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EASC_Midterm_Study_Guide

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					                                                                                      Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                     October 25, 2005

Why does this matter? Why do we care?
Why is USC making us take this class? Because China is a rising World power gaining rapid
control of economics making their growth important to the US. As a business major, I am
going to be dealing with China or Japan in some way or another in my lifetime. I need to
understand history and the way their cultures have progressed over time. With respect from
the Chinese, I will be able to further my relations and business growth.

2 sources per id, 3 sources per essay

EASC 150g—Midterm Study Guide

Key Terms

1. Differences between the Chinese and Japanese images or stereotypes that were shown in the TV
episodes in class

      From the Simpson‘s episode, the Japanese culture is shown to accept the humiliation or
       struggle of others as an acceptable form of entertainment, based on the game show the
       Simpson‘s participate in on the show. This makes the Japanese culture seem insensitive to
       social ethics.
      Also from the Simpson‘s episode and the south park episode, the Japanese are viewed as very
       simple-minded people. In the Simpson‘s, the crowd is easily entertained by the game show
       despite the nature of it, and the seizure-robots cartoon on TV, show that the Japanese
       population are easily entertained by anything flashy or popular. In the south park episode, the
       Japanese fad ―chinpoko mon‖ shows that the typical Japanese character is a follower rather
       than leader since once the product becomes popular or mainstream, everyone is determined
       to buy one in order to be cool or to fit in with everyone else around them.
      The Japanese are shown as Anti-American and Imperialistic in the south park episode
       because throughout the whole episode, the main goal of the Japanese government officials is
       to control the US and take over.
      In King of the Hill, Hank only thinks that there are two types of Asians, Chinese and
       Japanese. When his neighbor tells him that he is Laotian and Hank is unable to realize that
       there are more ethnicities within the Asian Race

2. The Soviet Model and the Maoist Model of Development (from Ogden)
     Soviet Model-Favored capital intensive industrialization.
     The CCP followed this model in the beginning
     Maoist model- Mao Zedong proposed a Chinese model of development known as the
        ―Maoist Model,‖ which took account at China‘s low level of development, poverty, and large
        population.
     The Great Leap Forward was his model of development (agriculture to steel production).
     It was a scheme to rapidly accelerate the pace of industrialization (resulted in a horrible
        famine).
     The Maoist model of ―continuous revolution‖ was a rejection of the Soviet model of
        development.



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3. Feudalism in Japan
     Four attributes of Feudalism
       1. Closed social classes—no class mobility in Japan (could only change social status
           through adoption, family determined social status)
       2. Hierarchy/status structure of power is clearly defined
               a. Lowest in social class = merchants—could not own land; could only reinvest in
                   business; merchants could never be landowners (landlords). Landlords were
                   higher in rank than merchants.
               b. 1st loyalty was to the hierarchy of the governmental social structure—the 2nd
                   loyalty was to the family
       3. Identification w/each individual as responsible to some other individual above him in the
           hierarchy and related to others not in the hierarchical line because of his superiors
           relationships with them…For example…If A was lord over B and C and D was lord over
           E and F, then the relationship between F and C depends on the relationship between A
           and D. (If A and D were enemies, so were F and C due to their lords relationship)
       4. Ownership of property—there was a distribution of goods and services—especially the
           land ownership and control, primarily based on the ranks distinguished in the hierarchy of
           power and responsibility.

      Elaboration of the feudal system in Japan:
       This is a key concept in Levy‘s social theorist argument of more rapid modernization in Japan
       faster than in China. Levy argued that the internal structures of Japan and China contributed
       to the modernization or the lack of modernization. One of his main points is that Japan is
       feudalistic and China is not. China has class mobility. Merchants could become landlords in
       China and escape the low class status of merchants. This was not possible in Japan.
       Merchants were key in Japan‘s modernization

      Significance of the Feudal System in Japan:
       The hierarchy and lack of class mobility contributed to the ability to modernize in Japan.
       Since the merchants were never able to own land, they could not reinvest the money they
       made from their business into land (like China‘s merchants could—the merchants could
       become landlords—class mobilization). This forced the Japanese merchants to reinvest their
       money back into their business which in turn made their businesses stronger. The changes in
       the industries (industrialization/modernization) in Japan came through the merchants and
       their businesses.

      Additionally, Japanese loyalty to the hierarchy was more important than family loyalties. The
       #1 place in the hierarchy was the government. The government had very strong centralized
       power that encouraged modernization and reinforced the class structure.

      Levy:
          o Japan was feudal society, China was not
          o 4 characteristics of a feudal society:
                - Closed social classes (Japan)


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                - Well-defined hierarchy of power holders
                - Every individual is responsible to a person above him
                - Distribution of goods and services is determined by your rank
         o China was an open class structure
                - Merchant at bottom (role of merchant a temporary role)
         o In Japan, land could not be bought or sold
                - People could not change social status
                - In Japan the first obligation is to country, then to family
      Moulder:
         o Japan is successful because it is a feudal society

One characteristic of feudalism was that there was no social progression. A person born into a social
class remained at that level despite his/her economic background. Another characteristic of the
system was that every individual had an identifiable social standing where an individual had
responsibility of those below him. And the distribution of goods and services related to rank in the
hierarchy system, so those in higher social classes had a better economic-standing, although there
were exceptions

4. Deng Xiaoping and his legacy
     Deng Xiaoping or Teng Hsiao-p‘ing was the Chinese Communist leader who served as the de
       facto ruler of China from 1976 to 1997. Under Deng, who survived two purges before he
       succeeded Mao Zedong, China developed into one of the fastest-growing economies in the
       world.
     Deng was born into a landlord family in southern Sichuan Province. His original name was
       Deng Xixian. His early education was in the Confucian classics of Chinese history, literature,
       and philosophy, which had been the basis of Chinese education. In middle school Deng
       learned the ―modern‖ subjects of math, science, and geography.
     In 1920, at age 16, Deng traveled to France on a work-study program. There he supported
       himself by working in factories, where he gained firsthand experience of a worker‘s harsh
       life. In 1924 Deng joined the European branch of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP),
       which had been founded three years earlier by Chinese revolutionary Zhou Enlai. From
       France, Deng traveled to Moscow in 1925 where he studied at the Communist University for
       Toilers of the East and Sun Yat-sen University.
     By 1927 he was back in China and working in the CCP‘s Shanghai office. The CCP sent him
       to Guangxi Province (now Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region) in 1929, where he helped
       establish a Communist military base. The Guangxi troops suffered heavy losses against the
       Kuomintang (KMT) and regional warlords in 1930 and, as a result, Deng joined Mao Zedong
       in the Jiangxi Soviet, a Communist-controlled region in southeastern China. While there,
       Deng was demoted by the CCP for supporting Mao, who believed the CCP‘s foreign advisers
       were too influential in Chinese affairs.
     Deng participated in the Long March, when the Communists broke through KMT forces
       surrounding the Jiangxi Soviet in 1934 and fled to northern China. At the Zunyi Conference
       held along the way, Mao‘s ideas about the party‘s future were adopted, setting the stage for
       his rise to CCP leadership. Deng, meanwhile, served as the political instructor for the Red
       Army First Corps led by Lin Biao. After the Long March Deng was promoted to political
       commissar for the Red Army; he held this post throughout both the Second Sino-Japanese


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    War (1937-1945) and the Chinese civil war between the Communists and the KMT (1945-
    1949). In 1945 he was elected to the CCP Central Committee.
   After the CCP won the civil war and founded the People‘s Republic of China in 1949, Deng
    rapidly moved up the party ranks under Mao‘s patronage. From his initial post as vice
    chairman of the Southwest Regional Commission (1949-1952), Deng became vice premier of
    the State Economic Commission (1952-1954), and then secretary general of the Central
    Committee (1954-1966). While serving as secretary general, Deng worked with Liu Shaoqi
    and Zhou Enlai to enact moderate policies after the disastrous failure of Mao‘s Great Leap
    Forward, an economic plan intended to boost China‘s agricultural and industrial production.
    In contrast to Mao’s advocacy of revolutionary zeal, Deng distinguished himself as a
    pragmatist. During the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) pragmatism was vilified by Maoist
    radicals and Deng was attacked as a ―capitalist roader.‖ He was removed from office and
    placed under house arrest. Deng‘s family also suffered. His eldest son, Deng Pufang, became
    a paraplegic after falling from a window while being tormented by the Red Guards, Mao‘s
    militant student supporters. With the help of Zhou Enlai, Deng returned to Beijing in 1973
    and was promoted to vice premier of China, and then vice chairman of the CCP in 1975.
    After Zhou‘s death in 1976 Deng was purged again by the radical Gang of Four, the chief
    supporters of the Cultural Revolution. He went into exile in Guangdong Province and lived
    under the protection of provincial leaders. When Mao died in 1976 the Gang of Four lost
    their support within the CCP and were arrested for their Cultural Revolution activities. Deng
    returned to Beijing in 1977 and was reinstated as a member of the ruling Politburo by
    Premier Hua Guofeng. By 1980 Deng forced Hua from office and became the undisputed
    leader of China. He placed his protégé, Zhao Ziyang, in the position of premier. Although his
    main official appointments were as chairman of the Central Military Commission (1981-
    1989) and chairman of the CCP Central Advisory Commission (1982-1987), Deng‘s power
    lay in his control of the military.
   Beginning in 1978 Deng took steps to repair the damage of the Cultural Revolution. In the
    face of declining Communist prestige, his overall aim was to stabilize and strengthen China,
    thus securing Communist rule. He called for the ―Four Modernizations‖ of agriculture,
    industry, military, and science and technology. In agriculture, rural communes were
    discontinued, and peasants were allowed to lease land and sell their harvest in markets. In
    industry, Deng oversaw the establishment of special economic zones (SEZs), such as
    Shenzhen and Xiamen, where foreign investment was encouraged and new factories were
    established. Deng modernized the military by reducing the number of soldiers and improving
    military technology with advanced weapons systems. To improve science and technology,
    thousands of students were sent abroad, particularly to the United States, to study science and
    engineering.
   In foreign affairs, Deng developed closer ties with Japan and the West. He traveled to the
    United States and Japan in 1979, opening the way for better diplomatic and economic
    relations after decades of isolation. In the 1980s Deng‘s government negotiated the return to
    Chinese sovereignty of Hong Kong from Britain in 1997, and Macao from Portugal in 1999.
   Deng also attempted to reclaim the prestige of the Communist Party. In 1980 he oversaw the
    revision of CCP history, which praised Mao Zedong‘s accomplishments up until the late
    1950s, but blamed Mao for the errors of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.
    Deng also called for the ―rehabilitation‖ of past leaders who had been labeled enemies in the
    Cultural Revolution, including former Defense Minister Peng Dehuai and Liu Shaoqi. In


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       1984 Deng reformed the CCP to meet the challenges of modernization by retiring older
       cadres (government administrators), recruiting younger professionals, and fighting against
       corruption.

5. Great Leap Forward

      The Great Leap Forward was an economic and social plan initiated by Chinese Communist
       leader Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), with the intent of radically increasing agricultural and
       industrial production in the People's Republic of China, and of bringing China to the brink of
       a utopian communist society.
      The Great Leap Forward was a reaction to the Hundred Flowers Campaign, a more moderate
       development program in China in 1957. In this earlier program, Mao Zedong tried to win the
       support of Chinese intellectuals by calling for their constructive criticism of the policies of
       the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). However, such an unexpected torrent of dissatisfaction
       fell on party leaders that in June 1957 the CCP abandoned the Hundred Flowers plan and
       moved in much more radical directions, imposing strict controls on freedom of expression
       and dismissing or imprisoning many intellectuals.
      The CCP then called upon all Chinese to engage in physical labor to transform the economy,
       forcing over 100 million people into projects such as land reclamation and the construction of
       irrigation systems, which were designed to increase agricultural production. During the Leap,
       huge self-sufficient communes were established in the Chinese countryside, and China
       proclaimed that it would overtake England in the production of major products in 15 years.
       Chinese leaders thought that China was on the verge of establishing a Communist utopia, in
       which all people would work together to make China productive and totally self-sufficient.
      Over the next several years, production targets for communes grew continually larger, and
       officials competed against each other to see who could proclaim the highest yields. The CCP
       leadership believed the targets to be accurate and used them, rather than actual production
       figures, as the basis for determining taxes, which were collected in grain rather than
       currency. As a result, the amount of grain available to the people of China dropped almost 25
       percent. Between 1959 and 1962, more than 20 million people died during a massive famine
       partly caused by this practice.
      In 1958, as an immediate result of the massive peasant mobilization, industrial and
       agricultural output increased significantly. In 1959, however, agricultural production started
       to fall, reaching its low in 1962, when it was only about two-thirds of the 1958 total.
       Industrial production gradually fell as well, but less severely, always surpassing production
       totals for 1957. Socially, the Leap produced great enthusiasm among most Chinese in 1958,
       but as it became clear that the Leap programs were not working and that people were
       starving, popular dissatisfaction began to grow.
      During 1959, party leadership tried to correct some of the problems of the Leap. But these
       efforts were not sufficient for the Defense Minister, Peng Dehuai (P'eng Te-huai), who in
       mid-1959 criticized Leap policies and argued strongly for a more moderate stance. Mao
       Zedong took exception to Peng's ideas and had him removed from power. Mao's harsh
       response to Peng's criticism essentially intimidated the party into giving up the idea of
       retrenchment, enabling Mao to reassert the policies of the Leap.
      By the middle of 1960 it became clear to party leaders that the Leap could not be sustained.
       Emergency measures were taken to bring the economy under control, including importing


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       grain from the West and decentralizing the communes. Professional management, which had
       been attacked as counterrevolutionary during the Leap, was actively encouraged. Originally
       Mao Zedong went along with these policies, but he increasingly felt that they betrayed his
       vision of socialism. He grew suspicious of other CCP leaders, such as Deng Xiaoping (Teng
       Hsiao-p'ing), who had advocated moderate policies. His differences with Deng and others
       drove Mao to launch the Cultural Revolution in 1966 to purge his perceived opponents and to
       try to restore his ideal of a Chinese revolution.

6. National Minorities in China (from Ogden)
     Definition
        o -92% of the population in China is Han Chinese
        o -only 8% is classified as ―national minorities‖, but they occupy more than 60% of
           China‘s geographical expanse.
        o -they inhabit almost all of the border areas, including Tibet, Inner Mongolia, and
           Xinjiang Province

      Elaboration
       o -The stability and allegiance of the borders are important
       o -the borders with neighboring countries poorly defined, and members of the same
          minority usually live on both sides of border.
       o -to address this issue, China‘s central gov. designed policies to get the minorities on the
          Chinese side of the borders to identify with the Han majority.
       o -CCP leaders getting rid of customs such as religious practices, and not teaching the
          children their native language.
       o -the policies of the ―10 bad years‖ encouraged elimination of the ―four olds‖ led to major
          bitterness and wanton destruction of minority cultural artifacts, temples, mosques, texts,
          and statuary.
       o -in the 1980‘s during Deng‘s rule, he conceded that the policies were too harsh and ill-
          conceived, and it tried to gain the loyalties of the national minorities through more
          culturally sensitive policies
       o -Minority children are now taught their own language in school with the ―national‖
          language (mandarin).

