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					SOLE RESEaRch
SOLE Custom Footbeds are the best over-the-counter insoles on
the market. The orthopedic shape has been proven to improve
alignment and balance. The cushioning component is proven
to help reduce impact to the ankles, knees, hips and back.
Documented research below explains why SOLE Footbeds are the
best thing you could possibly do for your feet for under $50.00.
Take a closer look at the stock insoles found in your shoes. The insoles give the appearance of a supportive arch area, but when these
insoles are taken out of the shoes, their elevated arch easily flattens under pressure, proving that it has no true support when in the shoe
(Greenawalt, 2001). Shoe manufacturers ship their footwear with generic, unsupportive insoles because of the difficultly in developing an
insole that will provide an individual fit to their customers. These generic insoles are made to accommodate as many different shapes
of feet as possible within a given size. Therefore, they provide very little support or comfort (Wikipedia, 2006). The foot is a complex
biomechanic machine that benefits greatly from having proper support, best provided by an insole that is custom fit to your unique foot.

Proper arch support stabilizes an overly flexible foot by controlling excess             WiTHOuT SOLE
movements (Laughton, McClay, Davis, & Hamill, 2003; Mündermann,
Stefanyshyn, & Nigg, 2001). Custom insoles ensure a proper fit for an
individual’s unique foot, from the forefoot, through the arch and to the heel.
This support reduces the excessive foot movements that are a main cause
of overuse injuries (Laughton, McClay, Davis, & Hamill, 2003). The stability
provided by custom insoles is the best protection against overpronation-
related injuries, including plantar fasciitis, and tendonitis (ibid).                    SOLE iNSiDE

SOLE understands that no two feet are alike. Generic insoles simply do not
provide the custom fit and support that SOLE Custom Footbeds have been
proven to provide. When heated, SOLE Custom Footbeds mold to fit every
individual foot perfectly, without losing their supportive shape – providing
comfort, support, and stability unparalleled by generic insoles.

When it comes to footwear, most people can identify whether a shoe or orthotic is comfortable or uncomfortable immediately. if a shoe
or orthotic is not comfortable to an individual, most people will discontinue its use, regardless of the potential benefits (Mündermann, Nigg,
Humble, & Stephanyshyn, 2003). Comfort is the main reason consumers choose to purchase a pair of aftermarket insoles. Other stated
benefits such as increased stability, balance, and coordination are far less relevant in the mind of the consumer (ibid).

it has been suggested that matching the shape of footwear to the shape of the human foot is one of the most important elements that
characterize comfort (ibid). in fact, Mündermann, Nigg, Humble, & Stephanyshyn (2003), found that individuals rated custom molded
insoles as more comfortable than non-molded generic insoles. it was also found that the level of comfort a shoe insert provides directly
effects input signals detected by the body’s sensory system, which can ultimately reduce overuse injuries (ibid; Robbins & Gouw, 1991).

Since custom molded insoles greatly increase comfort, SOLE Custom Footbeds are the ideal choice for insole users. The Softec
cushioning, offered by the SOLE Softec Series, creates a soft cushion, while SOLE’s orthopedic shape cradles the feet. Once the individual
feels that the insole is comfortable and decides to use it, they will reap the other benefits that the insoles provide. Such as: pressure
distribution, foot sensitivity, improved skeletal alignment, and decreased foot discomfort.
Balance is the ability of the body to maintain equilibrium. Proprioception is the awareness of posture, movement, and changes in
equilibrium. Also, the knowledge of position, weight, and resistance of objects in relation to the body (Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical
Dictionary). When your feet are not properly supported, the body’s internal balance is easily disturbed (Wikipedia, 2006). New research
shows that custom insoles can improve proprioception which in turn helps the body achieve balance.

Mechanoreceptors are located throughout the body, including the joints, muscles and under the skin. These receptors respond to pressure
by transmitting signals to the brain, which processes this information and then responds by activating the appropriate muscles (Rotundo,
2006; Wikipedia, 2006). Custom insoles enhance this effect by allowing the mechanoreceptors on the foot to detect the foot’s position
earlier while in motion (Razeghi & Batt, 2000). As a result, muscles controlling the foot are activated sooner, reducing excessive internal
rotation of the lower leg and knee, known as overpronation (Bolgla, Hazle & Malone, 2004). The reduction of overpronation helps the body
achieve balance.

Current research has suggested that when an individual supports their feet and improves their posture, they in turn stabilize the interplay
between the lower extremity and the spine (Greenawalt, 2001). This is illustrated in a study by Stude and Brink (1997), where experienced
golfers that wore custom-made orthotics daily, for a period of six weeks, showed improvement in balance and proprioception (Greenawalt,
2001). Since experienced golfers are likely to have already maximized their coordination and balance abilities, the substantial increase in
performance can be linked directly to the custom footbeds (ibid). Even if individuals do not have any symptoms of foot pain, their feet,
knees, and lower back can benefit from the increased balance and support that custom insoles can provide, and prevent future foot
ailments (ibid).

SOLE Custom Footbeds support your feet from heel to toe, providing a continuous contact point between your feet and the ground. This
increases stability and allows the body’s innate sense of balance to work more efficiently. increased stability means your body can spend
less energy maintaining balance, providing more energy for power, coordination, and endurance.

