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					  Managing e-journals:
Challenges for the Library

      Poornima Narayana
 Deputy Head, Information Center
 National Aerospace Laboratories
        Bangalore 560 017
     poornima@css.nal.res.in

Bangalore University Jan. 31, 2006
    Electronic Publications
 A term that can refer broadly to the
  publication of any document in
  Electronic media
     E journals
     Web magazines
     Electronic newspapers
    Transition from print to digital
Increasing digital content impacts on
•    space, technology, budget, staffing
    levels and staffing type
•   collection development and
    management
•   user expectations and behaviours
    E Journal Characteristics
 A journal, usually scholarly, which
  can be read in an electronic form
 Within it articles are published by

  different authors
 Usually, a full text journal

 ISSN
            E-only: Advantages

   No handling of print
   No binding of journals
   Less storage space required
   User satisfaction
   Seamless, one-stop access
   Individualised for the student
   Flexible for the teacher
   Universally accessible
   Easy to use
    Traditional Services that apply to the E-
    journal World

   Pre-payment of order – cash flow issue
   Order consolidation
   Proof of payment maintenance
   Line item invoicing
   Fund accounting
   ILS feeds for invoicing
   EDI
   Consolidated Renewals
   Reporting
   Customer Service Representative / Tech
    Support
How many e-only journals are
          there?
          Growth in e-only journals??
                 1995 - 2004




   1995    1997
                     ?
                   1999    2001    2003
  Actually, it’s rather hard to
          find out …
12,000                                     11,267

10,000

8,000
                                 5636
6,000

4,000
                         1412
2,000            239
          85
    0
         ISI   ISI/OA   DOAJ    Ulrich   EBSCOhost
       E-Journals Major Players



 Primary publishers

 Aggregators
 Vendors
 Document delivery agencies
 E-print systems
       What publishers are doing?
 83% of journals have electronic
  edition
 Variety of pricing models, but pricing

  still linked to print edition
 Formal provisions for long-term
  preservation:
    • 52% of commercial
    • 45% of not-for-profit publishers
Source: Report on academic journal publishers' policies
and practices in online publishing Cox, J. (ALPSP 2003)
     Large publishers’ experience
             with e-only
   All have experimented with e-only journals
   But are currently publishing very few, if any e-only journals
   Some e-only journals failed, or added print
   Publishers cite authors’ dislike of submitting to e-only journals
    • “experimented with one born-digital e-only journal which has
      experienced problems with attracting unsolicited manuscripts”
   Consortia access and online-only subscription
     • Online-only subscriptions ~10%
    • Differences between STM and HSS
   None has current plans to drop print
    • Still seen as 3-5 years off
   Some would like to drop print – but “librarians won’t let them”




Source: personal communications, 2005.
                                               License
E-resource life cycle        Trial use
                                                terms           Order

Libraries        Assess
                                                   Price            Pay
               need/budget                               Evaluate


                                         Acquire

                    Evaluate
                    Monitor                        Provide Access




                        Provide Support            Administer
                                                        License
E-resource life cycle                 Trial use
                                                         terms            Order

Libraries                 Assess
                                                            Price              Pay
                        need/budget                               Evaluate              IP Addresses
                                                                                            Register
           User
         feedback                                 Acquire                                  Proxy Servers

     Usage stats                                                                               Catalog
                              Evaluate                                                       Portals/Access
      Downtime                Monitor                       Provide Access                        lists
       analysis
                                                                                                  Campus
           Review                                                                             authentication
          problems
                                                                                                  URL
                                                                                               maintenance
            Problem log
                                    Provide Support         Administer
                                                                                        User IDs
              Hardware
                                                                                  Admin module
               needs
                                                                                   information
               Software
                 needs                                                       Preferences
                                                                               (store)
                Contact info
                                                                         Holdings lists
                    Troubleshoot/                                          Access
                       triage                                            restrictions
                                                                    View rights for       Claiming
                                                                         use
                                                      License
E-resource life cycle                Trial use
                                                       terms           Order

Libraries                Assess
                                                           Price           Pay
                       need/budget                              Evaluate           IP Addresses
                                                                                       Register
           User
         feedback                                Acquire                              Proxy Servers

     Usage stats                                                                          Catalog
                            Evaluate                                                    Portals/Acces
      Downtime              Monitor                        Provide Access                   s lists
       analysis
                                                                                            Campus
           Review                                                                        authentication
          problems
                                                                                            URL
                                                                                         maintenance
            Problem log
                                   Provide Support         Administer
                                                                                   User IDs
             Hardware
                                                                            Admin module
              needs
                                                                             information
              Software
                needs                                                   Preferences
                                                                           (store)
               Contact info
                                                                     Holdings lists
                   Troubleshoot/                                       Access
                      triage                                         restrictions
New processes introduced                                         View rights for     Claiming
                                                                      use
                                                         License            Order
E-resource life cycle               Offer trial
                                                          terms            handling