7. Religion in China (from Ogden)
     Definition
        o Confucianism:
        -the religion most closely associated with China
        -not a religion in western terms, but has a system of ethics for human     relationships.
        -principles of good governance that includes the hierarchical ordering of relationships, with
        obedience and subordination of those in lower ranks to those in higher ranks
        -the Chinese communists rejected Confucianism until the 1980s
        -the reforms since 1979 have emphasized the need for an educated elite, and Confucian
        values of hard work and the importance of the family are frequently referred to.

       o Buddhism:




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       -remained important among some of the largest of the national minorities (Tibetans and
       Mongols)
       -CCP tried to eradicate formal Buddhism has been interrupted by these minorities as national
       oppression by the Han Chinese.
       -Thus revival of Buddhism since the 1980s has been associated with Tibetans and
       Mongolians‘ assertion of national identity.
       -1982: State Constitution permits religious freedom

       o Folk Religions:
       -Animism- the belief that nonliving things have spirits that should be respected through
       worship
       -continues to be practiced by China‘s vast peasantry
       -Ancestor Worship- based on the belief that the living can communicate with the dead and
       that the dead spirits to whom sacrifices are ritually made have the ability to bring a better (or
       worse) life to the living
       -absorbs much of the income of China‘s peasants

       o Taoism, Qigong, and Falun Gong
       -Taoism: requires its disciples to renounce the secular world, has had few adherents in China
       since the early 20th century.
       -many Chinese turned to mysticism and Taoism during the repression that followed the
       Tiananmen incident in 1989.
       -Qigong: ancient Taoist art of deep breathing became a national pastime by 1990
       -need to find meaning from religion to suggests a need to find meaning from religion to fill
       the moral and ideological vacuum created by the near-collapse of Communist values
       -Falun Gong (―Wheel of Law‖): gov‘t has declared a ―sect‖ (not entitled to claim a
       constitutional right to practice religion freely) has been charged with involvement in a range
       of illegal activities.
       -complex mixture of Buddhism, Taoism, and qigong practices
       -the last relying on many ideas from traditional Chinese Medicine
       -Christianity: introduced in the 19th and 20th centuries by European Missionaries
       -has several million known adherents
       -gov‘t generally permits mainstream Christian churches to practice in China, but their loyalty
       must be declared to the state (not to the Pope).

8. Relationship between law and politics in China (according to Ogden)
    law was always a political tool, not used for social order in Chinese history
    CAUSES
       1. Confucian system
           - emphasized good relationships be maintained
           - problems were to be resolved personally through mediations
           - failure to do so (and to seek authorities) would be highly embarrassing
           - judiciary system only used to prosecute criminal cases
       2. Communism
           - continued the Confucian traditions of mediation




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          -  local CCP officials, factory/neighborhood committees were preferred over lawyers to
             mediate civil disputes
          - less reliability on lawyers in China than in the West
       3. Law & politics
          - 1949-1979: few lawyers were trained
          - Marxism saw law and politics as integrated whole that reflected the values of the
             ruling class, a tool for class struggle
          - under CCP, law was not its own professional field, but only a branch of the social
             sciences
          - the people saw law as: propaganda tool, not meant for protecting civilian rights
          - China was ruled by: people, politics, and party policy, NOT by law, legal standards,
             or a constitution.
      CHANGE:
          o New laws after 1979
                 - drop in foreign investment forced enforcement of solid legal guarantees for
                     the int‘l business community
                 - Chinese entrepreneurs demanded protection against the government before
                     they began risky business ventures
          o Results for the people
                 - stronger base for modernization is created due to actual legal business
                     agreements
                 - limits the party/state abuse of people‘s rights
                 - law is seen as a method of protection, no longer strictly a propaganda tool
          o Reform for judicial personnel
                 - before: consisted of demobilized military officers who became judges and
                     prosecutors during the Cultural Revolution
                 - now: required legal training and passing of national exam along with higher
                     pay hopes to give judicial system autonomy from local governments, reducing
                     corruption

9. Sources of Rural Discontentment in China Today
     ―three rural problems‖ = agriculture, peasants, and rural areas:
     Peasants:
       o sluggish income growth
       o peasants burdened by excessive taxes and fees
     Local governments:
       o overstaffed local governments, in debt, unable to provide services for peasants
       o rampant corruption among officials
     Agriculture:
       o decline of township and village enterprises = larger rural-urban gap
       o farmers suffer from disproportionate tax burden while receiving fewer services
     Land confiscation
       o Roughly 20 million of China‘s 900 million farmers already have lost their land to
          commercial projects

      MEANS OF PROTEST:


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       o peasant organizations, protest and violence increasing
       o tax evasion
       o blocking roads and railways
       o kidnapping officials
       o riots
       o seeking legitimate political organization to defend their economic interests
      GOVERNMENT RESPONSE:
       o short-term success by reducing peasant taxes: cracking down on illegal local fees,
         converting fees to transparent taxes
       o shares larger among of central revenue with local governments
       o more forums to express rural discontentment created, decreased abuses by local officials,
         allowed village elections
       o these measures increase the desire of rural residents to have more ―rights‖

10. Why Japan was more successful in modernizing than China (according to the Nova Series “The
    Genius that was China”)
     China‘s Failure to Modernize due to:
      o Missionaries were sent to convert the Chinese to Christianity and Catholicism but it was a
          huge opposition from Chinese culture to accept any Western ideas.
      o China always sees other cultures as barbaric or inferior... therefore to adopt something
          from another culture is to lower yourself.
      o Silk and agriculture in China were great resources ... China saw themselves as rich
      o Chinese lacked mathematics skills and laws of nature ... Chinese have more emotional
          methods ... things they believe because they have observed them while westerners believe
          only after scientific experiments through a more rational approach.
      o Chinese did not import any European goods ... they only exported because ―no European
          product was good‖
      o China felt they didn‘t need science and technology to get what they wanted.
      o Europe was drinking Chinese tea, wearing Chinese silk, using Chinese porcelain, etc.
          Because they were importing everything and had no exports, they had to significantly
          improve their industry. Europeans learned mass production and went through
          industrialization, leaving China in the dust.
      o Because of the industrial revolution in Europe, the British produced quality steel in mass
          quantities which enabled their military to have an advantage over Chinese.
      o Chinese dependence on Opium became overpowering. They began to import far more
          Opium than everything else they were exporting, leading to economic losses in the
          country.
      o Chinese begins to lose out to West‘s opium and missionary invasion.
      o Trading Posts established in China where European law is rule, (extraterritoriality) …
          this separates local govt and deteriorates Chinese morale.
      o China established Western Industries, steam ships, etc. during self-strengthening
          movement, but all of these enterprises had to be changed for the govt.‘s rules about
          making it fit the Chinese ideal ... therefore no economic progress was made.
      o China shocked by Japanese defeat of Russia. This spurs Chinese reform ... which is too
          little too late.
      o Emperor abdicates and Nationalists come to power



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       o Chinese still protesting Japanese ideas of incorporation other cultures and want to reform
          but still have things fit Chinese ideals
      Japan‘s Success:
       o Japan has always seen themselves as a culture that takes ideas from others.
       o Since the 6th Century Japan has sent and invited scholars to learn from others.
       o Japanese saw country as peripheral to the center of civilization so they were okay with
          importing Western technology
       o Japan embraced trains and technology. Japanese railroads were owned by Japanese,
          rather than foreign investors.
       o Japan is influenced by world‘s fair and takes the idea that in order to keep up with the
          West everything must be imported: education, social life, and economic policies
       o Samurai status is abolished and Samurai become managers of financial stock. The idea
          of financial gain becomes good for the country
       o Japanese companies able to seek monetary gain
       o New machines to decrease production costs … Japan even began selling patents to the
          English.
       o Japan established organization to help government and business meet each other and
          work together.
       o Slogan: De-Asianize and Europeanize Japan
       o Japanese Navy defeats Russia in 1904. China shocked by another Asian country winning
          against a European force.

11. Marion Levy's analysis of Chinese and Japanese modernization
     Believes that both countries‘ external factors were similar, it‘s just that the 2 countries‘
      internal factor responded differently.
     Role of merchants were important for Japan to gain economic status and good trade relations
      for foreign relations. They were feudal, so merchants cannot go up the social status. So
      because they had to stay merchants, they invested their earned money. Japanese merchants
      also were able to change the government, while as Chinese merchants could not affect the
      government.
     China is not a feudal system. Role of merchants in China were considered low class. Only
      when they made enough money, they were able to move up the hierarchy of classes and stop
      being merchants to own land and farm. Chinese merchants wanted to buy land so that they
      can rise in social scale for their sons.
     Family was first to Chinese people, then the government; Family is secondary to the
      government, for the Japanese people

12. Frances Moulder's analysis of Chinese and Japanese modernization
     World Economy Theory
          o West has not provides stimulus to third world, prevented them from developing
          o Forcibly INCORPORATED into world economy
                 - Set up by Western capitalist nations to benefit West
                 - Non-west – agricultural, agrarian satellites exploited by West, economically
                     dwarfed.
                 - Any industrial development – backward and dependant
          o Japan enjoyed greater autonomy / movement in World Economy


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                - INCORPORATION
                - Economic – trade / investment – Japan less important to West than China
                - Political – less political, missionary encroachment
           o Coming of West – profound internal changes
                - Japan – new rulers grab power from local feudal domains and centralized;
                     very little pressure from West
                - China – never able to regain central power, continuous Western pressure –
                     ―Open Door‖ policy
           o Not that the Chinese were less ideologically motivated, but prevailing
             decentralization of power and continual encroachment of West. Absence of
             centralized financial power could not sponsor economic development.

13. The Causes of the Cultural Revolution in China
     The Cultural Revolution was launched by Mao Zedong in 1966 and ended in 1976
     Mao called upon China‘s youth (Red Guards) to challenge and go against authority
       (―capitalists roaders‖).
     Causes for the cultural revolution:
           o Mao wanted to prevent the abandoning of socialism. Mao feared China was turning
               ―capitalist‖
           o Mao wanted to restore a revolutionary spirit to the Chinese people.
           o Mao wanted to re-educate China‘s oppressive officials.
           o Mao wanted to have control over policy by provoking an internal party struggle. Mao
               wanted all the power and didn‘t want any rebel intellectuals getting in the way of his
               rule.
           o From 1961-1966, China greatly developed, thus, Mao felt he was losing his power.
     The Cultural Revolution did not come to a halt until the arrest of the Gang of Four, 10 years
       after the Cultural Revolution had begun.
     Results: Cultural Revolution brought the People‘s Republic of China to political and
       economic ruin. It brought the country to the brink of civil war and turned the Chinese against
       one another.
           o 1966-1976 was a period of total chaos

14. The Red Guards in China
     During the Cultural Revolution, Mau Zedong called upon China‘s Youth to make revolution.
     The Red Guards were the main enforcers of the Cultural Revolution.
     The Red Guards consisted of students, mainly teenagers, that were to revolt against and get
       rid of anyone or anything that was anti-Mao. These included intellectuals, educated elite,
       and even books, documents, and temples.
     The Red Guards persecuted intellectuals in the form of denunciation ceremonies, labor
       camps, and mass imprisonment. The Red Guards persecuted anyone who was disloyal to
       Mao and who caused general chaos in society. Even people who were only suspected of
       being non-communist were persecuted. The Red Guards challenged the people in authority
       such as school teachers, school principals, bureaucrats, and local leaders of the Communist
       party (who initially ignored the demands of the Red Guards.
     At first, the Red Guards would only threaten, without the use of weapons. Eventually, the
       Red Guards took to physical beating and publicly humiliating those who refused their orders.


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                                                                                          Jaclyn Kapilow
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      Many of the Red Guards used this opportunity to take revenge upon authorities like teachers
       who had given them a bad grade.
      The Red Guards went on rampages. They stormed into people‘s houses, stole property,
       destroyed property, harassed people in their homes, and clogged up transportation systems
       throughout the country to ―make revolution‖
      Different Red Guard groups turned against one another claiming to be the most
       revolutionary.
      Schools were shut down since all the teachers were gone and none of the youth was receiving
       formal education.
      In 1969, Mao told the Red Guards to stop. The Red Guards were broken up and sent home.

15. The main theme(s) of “River Elegy”
     documentary that came out in 1988, and was banned in June 1989, after the time of the
       Tiananmen Square protests
     it makes the argument that if China wants to be successful at modernizing, it has to emulate
       the West and rely on intellectuals to do so
     it attacks not only the Chinese government, but Chinese culture (Confucianism) by saying
       that is dying and killing the most vibrant parts of the culture
     blue is the color of the west, the color of the universe, the color of the planet, the color of the
       oceans
     yellow is the color of China, the color of the emperor
     Chinese land civilization has lost out to maritime civilization
     the film says that the Chinese should be ashamed of the great wall (similar to NOVA in this
       way) because it has kept advanced culture out of China
     the film still cannot be shown today because it makes the claim that China is dying and must
       open up to the West, which undermines the Chinese legacy of the past
     the film also shows that while Chinese technology helps the West advance (the compass,
       e.g.), it does not work the other way around
     finally, the film states that only intellectuals can communicate with the blue around them, as
       the yellow river heads toward the blue ocean

16. Zhou Enlai
     prominent CCP leader, was Premier of the PRC from 1949 until 1976
     gained prominence by leading a anti-government raid during the May Fourth Movement of
       1919
     supported Mao against the 28 Bolsheviks faction in January 1935, during the Long March
     he worked to promote a united anti-Japanese front, and negotiated the Second CPC-KMT
       United Front
     became Premier in 1949, when the PRC was established
     as Premier, he focused primarily on the Chinese economy, which was lagging, and sought to
       increase agricultural output by evenly distributing land
     he maintained his position throughout the Great Leap Forward, but was hurt during the
       Cultural Revolution, which lasted from 1966 to 1976
     in 1975, one year before his death, he promoted the ―Four Modernizations‖ (the four fields
       being: agriculture, industry, science and technology, and the military) as an alternative to the


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                                                                                   Jaclyn Kapilow
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       Cultural Revolution. These were aimed at undoing a lot of the damage caused during the
       Cultural Revolution, and were later adopted by Deng Xiaoping, who inherited many of
       Zhou‘s responsibilities after his death.
      helped resurrect contacts with the West during the 1970s
      his legacy: though he was a communist, Zhou was considerably more moderate than Mao
       (much like Deng Xiaoping), but lacked the power necessary to enact change

17. Gang of Four
     The Gang of Four was a group of Communist Party leaders in the People's Republic of China
       who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao
       Zedong, and were blamed for the events of the Cultural Revolution.
     The group included Mao's widow Jiang Qing and three of her close associates, Zhang
       Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen.
     Two other men who were already dead in 1976, Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi, were named as
       having been part of the "gang."
     The removal of this group from power marked the end of the Cultural Revolution.
     Mao placed Jiang, who before 1966 had not taken a public political role, in charge of the
       country‘s cultural apparatus.
     Zhang, Yao and Wang were party leaders in Shanghai who had played leading roles in
       securing that city for Mao during the Cultural Revolution.
     In 1981, the four deposed leaders were subjected to a show trial and convicted of anti-party
       activities.

18. Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party, also called the KMT)
     Formed after the Xinhai Revolution on August 25, 1912 by Sung Chiao-jen and Dr. Sun Yat-
       sen, the KMT was formed from a collection of several revolutionary groups
     Began receiving aid from the Soviet Union in the Early 1920s
     General Chiang Kai-shek emerged as the KMT leader and launched the Northern Expedition
       in 1926 against the warlord government in Beijing.
     He halted briefly in Shanghai in 1927 to purge the Communists who had been allied with the
       KMT, which sparked the Chinese Civil War.
     By the end of 1949 the Communists controlled almost all of mainland China, as the
       Kuomintang fled to Taiwan with 2 million refugees
     In 1950 Chiang took office in Taipei under the Temporary Provisions Effective during the
       Period of Communist Rebellion which halted democratic processes until the mainland could
       be recovered from the communists.
     During this time, as a result of the 228 Incident, Taiwanese people had to endure what is
       called the "White Terror", a KMT-led political repression.
     On 16 July 2005 Taipei mayor Ma Ying-jeou was elected as KMT chairman in the first
       contested leadership in Kuomintang's 93-year history.

