Semester-exam-study-guide-answers by lsy121925


									Semester exam study guide

Terms you need to know: Be able to describe the importance of the term below as well
as give an example.

   1.    Jim Crow Laws—Laws that separate the races; segregation
   2.    Sherman Antitrust Act—outlawed trusts
   3.    Graft/kickbacks—overcharging for a building project; making money through
        illegal and dishonest means.
   4.   Vertical integration—owning the point of extraction (taking oil from the ground)
        to the point of sale (the gas pump)
   5.    Social Gospel Movement—a social reform movement that operated through the
   6.    Espionage and Sedition Acts—during WWI, this outlawed freedom of speech in
        cases where it criticized the government
   7.    Selective Service Act—instituted the wartime draft during WWI in an effort to
        increase the number of soldiers in the army.
   8.    Dawes Act—benefitted white Americans; supposed to help assimilate Native
        Americans into the American culture.

Answer the following questions:
Civil War/Reconstruction
1. What was Lincoln’s main goal at the beginning of the Civil War? Lincoln’s main goal
was to unify the nation; bring the union back together.
2. What differences existed between the North and the South before the war? The
Southern economy relied on slavery whereas the northern economy did not; it was
3. What were the three plans of Reconstruction by Lincoln, Johnson, and Congress and
how did they compare and contrast? Lincoln’s plan included the 10% plan which said
that 10% of the voters in 1860 had to pledge of an oath of loyalty and then that state
would be admitted into the union again. This plan was very LENIENT on the south.
Johnson followed this after Lincoln’s assassination. The Congress instituted military
reconstruction and wanted punishment for the South. They wanted the 14th amendment,
the 15th amendment and were for the Freedmen’s Bureau. Johnson did not want these nor
did he want equal rights for Blacks so he vetoed the Bureau and spoke against the 14th
4. What was the Emancipation Proclamation and why was it important for the war? It
freed the slaves in the states of rebellion and gave a MORAL PURPOSE TO THE WAR.
5. What was the decision of the Supreme Court in regard to Dred Scott? Why is it
important? Dred Scott was a slave who moved to a free state with his master and then
sued saying that he was free. The Supreme Court said that he was not a citizen and could
not sue in court. This meant that he was property and so slavery could not be banned
anywhere in the US without an amendment to the constitution.
6. Who made up the Grange and what changes did they want? Farmers; regulation of
railroads, regulation of banks (THEY DID NOT SUPPORT BANKS), direct election of
7. What was Social Darwinism? Who would have supported it? What did it call for?
Social Darwinism dealt with survival of the fittest. One who is a social Darwinist would
NOT WANT GOVERNMENT REGULATION. It stated that those who were rich
should be able to keep their riches.
8. What factors led to an industrial boom in the late 1800s? NATURAL RESOURCES,
9. What is a political machine? Who did they help? What were the advantages and
disadvantages? A political machine is a group (political party) that gains control of and
runs local government. They helped IMMIGRANTS, POOR, URBAN DWELLERS, by
getting them jobs, shelter, etc.
10. What changes in education occurred in the early 1900s? INCREASED—more
people were attending high school and colleges.
11. What was the effect of the court case Plessy v. Ferguson? It established the doctrine
of “SEPARATE BUT EQUAL” facilities making segregation legal.
12. What were the goals of the Progressive movement? 1. Fostering efficiency. 2.
Moral improvement 3. Economic reform 4. Protecting social welfare
13. What types of policies kept blacks from voting in the South? Grandfather clauses,
poll taxes, literacy tests
14. What did Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, discuss? What was its impact?
Meatpacking plants; it caused Teddy Roosevelt to pass the Meat Inspection Act
15. What was the 17th amendment and who did it benefit? The people; it called for the
direct election of Senators
16. Describe Roosevelt’s position on trusts. He felt that some trusts were good and some
were bad.
17. Describe what Teddy Roosevelt meant by “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Use
diplomacy, but back it up with a large military if talking doesn’t work.
18. What effect did WWI have on the women’s suffrage movement? It put the
movement on hold until after the war when women gained the right to vote in 1920
mostly due to their efforts during the war.
19. What factors stimulated US imperialism? Thirst for new markets, cultural
superiority, and military strength
20. What was the Open Door Policy and why did the US want it? The Open Door policy
dealt with trade in China. We wanted to be able to trade with the large population of
21. List and explain the five causes of WWI? 1. Militarism—countries were building up
a strong military; alliances—because countries were building militaries, they were
forming alliances in case they were attacked; nationalism—ethnic groups wanted to rule
their own people and so they were taking over territories and extending their borders in
order to include their own people; imperialism—countries were competing for colonies
and taking over territory; assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
22. What problems did the Treaty of Versailles overlook and how did it lead to WWII?
The treaty overlooked the problems of nationalism, imperialism, open treaties, militarism,
etc. It led to WWII because it blamed Germany for everything and forced them to pay
for the war.
23. Why did the US enter the war in 1917? The use of unrestricted submarine warfare
(sinking of the Lusitania) and the Zimmerman Note
24. Was the Schlieffen Plan effective? Why or why not? The Schlieffen Plan was
Germany’s attempt to invade France and take Paris. It worked because they did invade
France and almost made it to Paris. However, they were stopped at the Marne and then
trench warfare left them in a stalemate for the next 3 years.
25. Describe the positive and negative effects of immigration? What impact did
immigrants have on the US?
Positive—new cultures, new market (could sell to people), employees (people to work in
the factories), new technology and ideas (Albert Einstein)
Negatives—crowded cities, poverty, corruption, racism, nativism
As far as impacts are concerned, think about how your life is a mix of different cultures.
For example, the Christmas tree is German, pizza and spaghetti is Italian, Kindergarten is
German, etc. Also, without immigrants, we may not have been able to industrialize.
Think of what they provided for us to be able to industrialize.

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