Publishers             Marketing/
                                                             Pricing
                                                                                       Hosting site
                         Sales                                         Invoices
        Fulfillment                                                                      Registration
          reports
                                                  Acquire
      Title lists                                                                         IP Addresses
                            Evaluate                                                           Campus
      Usage stats           Monitor                          Provide Access                 authentication
                                                                                                 Metasearch/
                                                                                                  Z39.50
                                                                                            Durable URL
           Subscription                                                                       Support
                                Provide Support              Administer
            problems
                                                                                      User IDs
               Hardware
               problems                                                           IP Changes
                Software
                problems                                                      Title Lists for
                  Customer                                                      packages
                   Service                Subscription                        Enforce
                    Technical              upgrades                        License terms
                     Support                                             Title Changes
                                                  Claiming
        E-Journal User Study
           (Stanford, 2002)
   EJs had reached a mature stage among
    life scientists and clinicians, where almost
    everyone uses them regularly
   Almost 80% of respondents had used EJs
    during the week before responding
   12% had used them during the last month
   8% had used EJs more than a month ago
   Only 2% were nonusers
     23% of access to journals via
      print copies (Stanford 2002)




Source: E-Journal User Study, Stanford, November 2002
        What is the Role of the Agent?


   Offer subscription services and
    supporting products that benefit both
    libraries and publishers
   Do this more efficiently than either can
    do on their own
   Be compensated by both parties for the
    value we add
     What value do Agents bring?


1)    “Traditional” agent services that also
      apply to the e-journal world
2)    New “e-agent services” that help
      customers acquire and manage e-
      resources
3)    E-resource management products,
      linking services and databases
New E-Agent Services

Special handling for online orders

   Dedicated e-journal processing teams
   Rapid processing of online orders and
    registration assistance
   Gathering of PID/SID numbers from
    publishers
   Email notification to customers of PID/SID &
    registration requirements
   Notify publishers of IP address changes
   Automatic registration for select publishers
   Assistance with subscrition upgrades and
    format changes
    New E-Agent Services

With order through Agent, library benefits
 from
   Automatic   update of E-Journal gateway
   Automatic   update of online Title List (A-to-Z
    service)
   Automatic   update of Link Resolver
   Automatic   update of OPAC – MARC records
   Automatic   update of Smart Links
E-Resource Access Management Products


      E-Journal Gateways
      A-to-Z or Title lists
      Full text databases
      Bibliographic databases
      Link Resolvers (OpenURL)
      Smart Linking
  Processing of e-journals
  without an Agent                                    Without Agent
  Administrator                           1
                          4                   2
                              E-Journal                Publisher
                                                  3     Publisher
                              Gateway                    site
                                                         Publisher
                                                           site
                                                          Publisher
                                                             site
                                                              site
CUSTOMER
                          5
1. Place order                 A-to-Z                 8
                                List                      8 A&I
2. Get SID/PID                                             8 A&I
                                                          database
                                                               A&I
                                                           database
3. Register                                                  database
                          6
4. Add to gateway               Link                  9
5. Add to A-to-Z list         resolver                    9
                                                          Full text
                                                            9
                                                            Full text
6. Add to link resolver                                   database
                                                              Full text
                                                            database
                                                              database
7. Catalog
                          7
8. Add to Locals at A&I        OPAC
9. Add to Locals at FT
                                    Order                        With Agent
                                  processing
                              1                            (Worst Case publisher)
    Administrator

                                  EBSCOhost       3             Publisher
CUSTOMER                                                         Publisher
                                     EJS                          site
                                                                  Publisher
1. Place order                                                      site
                                                                     Publisher
                                                                      site
2. Get PID/SID                                                          site
3. Register                        EBSCO
                                                            4       A&I
4. Export titles from EJS &        A-to-Z                             A&I
                                                                4 database
   update holdings                                                  EBSCOhost
                                                                   database
                                                                        A&I
Agent
                                  LinkSource
•   Order                                                    SmartLinks
                                                              Full text
•   Add to EJS                                                 Full text
                                                           4 database
                                                                EBSCOhost
                                                            4 database
•   Add to SmartLinks                                              Full text
•   Add to A-to-Z list
                                    OPAC       How an Agent helps the librarian
•   Add to LinkSource
                                               improve processing of e-journals
•   MARC updates for OPAC
New E-Agent Services

Publisher Package Purchases
  Assistance with information, pricing,
  negotiation and ordering for individual
  institutions and consortia

Holdings Analysis
 Publishers require a report of holdings in
 order to consider making an offer for their
 subscription package. The agent is uniquely
 suited to provide this information quickly and
 accurately -- and is generally a trusted
 source for the publisher.
    New E-Agent Services

E-journal Auditing
   Are you getting what you paid for? (delayed,
    ceased, titles sold)
   Are you getting what you want? (tracking
    package title changes)

Customized Reports
 To evaluate the benefits of subscribing to a
  publisher package or through a consortium.
     • Reports showing savings for discounted print
     • Reports showing savings with annual price caps
     • Other customized reports
    New E-Agent Services

Summary inventory of e-access information
   Where can the title be accessed?
   What does the publisher need in order to
    provide access?

