2      Main Girders (Plate Web or Rolled Section) .................................................... 4
      5.3      Cross Girders .................................................................................................. 4
      5.4      Stringer Girders ............................................................................................... 5
      5.5      Bearings .......................................................................................................... 5
      5.6      Truss Girders................................................................................................... 5
      5.7      Broad Flange Beams (BFB)............................................................................. 5
      5.8      Stepways......................................................................................................... 5
      5.9      Trestles ........................................................................................................... 5
      5.10 Piers................................................................................................................ 6
      5.11 Corrugated Steel Pipes ................................................................................... 6

6.    Deflection ................................................................................................................. 6

7.    Other Components ................................................................................................... 6

8.    Site Condition ........................................................................................................... 6

9.    Reporting Examination Results................................................................................. 6




Issue 2                                                                                 Australian Rail Track Corporation
Revision 0                                                                     This document is uncontrolled when printed
October 2005                                                                                                  Page 2 of 6
Engineering Standard –NSW
Bridges and Structures                                                                      BEP 04
Steel Bridge Examination


1.    General

      Examination of steel bridges is to be undertaken by qualified staff, and at
      frequencies as set out in BES 01.

      In this Technical Standard, steel examination includes wrought iron and cast iron
      members.

      Results from bridge examinations are to be reported as defined in BER 01 and BES
      03.

      The Examiner is to have a copy of the previous examination results when examining
      each bridge.

2.    Steel Degradation

      In general, steel deteriorates in service in the following ways:

      1)       Erosion or corrosion at exposed surfaces, and at timber or concrete
               interfaces.

      2)       Cracking in members or welds.

      3)       Relaxation of fastenings.

      4)       Distortion due to overload, or from direct impact from road or rail vehicles.

      5)       Fatigue from repetition of external loading.

3.    Examination Methods

      The principal examination methods are:

      1)       Visual.

      2)       Hammer Test.

      3)       Magnetic or Electronic Gauges for testing steel or coating thickness.

      Specialist examination methods include X-Ray, Ultrasonic, Acoustic Emission, and
      Laboratory analysis of steel samples.

4.    Examination Procedure

      Visual examination as detailed below will detect most defects in steel bridges.

        a     re t h r
                   ,
      H mme ts w eeme esaetp e lhl wt a E a n r h mme, i
                              mb r r a p d i t i n x mi ’ a
                                                  g y h             es          rwl l
      indicate loose plates and fastenings, extent of corrosion, and effectiveness of
      corrosion protection. Care must be taken that hammering does not cause
      unnecessary destruction of protection systems.

      Where protective coatings are showing signs of deterioration, or where remote faces
      of steel members preclude surface examination, a dry film thickness gauge or
      ultrasonic flaw detector device can be used to determine relevant thickness of
      coating or steel section.

Issue 2                                                            Australian Rail Track Corporation
Revision 0                                                This document is uncontrolled when printed
October 2005                                                                             Page 3 of 6
Engineering Standard –NSW
Bridges and Structures                                                                     BEP 04
Steel Bridge Examination

      Flaw detection penetrant dye will detect suspected cracking not clearly visible. The
                                                                  rme i a b n
                                                                            h
      local area is to be cleared back to bare metal then re-pi d wt T u ma ’            s
      Chromox Z.P. Red.

      Members are to be observed under load where possible, and any excessive
      movement in members or fastenings is to be noted.

      Examine for water build-up, especially in areas that could cause corrosion.

      Examine for, and note for grinding out as soon as possible, notches caused by
      impact from vehicles or equipment. Note section loss from grinding. Check for
      cracks around notch area.

      Regular or extensive cracking in a member is to be noted for follow-up by the ARTC
      General Manager ISP or nominated representative with specialist examination.

5.    Member Examination
5.1   General

      Examine members for corrosion and section loss; buckled webs, web stiffeners, and
      flanges; cracks in webs, flanges, and welds; loose bolts, rivets, plates and bars;
      paintwork condition; distortion from corrosion products; stain trails indicating hidden
      corrosion; polished surfaces indicating movement between members.

      Particular defect areas to be examined are:

5.2   Main Girders (Plate Web or Rolled Section)

      1)       Corrosion under transoms or decking at toes of bottom flange angles,
               between flange plates, around bearings, at abutments and piers, at bracing
               connections, in rivet and bolt heads.