19. Manchukuo
     On February 18, 1932 the Japanese founded Manchukuo
     Pu Yi was the emperor
     Supposed to be the Manchus own independent state


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                                                                                       Jaclyn Kapilow
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      But was really still under the rule of emperor Pu Yi
      It was regarded as a puppet state
      On August 8, 1945 the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and invaded Manchukuo
      The Manchukuo army gave up with out firing a single bullet

20. The role of the Chinese Communist Party in China
     It was founded in 1921
     It is the leading core of the Chinese people of all nationalities
     After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the CPC became the ruling party
     It makes recommendations regarding the appointment of important officials to government
       bodies
     It considers Marxism and Leninism as its guiding ideology
     The CPC sensors what the population sees on TV and reads
     They create lies to deceive the people and all media parties involved go along with it for their
       personal safety, their life, work, education and their future
     This manipulating of the people allows them to stay in control

21. Tiananmen Square and its importance in China
Tiananmen Square Protest April 15, 1989 – June 4, 1989
     The Tiananmen Square protest of 1989 was the culmination of a series of student-led, pro-
       democracy demonstrations in the People's Republic of China.
     The protest denounced China's economic instability and political corruption and was
       violently suppressed by the PRC government.
     Students and intellectuals wanted the reforms to go further, and were upset at the social and
       political controls that the Communist Party of China still held.
     Urban industrial workers felt the reforms had gone too far with loosening economic controls
       had begun to cause inflation and unemployment which threatened their livelihood.
     On May 20, martial law was declared. This, by itself, was not sufficient to end the
       demonstrations, which continued with popular support. After several weeks, a decision was
       made to forcibly clean the Square of protesters.
     Protestors appealed to the government to take measures against corruption. They demanded
       freedom of the press and the recognition of autonomous student organizations which, unlike
       party-controlled student organizations, were deemed illegal.
Importance
     The June Fourth Massacre changed a reform movement into a revolution. Before, the people
       wanted an end to bureaucratic incompetence and official corruption. Now they want an end
       to the Beijing government and the communist system.
     Although the revolution in China has not yet succeeded, it has already inspired giant strides
       toward democracy and freedom on the other side of the globe.
     The Tiananmen Protests seriously damaged the reputation of China in the West.
     China began to be seen as a repressive authoritarian regime
     There was considerable sympathy for the student protests among Chinese students in the
       West, and almost immediately, both the United States and the European Union announced an
       arms embargo
Why movements failed


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                                                                                       Jaclyn Kapilow
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      The Communist leadership was not accustomed to demands and dialogues on an equal
       footing.
      Corruption was rampant in all levels of the government.
      Officials in the highest ranks of the party hierarchy abused and manipulated import shortages
       and price systems to build personal fortunes.
      The ultimate power, which in a crucial moment decides the fate of the nation and the course
       of China's future, came down to one man who controls the army and is only concerned with
       his political survival.
      No limit on the power of the ruling class, where the actions of the ruler are not answerable to
       his own law.
      The protesters became so diverse with so many motives that even if negotiations were taken
       seriously the communist government would have thousands of different demands to meet

22. The United Front between the Communist Party and the Nationalist Party
(Note: There was more than one United Front between these two political parties. I‘ll accept any
one which is correct)
     The united front between the Communist Party and the Nationalist party occurred during the
       Chinese civil war.
     The Chinese Civil War was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (the Nationalist
       Party; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
     It began in 1926 with the takeover of the KMT by General Chiang Kai-shek as well as
       purges of leftist and Communist members from the KMT. It ended in 1949 with an unofficial
       termination of major hostilities, with the Communists controlling mainland China and the
       Nationalists controlling Taiwan Island, Penghu, and several outlying Fujianese islands.

   First United Front (1921-1926)

      To defeat the warlords who had seized control of much of Northern China since the collapse
       of the Qing Dynasty, Kuomintang leaders (Nationalist) sought the help of foreign powers.
      In 1921 the Nationalists turned to the Soviet Union.
      The Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Nationalist and the newly
       established Communist Party of China.
      The Soviets hoped for consolidation but were prepared for either side to emerge victorious.
       In this way the struggle for power in China began between the Nationalists and the
       Communists.
      In 1923 a joint statement by the nationalists and a Soviet representative in Shanghai pledged
       Soviet assistance for China's national unification.
      Soviet advisers-- began to arrive in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and
       consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
      The CPC was under instructions to cooperate with the KMT, and its members were
       encouraged to join while maintaining their party identities, forming the First United Front
       between the two parties.
      The CPC was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by
       1925.
      The KMT in 1922 already was 150,000 strong.


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      Soviet advisers also helped the Nationalists set up a political institute to train propagandists
       in mass mobilization techniques and in 1923 sent Chiang Kai-shek, for several months'
       military and political study in Moscow.
      After Chiang's return in late 1923, he participated in the establishment of the Whampoa
       Military Academy outside Guangzhou, which was the seat of government under the KMT-
       CPC alliance.
      In 1924 Chiang became head of the academy and began the rise to prominence that would
       make him the successor as head of the KMT and the unifier of all China under the right-wing
       nationalist government.

Second United Front (1937-1945)
      Occurred during the second Sino-Japanese War
      During the Japanese invasion and occupation of Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek (Chinese
       military and political figure; served as president of Nationalist China from 1949 until his
       death (1897-1975)) saw the Communists as a greater threat and refused to ally with the
       Communists to fight against Japanese.
      On December 12, 1936, Kuomintang Generals kidnapped Chiang Kai-Shek and forced him
       to a truce with the Communists.
      The incident became known as the Xian Incident.
      Both parties agreed to suspend fighting and form a Second United Front to focus their
       energies against the Japanese.
      The alliance between the Nationalist (Kuomintang) and the Communists was mainly just in
       name. The level of actual cooperation and coordination between the CPC and KMT during
       the Second World War was minimal.
      In the midst of the Second United Front, the Communists and the Kuomintang were still
       competing for territorial advantage in "Free China" (i.e. those areas not occupied by the
       Japanese or ruled by puppet governments).
      The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when there were major clashes
       between the Communist and KMT forces.
      In December 1940, Chiang Kai-shek demanded that the CPC‘s New Fourth Army
       evacuate Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces.
      Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army commanders complied, but they were
       ambushed by Nationalist troops and soundly defeated in January 1941.
      This clash, weakened the CPC position in Central China and effectively ended any
       substantive cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists and both sides
       concentrated on jockeying for position in the inevitable Civil War.

23. Hundred Flowers policy
    Overview:
     Announced by Mao Zedong
     In theory meant greater freedom for the arts, literature, and scientific research
     ―Let 100 flowers bloom and 100 schools of thought compete‖ – Mao
     1957, China‘s Intellectuals were encouraged to give their views on communism and the
       national programs



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                                                                                     Jaclyn Kapilow
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           o The criticism was too much – they became targets of an ―Anti-Rightist Struggle‖,
             Mao shut down the campaign, but did take some overview

   More in-depth:
    The Hundred Flowers Policy was introduced in 1957 under Mao Zedong‘s rule.
    When the People‘s Republic of China was established in 1949, intellectuals (participants in
     and critics of the gov.) came under strict government control
    Intellectuals were expected to serve the party and the state. Independent thinking was stifled,
     and political dissent was not tolerated.

       In Spring 1956, Mao Zedong proposed a new Party policy on science and culture. The policy
   became known as the "Double-Hundred Campaign (aka Hundred Flowers Campaign)
       The Hundred Flowers Campaign solicited criticism under the classical ―double hundred‖
   slogan: “Let a hundred flowers bloom, let the hundred school of though contend”
           o “Let a hundred flowers bloom”  applied to the development of the arts
           o “Let the hundred schools of thought contend”  encouraged the development of
               science
    The movement was in part a response to the demoralization among intellectuals, who felt
       estranged from the Party and who subscribed to Hu Feng's views that opposed totalitarian
       control of intellectual and artistic activity.
    It wasn‘t until February 1957 before the intellectuals followed up on Mao's calls and the
       Party's exhortations to speak up.
    In that month, Mao delivered a speech, "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among
       the People", in which he again spoke out on the policy. The policy was reaffirmed time and
       again in the following weeks.
    Emboldened by all this, many intellectuals and non-Party people finally spoke out.
    Their criticism quickly went beyond what was deemed permissible, at some point even
       questioning the legitimacy of Party leadership and the unassailable position of Mao himself.
    By mid-May, a counter-movement was underway. All those who had spoken their minds
       were now made into the targets of an "Anti-Rightist Struggle", in which Deng Xiaoping, then
       Secretary-General of the Party, took on an active role.
    By Fall 1957, almost 5,000 'rightists' had been uncovered. Many were imprisoned, and many
       others were banished to the border areas. Substantial numbers of 'rightists' had been
       rehabilitated before the Cultural Revolution started, but that movement caused many of them
       to be sent back to prison again.
    In 1978, it was estimated that some 450,000 people had been labeled as rightists.
    By 1980, over 97% of them had been rehabilitated, and the Party had admitted that it had
       miscalculated the situation and had expanded the struggle beyond acceptable limits.

24. Contrast (briefly and succinctly) the role of women in “Ermo” with the role of women in Wild
    Swans.
       The Role of Women in Ermo…
     Untraditional Chinese view of women (depicted in the character, Ermo)
           o Tough
                   - Gives blood
                   - Rides on top of truck to town


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                                                                                    Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                   October 25, 2005

           o Domineering
                    - Head of the family
                    - Tells husband he is ―good for nothing‖
           o Money-maker
                    - Sells noodles in town
                    - Weaves baskets
                    - Gives blood
           o Competitive
                    - Wants biggest television
                    - Competes with other noodle-seller in town by sitting next to her
           o Enticed with Western culture
                    - Blonde hairs of foreigners on money
                    - Ford car
                    - The shirts she bought for her son and husband
       The Role of Women in Wild Swans…
      Traditional Chinese view of women…
           o A woman without talent is a woman of virtue
           o Loyal
           o Concubines
           o Quiet
           o Female slavery
           o Footbinding
           o 3 obediences: father then husband then son (after husband dies)
           o 4 virtues: chastity, courteousness, grace, ability to beautify the home
           o Honored if they committed suicide after husband dies
      Addresses traditional views (Grandmother was concubine, loyalty to men, foot-binding, etc.)
       but counters them…
           o History via a woman‘s perspective
           o Women as strong (Grandmother‘s decision to ―steal‖ her daughter back from the
               general and leave)
           o Author (successful scholar and writer)
      Depicts changing role of Chinese woman…
           o Great-grandmother=oppressed and subservient to her husband/fearful of him
           o Grandmother=concubine then marries an older man (controversial)
           o Mother=choice in marriage, leader in communist forces
           o Author=scholar (moved to Britain) and married to a European (symbolizes
               globalization)
      The changing role of women and their quest for equality accompanies China‘s relations to
       the rest of the world… as the role of Chinese women expands and their status improves, so
       do China‘s global relations.

25. Jung Chang’s experience with foreigners, as described in Wild Swans
     Foreigners as alien
          o Students instructed on how they should interact with the foreign soldiers
          o Foreign ideas criticized
          o Nothing could be as good as Chinese culture/ideas


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                                                                                     Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                    October 25, 2005

      Fear of foreigners
          o Protecting women from African-American sailors
          o Better treatment reserved for foreigners
          o Fed at the best restaurants while the locals are practically starving
      Jung Chang was well-liked by the foreigners
          o Friendly/flirtatious banter

26. Privileges of officials in the Chinese Communist Party, as described in Wild Swans
     Party officials were allowed many privileges that common people were not.
     One major one is that their children were allowed access to the best schools and teachers.
        This in turn led to many of them becoming the leading businessman.
     Party leaders also had special connections and functioned as partners for foreign investors.
     Basically they took advantage of the system at the expense of the common people, which is
        directly opposite of socialist/ communism philosophy.

27. The changing nature of the relationship between politics and economics in Chinese villages as
    seen in the movie”Ermo”
     Ermo shows the difference between the traditional philosophies of the village towns
       contrasted with the modern towns.
     Ermo goes into a large town and discovers a 28 inch TV and that becomes her obsession in
       life.
     She gets caught up in making money so she can buy the biggest TV in her village.
     This shows that the old system in the villages is starting to change, while showing the
       negative effects of commercialism.


30. Moulder’s concept of “incorporation”
     Francis V. Moulder is a World Economy Theorist who‘s principle argument is that China and
      Japan developed and industrialized at different rates as a result of outside influences on
      China and Japan‘s relative autonomy within the world system which helped Japan progress
      into the ―modern age‖ at a more rapid pace.
     Her concept of incorporation has to do mostly with Japan and its resistance to become a
      colony of another country, a trait which Moulder argues held China back.
     For Moulder incorporation includes two dimensions: economy and politics.
     Within the economic dimension Moulder cites trade and investments where money was put
      in and taken out of China
     In terms of the political dimension Moulder cites political and missionary encroachment by
      other nations which made China a satellite nation of Great Britain and Portugal and
      missionary encroachment which spread the ideals of Christianity.
     NOVA VIDEO….Missionary looking across the water

31. The One-Child Policy and China’s “Little Emperors” (from Ogden)
     The One-Child Policy is a form of population control enforced by the government that has
      been in place since the 1977




                                                 19
                                                                                      Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                     October 25, 2005

      Although the One-child Policy is rigorously enforced in the major cities it is harder for the
       government to control when multiple births do occur in more rural areas and restrictions are
       more strongly held to the Han Chinese or the dominant race/ethnicity while the minority
       groups are allowed to have 2 or sometimes more children.
      To ensure that any unauthorized pregnancies do not occur, women who have already given
       birth are required to stand in front of x-ray machines to verify that their IUD‘s are still in
       place and abortions can and will be performed throughout the period of a women‘s
       unsanctioned pregnancy.
      Not only do these policies and ―granny police‖ make this an effective system but the systems
       effectiveness could also be attributed to changed social attitudes where urban Chinese now
       accept the absolute necessity of the of population control in their overcrowded cities.
      As a result of the One-child Policy there has been a generation of spoiled children known as
       the ―little emperors‖ who are only children who are the center of attention of not only their
       parents but also their grandparents for a total of 6 doting adults.
      This phenomenon of a generation of spoiled children has created issues in the over use of
       medical care and has lead to overweight, overfed, and obese children.
      Although this One-child Policy has helped to reduce the tremendous growth of the Chinese
       population their have been problems including having too few young people to take care of
       the elders as well as the abortion of female fetuses which has lead to a shortage of brides.
      Since 1977 the population has grown at an average annual rate if 1.1 percent which is one of
       the lowest population growth rates in the developing world.

32. Point of view of the documentary “the gate of heavenly peace,” as discussed by Rosen
     Tiananmen Square incident isolated China from the world
     Chinese government tried to deny that anything bad had happened
     Problem with the documentary is its treatment of Chai Ling
       What side was she really on?
     documentary showed that she was easily manipulated & changed her mind constantly
     people who were shown in a favorable light were the one's who rationalized the situation (the
       people who were being interviewed)
     the people viewed negatively are the ones who were emotionally driven
     documentary's "agenda" was that it was in favor of a moderate reform
     importance of knowing the people behind the documentary and their own personal
       agendas/bias

33. Polarization between the rich and poor in China today
     economic reforms have created a ―new rich and powerful...who enjoy vast differences in
       wealth, power, and rights from the swelling ranks of the rural poor and urban disposed‖
       (Ogden 147)
     on the other side, millions of migrant workers live in shantytowns, and urban unemployed
       and low income residents are being moved from the city center to make room for
       development (o.147)
     average annual rural income = $317
     gap between urban and rural income: 80s = 1.8:1 2003 = 3:1 (o.148)
     farmers have disproportionate tax burden w/ fewer services (o.148)


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                                                                                     Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                    October 25, 2005

      government estimates 100 million migrant workers (whose rights are often violated) are
       owed $12 mil. In back pay
      in the countryside, 30 million people have inadequate food and clothes (o.154)
      in 2003, china‘s rural workforce was 488 million, with over 300 mil underemployed (o.154)
      poorest 20% account for 4.7% of income and expenditure, wealthiest 20%, up to 50%
       (Journal of the Party School of the Central Committee of the CCP)
      in the US: poorest 20% = 3.5% of income, wealthiest 20 = 50% of income (US Census
       Bureau)

34. Briefly explain why the student movement of 1989 failed
Overview of Tiananmen Square Protest April 15, 1989 – June 4, 1989
     The Tiananmen Square protest of 1989 was the culmination of a series of student-led, pro-
       democracy demonstrations in the People's Republic of China.
     The protest denounced China's economic instability and political corruption and was
       violently suppressed by the PRC government.
     Students and intellectuals wanted the reforms to go further, and were upset at the social and
       political controls that the Communist Party of China still held.
     Urban industrial workers felt the reforms had gone too far with loosening economic controls
       had begun to cause inflation and unemployment which threatened their livelihood.
     On May 20, martial law was declared. This, by itself, was not sufficient to end the
       demonstrations, which continued with popular support. After several weeks, a decision was
       made to forcibly clean the Square of protesters.

