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MONITOR 33.pmd


  • pg 1
									         INJURY ISSUES MONITOR
  Occupational safety research in Australia
Occupational injury research sometimes doesn’t receive the prominence it deserves in public health injury
prevention. Accordingly, we’ve asked Tim Driscoll, a consultant injury researcher with an extensive background
in the area of occupational health and safety research, to provide some material on this important issue. Tim has
canvassed key Australian organisations in the occupational injury field about their current activities and provided
us with an enlightening overview of these. He has also showcased some particular projects and prepared an annotated
list of useful occupational injury websites. Tim acknowledges the contribution of information used in his work.

              Contents                                      Key occupational injury
   1 Key occupational injury organisations                      organisations
   5 Role of design in serious work-related
     injury (NOHSC)
   6 Role of machinery design in farm             There are a number of centres in        agriculture”. The key attribute of the
     injury among males                       Australia performing research into, or      Centre is its ability to develop and maintain
   6 Contribution of coroners to              related to, work-related injury. Work is    very close working relationships with the
     designing for safety                     sometimes the explicit focus of activity
   6 Regulatory approach to minimising        and sometimes is included as part of
     design-related occupational injury       broader investigation. The main centres
   7 Retrofitting of safe tractor access      involved in research into work-related
     platforms                                injury in Australia are briefly described
   8 Influence of product design on risk      below. More information can be found by
     perception and behaviour                 visiting the websites of the centres (the
   8 Design issues and mining injuries        websites are provided on page 11) or by
   9 Engineering solutions to manual          contacting them directly.
     handling and fall hazards in
     plasterers                               Australian Centre for Agricultural
  10 PhD students involved in occu-           Health and Safety (University of            agricultural community in Australia. This
     pational injury research                 Sydney)                                     allows the staff to gain a thorough
  11 Safe tractor assessment rating                                                       understanding of injury issues facing farm
                                                 The Australian Centre for Agricultural
                                              Health and Safety is a research centre of   workers, residents and visitors, and to
  11 Occupational injury websites                                                         develop prevention approaches in close
  12 Product Safety Study                     the University of Sydney’s School of
                                              Public Health. It is based in Moree, in     consultation with the people who will need
  13 From the Coroner: all terrain vehicles                                               to implement them.
     and scuba diving                         north-western New South Wales. The
                                              mission of the Centre is “To assist rural       One of the key activities of the Centre
  15 A picture of Australia’s children                                                    is running the National Farm Injury Data
  15 Keeping kids safe on Western                                                         Centre. The Data Centre uses a wide
     Australia’s roads                                                                    variety of injury data sources to support
  16 Dishwasher detergent injuries                                                        the production of a regular newsletter and
  16 Next world injury conference                                                         a range of ad hoc reports and publications
  17 Survey of Aboriginal children and
                                                                                          on farm-related injury and injury manage-
     young people
  17 Injury seminars on the Internet
  18 Stay on Your Feet WA                                                                 Injury Risk Management and
  18 Draft swimming pool standards                                                        Research Centre (University of
  18 Information sharing                                                                  New South Wales)
  19 Mexican ICE meeting
                                                                                             The Injury Risk Management and
  19 Something to read                        Australians to attain improved levels of
  20 Diary of events                          health and well-being by action to reduce   Research Centre (IRMRC) is an inde-
  23 New on the RCIS website                  the incidence and severity of injury and
                                              illness associated with life and work in                                Continued on page 2

Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                        Page 1
   Occupational safety research in Australia

                    Key occupational injury organisations
                                               Continued from page 1

pendent research centre of the University     Monash University Accident                      specific injury topic, and several issues
of NSW. The Centre is jointly funded by       Research Centre                                 have considered work-related injury.
NSW Health, the Roads and Traffic                                                             These include aspects of work-related
Authority, the Motor Accidents Authority          The Monash University Accident
                                                                                              injuries (Editions 17 and 18), product-
and the University of New South Wales.        Research Centre (MUARC) undertakes
                                              work in most areas of injury control and        related injuries: tractors, escalators
                                              prevention, including work-related injury.      (Edition 24), and unintentional hospital-
                                              Several recent or current MUARC projects        treated work injury (Edition 58). VISAR
                                              consider work-related injury topics. One        information is also used to produce a farm
                                              current project aims to describe risk factors   injury surveillance report— Farm Injury
                                              for farm injury to males— the Farm Injury       Regular Surveillance Tools.
                                              Risk among Males (FIRM) study. Another
                                              ongoing project involves providing
                                              materials to support the systematic
                                              assessment of the relative safety of tractor
                                              design features. Both these projects are
                                              considered in more detail later in this issue
                                              of the Monitor. Recently completed
                                              projects covered:
                                              • evaluation of the retrofitting of safe
    The Centre undertakes research in a           tractor access platforms;
wide variety of injury areas, with work-      • prevention of injury from forklift
related injury being one of the key areas.        trucks;
Relevant work currently being undertaken      • prevention of injury in the construc-         National Research Centre for
or recently completed includes studies of:        tion industry;                              Occupational Health and Safety
• The profile of work-related injury in
                                              • manual handling in the manufacturing          Regulation
    NSW;                                                                                          The National Research Centre for
• Fatigue and occupational health and
                                              • work-related driving;
                                              • the ergonomic evaluation of MAS               Occupational Health and Safety Regu-
    safety in light trucking;                                                                 lation is based at the Australian National
                                                  ambulances; and
• The effects of precarious work on                                                           University. It conducts research into
    occupational health and safety,
                                              • the redesign of a personnel transporter
                                                                                              occupational health and safety (OHS)
                                                  for coal miners.
    examining temporary and casual work                                                       regulation, consistent with the National
    in light trucking, call centres and the                                                   Occupational Health and Safety Strategy
    hospitality industry;                                                                     in Australia. Much of this work is directly
• Incidents in the mining industry, with                                                      relevant to injury prevention, through
    a particular focus to date on causes of                                                   work on the most appropriate regulatory
    electrical incidents and of unplanned                                                     types and mix to maximise hazard and risk
    movements of mobile mechanical                                                            reduction in the occupational setting.
    equipment in mining;                                                                      This work has considered safety culture
                                                                                              and risk, risk management, systematic
• Work-related motor vehicle crashes,                                                         management of OHS, and safe design. The
    especially comparing on-duty and                                                          Centre is funded by the National
    commuting crashes, and crashes                                                            Occupational Health and Safety Commission
    involving fatigue;                                                                        (NOHSC).
• The effects of night and day driving in                                                         Of particular importance in the National
    long distance road transport;                 Using data obtained from the Victorian
                                                                                              Centre’s work is its support for a National
• Injury and incident databases in the        Injury Surveillance and Applied Research
                                                                                              OHS Regulatory Research Consortium.
    mining sector; and                        System (VISAR), MUARC produces a
• Costs associated with work-related          regular publication titled Hazard. Each
    injuries.                                 issue of Hazard is usually focussed on a                                   Continued on page 3

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                          Page 2
   Occupational safety research in Australia

                    Key occupational injury organisations
                                                Continued from page 2

The aim of the Consortium is to foster,        Research Centre for Injury Studies             development of solutions databases and
develop and support an interdisciplinary       (Flinders University)                          programs that encourage the sharing of
collaborative network of Australian                                                           solutions. More recent funded research
                                                    The Research Centre for Injury Studies    is focusing on increasing the uptake of
researchers interested in OHS regulation,      is a Research Centre of Flinders University.
in order to increase the amount of high                                                       solutions by industry sectors such as
                                               The Centre covers all aspects of injury        plastering (in the construction sector) and
quality evidence-based and policy-             prevention and control, often working in       the thoroughbred horse racing industry.
focused research into OHS regulation.          collaboration with other agencies and          Postgraduate students are exploring the
    The Centre publishes a quarterly           researchers, and has undertaken several        barriers to the uptake of solutions and how
newsletter, Regulation at Work, which          projects focussed on work-related injury.      best to target interventions, with a
monitors national and international            These include development of the third         particular focus on small business. Other
developments, cases and research rele-         edition of the Type of Occurrence              postgraduate research is building the
vant to OHS regulation.                        Classification Systems, based on ICD-10,       evidence base around which interventions
                                               which is the national standard for coding      work best in large organisations.The
                                               information on injuries and diseases
                                               recorded in Australian workers’ compen-
                                               sation databases; and a study of the role
                                               of design issues in serious work-related
                                               injury, which is described in more detail
                                               later in this issue of the Monitor.
                                                    The Centre has recently completed a
                                               study on alcohol and workplace culture
                                               and safety in collaboration with the
                                               National Centre for Education and
                                               Training in Addiction and Tim Driscoll of
Queensland Injury Surveillance                 Elmatom Consulting.                            complementary research in small and large
Unit                                                                                          businesses is building a strong coherent
                                               VIOSH Australia (University of                 base of evidence of how to change OHS
    The Queensland Injury Surveillance         Ballarat)                                      performance and how to evaluate inter-
Unit (QISU) collects, collates and                                                            ventions to demonstrate long-term sus-
                                                   The Victorian Institute of Occu-
disseminates information on injury in          pational Health and Safety (VIOSH) aims        tainable performance improvement.
Queensland, using emergency department         to stimulate and undertake research and
data as its focus. Data are collected from                                                    The role of the coroner in work-
                                               development designed to reduce occu-
the emergency departments of a sample                                                         related injury prevention
of 12 Queensland hospitals in three                                                               Coroners are often called upon to
regions—metropolitan, regional and                                                            consider work-related safety when they
remote. Among its many activities, QISU                                                       investigate fatal incidents related to work.
provides injury data to support a range of                                                    Since virtually all injury deaths are reported
injury surveillance and prevention                                                            to a coroner, coroners are potentially an
activities. It produces a bi-monthly                                                          important source of information on work-
publication, the Injury Bulletin, which                                                       related fatal injury. They can also serve as
                                                                                              advocates for prevention and a force for
usually focuses on a specific topic. Work-
                                                                                              change. Some of the relevant work
related injury has been the focus of several                                                  involving coroners and coroners’ data,
analyses, including needlestick injuries                                                      much of which has been conducted by or
                                               pational risk. Therefore, rather than
(Bulletin 49), general workplace injuries                                                     facilitated by the Victorian Coronial
                                               undertake work that attempts to more and
(Bulletins 53 and 85), eye injuries in coal    more closely define problems, the focus        Services Centre (comprising the Victorian
mining (Bulletin 73), all-terrain vehicles     is on solution-orientated research.            State Coroner’s Office and the Victorian
(Bulletin 81), school age children             Consistent with this, considerable time        Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM), is
(Bulletin 84) and farm-related injuries.       and effort have, in the past, been             described here.
                                               expended on the establishment and                                          Continued on page 4

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                           Page 3
   Occupational safety research in Australia

                     Key occupational injury organisations
                                                 Continued from page 3

National Coroners’ Information System           managed by the VIFM. The system has              ‘intentional’ work-related deaths (for
    The National Coroners’ Information          now been collecting information for almost       example, homicides and suicides related
System (NCIS) is a national database that       five years and contains over 90,000              to work). Other research projects arising
can be used by researchers to identify          reported coronial cases on the system. The       from the project have investigated deaths
patterns and trends concerning many             NCIS has moved from an initial                   of security guards, issues surrounding
                                                developmental stage to one of consoli-           asbestos use by DIY workers, waste-
different types of fatalities reported to a
                                                dation and further development. Data             industry deaths and, most recently, avia-
                                                access rules have been developed and
                                                implemented, quality assurance protocols
                                                are in place, and data completeness and
                                                timeliness rates continue to improve. The
                                                NCIS will soon incorporate ASCO codes
                                                provided by the ABS, allowing users to
                                                search the NCIS using this Australian
                                                Occupational Coding Standard.

