Traumatic Brain Injuries hemiplegia by mikeholy


									Traumatic Brain Injuries

           Chapter 7
Traumatic Brain Injuries

   Head injuries are a leading cause of
    accidental death in the United States
   Damage is caused not only by injury but also
    by the effect of the brain ricocheting off the
    sides of the skull
    –   Shaken Baby Syndrome is a good example
    –   NEVER shake a baby!

   Occurs when brain
    injury is slight
   Patient feels dizzy, ‘see
    stars,’ or lose
    consciousness briefly
   No permanent brain
    damage occurs

 Results in brain tissue destruction
 Severe brain stem contusions always
  result in a coma lasting from hours to a
 If the injury occurs in the cerebral
  cortex, the individual may remain
  conscious but possible lose some brain
Intracranial hemorrhage

   Bleeding from ruptured vessels
Cerebral edema/Hematoma

   Swelling of the brain
    due to inflammation
    caused by the injury
   Swelling or
    hemorrhage both
    compress vital brain
    tissue which can
    lead to death
Cerebrovascular Accidents

   3rd leading cause of death in the US
   Occurs when blood circulation to a brain area
    is blocked (by a blood clot or a ruptured
    blood vessel)
   The vital brain tissue dies
   Can be diagnosed by observing the patient’s

   If the patient’s left-side
    is paralyzed, then the
    right motor cortex of the
    frontal lobes is probably

    Occurs from damage to the left cerebral
     hemisphere where the language areas are
    Maddening to the victims because usually
     their intellect is unaffected.
    Can change a person’s personality, too
      – Motor aphasia: lose ability to speak
      – Sensory aphasia: loses the ability to
        understand written or spoken language
Life after Cerebrovascular Accidents

   Fewer than a third are alive three years later.
   However, some survive because they
    recover at least part of their lost faculties.
   Occurs because undamaged neurons spread
    into areas where neurons have died and take
    over some lost functions.
   This is a phenomenon.
Transient Ischemic

   These are considered incomplete strokes.
   They restrict blood flow to parts of the brain.
   They last from 5 to 50 minutes
   Characterized by symptoms like
     – numbness
     – temporary paralysis
     – impaired speech
   Effects not permanent but are ‘red flags’ that warn for
    a future, more serious brain attack

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