35. Urban-rural differences in China
     Rural-
       o The people that lived in rural China were more spread out, involved in agriculture and
          farming, less educated
       o The Communist Party sought out the rural peasants as the source of their base because
          the peasants didn‘t have much and were willing to follow those who promised to better
          their living conditions.
       o Rural areas in China are large and spread out, making it difficult to communicate and get
          news.
       o During the Great Leap Forward, the rural workers who produced the food suffered most
          from the famine because most of the food was sent to the cities where is was said that it
          was needed more.
       o China was mostly agrarian and poor.
     Urban-
       o The people that lived in the urban cities were better off financially and more educated.
       o The Kuomintang (or KMT, the Nationalist Party) had more control over the cities and
          urban areas because they were fortified better.
       o The urbanized cities are mostly on the West coast of China, around the Yellow and
          Yangtze Rivers and the ports along the coast.
       o Cities were more populated, news flowed easier.


37. China’s effort s to control population growth:


                                                 21
                                                                                        Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                       October 25, 2005

      China‘s population in 2005 is about 1.3 billion.
      During the 1950s Mao encouraged population growth because a large population was seen as
       strength of the country and would contribute to cheap human labor.
      1979, the government launched a serious birth control campaign which rewarded one child
       couples with work bonuses, priority housing and preferential treatment in universities. Those
       couples with more than one child would be penalized with a 10% decrease in annual wages.
       The penalty extended to work groups whose members would lose annual bonuses if a women
       member gave birth to more than one child.
      Abortion can and will be performed.
      The one child policy has led to ―little emperors‖ generation of overindulged and spoiled
       children.
      Problems from the one child policy are: too few young people to take care of elders, decline
       in the ratio of women to men, insufficient number of brides, kidnapping of young women and
       their sale in rural marketplaces.
      In some villages women with more than one child pay the government a substantial fee as
       government benefits are not as applicable to peasants and as their livelihood depends on the
       labor of their children requirements on the policy are less stringent.
      In some villages daughters can take on the responsibility of continuing family lineage,
       traditions and ancestor worship.
      Since 1977 the population has grown at an average rate of 1.1 percent.
      The population has proved to be a drain on the economy and environment of China.

38. American and Chinese differences with regard to human rights
     Surveys show that the Chinese citizens believe the government has adopted policies that have
       greatly improved their daily lives. Many see the government‘s actions as necessary in order
       to maintain China‘s continued economic prosperity stability. They then put a greater amount
       of importance in a higher standard of living than in the rights of dissidents.
     Even China‘s intellectuals no longer seem interested in protest politics, they do not
       necessarily ―love the party‖ but they accept the status quo. The Chinese prefer to talk about
       business and development; they prefer to talk about what is needed to strengthen China as a
       nation. In addition to their perspective of importance, many Chinese citizens feel that they do
       not know enough to challenge government policy on the human rights issues. And when it
       comes to the issues as the treatment of jailed dissidents, most Chinese know no more than
       what the government tells them. They ask themselves why should they risk their careers to
       fight for the rights of jailed dissidents about whom they know almost nothing about.
     Within China itself, it is often the people, not the government who demand the harshest
       penalties for common criminals, if not political dissidents. It is also China‘s privileged who
       often demand that the government ignore the civil rights of other citizens.
     These differences are also in large part due differences in culture. American culture takes its
       predominant influence with a strong religious flavor and labeled by its self-defined freedom,
       democracy and human rights standard. The cultural reason for American people‘s conceit
       and authoritativeness lies in the so-called ―America exception‖ derived from the American
       political culture. Beginning with the original immigrating Puritans, Americans have regarded
       themselves as the chosen people, superior to any other peoples in the world. Meanwhile, in
       free and open America, there is no room for the strict consensus system characteristic of
       traditional societies. Therefore, without a unified attitude and consistent account in all fields


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      of its political culture, discordant voices can be heard from time to time in American society,
      which is unimaginable and almost impossible in China. The essence of Chinese culture is
      family affection and attachment. Any individual behavior damaging national dignity and
      group honor is not encouraged in Chinese society that thinks highly of collective benefits and
      reputation, which is beyond the understanding of American people. In addition to the cultural
      differences between the two nations, we also need to realize the inherent discrepancies in
      American culture that influence American politics and foreign policies frequently.
    On the one hand, in terms of Puritanism, one of the origins of the American culture, since the
      earliest Puritans came to the New World due to the religious persecutions they suffered in
      England, the freedom and right for individuals to pursue welfare have occupied a special
      position in Puritanism. Naturally, Puritans harbor religious fervor for human rights. On the
      other, the protracted existence of racial discrimination and segregation did not change until
      after the Civil Rights movement during the 1950s and 1960s. Even today, the deep-rooted
      barrier between whites and minorities is still hard to be removed completely in the United
      States.
    The cultural contradictions are the source of America‘s double standards on the human rights
      issue. The aggressive American culture with a short history of a little more than 200 years is
      built on the basis of individualism and liberalism, while the introversive Chinese culture with
      a 5000 years‘ tradition lays stress on collectivism and cultural consensus at the expense of
      individual voices. Obviously, the essences of these two cultures are contradictory. This
      cultural contradiction is the main reason for the constant Sino-US clashes. Nevertheless,
      mutual complementarities in economy magnetize the two nations, forcing them to
      compromise for their cultural discrepancies.


40. How would Jung Chang, the author of Wild Swans, explain the victory of the Communists over
    the Nationalists
     The Communists treated their prisoners well and converted some KMT soldiers
     The Nationalists were arrogant towards the peasants, and their government was corrupt
     Communists landed in the goodwill of locals by distributing food and being disciplined in
        their behavior

41. The Cultural Revolution as discussed in Wild Swans
     Meant to get rid of Mao‘s perceived political enemies Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
     Red Guard set up to enforce the Cultural Revolution
     Also meant to root out official who were consider capitalist roaders
     People routinely dragged out of homes by the Red Guard
     Homes and museums were raided, artifacts and temples smashed, books burned
     People publicly denounced, victims of Red Guard subjected to violence

42. Women and the State in China (from Ogden)
     Women have had more rights/opportunities than women in almost any other developing
      country
       even outpaced women in some developed countries

      Women under Communist Rule


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           o working women
                 pay scale similar to men
                 women perform ―women‘s work‖
                 respect for women as equals
                 de-emphasis on importance of sexuality

      Economic Reforms (beginning 1979)
          o Change in manner women were treated/act
          o Women more sex objects
          o Some companies only hire women who are physically attractive
                 Use women as ―window dressing‖
                 Women tea-pourers in business meetings
          o reluctant to hire women b/c of maternity costs
                 mothers also more likely to be in charge of sick children and the household
                 managers can claim women are more costly, less competent, or less reliable

43. Environmental Problems in China (from Ogden)
     Unequal Benefits
           o Those who inhabit cities in the interior, live far from cities/transportation lines, or till
             less viable land reap fewer rewards
           o Short-term gains in income are threatened in the long term by the deterioration of the
             infrastructure for education and medical care
                   Deterioration due to the elimination of the commune as the underlying
                      institution for funding these services
                   wealthy peasants send children to larger towns; also build private
                      schools/hospitals
           o employees of the state suffer from fixed salaries barely adequate to buy goods whose
             prices are no longer state-controlled
           o inflation is low, but many workers feel they need 2 jobs to make ends meet
           o more corruption, w/o an adequate system of regulations/laws
           o polarization of wealth returned to China with the return of the free market
     decline in ratio of women to men
           o insufficient # of brides
           o selling girls as brides
           o one-child policy
                   policy more fle3xible on the countryside
                   can pay money for another child if give birth to a girl
     males more valued
           o expected to carry on traditional Chinese family rituals
     ecological crisis
           o rise in pollution of China‘s air, water and land
           o depletion of nonrenewable resources and energy

how did china in the past try to fight population? Whats going to happen after all resource have been
defeated? Whos responsible for this? Is their air and water going to affect us?



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44. The Rise of Nationalism in China (from Odgen)
         China‘s leadership is still committed to building ―socialism with Chinese characteristics in
    society. But there are very few true believers in communism left. So the government has
    focused more on economic efficiency and modernization. Fully aware that they need something
    to replace their defunct guiding ideologic principles (communism) and fearing that policies
    leaning towards pure materialism and consumerism are inadequate substitutes, China‘s leaders
    seem to be relying on patriotism and nationalism as key components in forming a new ideology.
    The primary purpose of this new ideology based on nationalism is economic modernization and
    support of the leadership of the CCP. Chinese nationalism has been long used to unite the
    country. The Chinese take a great pride in their history, civilization, and people. The CCP uses
    this patriotism and nationalism as tools to keep heavy support from its citizens. The CCP tried to
    hammer in the minds of the Chinese that contact with foreigners brings ideological and cultural
    contamination. China‘s nationalism is sparked by antiforeign sentiments. These sentiments
    come from the belief that foreign countries are – either militarily, economically, or through
    cultural invasion -- attempting to hurt China or intervene with Chinese sovereignty. Whenever it
    is made public that a foreign country condemns China‘s actions or goes against Chinese policies,
    such as the condemning of the Tiananmen Square Massacre or U.S. support for Taiwan, Chinese
    nationalism is sparked. However, China‘s growing entanglement in a web of international
    economic and political relationships, such as joining the WTO, has contributed to the softening
    of its nationalistic stance. This rise of nationalism under the CCP is very important in that it
    helped unite China under an ideology. But this nationalistic thinking has also made it very
    difficult for China to adapt to the ever-growing international economic and political worlds that
    have come to be so crucial in the 21st century. There is no room for compromise and
    interdependence in nationalistic thought. But compromise and interdependence are necessary for
    China‘s modernization and economic development in today‘s ever so connected world.

45. Mass Media in China (from Odgen)
        Just before the demonstration in Tiananmen Square, China‘s press had grown substantially
    and become increasingly liberalized. With some 1,500 newspapers, 5,000 magazines, and 500
    publishing houses, the Chinese were able to express a wider variety of viewpoints and ideas than
    at any time since the CCP came to power in 1949. The production of millions of TV sets, radios,
    cassette recorders, and VCRs help facilitate the growth of the mass media in China. In fact, by
    1989, the stream of publications had so overwhelmed the CCP Propaganda Department that it
    was simply no longer to monitor their contents. During the Tiananmen demonstrations, the
    Chinese press started to cover the hunger strike for its entirety. But with the imposition of
    martial law on May 20th, 1989, Chinese press freedom cam to a crashing halt. In the immediate
    aftermath of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations, in June 1989, the CCP imposed a ban on a
    variety of books, journals, and magazines. The government ordered a ―cleansing‖ of all media
    organizations. Some media organizations were not allowed to leave Beijing for reporting. All
    press and magazine articles written during the pro democracy demonstrations were analyzed by
    the government to see if they conformed to the party line. If not, they were banned and the
    people responsible for them were dismissed. Press freedom took a significant step backwards
    because of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations. But under Deng Xiaoping in 1992, the
    diversity of television and radio programming soared. There was a diversity of channels
    available to the Chinese that included some programs on Western culture. This diversity of



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    programming exposed the Chinese to values, events, ideas, and standards of living previously
    unknown to them. Today, television ownership is widespread in China. There are more than
    100 million cable subscribers and virtually everyone has radio access. Programming is diverse
    and much more liberal than ever before. The number of books published annually, the number
    of newspapers available, the number of journals, and the number of magazines have grown
    exponentially in China. The number of radio stations and TV stations has grown to numbers
    approaching that of its Western counterparts. The government‘s national cable company is also
    forming a tight network in order to expanded services to all of China in the future. These include
    new Internet and telecommunications connections. The effort to expand Internet availability is
    also a dilemma for the CCP. They want to modernize rapidly and have economic, scientific, and
    educational resources on the Internet available to the masses, but they want to be able to censor it
    as well. But the Internet is virtually uncontrollable. So the government continues to try to
    control the Internet as much as possible while concentrating most of its resources on influencing
    the biggest journals, magazines, newspapers, and publishing houses in China. Trying to control
    the propaganda in these popular and widespread media outlets is the government‘s only hope for
    censorship in today‘s world. Film is another area the government focuses its censorship
    resources on. Since the film industry is much smaller in China and reaches such a broad and vast
    audience, the CCP‘s censorship is very effective in this area of media. In the 1990‘s, the
    government cut media subsidies, thereby requiring that even the state controlled media had to
    make money or be shut down. This meant the media had to present newsworthy articles or
    stories in order to sell subscriptions. The people got to decide which media outlets stayed afloat.
    All in all, even though China‘s media can hardly be called free, the emergence of divergent
    voices means the CCP‘s ability to control people‘s minds has vanished.

46. Counterfeiting and Piracy in China (according to China by Suzanne Ogden)
                 Counterfeiting and Piracy in China has become quite a problem for countries who are
    developing the real thing such as the United Stated and Japan, but they give China quite the
    upper hand in the global economy so it doesn‘t seem like China is going to do anything ‗real‘
    about this problem. Through the years these back alley pirate manufacturing companies have
    become real buildings like any top of the line genuine retailer. Drugs and fashion seem to be the
    areas of biggest problem. In some pharmacies, with a little pleading you can get almost any drug
    without a prescription a fake of the original at least. This has come to be a problem somewhat for
    China as well since people are dieing because the toxins were not mixed properly or people not
    getting the right active ingredients they need to fight their illness or disease. It doesn‘t seem to be
    slowing down any production though. After complaints and law suits China broadcasts raids
    against factories and laboratories creating the counterfeits, but many times the creators get of
    with a mere 132 dollar fine and confiscation of the product that is on display for sale. Experts say
    that if China took this problem as seriously as keeping anti communist propaganda out of the
    country the problem could be eradicated overnight. Let‘s just say one of the pirated DVD‘s
    contained information about Tibetan independence or the virtues of Falun Gong China would
    raise the fine and make sure no copy, real or fake would hit the consumer world, just like Sega‘s
    new game Football manager which suggests that Taiwan, Tibet and Hong Kong have teams that
    are not controlled by the central government had fines reach up to 3600 dollars to anyone who
    sold this game. If you look at it, it is not in China‘s best interest to get rid of these counterfeiters
    and pirates. Not only can the country‘s poor afford essentials such as drugs and textbooks, they
    ‗serve the country by uprising the foreign technology that China needs to meet its ambitious



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   industrial goals‘ (Ogden 177). In addition, for now at least, China fears no repercussions for the
   production of these materials because of its size and productivity of their market can easily lure
   almost all of the latest technology into their country despite this problem. The issue was also
   brought up that other countries such as Brazil and Mexico also counterfeit materials but the
   difference is that they do not reach even close the industrial power and skills of China in the
   competitive market and as a result they have better counterfeits and keep feeding off of both
   sides of the spectrum (the genuine world market and the ‗private‘ pirated market). As for now it
   seems as though the United States has to come up with other remedies to help get rid of this
   problem and force China to change its way because up till now nothing seems to have even
   phased China to even help this matter, it actually seems to worsen. One approach is to speed up
   the process the new top of the line genuine products hit the market, but as seen over the decades
   China has a real skill to produce items with great efficiency and speed, so this solution is not
   really affective. Another is to lower the prices of the legal product. This one has somewhat put
   into affect with companies such as Microsoft lowering the prices. Yet another solution is to
   leverage its vitality. Japan used this strategy when they announced that the Toyota Prius hybrid
   cars would be co-manufactured in China‘s government owned First Auto Works. This would at
   first seem as not the wisest thing to do because now China could fully examine the product a
   produce a great fake, but really Japan is using this counterfeiting skills to get the upper hand
   against United Stated and European car manufacturing companies. Since they have already taken
   some of the profit away from the batter and electric motor companies sales, Japan can use these
   lower costing materials to quicker produce the car and sell more, make them more efficient
   especially since there aren‘t many hybrid cars around and many companies are struggling with
   developing a hybrid car period. (Ogden 179). It‘s a bargain, to collaborate with them, but there is
   not a whole lot anyone can do about this problem, since china does not, in action, see
   counterfeiting and piracy as a problem.

