Managing e-journals: Challenges for the Library Poornima Narayana Deputy Head, Information Center National Aerospace Laboratories Bangalore 560 017 firstname.lastname@example.org Bangalore University Jan. 31, 2006 Electronic Publications A term that can refer broadly to the publication of any document in Electronic media E journals Web magazines Electronic newspapers Transition from print to digital Increasing digital content impacts on • space, technology, budget, staffing levels and staffing type • collection development and management • user expectations and behaviours E Journal Characteristics A journal, usually scholarly, which can be read in an electronic form Within it articles are published by different authors Usually, a full text journal ISSN E-only: Advantages No handling of print No binding of journals Less storage space required User satisfaction Seamless, one-stop access Individualised for the student Flexible for the teacher Universally accessible Easy to use Traditional Services that apply to the E- journal World Pre-payment of order – cash flow issue Order consolidation Proof of payment maintenance Line item invoicing Fund accounting ILS feeds for invoicing EDI Consolidated Renewals Reporting Customer Service Representative / Tech Support How many e-only journals are there? Growth in e-only journals?? 1995 - 2004 1995 1997 ? 1999 2001 2003 Actually, it’s rather hard to find out … 12,000 11,267 10,000 8,000 5636 6,000 4,000 1412 2,000 239 85 0 ISI ISI/OA DOAJ Ulrich EBSCOhost E-Journals Major Players Primary publishers Aggregators Vendors Document delivery agencies E-print systems What publishers are doing? 83% of journals have electronic edition Variety of pricing models, but pricing still linked to print edition Formal provisions for long-term preservation: • 52% of commercial • 45% of not-for-profit publishers Source: Report on academic journal publishers' policies and practices in online publishing Cox, J. (ALPSP 2003) Large publishers’ experience with e-only All have experimented with e-only journals But are currently publishing very few, if any e-only journals Some e-only journals failed, or added print Publishers cite authors’ dislike of submitting to e-only journals • “experimented with one born-digital e-only journal which has experienced problems with attracting unsolicited manuscripts” Consortia access and online-only subscription • Online-only subscriptions ~10% • Differences between STM and HSS None has current plans to drop print • Still seen as 3-5 years off Some would like to drop print – but “librarians won’t let them” Source: personal communications, 2005. License E-resource life cycle Trial use terms Order Libraries Assess Price Pay need/budget Evaluate Acquire Evaluate Monitor Provide Access Provide Support Administer License E-resource life cycle Trial use terms Order Libraries Assess Price Pay need/budget Evaluate IP Addresses Register User feedback Acquire Proxy Servers Usage stats Catalog Evaluate Portals/Access Downtime Monitor Provide Access lists analysis Campus Review authentication problems URL maintenance Problem log Provide Support Administer User IDs Hardware Admin module needs information Software needs Preferences (store) Contact info Holdings lists Troubleshoot/ Access triage restrictions View rights for Claiming use License E-resource life cycle Trial use terms Order Libraries Assess Price Pay need/budget Evaluate IP Addresses Register User feedback Acquire Proxy Servers Usage stats Catalog Evaluate Portals/Acces Downtime Monitor Provide Access s lists analysis Campus Review authentication problems URL maintenance Problem log Provide Support Administer User IDs Hardware Admin module needs information Software needs Preferences (store) Contact info Holdings lists Troubleshoot/ Access triage restrictions New processes introduced View rights for Claiming use License Order E-resource life cycle Offer trial terms handling Publishers Marketing/ Pricing Hosting site Sales Invoices Fulfillment Registration reports Acquire Title lists IP Addresses Evaluate Campus Usage stats Monitor Provide Access authentication Metasearch/ Z39.50 Durable URL Subscription Support Provide Support Administer problems User IDs Hardware problems IP Changes Software problems Title Lists for Customer packages Service Subscription Enforce Technical upgrades License terms Support Title Changes Claiming E-Journal User Study (Stanford, 2002) EJs had reached a mature stage among life scientists and clinicians, where almost everyone uses them regularly Almost 80% of respondents had used EJs during the week before responding 12% had used them during the last month 8% had used EJs more than a month ago Only 2% were nonusers 23% of access to journals via print copies (Stanford 2002) Source: E-Journal User Study, Stanford, November 2002 What is the Role of the Agent? Offer subscription services and supporting products that benefit both libraries and publishers Do this more efficiently than either can do on their own Be compensated by both parties for the value we add What value do Agents bring? 1) “Traditional” agent services that also apply to the e-journal world 2) New “e-agent services” that help customers acquire and manage e- resources 3) E-resource management products, linking services and databases New E-Agent Services Special handling for online orders Dedicated e-journal processing teams Rapid processing of online orders and registration assistance Gathering of PID/SID numbers from publishers Email notification to customers of PID/SID & registration requirements Notify publishers of IP address changes Automatic registration for select publishers Assistance with subscrition upgrades and format changes New E-Agent Services With order through Agent, library benefits from Automatic update of E-Journal gateway Automatic update of online Title List (A-to-Z service) Automatic update of Link Resolver Automatic update of OPAC – MARC records Automatic update of Smart Links E-Resource Access Management Products E-Journal Gateways A-to-Z or Title lists Full text databases Bibliographic databases Link Resolvers (OpenURL) Smart Linking Processing of e-journals without an Agent Without Agent Administrator 1 4 2 E-Journal Publisher 3 Publisher Gateway site Publisher site Publisher site site CUSTOMER 5 1. Place order A-to-Z 