                                                Victorian Work-Related Fatalities
                                                Prevention Project
                                                    The Victorian State Coroner’s Office
coroner, including work-related deaths.         and WorkCover initiated a joint project in       tion deaths in Victoria. The current project
Unlike workers’ compensation databases,         1997 to combine coronial information with        is investigating agricultural deaths and
the NCIS provides information on all            WorkCover information on work-related            injuries.
fatally injured workers, regardless of          fatalities. Work-related fatalities from 1993/       The Work-Related Fatalities Prevention
employment arrangements, as well as             94 to 1996/97 were analysed to identify          Project also functions to advise coroners
including and explicitly identifying fatally    trends in the factors that contribute to         on past research for use in coronial cases,
injured bystanders. The NCIS can be used        Victorians dying at work, and to identify        as well as acting as an information source
to identify the frequency and circum-           priority areas to target future deaths and       for relevant OHS research, and a communi-
stances surrounding all work-related            injuries. Three areas were subsequently          cation conduit between the Coroner’s
deaths, those deaths that involve a                                                              Office and WorkSafe Victoria. (Contact:
particular industry or occupational group,                                                       maria.batchelor@coronerscourt.vic.gov.au)
or fatalities related to a particular type of
workplace equipment. Examples of how                                                             Victorian Work-Related Death
the NCIS has been used for the study of                                                          Investigation and Resource Unit
work-related injury include a report on all
farm-related fatalities in Victoria that was                                                         The Work-Related Death Investigation
produced for the Rural and Regional                                                              and Resource Unit (WRDIRU) will
Services and Development Committee in                                                            commence operation at the Coronial
20041 , and a project examining the role of                                                      Services Centre under the auspices of the
design in work-related injury (described                                                         VIFM from 1st July 2005. This project has
later in this issue). Overall, the NCIS                                                          the direct support of the Victorian
                                                                                                 Attorney-General, WorkSafe Minister and
provides much more timely, efficient and        developed into intervention programs in          WorkSafe Victoria, and is regarded as
comprehensive data on work-related fatal        conjunction with VIOSH Australia. These          breaking new ground in concept, depth
injury than has been easily available to        three chosen areas were:                         and scope of liaison. The Unit focuses on
                                                • Falls from heights                             injury deaths, but it will also attempt to
    The NCIS contains information on                                                             improve understanding of the links
every death reported to a coroner around        • Hydraulic deaths                               between work and fatal long-term occu-
Australia since July 2000 (January 2001         • Tree-related fatalities                        pational disease.
for Queensland). It was developed as a             More recent data from 1999 and 2000               The formal goal of WRDIRU is to assist
death investigation and research tool by        were analysed to identify traumatic work-        in providing quality investigation of work-
Monash University in 1998 and is now            related deaths in Victoria, including
                                                                                                                            Continued on page 5

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                             Page 4
   Occupational safety research in Australia

                   Key occupational injury organisations
                                             Continued from page 3

related deaths for the Coroner and timely                                                   information to support relevant improve-
information to help reduce work-related                                                     ments. Timely, accurate and practical
deaths. In the first instance, information                                                  information and advice will also be provided
is provided to the Coroner to offer the                                                     to industry and the general community.
means for high quality investigation for                                                        It is expected that the full brief and
all reported work-related deaths and to                                                     directions of the Unit will quickly grow
support the development of more targeted                                                    with time. Priorities for initial areas of
findings. This includes gaining a more                                                      investigation by the Unit will be identified
accurate and relevant understanding of                                                      by the State Coroner with advice from the
how and why such work-related incidents                                                     Victorian WorkCover Authority and other
occur, as contributory factors can be                                                       key stakeholders. In terms of injury, they
difficult to identify.                                                                      are likely to initially include areas such
    The Unit is intended to also allow the                                                  as:
information to be more effectively used                                                     • Work-related injury deaths on
for prevention purposes. The information                                                        Victorian farms;
will be considered by people experienced     facilitated, and international links created   • Deaths involving industrial equip-
in work-related disorders and their          to achieve common directions.                      ment;
prevention, with the aim of developing           A close and permanent liaison will be      • Deaths in the construction and
directions for immediate improvement.        established with WorkSafe Victoria for the         manufacturing industries; and
Relevant research will be undertaken or      timely and effective delivery of important     • Deaths in the small business sector.

                                     Prevention by design
   The role of design in contributing to, and preventing, injury is of increasing interest in most fields of
injury because of the probable better effectiveness of passive protection measures compared to more
active measures that require the cooperation of workers or others to be fully effective. Design issues are of
particular interest in occupational health and safety. This section briefly describes some of the recent
research projects and other initiatives in Australia that have investigated the role of design in work-related
injury, and a recently published PhD thesis from the Netherlands which considers the role of design in
influencing risk perception and behaviour.

           The role of design in serious work-related injury (NOHSC)
    The National Occupational Health and     the Strategy, safe design has become a         the scope of the problem, and identify
Safety Commission (NOHSC) endorsed a         major focus of activity for NOHSC.             likely targets for prevention activity,
formal national strategy in 2002—the             A NOHSC study of fatal plant and           NOHSC commissioned a study of the
National OHS Strategy, 2002-20122. One       machinery incidents that occurred from         contribution of design issues to serious
of the five national priority areas in the   1989 to 1992 had shown that poor design        work-related injury. The study used the
Strategy addressed the role of design in     made a significant contribution to that        National Coroners’ Information System as
work-related disorders—“eliminate            group of fatal incidents3, but little was      the source of information on fatal injuries,
hazards at the design stage” (‘Safe          known about the importance of design
Design’). Following the endorsement of       issues since then. To better understand                                   Continued on page 6

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                        Page 5
   Occupational safety research in Australia

                                      Prevention by design
           The role of design in serious work-related injury (NOHSC)

                                                  Continued from page 5

and the National Data Set for Compensation-   was the main design issue in serious, non-      information is available from the two study
based Statistics (NDS)4 as the source of      fatal injuries.                                 reports5,6.
information on serious, non-fatal injuries.       The key overall findings of the study           Since the completion of the study,
Only workplace injuries that occurred in      were that design continues to make an           NOHSC has been working with industry,
some form of fixed workplace were             important contribution to serious, work-        unions and government agencies to deve-
included (meaning motor vehicle, train and    related injury in Australia; that many of       lop a Safe Design Guideline. In addition, a
aircraft crashes were excluded). Design       the problems are recurrent and have been        series of seminars on safe design are being
issues were estimated to have contributed     well known for many years; and that most        planned for presentation in various forums
to at least 37% of workplace fatalities and   problems appear to be amenable to               around the country7.
30% of serious, non-fatal work-related        prevention. The study also identified a lack
injuries. Missing or faulty roll-over         of information on design issues in              This project was undertaken for NOHSC
protective structures, guarding, residual     available data sources, and an inter-           by Tim Driscoll of Elmatom and James
current devices, fall protection devices      national lack of suitable definitions of what   Harrison of RCIS.
and hydraulics accounted for 60% of the       characteristics of an incident identify it as
fatal, design-related, incidents. Guarding    being related to design. More detailed

                                               The role of machinery                                Regulatory
  The contribution of                          design in farm injury                                approach to
       coroners                                    among males                                   minimising design-
                                                  As mentioned earlier, MUARC is
                                              currently conducting the FIRM study, a
        Design issues have been
   considered for specific incident or        case-control study of farm injury in males.          occupational
                                              The project is being led by Dr Lesley Day.
   equipment types as part of a
   coroner’s investigation of indi-
                                              The aim of the study is to “identify risk               injury
                                              factors for serious farm-work-related injury
   vidual deaths or groups of deaths,         among adult males and to obtain estimates              The National Research Centre
   and many have focussed on work-            of hazard exposure among male farmers in           for OHS Regulation has considered
   related deaths. Most of these              Victoria”. One specific aspect of this             the role of regulation in maximising
   investigations have occurred in            project considers the involvement of farm          safe design in the occupational
   Victoria. They have covered such           machinery in these injuries. This approach
                                              comprises in-depth investigations of the           environment. Projects have con-
   areas as roll-over protection devices
                                              safety features of specific agricultural           sidered building and construction,
   on tractors and forklifts, hydraulic
                                              machines involved in serious injury                plant and general aspects of safe
   lifting devices, maintenance work
   under vehicles and systems to              events, and comparison with similar                design. This research has supported
   cover loads on trucks. More detail         equipment that has not been involved in            the development of NOHSC’s Draft
                                              such events. Human factor issues are also          National Construction Standard
   on the use of Coroners’ information
                                              examined. The analysis will compare the            for Construction Work (NOHSC
   in studying design issues in work-         features of machinery involved in injury,
   related injury is provided elsewhere                                                          2004) and the building and con-
                                              with the features of machinery not involved        struction sections of NOHSC’s draft
   in this issue of the Monitor.              in injury. The aim is to support the develop-
                                              ment of recommendations that would                 Safe Design Guideline (NOHSC
                                              prevent, or reduce the severity of, serious        2005).
                                              injury. The project is funded by RIRDC.

