Semester exam study guide Terms you need to know: Be able to describe the importance of the term below as well as give an example. 1. Jim Crow Laws—Laws that separate the races; segregation 2. Sherman Antitrust Act—outlawed trusts 3. Graft/kickbacks—overcharging for a building project; making money through illegal and dishonest means. 4. Vertical integration—owning the point of extraction (taking oil from the ground) to the point of sale (the gas pump) 5. Social Gospel Movement—a social reform movement that operated through the churches 6. Espionage and Sedition Acts—during WWI, this outlawed freedom of speech in cases where it criticized the government 7. Selective Service Act—instituted the wartime draft during WWI in an effort to increase the number of soldiers in the army. 8. Dawes Act—benefitted white Americans; supposed to help assimilate Native Americans into the American culture. Answer the following questions: Civil War/Reconstruction 1. What was Lincoln’s main goal at the beginning of the Civil War? Lincoln’s main goal was to unify the nation; bring the union back together. 2. What differences existed between the North and the South before the war? The Southern economy relied on slavery whereas the northern economy did not; it was industrialized. 3. What were the three plans of Reconstruction by Lincoln, Johnson, and Congress and how did they compare and contrast? Lincoln’s plan included the 10% plan which said that 10% of the voters in 1860 had to pledge of an oath of loyalty and then that state would be admitted into the union again. This plan was very LENIENT on the south. Johnson followed this after Lincoln’s assassination. The Congress instituted military reconstruction and wanted punishment for the South. They wanted the 14th amendment, the 15th amendment and were for the Freedmen’s Bureau. Johnson did not want these nor did he want equal rights for Blacks so he vetoed the Bureau and spoke against the 14th amendment. 4. What was the Emancipation Proclamation and why was it important for the war? It freed the slaves in the states of rebellion and gave a MORAL PURPOSE TO THE WAR. 5. What was the decision of the Supreme Court in regard to Dred Scott? Why is it important? Dred Scott was a slave who moved to a free state with his master and then sued saying that he was free. The Supreme Court said that he was not a citizen and could not sue in court. This meant that he was property and so slavery could not be banned anywhere in the US without an amendment to the constitution. 6. Who made up the Grange and what changes did they want? Farmers; regulation of railroads, regulation of banks (THEY DID NOT SUPPORT BANKS), direct election of Senators. 7. What was Social Darwinism? Who would have supported it? What did it call for? Social Darwinism dealt with survival of the fittest. One who is a social Darwinist would NOT WANT GOVERNMENT REGULATION. It stated that those who were rich should be able to keep their riches. 8. What factors led to an industrial boom in the late 1800s? NATURAL RESOURCES, PEOPLE, MONEY, NEW INNOVATIONS 9. What is a political machine? Who did they help? What were the advantages and disadvantages? A political machine is a group (political party) that gains control of and runs local government. They helped IMMIGRANTS, POOR, URBAN DWELLERS, by getting them jobs, shelter, etc. 10. What changes in education occurred in the early 1900s? INCREASED—more people were attending high school and colleges. 11. What was the effect of the court case Plessy v. Ferguson? It established the doctrine of “SEPARATE BUT EQUAL” facilities making segregation legal. 12. What were the goals of the Progressive movement? 1. Fostering efficiency. 2. Moral improvement 3. Economic reform 4. Protecting social welfare 13. What types of policies kept blacks from voting in the South? Grandfather clauses, poll taxes, literacy tests 14. What did Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, discuss? What was its impact? Meatpacking plants; it caused Teddy Roosevelt to pass the Meat Inspection Act 15. What was the 17th amendment and who did it benefit? The people; it called for the direct election of Senators 16. Describe Roosevelt’s position on trusts. He felt that some trusts were good and some were bad. 17. Describe what Teddy Roosevelt meant by “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Use diplomacy, but back it up with a large military if talking doesn’t work. 18. What effect did WWI have on the women’s suffrage movement? It put the movement on hold until after the war when women gained the right to vote in 1920 mostly due to their efforts during the war. 19. What factors stimulated US imperialism? Thirst for new markets, cultural superiority, and military strength 20. What was the Open Door Policy and why did the US want it? The Open Door policy dealt with trade in China. We wanted to be able to trade with the large population of China. 21. List and explain the five causes of WWI? 1. Militarism—countries were building up a strong military; alliances—because countries were building militaries, they were forming alliances in case they were attacked; nationalism—ethnic groups wanted to rule their own people and so they were taking over territories and extending their borders in order to include their own people; imperialism—countries were competing for colonies and taking over territory; assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. 22. What problems did the Treaty of Versailles overlook and how did it lead to WWII? The treaty overlooked the problems of nationalism, imperialism, open treaties, militarism, etc. It led to WWII because it blamed Germany for everything and forced them to pay for the war. 23. Why did the US enter the war in 1917? The use of unrestricted submarine warfare (sinking of the Lusitania) and the Zimmerman Note 24. Was the Schlieffen Plan effective? Why or why not? The Schlieffen Plan was Germany’s attempt to invade France and take Paris. It worked because they did invade France and almost made it to Paris. However, they were stopped at the Marne and then trench warfare left them in a stalemate for the next 3 years. 25. Describe the positive and negative effects of immigration? What impact did immigrants have on the US? Positive—new cultures, new market (could sell to people), employees (people to work in the factories), new technology and ideas (Albert Einstein) Negatives—crowded cities, poverty, corruption, racism, nativism As far as impacts are concerned, think about how your life is a mix of different cultures. For example, the Christmas tree is German, pizza and spaghetti is Italian, Kindergarten is German, etc. Also, without immigrants, we may not have been able to industrialize. Think of what they provided for us to be able to industrialize.
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