      2)       Loose rivets or bolts in top flange angles, bracing connections, web stiffeners
               and splices, bearing plates.

      3)       Cracks in bottom flanges.

      4)       Cracked welds in web stiffeners with diaphragm bracing, bottom of web
               stiffeners, web/flange fillets, flange/flange fillets.

      5)       Notches in bottom flanges from road vehicle impact.

      6)       Buckled webs of unstiffened girders.

5.3   Cross Girders

      1)       Corrosion near abutments.

      2)       Cracks in webs at ends of girders.

      3)       Loose rivets or bolts in connections.




Issue 2                                                           Australian Rail Track Corporation
Revision 0                                               This document is uncontrolled when printed
October 2005                                                                            Page 4 of 6
Engineering Standard –NSW
Bridges and Structures                                                                       BEP 04
Steel Bridge Examination


5.4   Stringer Girders

      1)       Corrosion under transoms or decking.

      2)       Cracks in top fillets, and at ends of girders.

      3)       Loose rivets or bolts in connections.

5.5   Bearings

      1)       Corrosion at flange plate connection.

      2)       Cracks in bearing or bed plates.

      3)       Cracked welds between flanges and bearing plates.

      4)       Loose, broken or missing holding down bolts, studs, and clips.

      5)       Expansion bearings not working and segmented bearings lying over.

5.6   Truss Girders

      1)       Corrosion in top and bottom chords, batten plates and lacing bars, portal and
               wind bracing over tracks, gusset plates, rivet and bolt heads.

      2)       Loose rivets or bolts in chords, bracing connections, bracing. Loose
               turnbuckles in bracing.

      3)       Damaged steelwork from equipment or loads travelling out-of-gauge.

      4)       Ineffective sliding, roller, or segmented expansion bearings.

      5)       Misalignment or distortion in chords.

5.7   Broad Flange Beams (BFB)

      1)       BFB girders are highly susceptible to crack propagation. Any notch is to be
               noted and ground out as detailed in BEP 01.

5.8   Stepways

      1)       Corrosion at base connection, stepway risers, stringer webs, tread cleats and
               clips.

      2)       Loose bolts and clips to treads.

5.9   Trestles

      1)       Corrosion around baseplates, between angles in bracing, in rivet heads and
               holding down bolts.

      2)       Loose rivets or bolts in connections to girders or bracing. Loose turnbuckles
               in bracing.



Issue 2                                                             Australian Rail Track Corporation
Revision 0                                                 This document is uncontrolled when printed
October 2005                                                                              Page 5 of 6
Engineering Standard –NSW
Bridges and Structures                                                                     BEP 04
Steel Bridge Examination


5.10 Piers

      1)       Corrosion at crosshead connection at water or ground level, inside of filled
               cylinders.

      2)       Excessive movement of any member under load.

      3)       Cracks in cylinder walls.

5.11 Corrugated Steel Pipes

      1)       Corrosion in corrugations.

      2)       Distortion in pipe profile.

      3)       Breakdown of bitumen coating.

      4)       Change in invert alignment indicating bedding failure.

      5)       Scour or erosion around pipe ends.

6.    Deflection

      Deflection in steel members is normally small. Any clear movement under load is to
      be measured, or closely estimated, and reported.

      Any permanent sag in deck members is to be measured and reported.

7.    Other Components

      Timber and concrete components of steel bridges are to be examined and included in
      the bridge report.

8.    Site Condition

      All foreign matter or debris is to be removed during the examination, and defined
      waterways cleared if blocked by more than 25%.

      Foundations are to be probed to determine the extent of scouring or undermining.

      Track at bridge ends is to be examined for top and noted. Track bearing on the
      ballast log is to be noted and advised that day to the ARTC Corridor Manager or
      nominated representative.

9.    Reporting Examination Results

      Bridge examination results and comments are to be written up within one month of
      the examination.

      Priorities for Steel Repair and Painting are to be determined and actioned by the
      Examiner in accordance with the requirements of BES 03. Defects are to be
      reported on the Defect Report Form in accordance with PP-166 Infrastructure
      Defects Management.



Issue 2                                                           Australian Rail Track Corporation
Revision 0                                               This document is uncontrolled when printed
October 2005                                                                            Page 6 of 6

				
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