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                         Page 6
 Occupational safety research in Australia

                                        Prevention by design

                         Retrofitting of safe tractor access platforms

      A significant proportion of tractor-related deaths involve     that could have been better addressed if closer attention had
  the operator or another person being run over by the tractor,      been paid to the requirements of the guidance note. Also,
  with mounting and dismounting a particular problem. The            safety could be improved by incorporating recently available
  use of safe access platforms has been identified as a useful       engineering approaches not included in the current guidance
  intervention to decrease the risk and severity of runover          note. Tractors retrofitted with the access platform were found
  injuries. As a result, the Australian Centre for Agricultural      to be safer than new tractors that did not have a safety access
  Health and Safety developed a guidance note for the
                                                                     platform, and “platform retrofitment could be considered to
  construction of safe access platforms for tractors. These
                                                                     be current best practice in the management of tractor run-
  had to be retrofitted to tractors already in use. MUARC
  recently conducted a project to evaluate the success of the        over risk”.
  uptake and implementation of this retrofitting by two farm             The project was funded by the Rural Industry Research
  safety action groups in Victoria.                                  and Development Corporation. Further information can be
      The study concluded that the initial implementation of         found at www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/HCC/04-180sum.html
  safe tractor access platform retrofitment had proved to be
  relatively successful, but that there were several safety issues

                    Tractor without access platform                                    Tractor with retrofitted platform

Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                        Page 7
 Occupational safety research in Australia

                                    Prevention by design

      The influence of product design on risk                                            Design issues
           perception and behaviour                                                       and mining
      Risk Perception in Product Use is      degree to which hazards had been
  a recently published version of a PhD      controlled and so, paradoxically, could
  thesis by Freija van Duijne of the Delft   promote unsafe behaviour. In other              The role of design issues in
  University of Technology in the            circumstances, the design suggested         the occurrence of injuries in the
  Netherlands. Her study examined the        a function for the product that was not     mining sector has recently been
  influences on the risk perception of       intended by the designer, leading to        considered by Dr Ann
  users of consumer products by              risks not anticipated by the designers.     Williamson at The Injury Risk
  studying user-product interaction.         Users were found to rely heavily on         Management and Research
  Both qualitative and quantitative          experience when assessing risks and         Centre, as part of her work with
  approaches were used, with consider-       deciding how they should use a              the New South Wales Depart-
  able field research undertaken.The four    product, rather than attempting to          ment of Primary Industries’ Mine
  main questions considered were:            assess the risks de novo prior to use.      Safety Section. Ann produces a
  • To what extent are people ... aware      The author concluded that it was            regular overall report on mining
      of the risk of being injured?          therefore very important for designers      injury, based on the Depart-
  • If people are aware of running risks,    to understand how design influences         ment’s injury data system. In
      to what extent do they attempt to      a user’s perceived risk and subsequent      addition, her work has con-
      adjust their behaviour?                actions, and to modify products in light    sidered particular types of
  • To what extent do featural and           of this knowledge. This information         incidents in more detail. Recent
      functional product characteristics     needed to be obtained for the specific      detailed analyses have focused
      evoke risk awareness, and,             product, rather than being a general list   on electrical incidents and
      consequently influence product         of recommendations for what to do or        ‘unplanned movements’, using
      use?                                   not do in terms of design.                  an approach that considers all
  • Do designers pay attention to the            Of concern was the finding that         pre-existing circumstances that
      way users handle consumer              many designers seemed to prefer to use      contributed to the event, and
      products and do they use that          their own experience rather than the        characteristics of the event that
      information in solving problems        findings of the field research, and to      immediately preceded the
      and furthering safe usage of           develop designs in isolation of possible    incident. Events that involved
      consumer products?                     effects on risk perception. The possible    equipment (excluding those that
                                             effects on risk perception might be         primarily involved vehicles) were
      One specific part of the study
                                             considered later, but would result in
  considered whether aspects of the                                                      found to commonly involve
                                             modifications to pre-existing designs,
  design of a product could influence                                                    problems with equipment design
                                             rather than being taken into consider-
  the perception of risk and/or the                                                      and maintenance. The most
                                             ation when the fundamental design was
  manner or circumstance in which the                                                    common specific problem related
                                             being developed.
  product was used. Duijne found that                                                    to remote-controlled equipment.
  aspects of product design did indeed                                                   The study recommended that
  influence the user’s risk perception,                                                  most effective prevention
  but that this influence was not                                                        strategies for these incidents
  straightforward. In some instances,                                                    would include a focus on
  obvious safety features, or a general                                                  reviewing the appropriateness of
  safe appearance of a product, provided                                                 equipment design.
  the user with a false sense of the

Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                               Page 8
   Occupational safety research in Australia

                                      Prevention by design
Engineering solutions to manual handling and fall hazards in

    The Victorian                                                                                                  approaches from an
Institute of Occu-                                                                                                 OHS point of view.
pational Health and                                                                                                However, they remain
Safety (VIOSH) has                                                                                                 problematic from an
been actively involved                                                                                             industry point of
for many years in the                                                                                              view, although dis-
study of design sol-                                                                                               cussions are pro-
utions to prevent                                                                                                  ceeding with the
occupational injury.                                                                                               industry regarding
An example project,                                                                                                eventual reductions
conducted by Cow-                                                                                                  in sheet lengths in
ley and Leggett, is                                                                                                Australia.
presented here.                                                                                                        To address some
    Finishing of                                                                                                   of the problems in
contemporary resi-                                                                                                 the short to medium
dential construction                                                                                               term, a number of
projects generally                                                                                                 engineering solutions
involves fixing                                                                                                    have been developed.
(hanging) of sheets                                                                                                One such solution
of plasterboard to                                                                                                 that addresses the
                                                                                                                   lifting of plaster-
walls and ceilings.
                                                                                                                   board to ceilings is a
The process exposes
                                                                                                                   cable winch device.
plasterers to the risk
                                                                                                                   This device has a
of falls and manual                                                                                                telescopic mast
handling injuries,                                                                                                 mounted with a frame
which are among the                                                                                                that supports the
leading causes of                                                                                                  panel while offering
occupational injury                                                                                                some pivoting to deal
experienced by                                                                                                     with raked ceilings as
plasterers around the                                                                                              well as fixing to walls.
world8-10.                                                                                                         The devices are cur-
    In Australia,                                                                                                  rently imported to
plasterboard is avail-                                                                                             Australia. They are in
able in a variety of                                                                                               widespread use and
sizes, which are typically 10mm or 13mm       task of raising the plasterboard to the       the recent arrival of alternative lower cost
thick. The usual width is 1,200mm. Lengths    ceiling, in particular, places heavy          devices in Australia is increasing their use.
range from 2,400mm to 6,000mm. The            demands on the workers’ postural stability,       A risk assessment revealed a number
weight of 10mm of 1,200 x 6,000mm             and that workers may not be able to use       of problems with the cable winch devices,
plasterboard is approximately 55kg. The       their body movement strategy efficiently      the most significant being the potential
HSE11 found that fixing plasterboard to       and accurately in response to any possible    for uncontrolled descent of the mast in
ceilings was reported as the most stressful   momentary loss of balance12.                  the event of cable failure. The operator of
task for plasterers, exacerbated by the           Reducing the width of plasterboard        the device must stand directly under the
constant extension of the neck and trunk.     has been demonstrated to be of benefit in     board being raised to operate the winch,
Mounting scaffolding to undertake the         Europe13, and undoubtedly board size and      and consultation with plasterers has
fixing had the greatest fall potential. The   weight reduction are attractive prevention                                Continued on page 10

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                          Page 9
 Occupational safety research in Australia

                                     Prevention by design
Engineering solutions to manual handling and fall hazards in
                                                 Continued from page 9

  revealed a number of anecdotes about        local device was stimulated. ASEMA             view. When used with devices that
  cable failure and consequent ‘near          International, a small group of engineers      allow screw fixing from floor level
  misses’. Imported devices do not cater      in Ballarat, designed a new                    they dramatically reduce the risk of
  for 6m boards, as Australia and New         pneumatically powered panel lifter that        falls. The development provides a
  Zealand are the only countries to use       comfortably handles 6m sheets. The             good example of the application of
  this length. Consequently operators         device is fail-safe, and is designed for       safe-design principles but offers a
  often have to support the board during      easy loading of sheets, dismantling and        challenge within the self-regulatory
  ascent.                                     transport.                                     environment where lower cost unsafe
      As a result of the problems                 The benefits of the device are clear       devices remain freely available (see
  identified, the development of a new        from a manual risk reduction point of          figure on page 9).

        PhD students involved in occupational injury
       There is probably not a lot of         relevant research to date; proposal of a       Protective Structure (ROPS) rebates
  involvement of PhD students in              model for future review and intervention,      scheme; and a community survey
  occupational injury research in             encompassing all related aspects of work,      examining issues of relevance about
  Australia, although the exact situation     vehicle, road and policy; and identification   ROPS on tractors.
  is not known. Examples of relevant          of potential determinants of crash/injury          Fiona Clay is based at MUARC and
  PhD projects that are being under-          outcomes.                                      supervised by Professor Joan Ozanne-
  taken are those of Ruth Stuckey,                Richard Franklin’s PhD is based on his     Smith. Her project investigates
  Richard Franklin and Fiona Clay.            work with the Australian Centre for            predictors of return to work and on-
       Ruth Stuckey is working with           Agricultural Health and Safety. The            going work disability after serious
  Professor Tony LaMontagne at                hypothesis for the project is that regular     injury. All forms of injury are included,
  Melbourne University and Professor          data collections do not provide enough         with emphasis on those covered by the
  Malcolm Sim at Monash University.           information for optimal prevention in an       Traffic Accident Commission and
  Ruth’s project is focussed on work-         OHS setting, but do provide direction for      WorkCover Victoria. All employed
  related injury arising from occu-           where resources should be allocated. The       persons aged 15 to 64 years and
  pational light vehicle (OLV) use.           aim is to provide information on how           presenting to hospital and with injuries
  Although some research in this area         useful each of the data sources is for         graded as AIS 2 or higher are eligible
  has been undertaken in Australia and        defining prevention activities. This           for inclusion (although there are some
  elsewhere, it has focussed on employ-       includes the monitoring of programs and        specific exclusions). The purpose of
  ees driving employer owned vehicles.        the allocation of resources in NSW to          the study is to examine potential
  There is also significant use of these      reduce injuries from farm incidents. To test   predictors such as type of employ-
  vehicles by self-employed persons, but      the hypothesis, a range of data sources is     ment, patient beliefs about their
  little available information about injury   being examined. These include the NSW          recovery and pain experience, source
  and injury-related activities for OLV       Hospitals In-patient collection; NSW           of income, and types of employment
  use in all occupational circumstances.      workers’ compensation claims; a                during recovery, and to assess the
  Ruth has recently completed a paper         Tamworth Base Hospital Emergency               extent to which these factors can
  on legislative cover and gaps 1 .           Department survey of farm injuries; the        predict if and when a patient will return
  Further work will include a review of       administrative database for the Roll Over      to work following injury.

Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                         Page 10
   Occupational safety research in Australia

                                     Prevention by design

                         Safe Tractor Assessment Rating System
       The Safe Tractor Assessment Rating System has been                       grouped into six key areas. The rating system focuses on
   developed by MUARC, working with the Kondinin group                          the safety of the operator, but the safety of others is also
   and in consultation with a wide range of relevant                            considered, and it takes into account legislative requirements.
   organisations and individuals. The project considers a range                 The system is designed to guide the purchase of new tractors
   of engineering controls that can be inherent in tractor designs              and to rate tractors currently in use. Since the safety of an
   or included as modifications at a later time. It is premised on
                                                                                individual tractor can change with modifications and over
   the assumption, supported by work elsewhere, particularly
   in Scandinavia, that serious operator injury resulting from                  time, each rating is relevant only to the specific tractor at the
   tractor rollover should be largely eliminated (and certainly                 time it is rated. However, the system has been developed to
   minimised) if tractors have appropriate safety design                        allow comparisons to be made between tractors.
   features. The suggested design features are a mixture of                         Further information can be found at www.monash.edu.au/
   primary and secondary measures and cover 17 categories                       muarc/projects/stars.html

                                          Researcher, Dr Lesley Day, demonstrating her skills in field research.

                            Occupational injury websites
    For those in search of information on        • Monash University Accident Research                             www.nisu.flinders.edu.au/index.php
work-related injury in Australia, each of             Centre: www.monash.edu.au/muarc                        • VIOSH Australia:
the organisations mentioned on the               •    National Occupational Health and                             www.ballarat.edu.au/ard/sci-eng/viosh
previous pages have useful material on                Safety Commission:                                        In addition, there are several Internet-
their websites.                                       www.nohsc.gov.au                                       accessible databases. The most compre-
• Australian Centre for Agricultural             • National Research Centre for                              hensive is the National Occupational
    Health and Safety:                                Occupational Health and Safety                         Statistics Interactive (NOSI), maintained
   www.acahs.med.usyd.edu.au                          Regulation: www.ohs.anu.edu.au                         by NOHSC. This provides a searchable
• The Injury Risk Management and                 •    Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit:                   database of all accepted workers’
   Research Centre:                                   www.qisu.org.au
   www.irmrc.unsw.edu.au                         • Research Centre for Injury Studies:                                               Continued on page 12

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                                          Page 11
     Occupational safety research in Australia

                               Occupational injury websites
                                                   Continued from page 11

compensation claims from 1994/1995               www.nohsc.gov.au/OHSInformation/NOSI/           on workers’ compensation data, although
onwards. The search engine is reasonably         default.asp                                     reports on specific areas are also released
easy to use, although it takes a little while        The NOHSC website also contains             on an ad-hoc basis. NSW WorkCover has
to get used to the few quirks in the system.     a large database of practical solutions         a pilot system similar to NOSI, which covers
Stratification down to a detailed level is       to OHS problems. Many of these
                                                                                                 the three years 1998-1999 to 2000-2001. This
possible in many instances. One trap to          involve consideration of design
watch out for is that the database adds a        issues. The database can be accessed            can be accessed at www.workcover.nsw.gov.
random factor to the final numbers for           at www.nohsc.gov.au/OHSInformation/             au/wesi/scripts/broker.exe?_service=wesi&_
confidentiality reasons, even when the           Databases/OHSSolutions/ohssolutions.htm         program=wesimacr.sasmacr.intro.macro
number of cases is large. This means that           Each of the state and territory OHS          These and other relevant OHS sites can
the same search repeated several times is        agencies also provides information on           be accessed directly, or via links on the
likely to produce several slightly different     occupational injuries. This is mainly in the    NOHSC website ( www.nohsc.gov.au/
estimates. NOSI can be accessed at               form of formal reports and usually focuses      OtherRelatedSites).

                                Product Safety Study
    The Productivity Commission has been asked to report on                  safety research;
Australia’s general product safety system which is covered by            • a requirement for businesses to recall unsafe products;
the Trade Practices Act 1974 and State and Territory Fair Trading        • a government power to audit product recalls;
Acts. The report will be finalised in January 2006. It applies to all    • measures to harmonise product safety legislation,
consumer goods with the exception of some classes of goods                   administration and enforcement; and
that are subject to additional regulations (including medicines,         • measures to enhance the making of product safety regulation
food, road transport vehicles, electrical products, buildings and           decisions by the Australian Government.
agriculture). The Commission’s study will take account of these             As part of the study, the Commission has been asked to:
in assessing the case for reform.
    In conducting the Study, the Commission will consider a              • Assess the extent to which the Australian Consumer Product
number of options for reform that were outlined in a previous               Safety System is able to achieve its objectives; and to
discussion paper produced by the Ministerial Council on                  • Examine the direct and indirect economic and social costs
Consumer Affairs. The discussion paper, Review of the Australian            and benefits of the reform options listed above, as well as
Consumer Product Safety System, can be viewed on the Internet:              those of the current consumer product safety system.
www.consumer.gov.au/html/Consumer_Product_Safety_Review/                    Submissions made to the Ministerial Council on Consumer
The paper proposed the following options:                                Affairs can be accessed at www.consumer.gov.au/html/
• a general legal obligation for businesses to only market safe
      consumer products;                                                     Submissions to the current process closed in May. The
•     a revised definition of unsafe goods;                              submissions will be posted to the Productivity Commission’s
•     revisions to the regulatory coverage of services and               website as they become available: www.pc.gov.au
      secondhand goods;                                                      By registering an interest in the study, it is possible to receive
•     the provision of improved product safety information to            circulars and other information from the Productivity Commission:
      businesses and consumers;                                          www.pc.gov.au/study/productsafety/registrationform.html The
•     new requirements for businesses to monitor and report on           Commission will also post updates on the Study’s progress on
      the safety of their products;                                      its website.
•     the establishment of product hazard early warning                      For further information about the product safety study,
      information systems;                                               contact Maggie Eibisch, Tel: 02 6240 3206 or Sue Holmes,
•     the linking of product safety information systems;                 Tel: 02 6240 3351, Fax: 02 6240 3300; Freecall for regional
•     increased government and industry funding of product               areas: 1800 020 083; E-mail: productsafety@pc.gov.au

    Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                          Page 12
                                                      From the Coroner

Diving accidents                                                             doubt should be resolved against passing the subject as fit,
                                                                             until such follow-up tests demonstrate fitness to dive.
   In 2004, the South Australian Coroner, Wayne Chivell,                 •   The recreational diving industry should conduct an aware-
handed down his findings on five cases of drowning among                     ness campaign among its member organisations and the
divers that had occurred between February 2001 and 21 April                  diving public about the dangers of diving with certain
2002. The Coroner pointed to a number of similarities between                medical conditions, the need for regular medical examinations
these cases:                                                                 at least every two years, the need for absolute honesty
• A lack of cardiovascular fitness in four cases.                            during such examinations, and the responsibility a diver has
• Four cases of obesity.                                                     both personally and to his or her diving colleagues to ensure
• Medical conditions: Three cases of an enlarged heart, and                  that he or she is fit to dive.
      one of myocarditis; three cases of lung disease, two of back           The full findings on these cases are available at
      problems, one of oesophageal reflux, and one of ear                www.courts.sa.gov.au/courts/coroner/findings/
•     Wet suit being too tight, interfering with breathing and           All-terrain vehicles
      possibly causing reflux.
                                                                             Findings have been published by Tasmanian coroners in
•     A weight belt that was too heavy, causing excessive fatigue.
                                                                         relation to five cases of death associated with all-terrain vehicles
•     A weight belt that could not be quickly released.
                                                                         (ATVs) during 2003 and 2004. The circumstances surrounding
•     One case in which the ‘Buddy System’ broke down.
                                                                         these cases were as follows:
•     Two cases of poor diving technique.
•     Two cases in which the diver had recent training but was           Case 1
      inexperienced.                                                         A young farm labourer died as the result of a traumatic brain
•     Three cases in which the diver was experienced but had not         injury consistent with involvement in an all-terrain vehicle
      had recent training.                                               rollover. From the evidence it appeared that the deceased had
•     One case in which the diver had been told not to dive by a         driven into a dip, in a paddock, at such a speed that the front of
      cardiologist, but had ignored that advice.                         the ATV had hit the relatively steep lip on the other side of the
•     One case in which the diver had misled the medical                 dip, forcing the vehicle to tumble end to end. The deceased was
      practitioner during a diving-related medical examination.          not wearing a helmet. Upon taking up his employment at the
    In giving evidence at the Inquest, Dr Acott, Director of Diving      dairy farm, he told the manager that he was an experienced rider
Medicine at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, said that in his opinion        of four wheel bikes and was taken at his word.
all of these deaths were preventable.                                    Case 2
    The Coroner made a number of recommendations:
                                                                             A young man died as the result of multiple injuries he
• All persons engaged in recreational underwater diving                  sustained in an accident involving an ATV. The deceased
      should undergo an examination by a registered general              commenced riding on the beach with a group of friends at 1.00
      medical practitioner trained in hyperbaric medicine on a           am, carrying a pillion passenger. Part way along the beach, the
      regular basis, preferably every 12 months, but at least every      deceased’s ATV collided with a low-lying outcrop of rock. Both
      two years.                                                         the deceased and his passenger were thrown from the ATV.
•     Medical practitioners should decline to conduct such                   The deceased was wearing a helmet. A blood test revealed
      examinations unless they are appropriately qualified.              that he had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.16%. Examination
•     Medical practitioners conducting such examinations should,         of the vehicle showed that it was in good operating condition.
      if they are not the subject’s regular medical practitioner,        The deceased had only owned the ATV for approximately two
      require the subject to produce a referral letter detailing the     weeks before the accident and was not familiar with the section
      subject’s medical history.                                         of beach where the accident occurred. He had also never carried
•     Medical practitioners conducting such examinations should          a pillion passenger on the ATV.
      warn the subject that diving is a potentially lethal activity if       The ATV’s operator manual and several metal plates attached
      undertaken by a person with certain medical conditions, and        by the manufacturer to the ATV carried warnings of relevance
      that absolute honesty in providing background medical              to this incident: never carry pillion passengers; passengers can
      history is called for.                                             cause a loss of control resulting in severe injury or death;
•     If there is any doubt about the subject’s health, the medical      overloading can cause loss of control; maximum vehicle load
      practitioner should arrange such follow-up tests as chest X-       100 kg; never operate without proper training or instruction;
      rays, hypertonic saline tests, or whatever else may be
      indicated, before passing the subject as fit to dive. Any                                                            Continued on page 14

    Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                         Page 13
                                                  From the Coroner

never operate at speeds too fast for your skills or the conditions;   • One coroner pointed to the hazardous nature of these
never use with alcohol or drugs.                                          vehicles, observing that, although they accounted for just
Case 3
                                                                          under 1% of all vehicles in Tasmania, they were involved in
                                                                          over 7% of all vehicle-related deaths.
    A teenage student died when he suffered head injuries in an       •    It was observed that many ATV accidents involve a rollover
ATV accident. He had been at a party on a country property and            where the rider or passenger has stayed with the vehicle
had taken the vehicle on a ride along the driveway. Some 20               and been crushed by its sheer weight. The Director of
minutes later, guests at the party found the ATV beside a left            Tasmania’s Forensic Services, Dr Christopher Lawrence,
hand bend in the driveway; it had left the driveway, collided             offered his opinion that significant neck injuries won’t be
with a wire fence and overturned. The deceased was lying nearby.          protected by the wearing of a helmet. (Head and upper neck
    The driveway’s surface was gravel and it had been subject             injuries had been present in five of the seven ATV-related
to heavy rain during that afternoon. Tyre marks showed that the           deaths he had investigated).
ATV had failed to negotiate the left hand bend.                       •    There was concern about farm workers’ attitudes to the
    Inspection of the vehicle showed it to be in poor roadworthy          wearing of helmets. One reason given for the reluctance to
condition. The rider was not wearing a helmet, had little prior           do so was that they would impede hearing. A suggested
experience of riding ATVs, had received no training or instruct-          response to this concern was an ATV safety helmet that had
ion, and had a blood alcohol reading of 0.02.                             recently become available in New Zealand. Known as the
Case 4                                                                    ‘AgHat’, it is a versatile, lightweight helmet, fully ventilated
    Head injuries were the cause of death of an 8 year old child          and cut above the ears to ensure hearing is not impeded.
involved in an ATV accident.                                              It is also a multi-fit item which may benefit farms where two
    The incident occurred on a country property. There were               or more farmhands must use the same helmet at different
three people on the ATV when it crashed: two adults and the               times.
deceased child. None was wearing a helmet. As the bike started        •    It was recommended that the authorities responsible for the
to move forwards, it suddenly went into full power. Despite an            licensing of motor vehicle drivers give serious consideration
attempt to avoid the driveway fence, the power of the engine              to the speedy implementation of a regime requiring all users
was such as to make the vehicle understeer. One wheel hit a               to hold a specific all-terrain vehicle licence. Such a licence
fence post causing the vehicle to overturn. The two adults were           would require successful completion of a course to train
thrown clear but the deceased remained with the bike which                persons in the safe and correct use of ATVs.
overturned on top of her.                                             •    It was noted that there had been proposals to attach rollbars
    The ATV was comparatively new and in good condition.Two               to ATVs. The coroner indicated that this would also require
safety decals were affixed to the front mudguard. These decals            the use of seat restraints. Responses from farm workers to
displayed several warnings including the need for a helmet or             the use of rollbars was that it would interfere with their day-
safety gear, and admonitions to never carry passengers and not            to-day functions (e.g. going under low trees or driving under
to use the vehicle with drugs or alcohol.                                 arches).
Case 5
                                                                      •    One of the coroners noted a reluctance on the part of riders
                                                                          to comply with manufacturers’ recommendations and
    A middle aged man died of an injury to the cervical spine             warnings.
after involvement in an ATV accident.                                 •    Among the coroners’ recommendations was that training
    On a group excursion, the deceased became agitated after              courses (perhaps offered by the manufacturers) should
he was unable to repair an exhaust pipe that had become                   become mandatory for all new purchasers of ATVs and that
detached from the vehicle. He resumed his ride at speed and               there be frequent refresher courses for experienced riders.
was observed to be standing on the vehicle’s foot pegs as he          •    It was also recommended that insurance companies should
rode. His speed was estimated at between 30 and 70 kph. He                consider a discount on worker’s compensation premiums
overtook the other riders. A short time later they found the ATV          for all policy holders who provide satisfactory evidence of
with the deceased man lying pinned beneath it.                            having completed a training or refresher course covering
    A tyre mark at the scene suggested that a right hand wheel            themselves and their employees.
of the ATV had struck a raised portion of the centre of the track.
The deceased was not wearing a helmet. Inspection of the                  The full findings on these cases are available at:
vehicle found it to be in a defective mechanical condition due to     www.courts.tas.gov.au/magistrate/decisions/coroners
an inoperative brake, visible wear to the front and rear sus-            The Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit’s (QISU) Bulletin
pension and a corroded and broken exhaust system.                     81 included an informative report on injuries associated with
    Among the observations and recommendations made were              ATVs. The Bulletin can be accessed at: www.qisu.org.au/
the following:                                                        modcore/PreviousBulliten/frontend/index.asp

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                        Page 14
             A picture of Australia’s children
    Recently published by the Australian                                                     Injury deaths
Institute of Health and Welfare, A Picture                                                       In 2003, there were 276 injury deaths,
of Australia’s Children is the third                                                         making injury the leading cause of mor-
national statistical report on the health,                                                   tality during that year (it accounted for
development and wellbeing of Australia’s                                                     15% of all childhood deaths).
children aged 0-14 years. A description of                                                       During the three-year period 2001-2003,
the childhood injury experience is among                                                     the three most common types of injury
its contents.                                                                                death were those related to transport (2.7
    In 2003 there were approximately 3.9                                                     per 100,000 population); drownings (1.2
million children aged less than 15 years—                                                    per 100,000) and assaults (0.6 per 100,000).
around 20% of the Australian population.          ·
Indigenous children made up about 4.5%                                                       Population differences
of the total population.                                                                         Some factors such as sex and socio-
    Although the injury death rate declined                                                  economic background can affect the risk
by around 60% from 1983 to 2003, it                                                          of injury.
remains the major cause of death for                                                             Children of low socio-economic status,
children aged 1-14. (Deaths due to some                                                      and Indigenous children, are more likely
perinatal conditions are more frequent                                                       to suffer the effects of injury from house
during the first year of life.)                                                              fires or assault. Available literature also
                                                                                             suggests an increased risk associated with
Injury hospitalisations
                                                                                             sole parenthood, low maternal education,
    During the 12-month period 2002-2003,                                                    young maternal age at birth, poor housing,
injury was the most common reason for                                                        large family size, and parental drug or
hospitalisation in the 1-14 year age group.   pedal cycles caused most of the admis-         alcohol abuse.
In this age group, the most prominent         sions to hospital among children in the            The report also includes other chapters
causes of injury-related hospitalisations     10-14 year age group.                          of relevance to injury: Child abuse and
were falls (628.1 per 100,000 population);        Boys were far more likely to be            neglect; and Children as victims of
pedal cycles (98.1 per 100,000); and          admitted to hospital as the result of an       violence.
accidental poisoning (80.8 per 100,000).      injury, with a rate of 2,006.3 per 100,000         The report can be downloaded from
    There were distinct age patterns.         population. The rate for girls was 1,268.8     the AIHW website: www.aihw.gov.au/
Assault was more common in infants            per 100,000. The highest rate for boys was     publications/index.cfm/title/10127
under 1 year of age; accidental poisoning     in the 10-14 year age group (2,282.1 per       Printed copies are available, for $30, from
and burns and scalds were most frequent       100,000), and for girls, in the 1-4 year age   CanPrint, Tel: 1300 889 873, Fax: 02 6293
among children aged 1 to 4 years; and         group (1,624.7 per 100,000).                   8333, Email: sales@ infoservices.com.au

                  Helping keep kids safe on Western
                          Australia’s roads
       Western Australia’s Road Safety            Learner Phase 2 period.                        restrictions for Provisional drivers
   Council (RSC) is proposing a range of      • An increase in the maximum time a                for the first six months of their
   reforms to the way in which its novice         Learner can stay on their Learner’s            Provisional period.
   drivers are trained. A discussion paper,       Permit to three years with no renewal      • Introduction of a zero blood alcohol
   Helping keep our kids safe on Western          fee.                                           concentration limit for both Learner
   Australia’s roads, outlining its recom-    •   Extension of the Provisional (P-Plate)         and Provisional drivers.
   mendations has been released for               licence period from two to three years.    • Introduction of a graduated demerit
   public feedback.                           •   Tightening of the requirements for             point system and issue of warning
       The RSC’s recommendations                  supervising drivers, particularly in           letters to deter unsafe driving prac-
   include the following:                         relation to the blood alcohol concen-          tices.
   • Increasing the minimum number of             tration limit.                                 A copy of the discussion paper can
       supervised and logged driving          •   Introduction of nighttime driving          be viewed at
       hours required from 25 hours in one        restrictions for P-Plate drivers for the       www.officeofroadsafety.wa.gov.au/
       Learner phase to 120 hours over            first six months of their Provisional      novicedriverreview/
       two Learner phases.                        period.                                        Comments on the discussion paper
   • A minimum of six months for the          •   Introduction of peer passenger             are due by 12 July 2005.