47. The “Great Debate” over the implication of a “Rising China” (using CHINA eleventh edition by
    Suzanne Ogden)
         Throughout all the readings in China by Suzanne Ogden, one thing remains prevalent to be
    the main factor of China either rising as a world power or staying stagnant and this is its
    openness or involvement with foreign countries. Traditional China actually has a fear or
    xenophobia which is dislike and fear of foreigners (Ogden 38). The humiliations China has
    endured from the West and Japan telling them what to do makes it easy for the Chinese to avoid
    and ignore advice from other nations. In addition China has a certain ‗supreme nation‘ mentality,
    which has been very difficult to break. Because of the size of China compared to other Asian
    countries China would be somewhat of a leader and everyone surrounding it would look up to
    them and follow their lead. If they believe they are the best there is no reason for them to unify
    with other countries or follow anyone else‘s lead. In the early years of the People‘s Republic of
    China (early 1950‘s) most foreigners were actually ordered out of the country. This created and
    isolationist foreign policy (Ogden 38). There is this constant struggle between ‗old‘ thinking and
    ‗new‘ thinking in regards as to how open China should be to other nations. After the cultural
    revolution in 1966 China decided to slowly ‗re-open‘ its doors to outside countries. President
    Nixon‘s visit to China was probably one of the big stepping stones for China. Although it did not
    establish an open door policy with the united states or any other country for that matter it showed
    to the world China‘s want or intentions in the least. As leaders in China began to change so did
    its policies. Starting 1978 China opened its doors to various tourists and by the 80‘s was hosting



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   several million a year some of which were invited to help China through its ‗modernization.‘
   Students were also allowed to study abroad and citizens to travel. Although progress was being
   made, traditionalist or ‗ordinary Chinese,‘ as Ogden calls them, still held the ideological idea that
   cultural and government contamination came from foreign nations and would eventually cause
   trouble in China. Today there is still evidence of this xenophobia, but China has progressed a lot
   since. The 2008 Olympics will be held in China, American fast food such as MacDonald‘s,
   Kentucky Fried Chicken, and Pizza Hut has been popping up all around China and Avon is a
   common household call. Unfortunately, the government still fears cultural contamination and has
   tried things such as broadcasting strictly Chinese made television programs during prime time
   and although they participate in the Olympic games they also have their own Asian Games,
   music competitions and film festivals. The battle seems to be uphill for the government though
   for the reasons stated above and its growing and changing identity to the rest of the world.
   Recently China has begun to be known as part capitalist rather than a strict communist
   government. Huwei Technologies, a Chinese created telecommunications company has decided
   to go abroad and is said to have about 70% of their sales to be foreign in three or four years. This
   is just one example of how China, the most populated country in the world is coming and rising
   in the world and being able to hold its own. Ever since its ‗second revolution‘ when Deng
   Xiaoping opened up the country to foreign business China has been able to grow and expand in
   these ways (Ogden 104). China has taken in billions of dollars as countries take advantage of
   their cheap labor and booming economy. It has become literally the world manufacturing
   company, making half the world‘s clothes and a third of the cell phones which in turn help lower
   prices in companies such as Wal-Mart and Dell technologies. China has gone forth to pass up
   Japan as the country with the largest trade surplus with the United States (Ogden 104). Although
   this struggle or ‗debate‘ is still very prevalent today China is really growing and has definitely
   made its mark and will continue to do so.


49. Asians on American Television (Prasso)
     In the 1930s to 1940s there weren‘t allowed any relations between Caucasians and other
       races on screen until 1948. The most prominent Asian actress at this time was Anna May
       Wong who appeared in numerous films, but was never given a large important role. In the
       1970‘s women were portrayed as servants to men. Many Asian women were sexualized to
       Western perceptions. In the 1980‘s Asian women were given small roles. Much of Asians of
       television aimed to reconcile what happened in Vietnam by portraying Asian women as
       caregivers and women that offered a guiding hand. Example is the TV show MASH.

      Stereotypes of Asian Women on Screen:
           o Submissive (desired):
           - Geisha Girl/Lotus Flower/Servant/China Doll: Submissive, docile, obedient, and
              reverential (including Asian men as effeminate, servile)
           - Vixen/Sex Nymph: Sexy, coquettish, manipulative; tendency toward disloyalty or
              opportunism
           - Prostitute/Victim of Sex Trade/War/Oppression: Helpless, in need of assistance or
              rescue; good-natured at heart
       o Dominant (Feared):




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           -Dragon Lady: Wily, clever, and calculating; powerful but lacking empathy or
            maternal instinct
         - Dominatrix: Sexually dominating, icy emotionless
         - Martial Arts Mistress (or Master): Cold, distant, steely, capable, with emotions kept
            in check
       o Enigmatic Oriental: Inscrutable, unpredictable, unknowable, with mysterious and
         sometimes wise ways



50. Caucasian Men and Asian Women (Asian Mystique by Prasso)
        The Asian Mystique is pretty much divided into two sections. The first talking about the
    stereotypes the west has about the east, Asian women in particular and the second are detailed
    accounts about different, real Asian women the author encountered and interviewed to give its
    reader the truth regarding these common misconceptions. When dealing with the white, western
    male and the Asian woman, there are many misconceptions that come along with this interracial
    relationship. The west primarily sees the Asian woman as a meek, subservient not only when it
    comes to the upkeep of a home but sexually as well. This phenomenon is labeled as The Asian
    Mystique by the author and many others as well. The white Caucasian man is seen to have what
    is usually called ―yellow fever‖ for these feminine, attentive and seductive Asian women. This
    common misconception she blames on Hollywood for the most part for promoting such an image
    of Asian women. This is also the reason she given to the various women she interviews when
    they ask her why the white men land on their land often feel this way about them. Although in
    my opinion I am not sure I necessarily agree with the fact that Hollywood created this image, but
    rather helped spread the stereotype that was already prevalent throughout the west. Either way it
    was through media publications that this misconception became widespread until it became a
    common belief, even though it was untrue. The best description used to describe this
    misconception is through a woman named Madame Butterfly. She is used as a prime example of
    this, being a beautiful meek Asian who falls deeply in love with a white naval officer. She is
    loyal and self-sacrificing, but in the end gets screwed over by this man. The man got the
    mystique he was looking for, enjoyed it then dropped it when he was done with it, and never
    expected the woman to say a thing, just like the stereotypical Asian woman would. In the second
    half of her book however, she shows the truth, as stated earlier. Here are the everyday typical
    girls of the east who posses none of this mystique. Japanese housewives, college students from
    china or various flight attendants are interviewed by Prasso to show her readers that these
    women have real issues and strong wills just like everyone else. Mineko Iwasaki, who filed a
    lawsuit for misrepresentation in a book that was based on her life, was one of the prime examples
    in the novel to show that this Asian Mystique is exactly what it is, a misconception from the
    West.

51. Marriage in Japan according to Prasso
        The Asian Mystique is divided into two parts. The first focuses on a story of Madame
    Butterfly falling in love with a Caucasian man and in the end getting screwed over since the
    whole time she was completely loyal and surrendered her self to the love. This part represents
    the stereotype the West has about Asian women. The second part focuses on real interviews done
    by the author showing the true lives of the women. When marriage is discussed in this novel,



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   especially through a marriage between Chris, and American man and Yukie a Japanese woman,
   the clash between reality and stereotype is shown. The story starts out by explaining how Chris
   always began his sentences with listen to me, just listen, listen. After many years Yukie could
   not understand why her husband continued to not understand her. The author points out the
   stereotype and shows how Yukie begins to realize why he might have chosen her. He thought,
   like others, that she was obedient and docile. But she was not like that at all and neither were any
   of the other Japanese women she knew. She had came to America to study and had only
   ‗happened‘ to marry and American man during her time there. This story was specifically
   interesting because it is not like they were a very traditional family. She mentioned that when it
   came to being the bread winner of the house they were rather unconventional and could not
   understand why they would be when it came to such matters. After years Yukie learned to
   ‗listen‘ to her man without saying a word.

52. The Japanese geisha (according to Prasso)
     Prasso, in The Asian Mystique, tries to remove the distortions that we see through the lens of
     Hollywood and ―strip away the romanticized idealism that clouds East-West relations‖
     She wants to clear up the misperception that being a geisha is not a Cinderella story
     The geisha is not like a princess in search of a prince; the geishas were used and often abused

53. Japanese women (as discussed in Prasso)
     The old ―submissive‖ stereotypes are totally irrelevant to how Japanese women live today
     ―its very difficult to find a submissive woman in our society. If they are submissive, it‘s
       because they have a choice. Some people have a style of submissiveness, but that‘s the
       position they choose to be in rather than one they are out in‖ (pg 20)
     Growing Self-Actualization of the Japanese housewife: (pg 176-)
     no Japanese women would refer to her own husband as master anymore
     generally in Japan women and men live segregated social lives
     motherhood as a woman‘s career choice is more highly affirmed than working hard like a
       man. (pg 179)
     for more than a century in Japan, the term ryosai kenbo (wood wife, wise mother) has been
       held up as the ideal for womanhood.
     this was reinforced and promoted by the Japanese govt after WWII when the country
       embarked on nation rebuilding
     as a result, in today‘s Japan, a woman who quits work to raise a young child is continually
       praised for that decision

54. Feminism in Korea
     women are starting to break into public life
     Korea is reputed to be the most conservative, Confucian-influenced culture in Asia
     many women quit their jobs after marriage, fewest number of female elected officials in any
      OECD country (5.9% of lawmakers, compared to 13.6% in the US)
     realizations of gender equality are starting to take hold in Korean Society
     3 different approaches/examples to gaining equality:
      o The softer approach




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          - done by maintaining feminine traits: speaking softly, acting flexibly, being nice and
            polite
         - example: Justice Minister Kang Gum Sil, first appointed women to any cabinet
            position in South Korea
         - her feminine traits make her a role model without threatening men, especially since
            the legal sector is very male-oriented
         - 30% of new hires in the government and police force must be female
         - 50% of incoming law and medical students are female
         - almost equal amount of female and male prosecutors
       o The ―fight back hard‖ approach
         - criticizes Kang for not acting tough enough and setting a public example
         - example: Kim Kang Ja, female police superintendent
         - says women have to work harder than men and be better then men
         - women who aren‘t efficient are looked down upon, those who are better than men get
            knocked down b/c men get jealous
         - Kim cannot bear this gender inequality and just be ―submissive‖ while trying to gain
            her rights as a woman, she has to fight back hard
         - before Kim, women were only allowed to process paperwork in the police force. Kim
            demanded to take the training program, began working overnight and emergency duty
            shifts (which were exempt for women at that time)
         - was eventually recognized for her hard work by police commissioner, became highest
            ranking police woman in S. Korea
         - trying to make Korea take crimes vs. women and children more seriously – domestic
            violence, abuse of prostitutes, rape, etc.
         - Kim‘s determination has angered both men and women in the police force: some
            women say that their work load is now heavier and harder, some men have had to end
            their corrupt means of accepting payoffs to ignore the abuse of women
       o The clean/proper approach
         - create businesses without engaging in corruption, proving women can be just as
            effective as men in the same positions, strengthen and advance women‘s soft power
         - example: Kim Sung Joo, CEO and founder of Sungjoo International
         - up to $100 million in annual sales before 1997
         - with clean hands, became one of biggest duty-free operations in Korea
         - 1/6 of the market
         - stresses importance of women‘s involvement in public affairs as a duty

55. Asians in Hollywood Films (Prasso)
     American viewing public got their first impression of Asian women on T.V. in the 1970s.
     Through T.V. and Hollywood films, the West first gets to see and understand Asia and Asian
       women.
     Asian women in Hollywood films are seen as the ―perfect woman,‖ or a woman who offers
       sex without commitment and doesn‘t want to have further relationship discussions.
     Even though James Clavell (screen-writer of Shogun, 1980 epic miniseries) claims to have
       written historical fiction (a romance between a westerner with Japanese woman), the public
       viewers during this time could care less about what was fact as long as the story was good.
       (pg. 70)


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      In the 1980s, images of Asian woman are distorted and sexualized in Hollywood Films in
       order to conform to Western perceptions.
      In the 1990s, female Asian characters were empowered. For example, Margaret Cho got her
       own sitcom to feature an all-Asian-American cast, American Girl. The show was a story
       about a second-generation Korean-American rebelling against her strict Asian parents. The
       show was cancelled after the first season. Cho was forced to lose weight drastically and
       suffered kidney failure. Cho claims she was first asked to act more Asian and then later was
       told to act less Asian. The show never figured out if it wanted to be authentic or ridiculous.
      In Ally McBeal (1998-2002) Ling Woo, played by Lucy Liu, was the classic stereotype of
       Dragon Lady. Ling was depicted as a sexual predator who didn‘t really like sex. One of her
       lines include, ―There‘s nothing I enjoy more than seeing a happy couple and coming between
       them.‖ A Hollywood first occurred when Ling and Ally McBeal kissed on screen during a
       dream sequence date. This scene was banned from Singapore; it was considered too racy.
      In the 1990s, images of Asian women are cold, bitchy Dragon Ladies. I.e. Lucy Liu in Kill
       Bill Vol. 1.
      The most famous Chinese-American actress in the world from 1919 to 1960 was Anna May
       Wong. She played slave girls, prostitutes, temptresses, and doomed lovers. Wong didn‘t
       originate the stereotype of the Dragon Lady but Wong‘s consistent representations of it
       helped make that image an inedible part of Western consciousness.
      Stereotypes of Asian women on screen:
           o Geisha Girl – submissive, docile, obedient, reverential
           o Vixen/sex nymph – sexy, coquettish, manipulative, tendency toward disloyalty
           o Prostitute – helpless, in need of assistance, good-natured at heart
           o Dragon lady – wily, clever, and calculating, powerful but lacking empathy or
               maternal instinct
           o Dominatrix – sexually dominating, icy, emotionless
           o Martial arts mistress – cold, distant, steely, capable, with emotions kept in check.



1. Changing images of the masses in post-1949 China, as seen in the clips “Blind Shaft”, “Crows &
Sparrows”, “Farewell my Concubine”, “The Troubleshooters, “Morning Sun, and Breaking with
Old Ideas”



2. Ian Buruma‘s views on why Japan modernized so rapidly (from Inventing Japan)
- Ian Buruma matters because he explains how Japan modernized so rapidly and more rapidly than
China. We already had the traditional theorist view from levy and the world economist theory
(external factors) by moulder. River elegy, and nova series.
Buruma‘s thesis on grace and defeat (internal characteristic). He focuses mainly on Japan on the
grace and defeat of westernization. He has a combination of both theories (levy, moulder), and
combines these two into a larger and synthesized theme.
Japan had external differences than China and What allowed the Japanese to modernize was their
internal structure (loyalty to state before family).



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Population control in china
   - whos affected? What were the consequences? What did it mean for women, education, and
       jobs? How does it affect industries like human trafficking? How does it affect social
       security?

