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Information on acne, acne treatment reviews, and treatment of scars. Includes a regimen to help clear your acne.
Acne — Comprehensive overview covers causes, acne treatments, including adult acne treatments, and prevention.
Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info FLOXIA ANTI-AGE exfoliating cream AHA’s and Vitamin C Chemistry They are also named fruit acids. AHA’s are organic carboxylic acids having one hydroxyl group attached to the alpha position of the carboxylic carbon atom. Many AHA’s are naturally occurring, are present in body tissues, and can be considered non- toxic. A few commonly known ones are as follows : Only 3 days remove your acnes! • • glycolic acid is a constituent of sugar cane juice Lactic acid occurs in sour milk and tomato juice http://www.cureacnes.info • • Malic acid occurs in apples Tartaric acid occurs in grapes and wine • Citric acid occurs in citrus fruit and pineapples • Gluconic acid is present in skin tissue Acid strength • The relative strength of an acid is measured by its proton dissociation in solution and is expressed as the pKa of the acid. • Since the pKa is a negative log ; an acid is stronger if its pKa number is lower. • AHA’s remain moderate strength acids. Partial neutralization / buffered acid • A formulation containing AHA without neutralization has a very acidic pH. Although pH varies with both concentration and the specific acid used, decreasing quantity does not raise pH significantly. • Bear in mind that the normal skin surface has a pH of 4.2 to 5.6. • Partial neutralization refers to an acid partly mixed with a base. • Indeed there is no direct correlation between the pH of a product and the acid concentration of the product. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Topical effects of AHA’s Effect on epidermis • AHA’s have a strong effect on keratinization. They act on the lowest levels of the stratum corneum, and modulate its formation by diminishing cellular cohesion between corneocytes. (light exfoliation), leading to a decrease the stratum corneum’s thickness. • Studies have shown that non AHA compounds do not have similar action. • The elasticity of the stratum corneum depends of its water content and AHA’s can increase this capacity; thus improving epidermic hydration . • AHA’s are cell stimulants (by accelerating cell division). Effect on dermis • Some AHA’s, especially glycolic, lactic and citric acids, on topical application to photo- aged skin have been shown to produce increased amounts of mucopolysacharides (synthesis of glycosaminoglycanes) and collagen and increased skin thickness. • Such an action comes from « boosting » the fibroblast activity, which helps stimulate synthesis of new collagen and mucopolysacharides. Applications in dermatology Medical 3 days remove your acnes! Only applications • http://www.cureacnes.info prevention and flattening of acne scars • seborrheic keratosis • keratosis follicularis • acne vulgaris • combined with antibiotics, fungicides, tretinoin, etc. Cosmetic applications • Fine lines • Impure skin (combined with vitamins) • Pigmented marks (combined with skin discoloration fade cream • Ingrowing hairs, etc… FLOXIA AHA’s and vitamin C New formulation facial skin cream containing AHA’s, 40 ml plastic tube Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info FLOXIA and oily skin ACNE : A COMPLICATION This skin disorder is caused both by hyperkeratinization of the sebaceous canal and by hyperseborrhea (overproduction of oil by the sebaceous glands that open into the hair follicle), which may lead to inflammation. Hyperseborrhea (primary condition : no acne without it) Increase in androgens (sex hormones that stimulate the oil glands and are produced in greater quantity in males than females). It has been explained above how androgenic hormones act. Sebaceous glands have special enzymatic " equipment " : 5 alpha reductase. (able to transform testosterone(T) into di-hydro-testosterone.(DHT), active hormone on lipogenesis by sebocyte. Only 3 days remove your acnes! The following will lead to aggravation of acne : * Hereditary factors http://www.cureacnes.info * Medications (cortisone, barbiturates,bromides, ….) * Oil and grease from cosmetics * Menstruation preceded by changes in hormonal status * Emotional stress and tension Hyperkeratinization (second condition, hyperseborrhea without it leads to oily skin) Many of the desquamating cells, instead of being pushed out to the surface with the sebum, stick together and can block the canal around the infundibulum level. Such accumulation will end up blocking the canal. This is a microcokyste (closed comedon), or open comedon(black head). Such a change is mainly due to the qualitative modification of the composition of cutaneous lipids. A decrease in linoleic acid of the ceramides of the inter cell cement, especially at the acro infundibulum level is today considered to be responsible for keratinization disorder. Problems in keratinization (hyperkeratosis), responsible for sebum retention, and also related to irritant action of free fatty acids produced by lipase in P acne. Inflammation (pustules and papules) seen with acne may arise from : Proprioni bacterium (normally present in the skin), being aneorobic (develop without oxygen) these will easily develop inside the closed comedon. 4 effects of P Acne : • Production of protease (downgrading the keratin) • Production of lipase (hydrolysing sebum is irritating : free fatty acids) • Cytoquines • Hyaluronidase downgrading intercell cement. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Comedogenesis ; This is an abnormality in the process of desquamation of follicular corneocytes in the sebaceous follicle duct. Most commons signs of acne are : Micro comedones: 1st stage, blockage of the folicular orifice by sloughing epithelium. Closed comedones (blackheads) Open comedones (microkyste or whiteheads) Papules or zits (inflammed firm lesions and pimples) Pustules (when sebum and bacteria spill onto the dermis (yellowish lesion), as white cells invade the area to attack bacteria.) Pathogenesis and treatment Results from 3 abnormalities : • Overproduction of sebum (hormonal dependent) • Keratinacious factor. Abnormal desquamation of corneocytes of the sebaceous follicle • Proliferation of P acne, which may generate inflammation. TREATMENTS Local / topical treatments Anti bacterial (cream, gel, lotion, soap, …..) * Most commonly used acne medication is benzoyl peroxyde, anti inflammatory (first line mono therapy for mild acne). It is a potent anti bacterial oxidising agent, can decrease P acne and consequently the amount of free fatty acids. It is said that light exfoliant properties can also Only 3 days remove your acnes! unplug obstructed follicles…..(no real study). Side effects : irritation and photosensisitivity. * Erythromycin Antibiotic agent beware induced resistance. Side effects : resistance http://www.cureacnes.info Keratolitic preparations : * Tretinoin cream, gel or liquid (Vit –A, retinoic acid). Trans retinoic acid is an effective topical comedolytic agent. Tretinoin decreases the cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells, thus inhibiting the formation of microcomedones. Also decreases thickness of stratum corneum and improves penetration of topical agents. Tretinoin is available as retin-A cream, or liquid. Side effects are : irritative, drying skin, possible phototoxicity. * Adapalene(said to be similar to Vit A, with better tolerance), * Azelaic acid (natural product , but showing poor results) * Topical anti-androgens (zinc sulphate) * AHA’s(glycolic, lactic, …) and BHA’s (salycilic acid) : for exfoliating action of corneocytes towards comedons Systemic / oral treatments * Antibiotics : Bacteriostatic action and anti inflammatory. tetracycline, minocycline, Main side effects : phototosensibility , pigmentation disorder, toxidermy, … * Hormonal treatments : estrogen, spironolactone. * Isotretinoin = 13 acid cis-retinoic = Roaccutane) : derivative from vitamin A ; the only systemic drug able to decrease sebum production and reverses the abnormal epithelial desquamation process. Action is atrophy of sebaceous gland, which obviously decreases sebum over production. Also decrease P acnes bacterias. Sebo regulator and thus anti inflammatory. Often side effects : dry skin, pruritus, photosensivity, cheilitis, teratogenous effects, …. * Zinc sulfate or gluconate. Mainly anti inflammatory agent. Cosmetic products Main products are creams and washing lathering gel Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Creams may be used alone with acne prone skin, or in association with products mentioned above. Such products generally perform the following actions : Acne, whatever its severity, is a disease that requires dermatological care ; nevertheless added cosmetic products are considered to be more and more useful by physicians (help preventing disorder or complete efficiency