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                        Page 15
       Injuries due to
   dishwasher detergent
       The Website of the Australian Consumers’
   Association (ACA) carries an article alerting people to
   the dangers posed by dishwasher detergents. The cited
   case of a Queensland toddler who suffered horrific
   injuries when he swallowed highly caustic dishwasher
   detergent at the end of last year is particularly tragic.
   The 18 month old had wandered out of his mother’s
   sight for only a brief moment in which he gained access
   to a bottle of dishwasher detergent from the cupboard
   under the sink. The result was the burning away of his
   epiglottis—the valve-like structure at the back of the
   throat that stops food and drink getting into the              The 8th World Conference on
   windpipe—leaving him with permanent medical
   problems.This incident has prompted the establish-             Injury Prevention and Safety
   ment, in Queensland, of a special working party to           Promotion will be held in Durban,
   investigate this issue.
       The ACA has obtained injury surveillance data from        South Africa from the 2-5 April
   Queensland and Victoria in relation to dishwasher                         2006.
   detergent. In the six-year period to the end of 2004, the
   Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit at the Mater
   Hospital (which collects data from 15 different
   emergency departments) recorded 76 cases where
   children had swallowed dishwasher detergent. The             The Conference will have the following major
   Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (which records                            themes:
   data from 28 hospitals) identified 207 cases over eight
   years to mid 2004.
       The packaging of dishwashing detergents is a               • Road Safety
   matter of concern. It is possible to purchase the product      • Violence Prevention
   in a simple cardboard box with no child-resistant              • Workplace, Institutional And Home
   closures (CRCs). The bottles available on the market
   do tend to have child-resistant closures but, while the          Safety
   ACA concedes that these have reduced the number of             • Trauma Management, Rehabilitation And
   poisonings over the years, many of these closures are            Disaster Management
   simply not effective. CRCs should prevent access to
   substances that could be dangerous to children. They           • Leisure Related, Sport And Product
   should make it difficult for a young child to open the           Safety
   container, but not too tricky for an adult to reseal it,       • Safe Communities
   otherwise it’s likely it won’t always be resealed properly
   after use.
                                                                  • Data Production And Consumption
       As far as dishwasher detergent bottles are con-            • Cross-Sectoral And Multi-Disciplinary
   cerned, not all their CRCs are designed in the same              Linkages
   way, and they are generally easier to open than medicine
   bottles. To open the bottles generally requires
   squeezing them whilst turning the cap. However, the
   mechanisms in place for closing the bottles varies—
   some require the cap to be turned until it has clicked
                                                                The deadline for abstracts and scholarships for
   into place twice. The latter type of bottle was the kind           the Conference is October 2005.
   involved in the poisoning of the Queensland toddler.
   The instruction for sealing the bottle securely was not
   stated anywhere on the packaging. Many of the ACA’s
   staff were unaware of the ‘two clicks to close’              We’ll keep you informed, through the Monitor,
   mechanism.                                                   about future developments with the Conference.
       The article on the ACA Website contains additional
   information on this topic, including brand-specific
   details, that is well worth a look: www.choice.com.au/
                                                                  Conference website: www.safety2006.info
      This item is based on information derived from the
      Website of the Australian Consumer’s Association.

Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                    Page 16
          Survey of Aboriginal children and
                    young people
    In April of this year, the Telethon                                                          • 27% of young people drink alcohol.
Institute for Child Health Research in                                                               At 17 years of age, 61% of males and
Western Australia released the second                                                                43% of females were drinking alcohol.
volume of its report The Social and                                                              •    In areas of extreme isolation only 8%
Emotional Wellbeing of Aboriginal                                                                    of young people consume alcohol
Children and Young People.                                                                           compared with 31% of those living in
    This report, and its predecessor, The                                                            the Perth metropolitan area.
Health of Aboriginal Children and Young                                                          •    Almost one in five young people had
People, used data from the Western                                                                   been in a car with a drunk driver in the
Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey                                                            previous six months.
undertaken in 2001 and 2002. The survey                                                          •    30% of young people have used
used a random population-based sample                                                                marijuana at some time.
of Aboriginal children under the age of 18                                                       •    Among 17 year olds, 45% of males and
to examine their physical, social and                                                                21% of females use marijuana at least
emotional well-being. The Survey of 5,289                                                            weekly.
Western Australian children was con-
ducted with a heavy emphasis on con-                                                                 The report contains a range of other
sultation with Aboriginal communities and                                                        information including family and house-
with consideration being given to                                                                hold factors; physical activity; self-esteem;
Indigenous cultural issues.                                                                      and the effects of forced separation.
    A detailed questionnaire was admin-                                                          Both volumes 1 and 2 can be downloaded
istered to the carers of those children in                                                       from the Internet: www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/
the sample. Children aged between 12 and                                                         waachs/ Printed copies can be pur-
17 were independently administered                                                               chased for $80 from the Telethon Institute
certain sections of the questionnaire. In         7 or more life stress events were at high      for Child Health Research, PO Box 855,
addition, carers were asked to give               risk of significant emotional or behavioural   West Perth WA 6872, Fax: 08 9489 7700.
permission for access to birth and hospital       difficulties compared with 14% of children     Enquiries about the report should be
records for their children through the            living in households that had experienced      directed to Professor Stephen Zubrick,
Western Australian Data Linkage Project.          0 to 2 such events.                            Tel: 08 9489 7714, E-mail:
Most agreed to this request. The school                                                          steve@ichr.uwa.edu.au
principal and teachers of surveyed chil-          Suicidal behaviour
dren from 388 schools were also contacted.            Among the survey findings on
    Volume 2 focuses on the social and            suicidal behaviour were the following:
emotional well-being of 3,993 children            • More than one in six young people
aged 4-17 years, and contains information             aged 12 to 17 years had seriously
that will be of interest to people working            thought about ending their own life in
in the area of injury.
                                                      the 12 months prior to the survey.             Injury Webinars
Emotional and behavioural difficulties            •   A lower proportion (12%) of males had
    Of the estimated 22,900 Aboriginal                considered suicide during the previous
children aged 4 to 17 years, and resident             12 months than females (20%).                      The Center for Injury Research
in Western Australia at the time of the           •   Of the estimated 1,420 Aboriginal              and Control (CIRCL) at the
survey, 24% were assessed by their carers             young people who had seriously                 University of Pittsburgh offers a
as being at high risk of clinically significant       considered ending their life in the 12         range of what it has designated
emotional or behavioural difficulties. This           months prior to the survey, 39% had            ‘webinars’ on its website. These are
compares with 15% of non-Aboriginal                   attempted suicide during that period.          audio visual presentations des-
children. The level of such difficulties was      •   A higher proportion of young people            igned to provide examples of
lowest in areas of extreme isolation. This            at high risk of clinically significant         exemplary programs, best practices,
suggests that growing up in isolated areas,           emotional or behavioural difficulties          and overviews of practical topics
where adherence to traditional culture and            had seriously thought about ending             of interest to injury control workers
ways of life is strongest, may be protective          their life (37%) compared with young           in a variety of settings. The
against emotional and behavioural                     people at low risk (10%).                      webinars are, in the first instance,
difficulties in Aboriginal children.              •   A greater proportion of young people           offered live to people resident in the
    The factor found to be most strongly              who had been exposed to family                 United States. Thereafter they are
associated with a high risk of significant            violence had considered ending their           archived for easy access. There is
emotional or behavioural difficulties was             own life compared with those who had           a wide range of topics available.
the number of major life stress events (e.g.          not been exposed (9%).                         You can access these at:
illness, family break-up, arrests or financial                                                       www.circl.pitt.edu/home/
difficulties) experienced by the family           Substance use                                      past_seminars.htm
during the past 12 months. 39% of children            Self reporting elicited the following
living in households that had experienced         information from 12-17 year olds:

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                             Page 17
  A new look for Stay                                                  Swimming
  On Your Feet WA™                                                   Pool Standards
                                                                           Two draft standards have been released for public
                                                                      comment. Both are proposed revisions to existing
                                                                      standards governing swimming pool safety.
                                                                           The first draft, Swimming Pool Safety, Part 1: Safety
                                                                      barriers for swimming pools is a proposed revision of
                                                                      AS 1926.1—1993. The second, Swimming Pool Safety,
                                                                      Part 2: Location of safety barriers for swimming pools,
                                                                      is a proposed revision of AS 1926.2—1995.
                                                                           Both drafts can be accessed on the Internet: Part 1 at
                                                                      Details.asp?DocN=MSWD05245ATCRD and Part 2 at
                                                                         Comments are invited on the technical content,
                                                                      wording and general arrangement of the draft. The
                                                                      closing date for comment is 11 July 2005.
                                                                         Standards Australia would prefer to receive
                                                                      comments on a form they have provided for the
                                                                      purpose: www.standards.com.au/Catalogue/misc/
                                                                         The closing date for comments is 11 July 2005.
                                                                         For further information, contact Standards
    A multi-faceted statewide social marketing campaign was           Australia Customer Service Centre, Tel: 1300 65 46 46,
launched by the Department of Health in May 2005 to increase          E-mail: mailto:sales@standards.com.au
attention on seniors’ falls and to enhance existing Stay On Your
Feet WA™ program activity.
    Co-funded by the Office of Seniors Interests and Volunteering,
the social marketing strategy supports the WA Active Ageing
Strategy and promotes a positive ‘take control’ approach to
falls prevention. The campaign has two key messages:
• That falling is a serious health issue, which can have
                                                                              Share your
    shattering consequences on mobility and independence
• That seniors can take positive action to prevent falls by
    following the nine steps to Stay On Your Feet™.
    Communications emphasise that falling is not a normal part
of ageing, and that seniors can take easy steps and readily              The Research Centre for Injury Studies has added
access assistance and advice from local health professionals.        a noticeboard to its website for any breaking news on an
    The Stay On Your Feet WA™ campaign aims to help seniors          injury-related subject. We’d like to invite you to let us
maintain a healthy and active life by highlighting simple measures   know if there is any information you’d like to share around.
to help prevent falls before they occur—such as being active,            Our website receives around 18,000 hits each month,
managing medicines and health, improving balance,                    so it’s a great place to let people know about your
regularly checking eyesight, and identifying and removing hazards.   work.We’d love to hear about new publications,
    Targeting Western Australian seniors aged 60 years and over,     research, programs or other injury initiatives.
the campaign uses an integrated marketing communications                 Remember, too, that our website has a section
approach featuring television advertising, press advertising, a      dedicated to coming events. This is a very popular
new range of education and information resources, a                  part of our website and we welcome information about
comprehensive publicity strategy, community-based and                conferences, seminars and courses. We also use this
volunteer activities and targeted communications to seniors and      information as the basis for our Diary section of the
key health professionals, particularly GPs and pharmacists.          Monitor.
    The new suite of resources include the handy Stay On Your            To have something added to either the Noticeboard
Feet WA™ booklet, brochure and checklist which provide               or Coming events is a simple matter of contacting
detailed information about falls and practical steps to reduce       Renate Kreisfeld at RCIS, Tel: +61 8 8201 7624; E-mail:
the risk. For copies of these resources, phone HealthInfo on         renate.kreisfeld@flinders.edu.au
1300 135 030 or visit the Stay On Your Feet WA™ website:

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                    Page 18
                                              Mexican ICE
         During June, the International Collaborative Effort (ICE)          challenges and opportunities
     on Injury Statistics met in Cuernavaca, Mexico. The                 Ron Hebert, Jamaica, Jamaican injury surveillance
     Mexican venue was chosen to encourage attendance by                    system
     delegates from Latin and Central America, many of whom              Diego Zavala, Puerto Rico, Organising a pilot project
     are engaged in setting up surveillance systems in their                on violent injury surveillance: opportunities and
     countries of origin.                                                   obstacles
         Among the presentations made at the meeting were                Richard Matzapoulous, South Africa, The National
     the following:                                                         Injury Mortality Surveillance System: an overview
                                                                            of fatal injury surveillance in South Africa
        Saakje Mulder, The Netherlands, International
                                                                         Olive Kobusingye, Republic of Congo, Injury
            Classification of Diseases (ICECI)
                                                                            surveillance efforts in the Africa Region supported
        Lee Annest, USA, NEISS: All Injury Program
                                                                            by WHO
        James Harrison, Australia, Indicators
                                                                         Chamaiparn Santikarn, Thailand, From provincial to
        Nancy Stout, USA, Occupational injury
                                                                            national: the development of injury surveillance
        Susan Mackenzie, Canada, Hospitalisations Data
                                                                            in Thailand
        Ian Scott, WHO Geneva, WHO update
                                                                         Danuta Rajs, Chile, External causes of morbidity and
        Margaret Warner, USA, Selecting a main injury when
                                                                            mortality in Chile
            using mortality data
                                                                         Ingrid Waisman, Argentina, Overview of injury
        Yvette Holder, Jamaica, Overview of ICE-related
                                                                            mortality in Argentina
            surveillance activities
                                                                         Alberto Inon, Argentina, Pediatric Trauma Program:
        Martha Hijar and Rafael Lozano, Mexico, Injury
                                                                            pediatric trauma registry and information systems
            Information systems in Mexico: advances and
                                                                            for epidemiology and surveillance
                                                                         Marta Vacchino, Argentina, Developing a national
        Eugenia Rodriques, Brazil, Mortality data collection
                                                                            injury surveillance system
            and public hospitalisation data in Brazil
        Luciana Barreto Phebo, Brazil, The impact of firearm              All of the above presentations were videotaped and
            injury in Brazil                                          copies will be made available for viewing via the ICE on
        Francisco Tercero, Nicaragua, Injury surveillance work        Injury web page when they have been processed. We’ll let
            in Nicaragua                                              readers know more in our next edition of the Monitor. For
        Maria Isabel Guiterrez and colleagues, Colombia,              people who become too impatient to wait for the next
            Application of surveillance systems in mortality          Monitor, paying a visit to the ICE on injury website in the
            data and domestic violence: ICECI in Colombia             near future might provide information about when the
        Patricia Brandon, Barbados, Strenthening violence and         videos are expected to become available: www.cdc.gov/
            injury surveillance in the Eastern Caribbean:             nchs/advice.htm

                                     Something to read ...?

   The 2004 National Drug                     Household Survey: First results report,            National Comorbidity
                                              published in April 2005. The results are                 Initiative
 Strategy Household Survey:                   based on a survey of almost 30,000
     State and Territory                      Australians conducted in 2004, and                 The AIHW has published a review of
         Supplement                           provide profiles of drug use and policy       data collections relating to people with
                                              support in each of the states and             coexisting substance use and mental
   Produced by the AIHW, this report          territories.                                  health disorders. The purpose of the report
presents data on patterns of drug use in          The report is only available on the       is to support one of the priority areas under
each of the states and territories. It        internet. It can be downloaded from the       the National Illicit Drug Strategy.
supplements the national findings from        AIHW website: www.aihw.gov.au/publications/        Copies of the report can be
the 2004 National Drug Strategy               index.cfm/title/10133                         downloaded from the AIHW website:

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                       Page 19
                                        Something to read ...?

www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/          iture, revenue and bed numbers, and a                The Parliament of Victoria’s Road
title/10132 Printed copies are available, free   range of hospital performance indicators         Safety Committee recently released the
of charge, from the Department of Health         reported using the National Health               report of its inquiry into the country road
and Ageing, Tel. 1800 020103 ext. 8654,          Performance Framework. Included for the          toll. The Committee’s brief was to report
Fax 02 6289 8360, E-mail:                        first time in 2003-04 are more com-              on the factors that contribute to the
nmm@nationalmailing.com.au                       prehensive statistics about patients who         unacceptably high road toll in country
                                                 presented to selected public hospital            Victoria, in particular:
                                                 emergency departments. The statistics
Australian Hospital Statistics                   now cover patients’ demographics, triage         • the incidence and causative role of
          2003-04                                categories, waiting times, durations of care         speed, drugs, alcohol and fatigue in
                                                 and a range of other data. This report is a          rural road crashes;
                                                 useful resource for health planners,             • the role of the road and roadside
                                                 administrators and researchers with an               environment in the causation and
                                                 interest in the Australian hospital system.          severity of crashes;
                                                     The report can be downloaded from            • the contribution to crash causation of
                                                 the AIHW website: www.aihw.gov.au/                   vehicle features, such as cruise control
                                                 publications/index.cfm/title/10130                   and navigation systems, and the
                                                     Printed copies are available for $40.00          extent and effectiveness of enforce-
                                                 from CanPrint, Tel: 1300 889 873, Fax: 02 6293       ment activities.
                                                 8333, Email: sales@infoservices.com.au               The Committee was asked to examine
                                                 $40.00                                           and consider measures which could be
                                                                                                  introduced to reduce the incidence and
                                                     Inquiry into the Country                     severity of such crashes.
                                                                                                      A copy of the report can be
                                                            Road Toll                             downloaded from www.parliament.vic.gov.au/

    This report provides an eleventh year
in the Institute’s comprehensive annual
statistical reporting of statistics on
Australia’s hospitals. Detailed information
is presented on hospital care and hospitals
in 2003-04, as are summaries of changes
over time, and comparisons between public
and private hospitals. Included are
statistics on admissions to public and
private hospitals in 2003-04, covering the
age and sex of patients, diagnoses,
procedures, length of stay and waiting
times for elective surgery. The report also
contains information on hospital expend-

Note: where available, Internet addresses have   3rd Australasian Conference on                   Dublin, Ireland
been provided below for conference websites.
For those meetings that don’t have their own     Safety and Quality in Healthcare                 Contact: Department of Mechanical
website, more detailed descriptions of the       11-13 July 2005                                  Engineering, Tel: +353-1-7161890, Fax:
events are normally available at our website:    Adelaide                                         +353 1283 0534, E-mail: iutam@ucd.ie
                                                 Contact: SAPMEA, Tel: +61 8 8274 6060,           Website: www.ucd.ie/iutam2005
Coder Training Course: ICD-10                    E-mail: aaqhc-aha05@sapmea.asn.au
4-15 July 2005                                   Website: www.sapmea.asn.au/conventions/          Bridging the Gaps: 2nd Rural
Brisbane                                         aaqhc2005/index.html                             Mental Health Conference
Contact: Sue Walker, National Centre for                                                          13-15 July 2005
Classification in Health, Tel: +61 7 3864        IUTAM Symposium on Impact bio-                   Warrnambool, Victoria
5873, Fax: +61 7 3864 5515, E-mail:              mechanics                                        Contact: Karen Roberts or John Dutton,
ncch.brisbane@qut.edu.au                         11-15 July                                       Aspire, Tel: 03 5560 3000, E-mail:

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                            Page 20