Economic liberalization
Pros and cons caused in china? China blue –how much we pay for jeans


3. What are the major themes of ―China Blue‖? [Note: There is no one ―correct answer,‖ but your
grade will depend on whether you‘ve seen the documentary and how persuasive your argument is]




1. The contradiction between materialism and nationalism in Chinese youth attitudes (based on
   Rosen‘s lecture)



2. The relationship between ―classes‖ or strata in China today, as discussed by Rosen in his lecture
   on Chinese youth



3. Current attitudes of Chinese youth toward the United States (based on Rosen‘s lecture)



4. The key similarities and differences in the ―messages‖ one gets from the Chinese feature films
   ―Crows and Sparrows‖ and ―Blind Shaft‖




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Essays

1. "One cannot but be struck by the great differences among the various countries of East Asia in
    the speed and nature of their responses to the West in the past century.... These variations in
    response must be attributed mainly to the differences in the traditional societies of the countries
    of East Asia. Only such differences can explain why a basically similar impact could have
    brought such varied initial results ... why relatively small Japan, for example, soon became a
    world power, while China sunk to the status of an international problem." (Reischauer and
    Fairbank, East Asia: The Great Tradition, p. 670)

"What was it that enabled Japan to take a course so radically different from that of all the other
   countries in the now underdeveloped world? The answer to this question ... comes down to the
   fact that Japan is the only country in Asia (and in Africa and Latin America) that escaped being
   turned into a colony or dependency of Western European or American capitalism, that had a
   chance of independent national development." (Baran, The Political Economy of Growth, p.
   158)

As the above quotations indicate, there is great disagreement among those who have attempted to
    explain the differing patterns of modernization that distinguish China and Japan. Compare and
    contrast at least three of the sources used in this course (different readings, different videos, etc.)
    regarding this problem. Which approach seems most reasonable to you? Why?

(Japan modernized and accepted Western ideals quicker than China)
    Marion Levy, a traditional society theorist, says the difference is a result of internal
       differences in the social structures.
       o In China, people were opposed to change and became upset with the transition into
           industrialization.
       o In Japan, the changes were embraced and many quickly developed an entrepreneurial
           mindset. Those who did not want to adapt were ―eliminated‖.
       o Levy says that China was underdeveloped because it thwarted innovation.
       o The first priority in China was loyalty to the Feudal Lord, not to the family. Analogy: in
           Chinese baseball any personal family obligation of a player is considered anti-loyal to the
           team.
    Levy = ―feudalism‖
       o Francis V. Moulder opposes Levy, says the difference has more to do with world
           economy and external factors.
       o He says geography and availability of resources were huge factors because they can give
           a country the upper hand in trade. Japan had many existing resources and contact with
           the West, enabling it to develop as an independent nation.
    Moulder = ―incorporation‖


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o Both world economists and traditional society theorists agree Japan is considered an
     ―exception‖ to the typically underdeveloped 3rd world countries because it has become an
     industrial power.
         Levy‘s Article (Traditional Society Theorist) - The internal differences between
China and Japan were the reasons why Japan was successful in modernization while China
still struggle to today with it. Levy believed that the external factors imposed upon both
countries were either the same, or were insignificant to their modernization process. Levy
believed Japan‘s internal social structure helped them modernize successfully, as opposed to
China‘s failed modernization. Japan social system is based on feudalism, where your family
is assigned to a nearly unchangeable social class. In China there is a decent amount of class
mobility. The closed class system in Japan caused merchants to invest their earnings back
into their businesses because they could never move up in class to own their land. In China,
class mobility allowed merchants to have the chance to move up in class and own land, so
they invested their earnings back into their land, not into business related activities. In Japan,
feudalism caused society to be based more on hierarchy. The distinguished class at the top of
the hierarchy were in charge of the distribution of land ownership and control. A person‘s
loyalty was to their overlord in the hierarchy (who owned their land), not to their family,
which allowed for an easier transition to modernization. This made the Japanese society
more business and economic oriented. China was more family oriented and less focused on
economics and business. This made the transition to modernization much more difficult.
Japan‘s government was also more involved with the modernization and changing of their
economy. Thus, the transition to modernization did not affect or alter the control of
leadership in Japan. Japan‘s government encouraged and nurtured this economic
modernization and reform. China‘s government opposed change and was not heavily
involved in the process of modernization. Thus, this modernization and economic reforms
undercut the government‘s values and principles as well as China‘s family oriented social
structure. This made the transition towards modernization much more difficult in China. In
Japan, there was widespread adaptation to the new reforms modernization required, and the
people refusing to adapt did not hinder the movement. China‘s attempt to modernize, on the
other hand, did not have the support of the government. And the Chinese people‘s allegiance
and loyalty was to the government, so the modernization movement gathered no steam and
generally little support. A transition to modernization disrupted the control of leadership in
China. And people opposed to converting to these changes would cause internal breakdown
in the progress towards modernization. Traditional society theorists believe that Japan is the
exception to the rule that traditional societies and their structures are not conducive to
change. They believe World Powers provide a stimulus for modernization and economic
development and traditional societies do not accept these changes.
         Moulder‘s article (World Economy Theorist)- The differences in external factors
facing China and Japan mainly contributed to Japan‘s successful modernization and China‘s
failed attempt. Their different relationships with the Western powers also contributed to the
countries‘ different patterns of modernization. Moulder basically believed that their internal
structures were primarily the same with the differences being insignificant as far as
modernization was concerned. Moulder believes that the West disrupted China‘s ability to
modernize successful, while their influences on Japan were limited. The West was not
interested in the Japan until the mid 1800s, while on the other hand, the West controlled
much of the trade in China. Moulder‘s believes that Japan‘s lack of Western disruption



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        helped them modernize successfully while China‘s heavy reliance on and influence by the
        West hindered their modernization. Japan‘s relative autonomy within the world political
        economy allowed for stronger centralized government to encourage industrialization and
        economic reforms. China‘s government was disrupted by the West‘s occupation surrounding
        and inside China (France in Vietnam and Britain/Germany within provinces in China). The
        Chinese government did not have a strong hold on the whole country on the eve of Western
        expansion. Moulder believes that this disrupted the modernization process. Japan also did
        not have a strong hold on the whole country on the eve of Western expansion, but somehow
        was able to gain strong central control during their introduction to the West. China‘s heavy
        reliance on the trade with the West and its strong incorporation in the world political
        economy disturbed centralization and made it near impossible for the government to
        implement successful economic, industrialization, and social policies to facilitate
        modernization. Japan was encroached upon far less than China from the Western powers,
        not only economically and politically, but religiously and ideologically as well. Missionaries
        came into to China and caused disruption, while Japan did not permit missionaries to enter.
        China‘s INCORPORATION into Western Civilization hindered its ability to modernize and
        economically reform, while Japan‘s relative AUTONOMY helped economic development
        and modernization progress undisturbed and successfully. World Economist Theorists
        believe that world powers have not provided a stimulus to 3rd world countries, but have made
        it tougher for modernization and economic development through exploitation. The only
        development is backward or dependent development which is clearly the case in China, but
        Japan is again the exception.
        Video the was shown in class-
                 Japan was more used to adapting, while China was not. This was due to differences
        in their cultures and society. Japan was open to new ideas and reforms that would help
        develop the country, while China was more closed and believed that only their own ideas
        would mold their culture and policies. In other words, China‘s extreme nationalism made it
        less conducive to adapting to modernization policies, while Japan was more open. China
        viewed itself as the center of the world. It did not realize or could not fathom that it was
        underdeveloped or not longer the most powerful country in the world. Japan did not have
        these fantasies and idealistic thoughts. It knew it had to reform and modernize to be a
        powerful country in the future, and it did just that. The Meiji Government supported change
        (Enlightened Rule). China‘s reforms never went far enough including the Self Strengthening
        Movement in the 1890s. It refused to fully adapt to foreign policies or ideas in order to
        modernize successfully.


Buruma- the nature of the japanese people allowed them to modernize, after being defeated by the
English. The book starts when Mathew Perry arrived in Japan with the blackships in 1853. Buruma
is the synthesis of both views.


2.   It is September 1976 and Mao Zedong has just died. The editor of the Los Angeles Times has
     heard that you are a renowned China scholar and has asked you to write an obituary of the
     Chairman, emphasizing such aspects as his Thought, his contributions to China (enduring and
     otherwise), his failings (if any), and his role in the Chinese political process. After doing this,



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discuss how your obituary would have been different if Mao had died in 1965. What if he had
died in 1945?
                                        Mao Zedong
                           December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976
                          Founder of the People's Republic of China

Thought/Political/Contributions
 Mao believed that "socialism is the only way out for China," because the United States and
   other Western countries would not allow China to join the ranks of advanced capitalism.
 The basis of his ideology was Marxism-Leninism, but he adapted it to Chinese conditions
 In his early years, Mao thought that peasants could form the basis of a communist revolution
 Developed more practical ideas like a three-stage theory of guerilla warfare and the people's
   democratic dictatorship.
 Introduced price controls, Chinese character simplification, land was redistributed from
   landowners to poor peasants and large-scale industrialization projects were undertaken
 Indicated his willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed
   in the Hundred Flowers Campaign
 In 1958, Mao launched the Great Leap Forward, a plan intended as an alternative model for
   economic growth, which contradicted the Soviet model of heavy industry that was advocated
   by others in the party.
 Under the GLF, agriculture was to be collectivized and small-scale industry was to be
   promoted.
 Cultural Revolution in 1966. The Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's
   cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese intellectuals, as well as
   creating general economic and social chaos in the country.

Accomplishments
 illiteracy had declined to less than seven percent, and average life expectancy had increased
   to more than 70 years
 the total population of China increased 57% to 700 million, from the constant 400 million
   mark during the span between the Opium War and the Chinese Civil War
 Mao also industrialized China to a considerable extent and ensured China's sovereignty
   during his rule.

Failures
 Some people emphasize the major failures such as the Sino-Soviet Split, the Great Leap
   Forward and the chaos of the Cultural Revolution.
 great revolutionary leader, although he made serious mistakes in his later life.
 Great Leap Forward - The program was a failure, 20 million people starved, and Mao
   withdrew temporarily from public view. Russia withdrew all technical aid and personnel.
 Cultural Revolution - Called upon the youth of China to save the revolution, results in
   destruction of much of China's cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of
   Chinese intellectuals, as well as creating general economic and social chaos in the country.

After 1965



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      By 1965 Mao feared that he was losing control after the ―Great Leap Forward‖
      Opinions would be significantly more negative
      Mao forced to go into hiding for a period of time because of the negative results of the Great
       Leap Forward

   1945
    Start of civil war
    Positive attitudes in China after defeating Japan
    Before many of Mao‘s
    Brilliant political and military strategist
    In mainland China, many people still consider Mao a hero in the first half of his life (before
      1945), but hold that he was too idealistic after gaining power.

   Key Points for 1976:
    Established The People‘s Republic of China (1949)
    5-year plan, Anti-Rightist Campaign, centralization of the party. Essentially, the transition to
       Socialism. (1953-1957)
    Great Leap Forward, and that it failed (1958-1960), and then the Three Hard Years of
       Famine that followed (1959-1962)
    Socialist Education Movement
    Most known for the Cultural Revolution Decade. (1966-1976)
    Known as a resilient revolutionary; always seeking change and ways to better the nation that
       he lived in.
   Differences for 1965:
    Still most known for the Great Leap Forward and the famine that followed.
    At this point, Mao‘s power in the PRC was diminishing because of economic shortcomings.
    Still praised for creating the PRC.
   Differences for 1945:
    Known simply as the leader of the CCP. Just a revolutionary, not having accomplished much
       since the CCP still did not have much power in China.
    Accomplishments include: giving women the right to vote, formed Jiangxi Soviet.
    Long March; Mao‘s escape with the CCP.
    After Mao‘s death his record was reevaluated by his successor Deng Xiaoping. Mao was
       praised for his contributions in the resistance against Japan and the founding of the People‘s
       Republic, but criticized for his mistakes in the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural
       Revolution. While many Chinese vilify Mao for his brutality, he is also admired for his
       power and his role as one of the most influential historical figures in the 20th century. His
       remains are enshrined in a mausoleum in Tiananmen Square.
    If he had died in 1965 – No Cultural Revolution
    If he had died in 1945 – Would not have established the PRC

3. "Mao Zedong taught three generations to laugh in the face of taboos and authorities held in awe
   by Chinese people for two millennia. Yet he ended up, maybe to his own despair, as a mirror-
   image Son of Heaven whose every syllable was truth and law -- terrible proof that the Old World



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                                                                                      Jaclyn Kapilow
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   lives on to haunt the New." What does this quote tell us of Chinese politics, the role of Mao, the
   influence of Chinese tradition, and so forth? Give examples to support the arguments you make.
    Chinese politics is steeped heavily in tradition, which is very family-oriented. The
       government is seen as a sort of family, and thus the people are very loyal towards it. They
       feel a sense of personal connection with the leaders, and therefore look very highly upon
       them, almost to the point of worship. This had been the Chinese way for thousands of years,
       and was too engrained in the national psyche to be eradicated within a couple of generations.
    Chinese people are very obedient and loyal, and they look to authority figures to tell them
       what to do. This can be seen over the millennia in numerous dynasties, and with Mao as
       well.
    The Chinese have a lot of pride, and this makes them support the government and its leaders,
       perhaps a little too much. They feel that if they went against the government, it would
       undermine the government and embarrass China to the world. Since they have traditionally
       seen themselves as being at the center of the world, the Chinese obviously have an enormous
       amount of national pride, and think very highly of their country—and the leaders who run it.
    But Mao himself was very charismatic. He had the magnetic personality and political
       shrewdness to rally those around him. And once he rose to power, he made sure that his
       stature would only grow in size as he created (in part through propaganda) a personality cult
       around him. So while his rhetoric said one thing, Mao clearly wanted to be worshipped.

4. We have used a variety of sources thus far to study various aspects of Chinese society and
   culture. The sources have included books and articles, feature films, videos, lectures and
   handouts. Some of these sources have been "primary sources," written by Chinese (Wild Swans)
   who participated in the events described. Some of the videos and films as well can be considered
   primary sources ("River Elegy," "Ermo," “Railway of Hope”). We have also used secondary
   sources, such as the “Nova” series, one chapter from the book Popular China, various American
   television programs, and Western documentaries about twentieth century China, but often with
   Chinese interviewees, and lectures. Each of the sources offers a different perspective on the
   events it covers. Choose at least three different sources and compare and contrast how they
   analyze any two of the following events or concepts (you do not have to use the same three
   sources for each event or concept). Are primary sources significantly different in their analysis
   from secondary sources?