of drug). Skin cleansing :For acne prone skin, it means removal from surface of debris and excess skin surface lipids, without irritating or drying the skin. Aggressive soap would remove too much lipidic skin film, and lead to a reactional hyperseborrhea. Purifying gels are increasingly recommended by doctors for daily use (pH close to skin). FLOXIA “Les incontournables – the essentials” - Cream : 40 ml plastic tube ********************** Double action on skin surface and deeper to regulate the production of sebum and restaure the natural aspect of the epidermis Medical treatments are mainly focusing on hyperkeratinization and inflamation, but less busy with sebum control. Therefore FLOXIA decided to help getting oil under control, on surface and in the epidermis; SEBUM CONTROL: Only 3 days remove your acnes! double action On skin surface http://www.cureacnes.info keratolytic with a mix of AHA’s Matting with titanium dioxyde Deeper: Seboregulating: zinc gluconate, ceramides and latoferin-lacteine Soothing: calendula, bisabolol and tea tree oil NOURISH: Restore natural properties to epidermis with shea butter and beeswax Bibliography : Yamamoto A, Takenouchi, Ito. Impaired water barrier function in acne vulgaris Arch Dermato Res 1995 (287) Wertz, Miethke, Long, Strauss : Composition of the ceramides from human stratum / J Inv Dermatol 1985 (84) corneum and from comedons James Leyden New understanding of the pathogenesis of acne / J Am Acad Dermato 1995 (32) Downing, Stewart, Werth, Strauss : Essential fatty acids and acne / J Am Acad Dermatol 1986, (14) Stewart, Werth, Grahek, Downing : Relation ship between sebum secretion rates and Clin research 1985, (33) concentration of linoleate in sebum and epidermal lipids Thiboutot, Knacks, Gilliland : Activity of the type 5 & reductase is greater in Br J Dermatology , in press infudibulum than epidermis Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info FLOXIA Skin discoloration fade cream FLOXIA : History During the last decade, treatment of hyperpigmented skin spots has been focusing on hydroquinone, due to its well-known depigmenting, and often associated with AHA’s (exfoliation of the stratum corneum, i.e. improve to eliminate the melanin contained in the keratynocytes moving upwards). A few years ago, various European experts discussed the possible toxicity of hydroquinone in topical application, and especially in vitro studies on a mutagenic point of view. This leaded to its banishment from cosmetic use in EEC and many countries around the world FLOXIA: composition and action. To find a substitute for hydroquinone, an already «advanced » ingredient was not an easy task. Indeed, only an association of active and synergistic ingredients could meet the necessary requirements. A long bibliographic overview, together with various studies and tests enabled FLOXIA to Only 3 days remove your acnes! complete its expertise in the area, and decide onn the following ingredients combination by selecting known depigmenting agents associated with ingredients for sun protection and epidermis nutriment and protection, and also limiting pH around 4.6 for stability and confort http://www.cureacnes.info purpose: Still these ingredients had proven in vitro activity, but in vivo studies never show the same rate of sucess; which intend to show various origins for the hyperpigmentation, but also different grade of answer from every one epidermis. Therefore Floxia decided to go for an association of active ingredients, in order to cover most origins and generate an answer from a larger number of epidermis. The ingredients have been selected for their efficacy, confort and harmlessness; and are the following: Depimenting agents Bearberry extracts, kojic acid, licorice extract, ascorbic acid and AHA’s Sun protection Cinnamate (4%): SPF 15 Nutriment and potection Shea butter, sodium hyaluronate apricot and grape seed oil Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info DEPIGMENTING AGENTS BEARBERRY EXTRACT, 4% (containing ARBUTIN). Rich in arbutin (glucoside flavonoide derivative, stable, natural and non aggressive). Arbutin competes with DOPA at its receptor site on tyrosinase and thus has 2 actions versus hyperpigmentations: Able to chemically reduce melanin produced by melanocytis and leading to produice non coloured products Furthermore, it shows a competitive inhibition of tyrosinase KOJIC ACID (0.5%): obtained from fermentation of aspergillus orizae, it has an inhibiting action on tyrosinase, by chelating its vital copper ion. Concentration has been purposely limited (for stability and harmlessness reason) ASCORBIC ACID (0.2%): Vitamin C has various properties with regards to cutaneous metabolism, and especially a depigmenting action due to its inactivating power of the tyrosinase by biotransformation of the dopaquinone into dopa at the level of the melanosomes, i.e. stopping the synthesis of melanin The inactivation of the copper ion, necessary for the effective functioning of tyrosinase, by the ascorbic acid, is also discussed to explain its action. LICORICE EXTRACT (0.5%) It offers an excellent turosinase inhibition activity and also showing anti inflamatory properties Only 3 days remove your acnes! AHA (pH 4.7): The new formula of FLOXIA uses various AHA’s (citric and malic). With its http://www.cureacnes.info progressive release, it results in better acceptance and less potential irritation, whilst still improving the bioavailibility of the depigmenting ingredients due to the exfoliating action. SUN PROTECTION Cinnamate with an SPF 15, for an immediate minimum sun protection EPIDERMIS NUTRIMENT and PROTECTION Nourishing: shea butter Anti-oxydating: apricot oil (free radical scavenger) Scaring: grape seed oil Moisturizing: sodium hyaluronate Skin depigmenting agents Abstracts Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Depigmenting agents commonly are prescribed to treat disorders of hyperpigmentation. In this article, a review is presented of several notable depigmenting agents reported in the literature. Although some of these topical agents are still available only in certain research institutions, others can be used by the interested and informed dermatologist as part of an armamentarium for treating disorders of hyperpigmentation. A basic understanding of the pigmentation pathway is helpful prior to a discussion of various skin-lightening agents and their known mechanisms of action. The type and amount of melanin synthesized by the melanocyte and its distribution pattern in the surrounding keratinocytes determines the actual color of the skin. Melanin forms through a series of oxidative reactions involving the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the enzyme tyrosinase. The first step is the most critical because the remainder of the reaction sequence can proceed spontaneously at physiological pH. Here, tyrosinase converts tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and then to dopaquinone. Subsequently, dopaquinone is converted to dopachrome, through auto-oxidation, and finally to dihydroxyindole or dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) to form eumelanin (brown-black pigment). The latter reaction occurs in the presence of dopachrome tautomerase and DHICA oxidase. In the presence of cysteine or glutathione, dopaquinone is converted to cysteinyl DOPA or glutathione DOPA. Subsequently, pheomelanin, a yellow-red pigment, is formed. Among skin-lightening agents, hydroquinone (HQ) is one of the most widely prescribed agents in the world. However, with reports of potential mutagenicity and epidemics of ochronosis in African nations, there has been increasing impetus to find alternative herbal and pharmaceutical Only 3 days remove your acnes! depigmenting agents. A review of the literature reveals that numerous other depigmenting or skin-lightening agents are in use or in investigational stages. Some of these, such as kojic and http://www.cureacnes.info azelaic acid, are well known to most dermatologists. Others more recently have been discovered and reported in the literature. Melasma is a commonly acquired increase of pigmentation that occurs exclusively in sun-exposed areas. Brownish in color, it is exacerbated by sun exposure, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, and certain anti-epilepsy drugs. Melasma is reasonably common, especially in women of child-bearing age. However, up to 10% of cases have been reported in males. While all races are affected, there is a prominence among Latinos and Asians. Melasma is more apparent during and after periods of sun exposure and less obvoius in winter months, when sun exposure is lacking. Melasma presents itself in one of the three usually symetrical facial patterns. The most common is a centrofacial pattern involving the cheeks, forehead, upper lip, nose, and chin. Less common are the malar pattern, involving the cheeks and nose, and the mandibular pattern, involvong the ramus of the mandible (the side of the cheeks and jawline). Melasma also occurs on the forearms, but this is rare. What is the Difference between Dermal and Epidermal Melasma? Every case of melasma starts off in the epidermis, where melanocytes are actively producing pigment. A normal case of melasma can turn into dermal melasma if skin becomes over-irritated and inflamed. When this happens, it causes a temporary split between the dermis and epidermis. During this time, hyperpigmented cells can drop from the epidermis into the dermis. Once in the dermis, these cells become very resistant to topical treatment. This is one reason why it is so important to avoid aggressiveness in the treatment of melasma. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info What are the Causes of Melasma?Melasma has been considered to arise from pregnancy, oral contraceptives, endocrine dysfunction, genetic factors, medications, nutitional deficiency, hepatic dysfunction, and other factors. The majority of cases appear to be related to pregancy or oral contraceptives. The infrequency of melasma in postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement suggests that estrogen alone is not the cause. In more recent experience, combination treatment using estrogen plus progestational agents is being used in postmenopausal women, and melasma is being observed in some of these older women who did not have melasma during their pregnancies. Sun exposure would appear to be a stimulating factor in predisposed individuals. Although a few cases within families have been describe, melasma should not be considered a heriditary disorder. List of depigmenting agents Hydroquinone An important industrial chemical, HQ is also a ubiquitous chemical readily available in cosmetic and nonprescription forms for skin lightening. It is considered one of the most effective inhibitors of melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. HQ causes reversible inhibition of cellular metabolism by affecting both DNA and RNA synthesis. The cytotoxic effects of HQ are not limited to melanocytes, although the dose required to inhibit cellular metabolism is much higher for nonmelanotic cells than for melanocytes. Thus, HQ can be considered a potent melanocyte cytotoxic agent with relatively high melanocyte-specific cytotoxicity. HQ is also a poor Only 3 days remove your acnes! substrate of tyrosinase, thereby competing for tyrosine oxidation in active melanocytes. http://www.cureacnes.info The 2% HQ is readily available over-the-counter in various cosmetic preparations. However, for better efficacy, it often is compounded into various mixtures for treatment of hyperpigmentation. The original Kligman formula involves compounding 5% HQ with 0.1% retinoic acid and 0.1% dexamethasone in a hydrophilic ointment base. Concentrations as high as 10% can be compounded extemporaneously for refractory cases. Evidence of improvement with HQ (monotherapy) usually is observed at 4-6 weeks, with improvement appearing to plateau at about 4 months. Despite its remarkable overall safety, the physician ought to bear in mind the potential adverse effects. Contact dermatitis occurs in a small number of patients and responds promptly to topical steroids. An uncommon, yet important, adverse effect of HQ is exogenous ochronosis. This disorder is characterized by progressive darkening of the area to which the cream containing HQ is applied. Histologically, degeneration of collagen and elastic fibers occurs. This degeneration is followed by the appearance of characteristic ochronotic deposits consisting of crescent-shaped, ochre-colored fibers in the dermis. Exogenous ochronosis generally has been observed in black patients and after use of high concentrations of HQ for many years. However, cases occurring after the use of 2% HQ also have been reported. A South African epidemic of exogenous ochronosis due to HQ has been reported. For this reason, it generally is agreed that the use of HQ should be discontinued if no improvement occurs within 4-6 months. HQ-induced ochronosis often responds to topical steroids and chemical peeling. Lastly, HQ has been reported to induce mutations in Salmonella and at the hart locus of Chinese hamster V79 cells. Because of its potential mutagenic properties, HQ currently is banned in Europe for use as a depigmenting agent. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info As indicated above, tretinoin has been used to enhance the efficacy of HQ. In a large-scale, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 0.05% tretinoin caused a decrease in melanin content at 6 months. Two known inhibitors of glutathione, cystamine and buthionine sulfoximine, also have been reported for their enhancement of the inhibitory effect of HQ on pigmentation. The authors of the study reported a synergistic decrease in hair pigmentation when a combination of HQ (2% or 4%) and buthionine sulfoximine (5%) was applied to the dorsal skin of mice. Azelaic acid A naturally occurring, saturated dicarboxylic acid originally isolated from Pityrosporum ovale, azelaic acid is a rather weak competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase in vitro. In addition, azelaic acid has an antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect on melanocytes. The latter effect is because of a rather potent inhibition of thioredoxin reductase, an enzyme involved in mitochondrial oxidoreductase activation and DNA synthesis. Azelaic acid is prescribed topically as a 20% cream and has been combined with glycolic acid (15% and 20%), and its efficacy has been compared with HQ 4% in the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation in dark-skinned patients. It has been reported that the combination formula was as effective as HQ 4% cream, although with a slightly higher rate of local irritation. Kojic acid (5-hydoxy-4-pyran-4-one-2-methyl) A fungal metabolic product, kojic acid inhibits the catecholase activity of tyrosinase, which is the rate-limiting, essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of the skin pigment melanin. Kojic acid Only 3 days remove your acnes! also is consumed widely in the Japanese diet with the belief that it is of benefit to health. Indeed, it has been shown to significantly enhance neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by phytohemagglutinin. Melanocytes treated with kojic acid become http://www.cureacnes.info nondendritic with a decreased melanin content. Additionally, it scavenges reactive oxygen species that are released excessively from cells or generated in tissue or blood. Kojic acid is used in concentrations ranging from 1-4%. Although effective as a skin-lightening gel, it has been reported to have high-sensitizing potential and cause irritant contact dermatitis. In a study comparing glycolic acid/kojic acid combination with glycolic acid/HQ, no statistical difference in efficacy existed between kojic acid and HQ. However, the kojic acid preparation was reported to be more irritating. . Arbutin (hydroquinone-beta-D-glucopyranoside) A glycosylated HQ found at high concentrations in certain plants and capable of surviving extreme and sustained dehydration, arbutin has been shown to inhibit melanin synthesis by inhibition of tyrosinase activity. This appears to be because of the inhibition of melanosomal tyrosinase activity, rather than the suppression of the synthesis and expression of this enzyme. Because arbutin does not hydrolyze to liberate HQ, the latter agent is not responsible for the inhibitory effect of arbutin on melanogenesis. Inhibition of melanin synthesis (about 39%) occurs at a concentration of 5 X 10-5 mol/L. And many manufacturers are marketing arbutin as a depigmenting agent. When contacted, these manufacturers report arbutin as an effective depigmenting agent at a concentration of 1%. Paper mulberry This tyrosinase inhibitor was isolated from a plant herbal extract. The plant roots from which paper mulberry was isolated were collected in Korea. The authors compared the tyrosinase Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info inhibition of paper mulberry to kojic acid and HQ. IC50, the concentration causing 50% inhibition of the activity of tyrosinase, was reported to be 0.396% compared to 5.5% for HQ and 10.0% for kojic acid. The authors also performed a patch test using 1% paper mulberry extract and found no significant irritation at either 24 hours or 28 hours. Glabridin (licorice) Glabridin is the main ingredient in licorice extract. The authors investigated glabridin for its inhibitory effect on pigmentation and reported that glabridin inhibited tyrosinase activity of melanocytes without any cytotoxicity. They further showed that UV-B–induced pigmentation and erythema was inhibited by topical application of 0.5% glabridin. The anti-inflammatory properties of glabridin were attributed to inhibition of superoxide anion production and cyclooxygenase activity. Arctostaphylos patula and Arctostaphylos viscida The leaves of these 2 Arctostaphylos plants have been reported to be potent inhibitors of tyrosinase. These 2 extracts not only inhibited the production of melanin from dopachrome but also exhibited superoxide dismutaselike activity. The effective topical concentration of these 2 plants in disorders of hyperpigmentation currently is not known. Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate – Vitamin C derivative Magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (MAP) is a stable derivative of ascorbic acid. When used as a 10% cream, MAP was shown to suppress melanin formation. A significant lightening effect was Only 3 days remove your acnes! seen clinically in 19 of 34 patients with melasma and solar lentigos. Furthermore, MAP has been shown to have a protective effect against skin damage induced by UV-B irradiation. The latter http://www.cureacnes.info protective effect is because of the conversion of MAP to AS. Use of reconstituted tanned epidermis for in vitro testing & studies Whitening effect of kojic acid on melanin production in reconstituted human tanned epidermis (type VI) 1.2 l of 2 test products is deposited daily onto the surface of the stratum corneum of the epidermal tanned tissues of type VI (0.63 cm² surface) for 4 days. 48 hours later (at day 6), tissues are assessed for visual scoring and melanin content. Topical application of cream containing kojic acid Not treated 4 x 2 l 4 x 1.2 l 2 l 1.2 l Kojic acid solution added to the medium untreated control Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info kojic acid (250 M) melanin g/ml without KA with KA rep+m 1/10 rep+m 1/10 Kojic acid (250 M) supplemented to the defined culture medium during tissue production. Description of the UV-induced melanogenesis Phototype After 3 consecutive UVA and II UVB exposures, a faint melanocytes Only 3 days remove your acnes! Phototype coloration of pigmented epidermis, resulting of the http://www.cureacnes.info UVB-induced melanogenesis, can IV be observed. melanocytes - + UVB: 50 mJ/cm² (x3) UVA: 4J/cm² (x3) ARBUTIN Arbutin is the active substance originated from natural plant which can whiten and lighten skin. It can infiltrate into the skin quickly without affecting the concentration of cell multiplication and effectively prevent activity of tyrosinase in the skin and the forming of melanin. By combined arbutin with tyrosinase, decomposition and drainage of melanin are accelerated, splash and fleck can be got ride of and no side effects are caused. It is one of the safest and most efficient whitening materials that are popular at present. It is also the most competitive whitening activity in the 21st century Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info [Inhibitory effect of arbutin on melanogenesis--biochemical study using cultured B16 melanoma cells] Akiu S, Suzuki Y, Asahara T, Fujinuma Y, Fukuda M. Basic Research Laboratories, Shiseido Research Center. Inhibitory effect of arbutin (hydroquinone-beta-D-glucopyranoside) on the melanogenesis was studied biochemically using cultured B16 melanoma cells. The maximum arbutin concentration lacking an inhibitory effect on cell growth was 5 X 10(-5) M. At this concentration, melanin content per cell was decreased significantly to about 39%, compared with that of arbutin untreated cells. Also, tyrosinase activity of arbutin treated cells was decreased significantly. When arbutin was added to B16 melanoma cell suspension, arbutin was not hydrolyzed to liberate hydroquinone. Further, tyrosinase activity in crude preparations from B16 melanoma cells was inhibited by arbutin. From these results, it is suggested that arbutin can inhibit the melanogenesis by affecting not only the synthesis but also the activity of tyrosinase rather than by killing melanocytes B16 melanoma cells. Also, it is suggested that hydroquinone is not responsible for the inhibitory effect of arbutin on the melanogenesis. : Arbutin: mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture. : J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 276(2):765-9, 1996 Feb. Only 3 days remove your acnes! : Arbutin, a naturally occurring beta-D-glucopyranoside of hydroquinone, is effective in the topical treatment of various cutaneous hyperpigmentations characterized by hyperactive melanocyte function. We examined the mechanism of its depigmenting action in human http://www.cureacnes.info melanocyte cultures. Arbutin inhibited the tyrosinase activity of cultured human melanocytes at noncytotoxic concentrations. It did not affect the expression of tyrosinase mRNA. Melanin production was inhibited significantly by arbutin, as determined by measuring eumelanin radicals with an electron spin resonance spectrometer. The study of the kinetics and mechanism for inhibition of tyrosinase confirms the reversibility of arbutin as a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme. The utilization of L-tyrosine or L-dopa as the substrate suggests a mechanism involving competition with arbutin for the L-tyrosine binding site at the active site of tyrosinase. These results suggest that the depigmenting mechanism of arbutin in humans involves inhibition of melanosomal tyrosinase activity, rather than suppression of the expression and synthesis of tyrosinase. VITAMIN C Considered stable (low concentration) and is an effective antioxidant for skin. There is a study showing it to be effective for lightening skin by inhibiting melanin production (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, January 1996, pages 29–33). The study concluded that a moisturizer with a certain concentration of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate "suppressed melanin formation… The lightening effect was significant in 19 of 34 patients with chloasma or senile freckles and in 3 of 25 patients with normal skin. This means some 1 to 2% pure vitamin C Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Depigmenting activity of Vitamin C and its derivatives* P. MORGANTI1 1 Pierfrancesco Morganti* President/Director, R. & D — Mavi Sud S.r.l., Viale dell’lndustria I, 04011 Aprilia (IT), Italy; Dept. of Internal Medicine, Aesthetic Medicine Training School , University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy; Secretary General, International Society of Cosmetic Dermatology The problem of the cutaneous hyperpigmentation is very common especially in East Asia where the concept of beauty is strictly linked to maintain the skin white. By the way hyperpigmentations represent a non-secondary problem also in the western world where has been recorded a remarkable increase due mostly to the increased usage of anticonceptional pills and perfumed products ( As a matter of fact, both estrogens and fragrances cause the formation of hyperpigmentation of the skin usually exposed to the sunrays. For all these reasons, skin pigmentation represented by spots is one of the important targets in the cosmetic field. At this purpose, many compounds are frequently used as melanogenesis inhibitors such as hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid, arbutin, ellagic acid, rucinol, raspberry ketone glucoside, n-acetylsteine, vitamin C and its derivatives). Furthermore, it has to be underlined the suppressing effect that vitamin C has on melanic pigmentation. Until now, because of its known inherent instability, it has not been used in cosmetic preparations. Recently, with the constant progress had in vehicles set up, this problem has been partly solved by including, for example, the unstable substances in peculiar Only 3 days remove your acnes! phospholipids, phosphatidylchiline-rich (PC), able to protect them against the oxidative processes even for a long period ( http://www.cureacnes.info For all these reasons, the use of vitamin C and its derivatives had a new impulse, and by means of the new technologies it has been possible to make vitamin C, which easily oxidizes in dehydro- ascorbic acid, more stable (Our work team was able to formulate a depigmenting and active cream based on the use of vitamin C and its hydrosoluble derivatives, l-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (VC-PMG) a liposoluble derivative, and hexyl-decanoyl-ascorbic acid (VC-IP) (), both already largely studied in vitro and in vivo by other authors (. Its interesting to underline that the combined activity of the two derivatives demonstrated to be strengthened by adding arbutin (which favors notably its depigmenting activity. Furthermore, it was possible to show how the sole vitamin C is able to penetrate quickly the skin to reach the melanocyte interfering with the melanogenetic process (The hydrosoluble derivative also acts as cutaneous depigmenting agent both on chloasma and on the ephelides showing to be as active as I-ascorbic acid ( In fact, it is quickly hydrolyzed by the cutaneous enzymes. On the contrary, the liposoluble derivative, notwithstanding hydrolyzed to vitamin C, performs a slow but lasting activity. It is absorbed by the skin more rapidly than the hydrosoluble derivative but it’s hydrolyzed