8 List 8 A&I 2. Get SID/PID 8 A&I database A&I database 3. Register database 6 4. Add to gateway Link 9 5. Add to A-to-Z list resolver 9 Full text 9 Full text 6. Add to link resolver database Full text database database 7. Catalog 7 8. Add to Locals at A&I OPAC 9. Add to Locals at FT Order With Agent processing 1 (Worst Case publisher) Administrator EBSCOhost 3 Publisher CUSTOMER Publisher EJS site Publisher 1. Place order site Publisher site 2. Get PID/SID site 3. Register EBSCO 4 A&I 4. Export titles from EJS & A-to-Z A&I 4 database update holdings EBSCOhost database A&I Agent LinkSource • Order SmartLinks Full text • Add to EJS Full text 4 database EBSCOhost 4 database • Add to SmartLinks Full text • Add to A-to-Z list OPAC How an Agent helps the librarian • Add to LinkSource improve processing of e-journals • MARC updates for OPAC New E-Agent Services Publisher Package Purchases Assistance with information, pricing, negotiation and ordering for individual institutions and consortia Holdings Analysis Publishers require a report of holdings in order to consider making an offer for their subscription package. The agent is uniquely suited to provide this information quickly and accurately -- and is generally a trusted source for the publisher. New E-Agent Services E-journal Auditing Are you getting what you paid for? (delayed, ceased, titles sold) Are you getting what you want? (tracking package title changes) Customized Reports To evaluate the benefits of subscribing to a publisher package or through a consortium. • Reports showing savings for discounted print • Reports showing savings with annual price caps • Other customized reports New E-Agent Services Summary inventory of e-access information Where can the title be accessed? What does the publisher need in order to provide access? One-stop customer service What happens if you can’t get access? Who do you call? How many publisher contacts do you have to maintain? Library e-Services Publisher Publisher site Publisher site Publisher site site E-Journal Gateway A&I A&I database A&I database A-to-Z Link database User List resolver Full text Full text database Full text OPAC database database Document Document Delivery Document Delivery Delivery Value provided by products E-Journal Management Registration tracking Admin Alerts Content, access coverage and embargos Complete collection management URL management Article and journal level linking support Knowledgebase management for link resolvers E-Journal Access Locator tools for both journals and articles TOC browsing Cross-publisher searching of e-journal holdings Easy incorporation with metasearch systems Value provided by products Linking Increase in usage efficiency through interconnectivity of resources Streamlining of collection management Cost reduction due to decrease of interlibrary lending and document delivery services Usage Statistics Journal and article level usage Link-out activity Basis for collection management, purchase evaluation, budget allocation and user training General Platform harmonization and reduction of access complexity Independence from publisher platforms Reduction of IT costs through hosted solutions and continuous product development Is the total cost of a subscription really decreasing without an Agent? Increased number of tasks and complexity creates need for new and more skilled staff Cost of purchase vs. total cost of owning and managing a subscription • loss of economies of scale • Shift of work from publisher/agent to librarian • Still need for comprehensive title information Library traditional budgets decrease or shift away from library after intial e-resource experimentation phase – loss of budget control Other things to consider in buying direct from publishers Central buying entities are comparable to small agents without systems and service infrastructure – the additional cost will impact libraries in the mid-term Most discounts provided to librarians are also provided to agents Despite what the publisher sales reps might say: publishers will allow agents to handle e-journal transactions if libraries wish to do so A new paradigm is developing E-License Negotiators Information Services (Consortia or Library) + Agents Focus and alignment of interests in License Negotiation Cost effective and systems based transaction handling and administration Keeps Library in control of its purchasing Pricing Models • No Universally Acceptable E-journals Pricing and Licensing Models • Ongoing experimentation • Negotiation possible • Charge for content • Delivery format optional • Increasingly will be based on usage Pricing Models in Operation • Bundled – Free with print AIP, APS, AMS, Elsevier, Wiley • Print as base + surcharge on electronic Premium payments range from10-25% ACS (20%), OSA (25%) • Electronic only Small increase (ACS 105%) Same price (OSA) Discount from print (AIP 80%, AMS 90%) • Totally unbundled – No discount for both JBC (P- $ 1600, E- $1200, P+E- $ 2800) • Free e-version only Charge for print if required Continue… British Medical Journal Technology Essentials Dedicated Internet connection with sufficient bandwidth Campus backbone, LAN, WAN, and peripheral hardware, e.g. printers Computer workstations Appropriate software Support - maintenance, trouble shooting Training Users need to: know how to use a PC how to search for and find information resources be aware of resources that are available Different users have different needs: academics, researchers, librarians, students, administrators • Different training strategies required for different users E-Resources Subscribed under UGC-Infonet 23 + 6 DB 36 31 72 34 Life Sci. 8 222 19 100 +100 subscribed, Access all 1200 titles 29 319 28 Lib. Sci. In addition - Access to 2 Gateway portal services to 28 univ. each Challenges for journals of the future? The future is electronic, BUT ??? Will primary research become essentially free? - Peer-to-peer networks: Direct to end user publishing How will STM publishers add greater value? - Will we become peer-review organisations? Is the subscription model outdated? - One-size does not fit all anymore When will new financial models prove themselves? How will copyright and permissions policies function in a networked environment? In relation to e-prints, personal web pages, course pack use Thank you!