              1. The importance of the family in China
              2. The treatment of and/or influence of foreigners and foreign things in Japan or
                China
              3. The reasons for Japan's more rapid modernization in comparison to China
              4. American understanding of and/or treatment of Japan and/or China
              5. The Great Leap Forward in China
              6. The Cultural Revolution in China
              7. The role of Chairman Mao in Chinese history and politics
              8. The role of intellectuals in China
              9. The reasons for protest in reform-era China

   Source #1: Levy




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                                                                                   Jaclyn Kapilow
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  Levy had 5 Hypotheses or reasons for his argument of why Japan modernized and China did
   not. According to Levy‘s socialist theory, Japan modernized because the internal structure
   existing in Japan made it modernize easily whereas in China, the internal structure prevented
   modernization. He argues the external influences were the same.
   o It was the differences in the social structures of China and Japan, not the differences in
       the new forces introduced to China and Japan.
       - Japan was feudalistic and Japan was not. (see ID 3)
       - In Japan, the merchants could not become land owners. They had to stay as merchants
           and all of their resources/earnings were put back into their business. In China,
           merchants could move up to be land owners—their goal was to escape being a
           merchant, so all of their earnings were invested into land, not business.
       - Japan‘s 1st loyalty was to the hierarchy of the government and then to the family.
           China‘s 1st loyalty was to the family and then to the hierarchy and the government
           was seen as the #1 family
 The differences in nonsocial factors (ie. Raw material resources) do not account for the
   differences.
 In Japan‘s industrialization, the process of the transition did not disrupt or change the control
   of the leadership of the population. In China, the transition did alter the control of the
   leadership. (The government in China became decentralized and fell apart when China tried
   to modernize)
 In Japan, there was a group of people that was easily converted to the new ways that were
   necessary in the planning and administrative roles in industrialization. (Japanese government
   encouraged modernization)
 In Japan, the individuals who would not convert to the new ways were not crucial to the
   industrializing process. They did not cause internal breakdown. (Unlike the Chinese
   government…the people who wanted to modernize were not crucial)
Source #2: Moulder
 According to Moulder‘s World Economy Theory, Japan modernized quickly and China did
   not due to the foreign influence (or lack thereof) in each of these countries. Moulder‘s
   argument contends that the developed nations use the third world countries for their
   resources, however they never invest in the modernization or progress of that nation.
   Causing the third world to become a resource satellite, neglecting individual development.
   Any development is for the purpose of helping the developed industrial countries, not the
   third world. The third world is being forced into a world economy that disproportionately
   benefits developed countries, therefore never being able to catch up.
 INCORPORATION is the variable between Japan and China:
   o Economic (Trade and Investments)
       - China is more incorporated in the world Economy. Because of China had far more
           resources than Japan, the international community saw them as an economic booster.
           They saw that they could get things they wanted from China, whereas Japan was
           relatively autonomous and separated from the global economy. Japan had nothing to
           offer therefore they were of little interest to foreign investors.
       - China‘s incorporation in the world political economy through major trade increased
           the Western expansion in China as more foreigners became interested. The
           infiltration of foreigners led to foreign taxing policy as well as other laws being



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           forced upon the Chinese in areas of large foreign settlements. These Western
           influences led to political deterioration.
   o Political (Government Involvement and Missionary Encroachment)
        - Emergence of central national state that had the capacity to exercise control over the
           economic process led to the rise of the industrial economy in Japan. Also, the Gov.t‘s
           effort to encourage national industrial development.
        - Before the Western Expansion Chinese gov‘t did not have strong control over the
           country. The same was true in Japan, however, because there was a great spread of
           local govt structures in China the central govt became very unbalanced, where in
           Japan, the country is a lot smaller, and therefore a lot more unified … with local govts
           being more easily controlled by the central govt.
Source #3: Wild Swans
 Under Mao, the government was decentralized and divided. During the 100 flowers Policy,
   Mao encouraged intellectuals to express their problems with the government and say which
   policies they did not agree with, etc. While this seemed liberating, it was actually about
   finding anyone who questioned Mao and his rule. It was the transition to the anti-rightists
   movement. Jung‘s mother faced much criticism as she accused of showing favoritism toward
   the ―key‖ schools. She was also told by her supervisor that she received her job because of
   her husband‘s high status in the communist party. Furthermore, she was forced to find one
   hundred people whom she presided over that could be turned in as rightists. This affected
   China in modernizing because Mao really was trying to get rid of the people that challenged
   his policies even if they were apart of the communist party. Even though they thought they
   were progressing into a society that could speak freely and have people voice their opinions
   about modernizing and progressing their country, it failed due to the follow of the anti-
   rightists movement. This shows how the key people in China (the governing communist
   party under Mao) did not encourage or listen to the people‘s ideas of modernization and how
   the government structure would start to be questioned since people were accusing other
   people of going against the government policies. It caused division in China.
 Additionally, in Wild Swans, we see an attempt at China modernizing under Mao. Mao
   decides to implement The Great Leap Forward. Mao demands that steel production double by
   forcing the entire population to take part, giving each individual a steel quota that he must
   meet. People had to stop their normal work and put their time into the steel industry.
   Furthermore, Mao convinced China that they could surpass Russia and other capitalist
   countries by making outrageous economic goals. Jung and her family had to live on food
   rations because the country went through a famine period. She was forced to watch people
   all around her die of starvation, including many of her own family members. This shows that
   in attempting to modernize, China‘s people were greatly hurting. There was a shift from
   agriculture production to steel production, so there was not enough food for the people. This
   furthers Levy‘s argument that the internal structure of China was not prepared to change for
   modernizing.
 Primary Source compared to Secondary Source
        o In Wild Swans, we see a personal account of how Levy‘s argument was reinforced.
           The primary source adds an internal perspective on the idea of modernization. In the
           book, it shows how Mao set the stage for China‘s central communist government to
           oppose modernization and not speak out against the government which was against
           modernization. China was not ready to modernize under Mao and when Mao forced


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                                                                                      Jaclyn Kapilow
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              modernization and so the people suffered. Primary sources can reinforce arguments of
              secondary sources.

5. In the course of this term we have used some "unconventional" sources for information on
   China, including films, videos, American television programs, and primary sources. Do these
   unconventional sources add anything not also readily available from more conventional sources,
   such as textbooks, scholarly articles and lectures? Write an essay in which you compare,
   specifically, the conventional and unconventional sources we have used this term. What are the
   advantages and disadvantages of these different sources?

      By using unconventional sources for information on China such as the films, videos,
       American television programs, and primary sources we get a more in depth look at China, the
       political and social movements, public figures, the people and the culture.
      The unconventional sources provide valuable and first hand commentary that provides us
       with an all-encompassing look at China, its history and the people who lived through the
       movements and eras being discussed.
      Unconventional sources give different perspectives that are not as susceptible to the bias as
       the more conventional sources; this exposes the class to more than one opinion and
       interpretation to the events being discussed. The class can then take these different forms of
       information and form their own views, opinions and interpretations without the bias of one
       ―authority‖.
      Conventional sources succeed in giving good overviews of information about China,
       pertinent facts and individuals‘ opinions of Chinese issues.
      Conventional sources do not give the breadth of information, exposure, commentary and
       differing opinions that unconventional sources do.
      Through the books and articles that we have read, the television clips, documentaries, videos
       and the personal commentary of Professor Rosen and people interviewed we get a more
       thorough look at China that would not be possible if we simply were exposed to conventional
       sources alone.
           ex. Communism and Mao‘s influence on China. This era is depicted in many of the
           books that we have read, as well as the videos and documentaries that we have watched.
           We have been exposed to different views, opinions and beliefs regarding Communism
           due to the combination of unconventional and conventional sources, which contributes to
           a better understanding of the ideology and the events that took place.
      These unconventional sources allow people to see how the majority views them (stereotypes)
       that other wise would not be so apparent. (See through the eyes of another)
      For example: The king of the hill episode where they thought the neighbors ate dog
      Conventional sources are most of the time much more accurate than unconventional
      Example: Our text book which has been edited and verified and the South Park episode
       which holds little truth.
      Conventional sources are usually more accurate because they are written by scholars and
       others of high education
      Unconventional sources are not as accurate because any common Joe can say what he or she
       thinks (there take on the issue) be it fact or not
      Although personal bias may be present in both sources it is much more prevalent in
       Unconventional


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      Unconventional sources such as TV, videos, and movies are much better for spreading an
       idea to a large group of people (massive information network)
      Generally people take what they see as fact which is why the CPC sensors all of there media
       before it gets to the people.
      In summary:

       o Books, articles, and lecture are more factual and reliable than unconventional sources for
         information regarding any subject but in the same light it is much more difficult to spread
         the information to make it common knowledge.
       o Unconventional sources are easily used to manipulate a population and can have fallacies
         which call into question not only the integrity but the objective of the information
         (Hollywood‘s spin on things etc.)

6. Compose an essay in which you analyze and explain the reasons for the victory of the Chinese
   Communist Party under Mao Zedong in 1949 and the failure of the Chinese Nationalist Party
   under Chiang Kai-shek.
    Victory of communist and the defeat of the nationalists 
      Four competing hypotheses in the scholarly literature:
      1) Peasant nationalism thesis 
             o Most widely accepted reason for communist victory
             o Communist won victory in china b/c of peasant nationalism
             o Deliberately downplayed class and revolutionary struggle and adapted a united
                front strategy (win over the largest # of ppl to your side)
             o Peasant nationalist =
             o By having united form strategy the communist party could neutralize the
                opposition of those who most opposed them
             o Rescheduled the debts peasants were paying (everything was temporary)
             o Communist had the ability to provide experienced leadership and a nationalist
                political orientation to a population newly mobilized in response to Japanese
                invasion and misrule
             o It was b/c of the Japanese that turned everyone into nationalist to defend china
                (b/c the Japanese gave them no choice)
                     The social mobilization of peasants in Northern China was provoked by
                        the Japanese invasion, whereupon leadership from the Communist base
                        areas provided them with organizational assistance and the ideological
                        "instruments for helping the rural masses attain a political understanding
                        of the war to serve as a gloss on their personal experience‖

       2) Socio-economic thesis 
             o The question people often ask is ―If the Japanese had not invaded would the
                 communist have won?‖
             o Even before the Japanese came to china the appeals of the communist were
                 working (Japan sped it up but communism would have taken over eventually)
             o The communists used socio-economic appeals such as debt reduction and land
                 reform (most important)
       3) The revolutionary mobilization thesis 


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                                                                                  Jaclyn Kapilow
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              o Chinese Communist Party promoting agrarian revolution more important than
                 appeals to nationalism; more radical than simply using socio-economic appeals
              o Argument criticizes the peasant nationalist thesis bye saying that the communist
                 party modified their policies to convince more people to join their party
       4) Self-protection thesis 
              o Some people argue the concept of nationalism (opposition to invading foreigners
                 whether French or Americans) is neither necessary nor sufficient to motivate a
                 revolutionary movement
              o They say it is self-protection
              o They say people were not concerned with some abstract national community they
                 were concern with the question: can a new government organize a secure new
                 format during a war?
              o If the communist could convince the people they could protect them in the middle
                 of a war they are going to support them.
              o This argument was also used in Vietnam

7. Why does the author of Wild Swans focus on her matrilineal ancestors? Identify some of the
   particular difficulties faced by women in 20th Century China as described in the book and as
   depicted in the videos. In political campaigns, as someone in “The Mao Years” mentioned, loose
   women were rounded up and later beaten. What do such incidents tell us about patriarchy and
   the revolution, women and the PRC? Discuss the ways in which patriarchy is (or is not)
   transformed under communism.

       The role of women has transformed as the role of China has transformed.
           o Concubine->soldier in communist army->scholar
Traditional Chinese views of women…
    A woman without talent is a woman of virtue
           o Loyal
           o Concubines
           o Quiet
           o Female slavery
           o Foot binding
           o 3 obediences: father then husband then son (after husband dies)
           o 4 virtues: chastity, courteousness, grace, ability to beautify the home
           o Honored if they committed suicide after husband dies
    Chinese women are generally misunderstood and easily categorized.
           o Geishas
           o Dragon ladies
    Patriarchy has been more or less static.
    The revolution has a patriarchal style, requiring loyalty to one‘s government
           o Government=symbolic husband/father/son (patriarchal figure to be obeyed by the
               people)
           o Disloyalty to the government warrants punishment BUT disloyalty to the people is
               excused
    Much like unfaithful women (symbolizing the Chinese people) are punished while unfaithful
        men (symbolizing the government) are un-punished


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      Why does the author of Wild Swans focus on her matrilineal ancestors?
       o Chung focuses on her matrilineal ancestors because there is more stability and a clearer
           ancestral line.
       o Because Chinese women often became concubines at a young age to older men, there
           was the possibility that a woman could have more than one husband, such as her
           grandmother did.
       o Chinese tradition made the fathers not as affectionate with their children, so essentially
           the children were brought up by their mothers and felt a closer bond to them.
      Identify some of the particular difficulties faced by women in 20th Century China as
       described in the book and as depicted in the videos.
       o The Chinese women were subject to constant instability, especially as concubines, since
           their future depended on how the wife treated them.
       o Women had no financial security without a husband and their jewelry was kept as
           financial insurance
       o Women also had little control over their lives. Before they were married off, they were
           under the control of their fathers, who decided who they were married to or who they
           would become a concubine to. After marriage, their husbands controlled their lives.
      Under Communism, men and women were considered equal and they were expected to
       perform equally. If pregnant, they were expected to work for the party up until the last days
       of pregnancy. They also had to put the party before their family or face criticism, but it was
       often hard for women to leave their children in the care of others. Also, they had to live in the
       department they worked in, so they were often separated from their husbands or children.
      In political campaigns, as someone in ―The Mao Years‖ mentioned, loose women were
       rounded up and later beaten. What do such incidents tell us about patriarchy and the
       revolution, women and the PRC?
       o This showed that the PRC was against the concubine system. However, the women were
           he ones to be considered ―loose‖ and at fault, not the men, who were allowed to have
           several concubines, even though men and women were considered equal under the
           Communist system
       o It shows that the patriarch system still had influence in the Communist Party.
      Discuss the ways in which patriarchy is (or is not) transformed under communism.
       o I think that this is an opinion question, but I would say that the patriarchy is not really
           changed under the communist system because the majority of the communist leaders
           were men and as in the case of Chung‘s parents, the father still held all the power in the
           family.

8. We have seen very different depictions of young people in China during the course of the
   Chinese Revolution. Perhaps the most obvious have been the differences between the Red
   Guards during the Cultural Revolution and the Youth protesting against the Chinese government
   in Tiananmen Square in 1989. What are the main differences between these two groups of young
   people, what, if anything do they share in common? How are these similarities and differences
   related to Chinese policies in these two different historical periods and to Chinese culture more
   generally?

A. Red Guards


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      WHEN?
       1966-1969, during the Cultural Revolution
      WHO?
       o mostly teenagers, main enforcers of Cultural Revolution
       o targeted teachers, school principals, bureaucrats, local leaders of the Communist party
      WHY?
       o Mao‘s strategy of using the youth as a tool to challenge the authorities of the CCP
          (namely capitalist roaders)
       o also used by Mao to undermine popularity gained by Deng XiaoPing and Lu XiaoQi due
          to their success in improving Chinese economics/agriculture (vs. the failure of Mao‘s
          Great Leap Forward)
      HOW?
       o first used verbal threats, perceived as misdirected teenagers
       o eventually took physical action: breaking people‘s homes, stealing and destroying
          property, harassment, battery, cutting girls‘ hair, destroying files of ministries and
          enterprises, clogging transportation systems
      WEAKNESSES
       o different factions began to fight against each other, claiming to be most revolutionary
       o schools were closed down, proper education was not given
       o army was ordered by Mao to give Red Guards support, yet some Red Guard groups
          supported the leaders they were supposed to be attacking
       o the army itself didn‘t wish to overthrow CCP authorities, most of which provided the
          army with support in local areas
       o eventually sent home by Mao

B. Youth Movement of 1989
    WHEN?
      o April – June 4, 1989
    WHO?
      o Youth, namely university students of Beijing
    WHY?
      o Hu Yaobang‘s death in April = symbolic death of liberalization in China
      o Although his didn‘t achieve much liberal reform, he was proclaimed as an incorruptible,
          enlightened ruler
      o his policies and values juxtaposed those of the conservative leadership
      o by no agreeing with the official CCP assessment of Hu‘s career, the students challenged
          CCP authority
    HOW?
      o hunger strike for 1 week in May in Tiananmen Square during Gorbachev‘s visit, gaining
          international attention and press coverage
      o seen as an embarrassment of and insult to the CCP leadership
      o Demands: reassessment of Hu‘s career, dialogue between students and government,
          treated equal as CCP leaders, retraction of People’s Daily editorial, end to official
          corruption, exposure of financial and business dealings of central leadership, free press,
          removal of top CCP leadership, other challenges, etc.
    WEAKNESSES?