by the enzymes more slowly. Including in the same cosmetic product the hydrolsoluble vitamin C derivative (VC-PMG) with the liposoluble derivative (IP-VG), we obtain a rapid depigmenting activity, due to the fast hydrolyzation of the VC-PMG, which lasts thanks to the slow releasing of the vitamin C favored by the liposoluble derivative. Both derivatives show a further remarkable stability in the vehicle used. It was used as a phospholipidic vehicle able to encapsulate in its liposomes the vitamin C derivatives. That allowed obtaining also an emulsion similar to the cellular membranes and able to penetrate the cutaneous layers without damaging the skin biological structures Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Its important to underline also that vitamin C derivatives can be used in combination with other compounds, such as arbutin, which seems to strengthen also the depigmenting activity Also different authors obtained analogous results, both in vivo and in vitro, with other compounds, such as 2-O--d-glucopyramosyl-l-ascorbic acid These derivatives also demonstrated to be stable in the cosmetic emulsions and easily hydrolyzed to vitamin C, when coming into contact with the skin enzymes. This way it demonstrated the possibility to use vitamin C and its derivatives not only as anti ROS (Radical Oxygen Species) but also as skin depigmenting agents able to solve the difficult problem of the black spots. Finally, it is interesting to observe the complete absence of side effect during their usage. By the way, its necessary to use correct vehicles which allow a rapid penetration through the cutaneous layers and which are able to protect these abilities against the oxidative processes such as lamellar phospholipid structure. Phospholipids seem to be the key to this riddle. References 1. Mishima Y., Shibata K., Seto H. et al. (1994), Inhibitory action of kojic acid on melanogenesis and its therapeutic effect for various human hyperpigmentation disorders. Skin Research., 36, 134-150 2. Maeda K., Fukuda M. (1996), Arbutin: mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture. J.Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 276, 765-69 Only 3 days remove your acnes! 3. Okubo T., Oyobikawa M., Futaki H. et al. (1995). The inhibitory effects of 4-N- http://www.cureacnes.info butyl-resorcinol on melanogenesis. J. Dermatological Science,1 0, 88 4. Shinomiya T. Yakota T. and Hikima T. (1997), Function and application of vitamin C for cosmetics. Fragrance J., 1997-3: 80-89 5. Morganti P., Fabrizi C., Morganti G and Guarneri F, (1999), A new cosmeceutical with a skin lightening activity: note II. The combining whitening activity of an hydrosoluble and a liposoluble vitamin C derivative, In print on SOFW Journal 6. Moro O., (1999), Biological Activities of a stable ascorbic acid derivative, 2-0-a-D- glucopyranosyl-I-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) in Cosmetics, J. AppI. Cosmetol., 17, 154-163 Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Anti redness by FLOXIA Only 3 days remove your acnes! http://www.cureacnes.info Skin regenerating cream Anti redness & scaring/ Background: Redness cover various origins: going from rosacea, to red spots, bruising, seborrhoea, spider veins, burns, various dermatitis and skin irritations, and after laser or surgical operations skin conditions, REACTIVE EPIDERMIS generating REDNESS or INDUCED REDNESS (laser, operations, scars, etc…) and often associated with a demand for SCARING . INDUCED REDNESS LASER (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). It is a stimulated light energy which has certain properties that differs from other natural lights (ex sunlight) IPL (Intense pulse light). It goes beyond laser and emit a fixed coherent wavelength Both systems are efficient, but may generates redness which are cared with cosmetic cream such as Floxia SURGICAL OPERATION: scar is a physical aggression to epidermis It also generates redness and such cream is able to decrease redness and accelerates scaring. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info A BRUISE is a common skin injury that results in a discoloration of the skin . Bloods from damaged vessels deep beneath the skin collects near the surface of the skin resulting in what we think of as a black or blue mark. We are therefore focusing on the efficacy of 2 selected active ingredients: FLOXIA Regenerating cream 40 ml, plastic tube This cream is to be used from 1 to twice a day on concerned areas. For scars & wounds, wait till wound is completely closed and epidermis already reconstructed. Use during minimum 2 to 3 months and renew when necessary For security purpose, Floxia is only using proven harmless ingredients. And looking for double range action Anti inflammatory GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, St John worth and camomile extract Lighten redness: repair broken micro blood vessels VITAMIN K Scaring: glyccyrrhetininc acid and jojoba oil Meanwhile there is and hydrating action due to jojoba oil and nutrient & anti oxidant action: Vitamin E, shea butter and avocado unsaponifiable Only 3 days remove your acnes! PHYTONADIONE (vitamin K) http://www.cureacnes.info Blood vascular repairing, reduces bruising Vitamin K originates from the German term koajulation. It is also known as antihemorrhagic factor, is one of the four fat-soluble vitamins necessary for good health. The primary and best- known purpose of vitamin K is support of the process of blood clotting. It also plays a role in bone health, and may help to prevent osteoporosis. Appropriate growth and development are supported by adequate vitamin K. Now more and more widely used topically in cosmetics: to prevent and help reduce redness and bruising. There are several forms of the vitamin: • K1 or phyiloguinone also known as phytonadione • K2, a family of substances called menaquinones • K3 or menadione, a synthetic substance Able to repair cutaneous broken micro blood vessels. Specific extern action on the sides of cutaneous micro blood vessels. Lighten redness from broken capillaries and treat skin irritations Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) nature nutrient found in green leafy vegetables. The effects of topical vitamin K on bruising after laser treatment. Shah NS, Lazarus MC, Bugdodel R, Hsia SL, He J, Duncan R, Baumann L. Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33125, USA. BACKGROUND: Pulsed dye laser treatment and other cosmetic procedures result in significant Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info bruising. Claims have been made regarding the efficacy of topical vitamin K in both preventing and speeding the clearing of bruising; however, well-controlled studies are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of topical vitamin K versus placebo in the prevention and clearing of laser-induced purpura. METHODS: A total of 22 patients were enrolled in this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. The patients were divided into pretreatment and posttreatment groups; the 11 patients in the former group applied vitamin K cream to half of their face and vehicle alone to the other half of their face twice daily for 2 weeks before laser treatment. The latter group followed the same procedure for 2 weeks after laser treatment. On day 0, all subjects underwent laser treatment for facial telangiectases using a 585-nm pulsed dye laser. Bruising was rated by the both the patient and physician by means of a visual analogue scale on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17. RESULTS: The side of the face treated with topical vitamin K before laser therapy showed no significant difference in bruising as compared to placebo. However, the side of the face treated with vitamin K cream after laser treatment had significantly lower scores of bruising severity when compared with the side treated with placebo. CONCLUSION: Although pretreatment with vitamin K did not prevent bruising after laser treatment, use of vitamin K cream after laser treatment did reduce the severity of bruising, particularly in the initial days of application. Only 3 days remove your acnes! http://www.cureacnes.info Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Effects of topical vitamin K and retinol on laser-induced purpura on nonlesional skin. Lou WW, Quintana AT, Geronemus RG, Grossman MC. Laser and Skin Surgery Center of New York, New York, USA. BACKGROUND: Pulsed dye laser treatments usually result in purpura. Any topical application that eliminates or shortens the duration of purpura would be extremely useful. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the safety and efficacy of topical vitamin K cream in shortening the duration of laser-induced purpura. METHODS: Twenty adult subjects were enrolled. Each subject had five 1.5 cm sites treated with a pulsed dye laser at 585 nm, 450 nsec, 7 mm spot size at each subject's respective threshold fluence. Each subject had a control site where no topical application was used and four other sites where a different formulation was applied to each for 2 weeks before and for 2 weeks after laser irradiation. Five vitamin K formulations with or without retinol were studied: 3% vitamin K in acrylates copolymer cream, 5% vitamin K in acrylates copolymer cream, 1% vitamin K and 0.3% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream, 1% vitamin K and 0.15% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream, 1% free vitamin K cream. Purpuric discoloration at Only 3 days remove your acnes! each site was rated on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 after laser treatment on a quartile scale. Each site was assigned 100% discoloration on day 0 after laser http://www.cureacnes.info irradiation. RESULTS: Laser-induced purpuric discoloration resolved faster with 1% vitamin K and 0.3% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream than with no topical application. The difference is statistically significant from day 3 onward. CONCLUSION: A combination of 1% vitamin K and 0.3% retinol in acrylates copolymer cream hastened the resolution of laser-induced purpura GLYCYRRHETININC ACID (GA) Refined extract from the herb Licorice (Glycyrriza glabra): pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative of the Beta-amyrin type GA looks like cortisone, and to a degree acts like it, without, of course, the potential side effects of hydrocortisone. It is useful on inflammatory skin conditions or in the management of occasional mild inflammatory episodes Anti inflammatory and healing – scaring Glycyrrhetinic Acid (GA), the refined extract from the herb Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), is now a well accepted topical agent in cream and ointment form for treating various skin conditions, Doctor F. Quentin Evans in his paper entitled "The Rational Use of Glycyrrhetinic Acid in Dermatology" gave the specific areas of use for GA as "sub-acute, chronic and intractable skin conditions" (1) where he concluded that "GA is more effective than hydrocortisone". (2) Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Study of tolerance and efficacy of cosmetic preparations with lenitive action in atopic dermatitis in children] GrassiA, Palermi G, Paradisi VII Divisione Dermatologia Pediatrica, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata (I.D.I.) IRCCS, Roma,alia. PURPOSE: In AD (atopic dermatitis), the barrier function of skin is impaired, causing dryness and vulnerability: the first-end point to achieve is restoring skin's function to avoid relapses. Our aim was to assess tolerability and effecacy of two cosmetics with moisturizing and lenitive action in subjects affected by AD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a topical preparation (product A) and a new formulation of it (product B) containing glycyrrhetinic acid, alpha-bisabolol, squalene, oryzanol and hohoba-oil. Product B was then compared with a third one (product C), also based on glycyrrhetinic acid and bisabolol. 30 subjects, aged between 4 months and 16 years, were included in the study (13 girls and 17 boys), suffered from mild-moderate AD, not treated with steroids. Patients were treated twice a day for 21 days, as follows: 12 product A (Decortil lipocrema IDI Farmaceutici); 9 product B (Decortil crema, IDI Farmaceutici); 9 product B on the right and product C (Lichtena AI crema UCB Pharma) on the left. We also did: photografic documentation, SCORAD Index, evaluation of objective (erythema, exudation, excoriation, dryness) and subjective (itching and Only 3 days remove your acnes! burning) simptomatology (scoring 0-3) and physiopatological cutaneous tests as TEWL (Trans Epidermal Water Loss), corneometry and pHmetry at beginning and at end of http://www.cureacnes.info treatment. RESULTS: All groups improved both clinically and instrumentally. Corneometry increased, TEWL lowed and pH turned to normality. CONCLUSIONS: Product A is better for restoring cutaneous physiology, B resulted more efficient in rehydration, in acute phase and as emollient agent, whereas C has more lenitive action. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Only 3 days remove your acnes! http://www.cureacnes.info Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info All living things on planet earth need the sun; however over- exposure can be harmful: It is important therefore to be aware of the risks, especially for those who have a sensitive and/or photosensitive skin. Light or the sun’s energy is emitted in the form of radiation which is divided up into different types according to wavelength. There are: cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays, UV rays (A, B and C), visible light, invisible light, micro-waves and radio waves. The ozone layer filters the parts of this spectrum which are lethal. • Ultraviolet C (UVC) - 100 –290nm These wavelengths are the shortest ultraviolet rays, extending from 100nm to 290nm, and are the most carcinogenic. While the sun generates ultraviolet C, the ozone layer of the atmosphere screens out virtually all UVC from reaching us. Ultraviolet C may become a problem for those living at high altitudes, and with the depletion of the ozone layer through pollution, may become a real problem. UVC is photo damaging to the skin, causing skin burn with exposure. Artificial Only 3 days remove your acnes! sources such as some mercury arc-welding units, and germicidal lamps emit ultraviolet C. These wavelengths can very efficiently kill germs, http://www.cureacnes.info • giving rise to their common name, “germicidal waves”. Ultraviolet B (UVB) – 290nm to 320nm These are the intermediate wavelength of Ultraviolet rays, and cause the initial appearance of redness, commonly called “sunburn”. UVB creates painful irritation, but is believed by many to be less damaging than tanning, the pigmentation changes caused by the UVA (320nm-400nm) UVB primarily damages the epidermis resulting in skin redness promoting a thickening of the outer most layer of skin, the stratum corneum (our body’s attempt to reduce UVB impact on the epidermis). UVB is a promoter of photo aging; this type of damage is cumulative, potentially resulting basal cell and squamous cell cancers. • Ultraviolet A (UVA) – (320nanometers – 400nm) These longer UVA wavelengths, (near-UV) were once thought essentially harmless, contributing only to a “healthy tan”. Scientific evidence now indicates that this is not true. On skin, UVA induces cutaneous photo damage, dryness, uneven pigmentation, inflammation, skin darkening (tanning), photo aging skin cancer, and fine wrinkles. Even low dose UVA can reach to the underlying dermis, causing damage that results in wrinkles and sagging skin. UVA radiation penetrates deeply into our skin and is quite damaging. Furthermore, UVA adversely affects the deep dermis far more than the “sunburn” UVB rays, resulting in loss of the elastic it’s supportive collagen, and resulting in premature aging. Unlike the shorter UVB (290-320nm) wavelengths, UVA easily penetrates window glass. Interestingly, Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info the amount of UVA reaching the earth, unlike UVB retains essentially the same energy level every day of the year, morning,noon, and afternoon with 10 to 12 times more UVA, then UVB reaching the earth’s surface at sea level. The most important aspect of UVA is the cumulative tissue damage that results from these deeply penetrating UV rays. Studies to date support the relationship of such UV exposure to the development of basal and squamous cell cancers, as well as pre-cancerous lesions. Recently, it has been reported that depletion of Vitamin A in the skin by UVA exposure may contribute to both photoaging and cancers of the skin. • Visible Light (400nm – 760nm) Nearly 50% of the sun’s radiation, reaching us at sea level, is within the visible range.As the name describes, these are the wavelengths that humans can see (Violet – Blue – Yellow – Green – Orange, Red, etc.). Distributed from approximately 400nm to 760nm fortunately, its energy level is lower than that of ultraviolet rays. There have been a few published reports, regarding the research concerning photodamage caused by visible light. It has been reported in prestigious journals such as, the “Journal of Investigative Dermatology”, “Cancer Research”, and the “British Journal of Dermatology”, that visible light is capable of precipitating phototoxic reactions, promoting DNA cross-linking and enhancing tumor growth. This lower energy has the ability to penetrate the skin deeper than UVA, reaching down Only 3 days remove your acnes! within the dermis. Adverse skin reactions can occur within this visible light wavelength. It is a misconception to think visible light as being harmless to human skin. http://www.cureacnes.info • Infrared- “IR” (greater than 760nm to 1,000,000nm) Infrared goes from above 760nm to infinity (?), but most of the energy is from 760nm to about 1800nm, comprising more