One-stop customer service
   What happens if you can’t get access? Who do
    you call?
   How many publisher contacts do you have to
    maintain?
Library e-Services
                                 Publisher
                                  Publisher
                                   site
                                   Publisher
                                     site
                                    Publisher
                                       site
                                        site
          E-Journal
          Gateway
                                   A&I
                                     A&I
                                 database
                                      A&I
                                  database
           A-to-Z       Link        database
 User
            List      resolver
                                 Full text
                                   Full text
                                 database
                                    Full text
           OPAC                   database
                                    database


                                 Document
                                  Document
                                  Delivery
                                   Document
                                   Delivery
                                    Delivery
Value provided by products

E-Journal Management
   Registration tracking
   Admin Alerts
   Content, access coverage and embargos
   Complete collection management
   URL management
   Article and journal level linking support
   Knowledgebase management for link resolvers

E-Journal Access
   Locator tools for both journals and articles
   TOC browsing
   Cross-publisher searching of e-journal holdings
   Easy incorporation with metasearch systems
Value provided by products
  Linking
     Increase in usage efficiency through interconnectivity of
      resources
     Streamlining of collection management
     Cost reduction due to decrease of interlibrary lending and
      document delivery services

  Usage Statistics
     Journal and article level usage
     Link-out activity
     Basis for collection management, purchase evaluation, budget
      allocation and user training

  General
     Platform harmonization and reduction of access complexity
     Independence from publisher platforms
     Reduction of IT costs through hosted solutions and continuous
      product development
    Is the total cost of a subscription really
         decreasing without an Agent?
   Increased number of tasks and complexity
    creates need for new and more skilled staff

   Cost of purchase vs. total cost of owning and
    managing a subscription
     • loss of economies of scale
     • Shift of work from publisher/agent to librarian
     • Still need for comprehensive title information

   Library traditional budgets decrease or shift
    away from library after intial e-resource
    experimentation phase – loss of budget control
    Other things to consider in buying direct
                from publishers

   Central buying entities are comparable to small
    agents without systems and service
    infrastructure – the additional cost will impact
    libraries in the mid-term
   Most discounts provided to librarians are also
    provided to agents
   Despite what the publisher sales reps might
    say: publishers will allow agents to handle
    e-journal transactions if libraries wish to
    do so
A new paradigm is developing



 E-License Negotiators        Information Services
 (Consortia or Library)   +         Agents




    Focus and alignment of interests in
     License Negotiation
    Cost effective and systems based
     transaction handling and administration
    Keeps Library in control of its purchasing
                         Pricing Models


• No Universally Acceptable E-journals
   Pricing and Licensing Models
• Ongoing experimentation
• Negotiation possible
• Charge for content
• Delivery format optional
• Increasingly will be based on usage
                        Pricing Models in Operation

• Bundled – Free with print
        AIP, APS, AMS, Elsevier, Wiley
• Print as base + surcharge on electronic
        Premium payments range from10-25%
        ACS (20%), OSA (25%)
• Electronic only
        Small increase (ACS 105%)
        Same price (OSA)
        Discount from print (AIP 80%, AMS 90%)
• Totally unbundled – No discount for both
        JBC (P- $ 1600, E- $1200, P+E- $ 2800)
• Free e-version only
        Charge for print if required                  Continue…

        British Medical Journal
    Technology Essentials
 Dedicated Internet connection with
  sufficient bandwidth
 Campus backbone, LAN, WAN, and

  peripheral hardware, e.g. printers
 Computer workstations

 Appropriate software

 Support - maintenance, trouble

  shooting
                   Training
   Users need to:
    know how to use a PC
    how to search for and find information
    resources
    be aware of resources that are available
   Different users have different
    needs:
    academics, researchers, librarians, students,
    administrators
• Different training strategies
  required for different users
E-Resources Subscribed under UGC-Infonet

                                                                   23 + 6 DB



                                     36
 31                                                                         72
                              34 Life Sci.              8

         222                         19




                              100 +100 subscribed, Access all 1200 titles
                                                                                 29

                                             319

               28 Lib. Sci.

                                                   In addition - Access to 2 Gateway
                                                   portal services to 28 univ. each
          Challenges for journals of the future?
   The future is electronic, BUT ???
   Will primary research become essentially free?
     - Peer-to-peer networks: Direct to end user
       publishing
   How will STM publishers add greater value?
     - Will we become peer-review organisations?
   Is the subscription model outdated?
     - One-size does not fit all anymore
   When will new financial models prove themselves?
   How will copyright and permissions policies
    function in a
      networked environment? In relation to e-prints,
    personal
      web pages, course pack use
Thank you!

				
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