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       o divisions within student-led movement made it lose direction
       o divisions within CCP leadership incapacitated it
       o support from workers lost momentum because of their own demands (against inflation,
         corruption) and had to return to the work field
      RESULT?
       o martial law was imposed in Beijing
       o student demonstration was broken up
       o military power caused many deaths who did not initially retreat from the square

C. Similarities and Differences:

SIMILARITIES:
    Catalyzed by single political figure
     o Red Guards called upon by Mao Zedong
     o Youth of 1989 grouped together after Hu Yaobang‘s death
    Disorganization / internal opposition
     o Red Guard groups fought over which was most revolutionary
     o youths of 1989 began to develop different organizations with different opinions on what
        actions to take (to stay or to leave the square, what demands they wanted from the
        government)

DIFFERENCES:
    Educational background
     o Red Guards did not receive formal education above elementary school because schools
        were closed during the cultural revolution
     o Youths of 1989 were mainly university students who were exposed to liberal ideas from
        the West, and used their university as a forum of revolution / headquarters
    Military support
     o Red Guards supported by the military under Mao‘s orders
     o Martial law imposed during youth movement on 1989, using live ammunition on students
        and bystanders who resisted
    Methods of demonstration
        o Red Guards used violence and force
        o Youth in 1989 used peaceful means of revolution, i.e. hunger strikes, chanting,
            marches

9. The documentary film “The Gate of Heavenly Peace” provided a vivid picture of Chinese youth,
   students and the nature of Chinese society in 1989. How could “Tiananmen” happen? Could
   the results have been any different, or was the end result that took place on June 4, 1989 in some
   sense inevitable?

   Tiananmen was a historical event in China‘s history. Led by Chinese students, the movement
   was an emotional one that showed that China‘s government was still not open to a participatory
   government in any way. Tiananmen reflects the culture at the time that people were not afraid to
   criticize the government. All of the emotion from the oppression in the past was characterized
   by this one moment in Chinese history. People did things that would never have been thought of


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   in the past. An example is the Goddess of Democracy statue that the people created. This statue
   faced Mao to challenge and show defiance to the government. They voiced their opinions about
   the way the government ran the country. Although the government believed that the movement
   would die out, the students were passionate in what they believed and would not budge. When
   the government used military force, it showed that they still showed the oppressive communist
   characteristics of the past. The past strategies of violence to prove a point was used on the
   students. The end result was inevitable because the movement was one with majority support.
   Unlike a movement created and believed in by a small percentage of the population, the
   Tiananmen student movement was believed by nearly the entire population. And although not
   everybody actively participated, many silently supported the students and their goals to re-
   evaluate the government‘s policies. The results may have been different with more efficient
   organization of the student protesters. Many separate factions sprung up from the student group.
   If the students were able to stick to a more organized body, they may have been able to progress
   farther with their negotiations with the government.

        This question deals with the Tiananmen square incident and rather or not it was inevitable.
   It does not require you to answer it either way, but. These students were demanding change and
   were willing to risk their lives for it. One fault pointed out is that many of these students naively
   believed that this event would automatically bring about change. While some people were able
   to convince students to avoid actions that led to the bloodshed, they were outnumbered by the
   influences recruiting students to join the event. One way to have avoided the massacre would
   have been for teachers and other intellectual leaders to find other ways to forward the movement,
   because this event led to great bloodshed but not significant change. After all, the incident is still
   not recognized by party leaders.
       On the other side a lot of what we learned this semester has shown that the movement was
   building and this incident brought everything to the forefront. This incident could have been put
   off or occurred in a different situation down the road, but some sort of incident was brewing.
   The infighting between student leaders led to this specific incident but the support for their goal
   was growing and some incident would have occurred to bring it out.

10. In The Asian Mystique Sheridan Prasso attempts “to see Asia and Asians as they really are,” in
    place of the Western “fantasies” that have dominated previous views of Asians, both men and
    women. According to Prasso, why are our stereotypical images of Asians so enduring? In
    contrast to the images she criticizes, what images of Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Koreans)
    does she provide? Do the Chinese, Japanese and Koreans appear with distinct cultural
    differences? Is she successful in presenting the “human side” of Asian women, or is she also, in
    any sense, guilty of presenting new stereotypes?
Stereotypes
        o images in movies and TV present stereotypes
        o deep rooted in history, back to Marco Polo and ancient Greeks
        o impressions are often subconscious, and we don‘t realize we have them
     In contrast to those images, what images of Asians (ch, jap, and kor) does she provide?
        o The geisha as an artist, ―well-read and cosmopolitan,‖ with strong opinions about topics
            from sports to the institution of marriage to world politics, from a wealthy noble family
        o College students in China
        o Asian woman as powerful political leaders



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       o Philippines: two women presidents, more women ambassadors than the US
      Stereotypical images of Asians are so enduring because Hollywood perpetuates them
      Asians tend to receive brief roles, and only those that are stereotypical
      Hollywood also presents Asians in limited roles so that Asians are only seen a certain way
      Also, Asian countries are willing to exploit those images to make money in the way of bar
       girls, Cathay girls etc.
      To contrast the image of the submissive Japanese woman, Prasso presents the Japanese
       woman who is strong and only initially reserved toward strangers. Also the woman are not
       submissive to their husbands they lead separate lives from their husbands.
      In contrast to the china doll dragon lady image, Prasso provides images of political activists,
       working mothers, high-achieving students
      She does not provide much in the way of alternative Korean images
      She also does not make cultural difference explicit.
      Even though she tries to treat the different Asian cultures separately, she does not make an
       effort to point out their differences and usually treats the different cultures as subsets of the
       larger ―Asian‖ culture rather than as legitimate individual cultures.

11. To paraphrase Charles Dickens in a Tale of Two Cities, China today presents both the best of
    times and the worst of times, depending on who you are and where you live. Discuss the nature
    of development and equality as values in China today, analyzing the strategy of the Chinese
    government in meeting these often contradictory goals. How successful have they been thus far?
    What, if any, is the relationship of democratization to either development or equality?
     The who you are and where you live in the above question applies most to that of women in
        China. The Equality of genders in Developing China do at times seem to be contrary goals,
        and are followed by contradictory progress.
     China‘s traditional culture with a communist ideology in which men and women are
        supposed to be equal has generated those contradictions. Under the CCP rule, women have
        long had more rights and opportunities than that of women in any other developing country,
        and even outpacing that of some developed countries. Few women have however broken
        through the ―glass ceiling‖; their pay scale is similar to that of the men. In an economy where
        the gap between the highest and lowest paid, whether male or female, was relatively small up
        until the last few decades. Along with the communist ideological morality that insists on the
        respect for women as equals, as well as a de-emphasis on the importance of sexuality,
        resulted in, at least, a superficial respect for women.
     The economic reforms that began in ‘79 have brought, among other things, changes in the
        manner in which women are treated, as well as how they act. That is not to say that women
        have not benefited from those reforms, thus alluding to the constant contradictions in Chinese
        Development and Equality. The women entrepreneurs have benefited just as much as the
        men, but there seems to have been a throw back to earlier times that have undercut women‘s
        equality. Women are now treated much more as sex objects than before, while some revel in
        the freedom t beautify themselves, some companies will only hire women who are perceived
        to be attractive. Many enterprises are even using women as ―window dressing‖, dressing
        women in qipao – the traditional, slim fitting Chinese dress slit high on the thigh – stand
        outside restraints and other establishments to entice customers, while others seem to be hired
        exclusively as tea-pourers for business meetings. Classified ads often state in so many words,
        only young, attractive women need apply.


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                                                                                        Jaclyn Kapilow
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     The change of emphasis to that of profits and efficiency since the reforms have even made
      state run enterprises reluctant to hire women because of the costs of maternity benefits
      among other things. Under the Socialist system, where the purpose of an enterprise was to
      promote the ideals of government first, and profits second, women fared better. Economic
      reforms have put an emphasis on profits, and thus giving enterprises an excuse not to hire
      women.
   The state's legal system for protecting women's legitimate rights and interests has been
      improved constantly. In the last decade, China has enacted and revised, in succession, the
      Marriage Law, the Population and Family Planning Law, the Law on Rural Land
      Contracting, and the Law on Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, and promulgated
      and implemented over 100 rules and regulations concerning the protection of women's rights
      and interests, such as the Regulations on Implementing the Law on Mother and Infant
      Healthcare.
   Gradually setting up a socialized work mechanism for protecting women's rights and interests.
      The state has established a national coordination group for the protection of women's and
      children's rights and interests, composed of members from 19 government departments.
      Some courts have established specialized tribunals to accept and adjudicate civil cases
      involving the protection of women's rights and interests, and people's jurors from women's
      federations and other relevant organs are invited by the courts to participate directly in the
      hearing of such cases. The state has made positive efforts to cultivate gender awareness
      among law enforcement and judicial officials, bringing into full play judicial officials' role in
      safeguarding women's rights. The state also sets store by increasing the number of female
      judicial officials and their ratio in the total number. In 2004, female judges and procurators
      accounted for 22.7 percent and 21.7 percent of the total numbers, up 5.9 percentage points
      and 5 percentage points, respectively, as compared with 1995.
   Holding legal aid and publicity activities concerning the legal system for safeguarding
      women's legitimate rights and interests. To ensure that women's legitimate rights and
      interests are properly protected, the relevant department of the Chinese government issued a
      special notice, stressing that no legal aid institutions, law firms, notarization institutions or
      grassroots legal service institutions may decline to handle or postpone without proper reason
      an accusation, appeal or prosecution that involves infringement on women's rights and
      interests. Moreover, legal service fees should be reduced or exempted for women in
      straitened circumstances. The Regulations on Legal Aid, put into effect in China in 2003,
      expressly stipulates that it is the government's responsibility to provide legal aid, and citizens
      in straitened circumstances can obtain legal aid free of charge, which therefore provides
      material aid to impoverished women against infringement of their rights. The end of 2004
      had established 3,023 governmental legal aid institutions established in China. In addition,
      the Chinese government also supports NGOs' efforts to set up hotlines to protect women's
      rights and legal consultation centers to provide legal aid and similar services for women.
      China is now engaged in its fourth five-year publicity campaign. Highlighted in the publicity
      activities are the Law on Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, the Labor Law, the
      Marriage Law, the Population and Family Planning Law, and the Law on Rural Land
      Contracting, all of which are closely related to women's rights and interests.
   It is obvious to all that great progress has been achieved in the promotion of gender equality
      and women's development in China over the past decade.
   At the same time, the Chinese government is highly aware that, restricted by the country's


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                                                                                        Jaclyn Kapilow
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        limited level of economic and social development, especially in the process of economic
        restructuring and in establishing and improving a socialist market economic system, China is
        confronted with new situations and problems in its efforts to promote gender equality and
        women's development. Chinese women have become increasingly more diversified in their
        social status, and thus their needs for subsistence, development and protection of their rights
        and interests also vary. There is an obvious imbalance in the development of women in
        different regions, social status and groups; the outmoded conventions and custom of
        inequality between men and women handed down from China's history and culture have not
        yet been completely eradicated, and women's rights and interests are still being infringed
        upon to varying degrees in some areas. There is a long way to go and arduous tasks to tackle
        to achieve gender equality and promote women's development in China to a satisfactory
        level.



   9.      Given the many changes in China after the death of Mao, what, if anything, is the legacy
           Mao has left to China? In other words, what aspects of Mao‘s ―thought‖ or ―vision‖ are
           likely to remain permanent or semi-permanent features of the Chinese landscape in years
           to come?


5 Role of Mao Post 1976

   -    Mao died in 1976.
   -    Because of the Cult of Mao, little red book, red guards
   -    Great Leap Forward and hundred flowers policy contributed negatively toward his image.
   -    Basically Mao was a figurehead
   -    Gang of four lost support and arrested.
   -    Deng praised mao‘s accomplishments but blamed him for cultural revolution
   -    liberator saved from KMT 1949
   -    Formed PRC
   -    REFORMS- agriculture
   -    ROLE OF WOMEN- WILD SWANS—mobilized women
   -    Oppressor/Dictator
             o Millions of people died because of famine
             o Cultural revolution
             o Red guards killed a bunch of people
             o Lost 25% of grain
             o Closed schools
             o Shunned intellectuals….wanted them to criticize literature and the arts
             o 100 flowers campaign
             o gang of four is prosecuted
-Chinese government still censors a lot of things
-CCP in control
- Portrait of Mao
- overpopulation/pollution



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                                                                                       Jaclyn Kapilow
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-
    -   Great leap forward----Steel---wanted to surpass the production of Britain within 15 years
    -   Man power vs. machine power
    -   Encouraged Big Families----legacy overpopulation
    -   the coming of age adults (the ones most adjusted to the system) (teenage red guards) are the
        political and social leaders today.

    -   The business leaders today are tainted from mao‘s corruptness. The adults believe that mao
        represented the communist party. It created an adult culture that is ingrained in communism,
        curruptness, and following the party.

    -   The adults today take into account history and this contributes to their




    10.     How would you explain the great transformation in Chinese youth attitudes and
     behavior from the Mao years, to 1989, to 2006? Does your explanation suggest that
    ‖enduring‖ Chinese culture is less important than such factors as the external environment and
    the economy? Given the great changes that have already taken place in post-1949 China, how
    enduring do you think current youth attitudes might be? What factors are likely to be most
    important in determining the future attitudes and behavior of Chinese youth?




Changing images of the masses post 1949




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                                                                                             Jaclyn Kapilow
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   -   PRC
   -   -CCP-peasants
   -   KMT-elites

-GLF
-collect
mob of peasants
-cult of Mao
breaking morning sun
1966-1976/ Red Guards (oppressed intellectuals) ―fairwell my concumbine‖
1976- student movement
Economic Liberalization

-―it doesn‘t matter if the cat is cat is black or white as long as it catches mice‖- deng

Tiananmen square—massive oppression
-economic liberalization (blind shaft)




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                                                                                        Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                       October 25, 2005




Class notes on Tuesday, March 6, 2007

1) ―Crows and Sparrows‖                         1949 – family refusing to leave house
       - Italian realist movies: similar to this film, though in different parts of the world
       - language of the film – first time there is language on the streets (slang)
       - crow – bad symbol in Chinese. Sparrows unite to confront crow (nationalist) and his wife
- Message of crows and sparrows: a predatory state cannot be overcome by individuals, only when
people work collectively.

2) ―Blind Shaft‖                               2003
        - filmed secretly in china; contrast between optimism in 1948 and 1949 with the fall of the
corrupt government. Optimism with pre liberalization china with pessimistic post socialist china.
        -enthusiasm about early days is replaced by alienation in the 6th generation movies.
        -director made this movie in illegal mines. Filmed 5 different endings in the film
        - given the sensitive subject matter in the film, he had to move from mine to mine. What I
portrayed in mine shaft is the opposite of what u would find in crows and sparrows.
        - post-socialist china: only the innocent people suffer. Main protagonist, mine owners, and 2
amoral individuals. Involved in extortion scheme. Sign a contract that pretends one guy is brothers
with the other two, saying that if something happens to one of them, the others will get
compensation. Once in the mine shaft, the others murder the ―brother‖ and engineer a cave in of the
mine to cover the murder, and to make it seem the cave in was the cause of the death. The two who
did this pretend to be horrified and naïve, and want to do the ―right thing‖ about the money. The
mine owner threatens the others by saying that he can bring in the authorities, and they will be on his
side. Two sides were fighting back and forth. At the same time, everyone is trying to avoid dealing
with the communist party.

Blind shaft message : only when an individual is amoral and self centered can he bypass the gov.
You could not form a film in the cultural revolution and have it ok‘ed by the gov.

3) ―breaking with the old ideas‖              1975
       - emphasis on class struggle. Scene is at a university. How do people get in? if they support
mao, they can get in. Or if they have calluses, they can get in because that means that they are in the
working class.

4) ―Morning sun‖                             2003
      -mao for all seasons, photos of mao was everywhere
      -deaf ad mutes learn sign language and ―regain hearing‖
      - about cultural revolution
      - attack mao and liao sha shi – positive outcome



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                                                                                       Jaclyn Kapilow
                                                                                      October 25, 2005


5) ―farewell my concubine‖                   1993
        - show ideology to an extreme where people betray each other – negative portrayals.
        -rebelious people are mocked, painted, and shown to society, ―obliterate all class enemies‖

6) ―The troubleshooters‖                       1988
        - 1998 popular in china
        - confused roles among the people
        - by late 1980‘s, in china, there was a confusion over party lines, etc.
        - role of communist party in china today. Anticipate more extreme views that came out like
those in blind shaft.



mccaugha@usc.edu
kmiles@usc.edu
rdebeike@usc.edu




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