than 40% of the sun’s rays reaching us at sea level. These wavelengths warm us when we stand in the sun (perceived as deeply penetrating heat), and are emitted by stoves, furnaces, light bulbs, heat lamps, ovens, and space heaters. A number of studies have implicated Infra Red waves as photodamaging, and add to the UVB photodamage. Infrared has been known for centuries to cause cancers in some people. Cancers induced by such heat are referred to as; Kang Cancer in China, Kangri in Kashmir, Kairo in Japan, and Peat Fire Cancer in Ireland. Chronic exposure to infrared leads mottled pigmentation, loss of elastin elastosis, and the typical characteristics seen in photoaged skin. (wrinkling, sagging, leathery-feel). The effects of the sun Positive Effects Activates the synthesis of Vitamin D (necessary for bones). Maintains hormone levels, and contributes to circadian rhythms. Negative Effects - UV rays cause sunburn, immune deficiency, problems with photo-sensitivity, cancer and ageing skin. - UVB: short-term exposure leads to redness, irritation, sun-burn and tanning; long-term it causes irreversible damage to DNA structure leading to Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info skin cancers. - UVA: At first considered harmless, but in fact causes ageing and damage to DNA by the formation of free radicals. - Invisible : potential cause of cancer as carcinogenic in association with other factors. Level of sun protection: The SPF coefficient indicates the level of protection against UVB rays. It is calculated according to the time it takes the skin to burn with and without a cream containing a given factor sun-screen. For example SPF 15 : if a person’s skin without sun-screen protection takes 10 minutes to burn in the sun at midday, this means that the same person with sun-screen will be able to stay 15 times longer in the same sun conditions without getting burnt (2½ hours). Sun-screen: application • Sun-screen should be applied 20 minutes before exposure to sun (time it takes to be absorbed into the skin), and should be reapplied every following 2 hours (even if water- resistant). Only 3 days remove your acnes! • • A normal quantity is 2 mg for each cm2 of skin to be protected. Use of sun-screen does not interfere with the synthesis of Vitamin D. http://www.cureacnes.info Specificity of Ingredients (chemical or mineral) Sunscreens: sunblocks (reflect sun rays) and are mineral origin. Powdered or micronized from oxides of metals (zinc, titanium or even iron). Wide spectrum and need specific texture to be water resistant Sunfilters: absorb UV rays and are chemical origin. Shorter spectrum covered, therefore needs a combination of several ones. Said to be potentially more allergizing than mineral ones. But nicer texture and better water resistant naturally, because entering the epidermis The best compromise is sought between effectiveness and cosmetic acceptability. CHEMICAL SCREENS FILTER UVB AND UVA BY ABSORBING UV RAYS PABA (para-amino benzoic acid) • Adheres well to cells (highly resistant to water and perspiration). However, greasy and has a narrow spectrum (UVB - 29 to 320 nM). PABA esters are used (less greasy). Possibility of contact allergies. Benzophenones • Mostly screen UVA rays 320 to 400 nM, and to a lesser extent UVB rays. Oxy and dioxybenzone are used to the greatest extent (precipitate far fewer allergic reactions than PAB). However, being less resistant to water they require a thick base. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Cinnamates • These products of cinnamome are excellent sun-screens. Possibility of allergic reactions. Non-greasy, but poor resistance to water, they need an appropriate base. Salicylates • Specific to UVB rays, they need to be combined with other ingredients to ensure complete sun protection. Anthranilates • The oldest form of UVA filter. Derivatives of dibenzolymethane • New UVA filters since 1979. Derivatives of camphor • Better known under their commercial name of mexoryl. Excellent UVA filters. MINERAL SCREENS ACT BY REFLECTING RADIATION FROM THE SUN Zinc or titanium oxide • These pigmented powders are often micro and sub-micronised to obtain transparency on the skin. Titanium acts on UVA and UVB whilst zinc is more UVA specific. Do not provoke allergic reactions. 2000 Only 3 days remove your acnes! http://www.cureacnes.info 1500 1000 Infrared Light Visible Light 500 Ultraviolet UVR 0 Mineral screens Chemical Chemical All radiation Titanium Dioxide screens screens Zinc Oxide UVA Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info FLOXIA sun protection cream SPF 70 (40 ml sealed plastic tube) has 3 special features: • Protection against direct sun damages :very broad range of protection against the great proportion of existing rays, and not prone to causing allergic reactions) 2 mineral screens with Zinc oxide Only 3 days remove your acnes! Titanium dioxide http://www.cureacnes.info 2 chemical screens and Octil methoxycinnamate Benzophenone 3 • Protection against sun inducted damages, especially towards DNA, with the recovering action of a special vegetal nucleotide contained in artemia salina, and maintaining the DNA repair system. • Nourishing and moisturizing to help epidermis to recover its natural protecting properties, with several vegetal extracts. • Specific texture providing an excellent resistance to water INDICATIONS Prevention of sunburn, Prevention of scaling and ageing, Prevention of photodermatoses (aftreatment with photosensitive drugs, or post surgery or laser treatment, ...) Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info DNA protection Annual Cosmetic Conference - 2004 South Africa Session 3 began with the presentation of Joel Mantelin of Vincience Research Centre France, discussing anti-stress “heat shock proteins” as a new generation of cosmetic active ingredients. UV radiation, heat and chemicals are stress factors and are the primary cause of actinic ageing. The stress results in a signal DNA to change the native protein into a newly formed protein, which is the heat stress protein, which will protect cell DNA against the damaging UV radiation. These newly formed proteins differ in molecular weight, the HSP 70 being the most needed. Artemia salina is marine plankton that has adaptive mechanisms as it lives in severe environmental conditions and has shown to compensate for the age related decrease of HSP 70 in the skin. Only 3 days remove your acnes! http://www.cureacnes.info The Fountain of Youth from the Sea The cosmetic active ingredient GP4G is obtained through biotechnology from the ocean plankton Artemia salina and is an uncommonly good energy deliverer for the skin. The ocean is the source of life and contains a multitude of different life forms, which in some cases survive in the most extreme conditions. To this particular sort belongs the ocean plankton Artemia salina. Under unfavourable environmental circumstances, Artemia salina synthesises a great amount of GP4G (Diguanosinetetraphosphate) and falls into a state of metabolic suspension, which can last many years. As soon as the external conditions improve, the organism awakens and the stored GP4G releases its energy to begin the process of life once again. For this the cell metabolism is excited. The energy that is required for metabolism is delivered from the nucleotides. Nucleotides such as ATP (Adenosinetriphosphate), GTP (Guanosinetriphosphate) and GP4G (Diguanosinetriphosphate) are able to liberate a high amount of energy, through hydrolysis of their phosphate bonds, that is directly bio-available. ATP and GTP are, however, very unstable and can therefore not be stored in the cell nor in cosmetics. In contrast to these, GP4G as a molecule is very stable. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Human skin has a very strong regenerative activity and undergoes many metabolic processes throughout life. This cell activity depends of course on the age of the cells and decreases steadily with age. The result of this ageing is a deficiency of energy of the visibly aged, stressed and tired skin. Signs of skin ageing are, for example, water depletion, reduced metabolism, defective mineralisation and loss of tissue elasticity. The active ingredient GP4G engages in countering exactly the described effects and keeps up the energy reserves of the cells. The particular properties of GP4G act exceedingly positively on the cell metabolism of the skin, help reactivate the self- repair mechanism of the cells and thereby produce the desired revitalising effect. Long lasting skin damage caused by temperature or environmental influences, dehydration and diverse signs of ageing can be avoided. The human cells can recognise GP4G, exploit it and store it. Studies show that GP4G stimulates a series of essential synthesis processes of the skin such as the Only 3 days remove your acnes! synthesis of keratin, filaggrin and fibronectin. GP4G acts as an energy push for stressed and tired skin. http://www.cureacnes.info GP4G also shows astounding properties in the fight against fat deposition. G-proteins play an important role in slimming. Stimulated by GP4G, G proteins can initiate the conversion of ATP into AMPC. AMPC in turn dismantles lipids, reducing excess fat stored within the adipose cells. Marine biology is time and again good for surprises and in particular innovative active ingredients, which clarifies the inimitability of nature in application for cosmetics. The active ingredient obtained from Artemia salina, GP4G, is suited as an ingredient for products for which the goal is to revitalise the skin and acheive a younger effect. The use as a slimming agent also promises to have as great success. Prevention of allergies (see sun protectors with too much chemical filters) FUTURE of PROTECTION RATING: SPF, IPF, .... Using sunscreens and/or sunfliters Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Sunscreens: sunblocks (reflect sun rays) and are mineral origin. Powdered or micronized from oxides of metals (zinc, titanium or even iron). Wide spectrum and need specific texture to be water resistant Sunfilters: absorb UV rays and are chemical origin. Shorter spectrum covered, therefore needs a combination of several ones. Said to be potentially more allergizing than mineral ones. But nicer texture and better water resistant naturally, because entering the epidermis Ozone layer naturally protects from UVC. UVB enter the epidermis and generates redness, ageing and sun damage. Is stopped by glass and potency is variable according to season or time of the day. UVA are even longer rays and enter the dermis. Is not stopped by glass, and its potency has a consistent wavelength of penetration Today SPF is mainly a UVB rating protection: calculation of degree of erythema protection conferred by a particular sunscreen. Therefore claiming SPF 100, when meanwhile also recommending to renew application every 2/3 hours is very confusing . It is important to know that 90% of light is UVA, and that effect of UVB is Only 3 days remove your acnes! immediate, when UVA’s one is long term . SPF rating will likely change in the coming years, by maybe limiting the announced upper ratio, introducing a UVA- http://www.cureacnes.info UVB protection ratio, and introducing integrity grade of the skin with an IPF ratio (Colipa suggest to adopt a SPF 50 upper limit) It is now recognized that sun exposure (especially UVA) results in suppression of skin ’immune function. Generally a good thing: failure can result in in photodermatoses such as chronic actinic dermatitis; but in case of pre- malignant and malignant lesion the immuno suppressant effect is deleterious, and besides also has a carcinogenic effect , fortunately animal studies suggest that this process can be reversed IPF is a useful tool to rate both UVA and UVB protection and also integrity information reflecting skin ability to repair DNA damage. Immuno suppressing UVA linked to oxidative stress. It has been shown that antioxidants are good useful: Langerhans cells remain higher level with anti oxidant protection. But today, there is absolutely no official and acceptable measurement of above ratios. When sun damages skin, it also impairs DNA. DNA repair system is needed to maintain genetic integrity of the epidermis; and defect in DNA repair system may result in skin cancer. Human body has 2 mechanisms to defend from UV damages: Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info * Skin pigmentation (natural-constitutive or induced) * Repairing sun induced DNA damage, by removing the damaged bits of DNA. Knowing that such degree of protection varies from people to people, and may be improved by using adequate sun protection products. Oral (food additive) photoprotection is also becoming a focus and has been yield to a certain extent as photoprotection of the future. Coming years will draw the attention on UVA protection and DNA integrity measurement, and decreasing the upper limit of SPF (maxi 50). Only 3 days remove your acnes! http://www.cureacnes.info FLOXIA Skin restructuring cream stretch marks Background: STRIAE DISTENSAE is a common skin dermatosis that does not cause any significant medical problem; however, striae can be of significant stress to those afflicted. They represent linear dermal scars accompanied by epidermal atrophy Pathophysiology: Striae distensae affect skin that is subjected to continuous and progressive stretching (increased stress on the connective tissue due to increased size of the various portions of the body) such as the abdomen and breasts in pregnant women, shoulders in body builders, adolescents undergoing their growth spurt, and overweight individuals. Skin distension apparently leads to excessive mast cell degranulation with subsequent damage of collagen and elastin. Prolonged use of oral or topical corticosteroids or Cushing syndrome (increased adrenal cortical activity) will lead to development of these striae. Genetic factors could certainly play a role, although this is not fully understood. Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Frequency: In the US: It is estimated that 90% of pregnant women, 70% of adolescent females, and 40% of adolescent males (many of whom participate in sports) suffer from stretch marks. Striae distensae are usually a cosmetic problem; however, if extensive, they may tear and ulcerate when an accident or excessive stretching occurs. Race: Stretch marks affect all races. Sex: Striae affect women more commonly than men. Age: Stretch marks affect adolescents, pregnant females, and patients with excessive adrenal cortical activity. Physical: Early striae present as flattened, thinned skin with a pink hue that may occasionally be pruritic. Gradually, they enlarge in length and width and become reddish-purple in appearance (striae rubra). Their surface may be finely wrinkled. Mature striae assume white, depressed, irregularly shaped bands with their long axis parallel to the lines of skin tension. They are generally several centimeters long and 1-10 millimeters wide. Gradually, some striae may fade and become inconspicuous. The natural evolution of stretch marks is similar to that of scar formation or a healing wound. In pregnancy, striae usually affect the abdomen and the breasts. Only 3 days remove your acnes! The most common sites for adolescent striae are the outer aspects of the thighs and lumbo- sacral region in boys, and the thighs, buttocks and breasts in girls. There is considerable http://www.cureacnes.info variation, and other sites, including the outer aspects of the upper arms, are occasionally affected. Striae induced by prolonged systemic steroid use are usually larger and wider than other phenotypes of striae and involve widespread areas occasionally including the face. Striae secondary to topical steroid use are usually related to enhanced potency of the steroids when using occlusive plastic wraps. They usually affect the flexures and may become less visible if the offending treatment is withheld early enough. Causes: The factors that lead to the development of striae are poorly understood. There is no general consensus as to what causes striae. It has been suggested that they develop as a result of stress rupture of the connective tissue framework. It has also been suggested that they develop more easily in skin that has a high proportion of rigid cross-linked collagen, as occurs in early adult life. This is evident in striae due to pregnancy, lactation, weight lifting, and other stressful activities. Increased adrenal cortical activity has been implicated in the formation of striae, as in the case of Cushing syndrome. Scanning microscopy shows extensive tangles of fine curled elastic fibers; which is reverse to normal skin which has thick elastic fibers. Striae are usually of a cosmetic concern; however, if extensive, they may rupture in an accident. Treatments for rare but severe cases may go through cosmetic surgery, use of tretinoin, etc… Now, for most usual cases and as prevention, cosmetic appear to be of high useful importance/ Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info FLOXIA Restructuring cream 125 plastic tube This cream is to be used from month – 5 to month +3 or more (till striae fade away). For security purpose, Floxia is only using proven harmless ingredients. And looking for double action Restructuring & Toning: Improves skin colour & texture: firming and tensing action of fenugrek and wheat germ extracts Remodel collagen with sunflower oil Promote elastin synthesis by stimulating the skin with geranium, lavander and sunflower oils. When yeast and wheat germ extracts are toning. Improve blood circulation: with horse chesnut extract and vitamin PP-B3 Meanwhile there is and hydrating action due to sunflower and palm kernel oil. Only 3 days remove your acnes! http://www.cureacnes.info Assembled by Floxia Intl - 2005 Do you suffering on acnes? Romove it now! http://www.cureacnes.info
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