review worksheet - Protons have a charge by pptfiles

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```									IPS Review Worksheet Labs 6.1- 6.4          Name ______________________________________

Date _____________________

An atom has three basic parts: _________________________ have no charge, ____________________ are

positive and _______________________________ have a negative charge.

An atom has no charge because ___________________________________________________________.

An atom of magnesium has _________ protons and _______ electrons.

Atoms are stable when _____________________________.

A covalent compound is a _____________________ and _______________________.

An ionic compound is a combination of a _____________________ and _______________________.

Metals are on the ______________ side of the periodic table.

Metals tend to _________________ electrons to become _________________.

Metals form ions with a ________________________ charge.

Nonmetals are on the ______________ side of the periodic table.

Nonmetals tend to _________________ electrons to become _________________.

Nonmetals form ions with a ________________________ charge.

Why do atoms gain or lose electrons?

Draw an atom of Beryllium (Be)                        Draw an atom of Argon (Ar)
Show the electrons in orbits around the nucleus.      Show the electrons in orbits around the nucleus.
Sodium (Al)                                           Sulfide (S)

Atomic # =                                           Atomic # =

An atom of sodium has _____ protons                  An atom of sulfur has _____ protons

An atom of sodium has _____ electrons                An atom of sulfur has _____ electrons

Sodium is column ____ A.                             Sulfur is column ____ A.

So sodium has _____ electrons in the last level.     So sulfur has _____ electrons in the last level.

So sodium will _________________ to be come          So sulfur will _________________ to be come
stable. (gain or lose electrons? How many?)          stable. (gain or lose electrons? How many?)

The sodium ion will have ____ protons.               The sulfide ion will have ____ protons.

The sodium ion will have ____ electrons              The sulfide ion will have ____ electrons

Sodium will form an ion ______ charge.               Sulfur will form an ion ______ charge.
Show the electron dot diagram to find the formula.   Show the charges on the ions to find the formula.

Formula for sodium sulfide. ________________________

ACID                                                 BASE
Positive ion                                         Positive ion
Negative ion                                         Negative ion
Litmus                                               Litmus
BTB                                                  BTB
What happens to ions when they dissolve in water? Why does the solution conduct
electricity?
Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Na             S
Sodium
+1 (x 2)          -2               2:1       Na2S
sulfide
+2            -2

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Ca            Cl
Calcium
+2         -1 (x 2)            1:2
chloride
+2            -2

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Lithium
nitride

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Aluminum
oxide

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Na           PO4
Sodium
+1 (x 3)          -3               3:1      Na3PO4
phosphate
+3            -3

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Mg            OH
Magnesium
hydroxide

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Aluminum
carbonate

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Ni            Cl
Nickel (III)
+3         -1 (x 3)            1:3       NiCl3
chloride
+3            -3

Compound       Positive ion   Negative ion   Ratio         Formula
Copper (I)
sulfide
Acid-Base Lab Conclusion
Labs 6.3 and 6.4

ACIDS
Acids are substances that taste ____________, like lemons. It is not safe to test
unknown solutions in chemistry labs, so rather than use taste to identify an acid we use
______________ paper. If the ___________ paper turns to ____________, the solution is an
acid.    In Lab 6.3, it was discovered that all acids have _______________ ions and
nonmetal ions. Examples of acids are: HCl, HF, _________, and _________. BTB can also
identify a solution as acidic. If BTB is added and the solution turns ______________, the
solution is an acid. pH paper can also identify whether something is acidic or basic and
also gives an indication of the amount of ions present.        All acids have pH values
____________ than 7 (neutral). For example, a substance tested in Lab 6.4 that was an
acid was ___________________. The pH of the substance was _______. The ___________
(higher or lower) the number, the more concentrated the acid (the more H+ ions it has).
So ______________ that had a pH of approximately 1 is more acidic and has more H+ ions
than _______________ which had a pH of around 3.

BASES
Bases are substances that feel _________________, like soap. If ___________ litmus
paper turns to ____________, the solution is a base. In Lab 6.3, it was discovered that all
bases have _______________ ions and ________________ ions.       Examples of bases are:
LiOH, KOH, _________, and _________. BTB can also identify a solution as basic. If BTB
is added and the solution turns ______________, the solution is a base. pH paper can
also identify whether something is acidic or basic and also gives an indication of the
amount of ions present. All bases have pH values ____________ than 7 (neutral). For
example, a substance tested in Lab 6.4 that was a base was ___________________. The
pH of the substance was _______.      The ___________ (higher or lower) the number, the
more concentrated the base (the more OH- ions it has). So ______________ that had a pH
of approximately 10 is more basic and has more OH- ions than _______________ which
had a pH of around _______.

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