The alignment of your entire body begins with the proper alignment of the                WiTHOuT SOLE                  SOLE iNSiDE
foot. if the arch is properly supported, it enables the ankle to have the correct
alignment. This helps to align the knees, hips, and back (Mündermann, Nigg,
Humble & Stefanyshyn, 2003; Lockard, 1988). Misalignment of the feet leads
to asymmetry of the lower extremities, placing excessive tension on certain
muscle groups, which can lead to abnormal stress on joints, ligaments, and the
spine (Laughton, McClay, Davis, & Hamill, 2003; Fann, 2001). Not only will this
excess tension cause pain in the foot, but it also alters the posture. Knee, leg,
and lower back pain can result from the excessive stress brought about by
improper arch support while in motion (ibid).
up to 80% of North Americans will experience foot, knee and back pain; between 20% and 30% of the population experience these
types of pain at any given time (ibid). Current research has shown that these problems may stem from lack of alignment of the lower
extremities. unfortunately, achieving correct alignment is a problem common to all humans because the feet provide a disproportionately
small base of support, charged with supporting the entire body. As a result, the skeleton is fundamentally unstable in the upright position
(Greenawalt, 2001). This evolutionary dilemma, combined with the effects of overuse, injury, and genetic defects, causes misalignment all
too frequently.

SOLE Footbeds have been shown to significantly reduce pain in the lower extremities. They achieve this by ensuring optimum arch support
and therefore the stability of the entire foot, which enhances alignment throughout the body.

Foot pain and discomfort is a fact of life for many people. After all, your foot absorbs up to one and a half times your own body weight
while in motion (AAOS, 2001). As shock absorbers, your feet can experience up to one million pounds of pressure walking for just one day
(ibid). This pressure can lead to a wide variety of foot ailments, such as: stress fractures, calluses, bunions, corns, and pain in the knees,
hips and back (ibid).

Modern footwear is mass-produced with the goal of accommodating as many
                                                                                         WiTHOuT SOLE
types of feet as possible. Little thought is given to providing proper support. if
the generic insole in the shoe does not have the correct orthopedic shape,
the foot’s fascia (the connective tissue under the skin) becomes stressed. The
result is increased pressure in certain areas of the foot, such as the forefoot,
arch, and metatarsal areas (San Tsung et al., 2004). in a study conducted by
San Tsung et al., (2004), custom insoles have been found to reduce local peak
pressure and consequently allow a better distribution of pressure over the entire        SOLE iNSiDE
foot. This pressure distribution will help alleviate foot pain and discomfort (ibid).

To further investigate the pressure distribution qualities of custom moldable
insoles, a series of tests were conducted using the Novel Footbed Test. The
Novel test uses pressure sensors that are distributed over a grid to determine
where areas of high and low pressure are located under one’s foot. When SOLE
Custom Footbeds were tested, along with two other major competitors, SOLE
was found to be the most effective at distributing pressure along the foot.

SOLE’s distinctive shape, most notably the arch support and deep heel cup, creates a continuous contact point along the soles of your
feet, distributing pressure evenly. Pressure points on the feet are eliminated or reduced, and the risk of future pain and injury is decreased.
AAOS (2001). Foot and Ankle. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery. Retrieved 22 June 2006,
         from the World Wide Web.

Bolgla, L., Hazle, C., & Malone, T (2004). Beyond the Breaking Point: Managing Overuse injuries in Athletes.
             Biomechanics. August, 2004. Retrieved 22 June 2006, from the World Wide Web.

Eng, J.E & Pierrynowski, M.E (1994). The Effect of Soft Foot Orthotics on Three-Dimensional Lower-Limb Kinematics
            During Walking And Running. Physical Therapy. 45-49

Fann, Alice. in-Shoe interventions Ease Back Pain Through Postural Correction.
           Biomechanics. Retrieved 22 June 2006, from the World Wide Web.

Greenawalt, M.H. (2001). Custom-fit Orthotics For The unique Conditions You Treat.
         Chiropractic Magazine. DC Product Review. March/April 2001. 24-25

Laughton, C. A., McClay, i. S. & Hamill, J (2003).
          Effect of Strike Pattern and Orthotic intervention on Tibial Shock During Running.
          Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 19(2): 153-168, 2003

Lockard, M.A (1988). Foot Orthoses. Physcial Therapy. 68: 1866-1873

MacNeil, Craig. Ski Boots – Alignment. How To Ski.
          Retrieved 22 June 2006, from the World Wide Web.

Mündermann A., D.J. Stefanyshyn, and B.M. Nigg (2001) Relationship between comfort of shoe inserts and anthropometric
        and sensory factors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 33(11): 1939-1945

Mündermann A., B.M. Nigg, R.N. Humble, and D.J. Stefanyshyn (2003) Orthotic comfort is related to kinematics, kinetics and
        EMG in recreational runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 35(10): 1710-1719

Razeghi. M & Batt M.E. (2000). Biomechanical Analysis of the Effect of Orthotic Shoe inserts: A Review of the Literature.
          Sports Medicine. 29(6). 425-438(14)

Robbins, S.E., Gouw, G.J (1991). Athletic Footwear: unsafe Due to Perceptual illusions.
           Medicine and Science in Sports Excellence. 23: 217-224

Rotundo, Lissa (2006). Mechanoreceptors. BookRags. Retrieved 26 June 2006, from the World Wide Web.

Stude, D.E & Brink, D.K (1997). Effects of nine holes of simulated golf and orthotic intervention on balance and proprioception
           in experienced golfers.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 20(11): 590-601

Tsung, B.Y, Zhang, M, Mak, A.F & Wong, M.W (2004). Effectiveness of insoles on Plantar Pressure Redistribution. Journal of
            Rehabilitation Research & Development. 41(6A). 767-774

Wikipedia (2006). Proprioception. Wikipedia Retrieved 22 June 2006, from the World Wide Web.

Wikipedia (2006). Orthotics. Wikipedia. Retrieved 22 June 2006, from the World Wide Web.