kroberts@aspire.org.au           Website:       2005 Institute of Transportation                              Injury Surveillance
www.aspire.org.au/conference                    Engineers Annual Meeting                                      15-16 September 2005
                                                7-10 August 2005                                              Trondheim, Norway
Short course: Integrating and                   Melbourne                                                     Contact: Website: www.trondheim.com/
sustaining community/consumer                   Contact: Donna Ford, Tel: +1 202 289 0222,                    safecity
participation                                   ext. 140, Fax: +1 202 898 4131, E-mail:                       2005 IRCOBI Conference on the
25-29 July 2005                                 dford@ite.org Website: www.ite.org/
                                                                                                              Biomechanics of Impact
Adelaide                                        annualmeeting/
                                                                                                              21–23 September 2005
Contact: Trish Clark, Tel: 08 8204 3005, Fax:
                                                                                                              Prague, Czech Republic
08 8204 5693, E-mail:                           International Conference on
                                                                                                              Contact: Antoinette Charpenne, Tel: +33
trish.clark@flinders.edu.au Website:            Engaging Communities                                          4 72 14 24 20, Fax: +33 4 72 14 26 66, E-mail:
som.flinders.edu.au/FUSA/PublicHealth/          14—17 August 2005
                                                                                                              charpenne@inrets.fr Website: www.ircobi.org
                                                Contact: OzAccom Conference Services,
2005 Annual Conference of the                                                                                 11th European Burns Association
                                                Tel: +61 7 3854 1611, Fax: +61 7 3854 1507,
Health Information Management                   E-mail: info@engagingcommunities2005.org
                                                Website: www.engagingcommunities2005.org                      21–24 September 2005
Association of Australia
                                                                                                              Estoril, Portugal
27-29 July 2005
                                                2005 World Mental Health                                      Deadline for abstracts: March/April 2005
Geelong, Victoria
                                                                                                              Contact: Maria Angelic de Almeida, Tel:
Contact: Website: www.himaa.org.au/2005/        Congress: Equity and Mental
                                                                                                              +351 21 884 12 01, E-mail:
2005 General Practice & Primary                                                                               dircp@hsjose.min-saude.pt Website:
                                                4-8 September, 2005
Health Care Research Conference                 Cairo, Egypt
26-28 July 2005                                 Contact: Giza Mental Health Association,                      36th Public Health Association of
Adelaide                                        Tel: +202 414 8089, Fax: +202 418 3175, E-                    Australia Annual Conference
Contact: Conference Logistics, Tel: 02 6281     Mail: conference@medical-design.net                           25–28 September 2005
6624, Fax: 02 6285 1336, E-Mail:                We b s i t e : w w w. m e d i c a l - d e s i g n . n e t /   Perth
conference@conlog.com.au Website:               mentalhealth2005
                                                                                                              Contact: PHAA Secretariat, Tel: +61 2 6285
                                                                                                              2373, Fax: +61 2 6282 5438, E-mail:
                                                49th Annual Association for the
                                                                                                              conference@phaa.net.au Website:
                                                Advancement of Automotive                                     www.phaa.net.au
2005 Australian Institute of Traffic
Planning and Management                         11-15 September 2005
Conference                                                                                                    6th Annual Alcohol Ignition
                                                Boston, USA                                                   Symposium
28-29 July 2005                                 Contact: E-mail: info@aaam.org Website:
Brisbane                                                                                                      26-27 September 2005
Contact: Kim Thomas, Tel: +61 8 8410                                                                          Annecy, France
7488, Fax: +61 8 8410 4688, E-mail:                                                                           Contact: E-mail:
                                                International Association for                                 barbarak@trafficinjuryresearch.com
aitpm@aitpm.com Website: www.aitpm.com/
                                                Suicide Prevention: XXIII                                     Website:www.ignitioninterlocksymposium.com/
2005    Health             Informatics          12–16 September 2005                                          28th Australasian Transport
Conference                                      Durban, South Africa                                          Research Forum
31 July-2 August 2005                           Contact: International Association for                        28-30 September 2005
                                                Suicide Prevention, Tel: +27 31 260 1607/                     Sydney
                                                1584, Fax: +27 31 260 1606,
Contact: Tel: 03 9388 0555, E-Mail:                                                                           Contact: ATRF 2005 Conference
                                                E-mail: IASP2005@ukzn.ac.za Website:
hisa@hisa.org.au Website: http://                                                                             Managers, Tel: 02 9265 0700, Fax: 02 9267
websites.golden-orb.com/hic/default.php                                                                       5443, E-mail: atrf2005@tourhosts.com.au
                                                XVIth World Congress on Safety                                Website: www.planning.nsw.gov.au/tpdc/
5th International Conference on                 and Health at Work                                            atrf05/index.html
Successes and Failures in                       18–22 September 2005
Telehealth                                      Orlando, Florida, USA                                         International Conference on
4-5 August 2005                                 Contact, Congress Secretariat, Tel +1 630                     Distracted Driving
Brisbane                                        285 1121, Fax: +1 630 285 1315, E-mail:                       2-5 October 2005
Contact: Centre for Online Health, Tel: +61 7   customerservice@nsc.org                                       Toronto, Canada
3346 4754, Fax: +61 7 3346 4705, E-Mail: sft@                                                                 Contact: E-mail:
ccs.uq.edu.au Website: www.uq.edu.au/sft/       1st Safe Community Conference on                              barbarak@trafficinjuryresearch.com

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                                          Page 21

13th International Conference on                Diversity in Health Conference                contact.htm
Road Safety                                     2005
5-7 October 2005                                17–19 October 2005                            Delivering Crime Prevention:
Warsaw, Poland                                  Melbourne                                     Making the Evidence Work
Contact: E-mail: RS4C@vti.se                    Contact: Conference Secretariat, Tel:         21-22 November 2005
                                                03 9457 7130, E-mail: info@amf.net.au         Sydney
6th National Men’s Health                       We b s i t e : www.mmha.org.au/News/          Contact: Conference coordinators, Tel: 02
Conference                                      DiversityHealthConference                     6292 9000, Fax: 02 6292 9002, E-mail:
9-12 October 2005                                                                             conference@confco.com.au
Melbourne                                       3rd Asian Regional Conference on              Website: www.aic.gov.au/conferences/
Contact: Registration Centre, Tel: 07 4031      Safe Communities                              2005-cp/
5656, Fax: 07 4031 5646, E-mail:                19-22 October 2005
mail@regocentre.com Website:                    Taipei, Taiwan                                PhD Course: Research in Injury
www.regocentre.com/nmh2005/nmh.htm              Contact: Conference Secretariat, Tel: +886    Prevention and Safety Promotion
                                                2 2504 4338 ext. 19 Fax: +886 2 2504 4362     Begins 23 January 2006
2005 International Evaluation                   E-mail: cheryl@elitepco.com.tw Website:       Stockholm, Sweden
Conference                                      www.safe2005.com.tw                           Contact: Moa Sundstrom, Fax: +46 8 33 46 93,
10-12 October 2005                                                                            E-Mail: moa.sundstrom@sll.se Website:
Brisbane                                        World Conference on Prevention                www.phs.ki.se/csp/who_education_en.htm
Contact: Website:         www.aes.asn.au/       of Family Violence
conference/2005/                                23-26 October 2005                            International Traffic Medicine
                                                Banff, Ottawa, Canada                         Association 20th World Congress
4th National Aboriginal and Torres              Contact: Tel: +1 780 415 0085, Fax: +1 780    5 January 2006
Strait Islander Male Health                     422 5036, E-mail: info@wcpfv2005.ca
Convention: Shaping Our Future                  Website: www.wcpfv2005.ca/en_home.cfm
                                                                                              Deadline for Abstracts: 31 March 2006.
13-14 October 2005                                                                            Contact: Mick Gould, Convention
Melbourne                                       22nd Australian Road Research
                                                                                              Associates, Tel: +61 3 9684 4480, Fax: +61
Contact: Registration Centre, Tel: 07 4031      Board Conference
                                                                                              3 9684 4481, E-mail: trafficmed@vifm.org
5656, Fax: 07 4031 5646, E-mail:                29 October-2 November 2005
mail@regocentre.com                             Canberra
                                                Contact: ARRB Group, 500 Burwood
                                                                                              Landscapes of Youth
Website: www.regocentre.com/nmh2005/                                                          12-14 January 2006
mhc.htm                                         Highway, Vermont South, Victoria 3133, E-
                                                mail: 22conf@arrb.com.au                      Stockholm, Sweden
                                                                                              Contact: Fredrik Stiernstedt, E-mail:
Australian Conference of Science                                                              fredrik.stiernstedt@sh.se Website:
and Medicine in Sport                           4th Asia Pacific Conference on
13-16 October 2005                              Transportation     and     the
Melbourne                                       Environment
                                                8-10 November 2005
                                                                                              PhD Course: Research in Injury
Contact: Angela Cox, Sports Medicine
                                                Xian, China                                   Prevention and Safety Promotion
Australia, Tel: 02 6230 4650, Fax: 02 6230
                                                Contact: Tel: +86 10 6491 4809, Fax: +86 10   23 January to 6 February 2006
5908, E-mail: acsms@sma.org.au Website:
www.sma.org.au/acsms/2005/                      6491 8204, Website: http://jtzx.net.cn/apte   Stockholm, Sweden
                                                                                              Deadline for application: 1 October 2005.
4th National Sports                Injury       6th Nordic Safe Community                     Contact: Moa Sundstrom, Fax: +46 8 33 46 93,
Prevention Conference                           Conference                                    E-mail: moa.sundstrom@sll.se Website:
15-16 October 2005                                                                            www.phs.ki.se/csp/who_education_en.htm
                                                9-14 November 2005
Melbourne                                       Karlstad, Sweden
Contact: Gary Moorhead, Sports Medicine         Contact: E-mail: inger.larsson@srv.se or      1st International Symposium on
Australia, Tel: Fax: +61 2 6230 5908, E-mail:   tommy.rosenberg@srv.se Website:               Environment, Behaviour and
gary.moorhead@sma.org.au                        www.srv.se/nscc                               Society
                                                                                              9-11 February 2006
20th World Congress of the                      2nd International Conference on               Sydney
International Traffic Medicine                  Driver Behaviour and Training                 Contact: Environment, Behaviour and
Association                                     15-17 November                                Society Research Group, Faculty of
16-18 October 2005                              Edinburgh, Scotland                           Architecture, University of Sydney, Tel: +61
Melbourne                                       Contact: Driving Research Unit, Cranfield     2 9351 8765, Fax: +61 2 9351 5665, E-mail:
Contact: E-mail: trafficmed@vifm.org            University, E-mail: l.dorn@cranfield.ac.uk    EBSsymposium2006@arch.usyd.edu.au
Website: www.trafficmedicine.org                Website: www.cranfield.ac.uk/soe/drive/       Website: www.arch.usyd.edu.au/web/research/

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                         Page 22

ebs/ebssymposium.html                                      Accidents & Trauma at Work
                                                           12-15 September 2006
10th Australasian Conference on
Child Abuse and Neglect
                                                           The Netherlands
                                                           Deadline for Abstracts: 30 September         New on the
14-16 February 2006                                        2005.
Wellington, New Zealand
Contact: ACCAN, Tel: +64 4 473 8044
                                                           Contact: ATP Congresses & Meetings,
                                                           Tel: +31 70 3766 733, Website:
Fax: +64 4 473 8042, E-mail:
a c c a n @ a v e n u e s . c o . n z
Website: www.nzfvc.org.nz/accan/                           22nd Australian Road Research
                                                           Group Conference
8th World Conference on Injury                             29 October to 1 November 2006
                                                                                                       Kreisfeld R and Harrison J.
Prevention and Safety Promotion                            Canberra                                    Injury deaths, Australia,
19-22 March 2006                                           Contact: Website: www.arrb.com.au/          1999 with a focus on the
Johannesburg, South Africa                                 index.php?option=content&task=view&         transition from ICD-9 to
Contact: Conference Secretariat, Tel:                      id=17&Itemid=38
+27 12 4812094, Fax: +27 12 4812112,
E-mail: sec@safety2006.info Website:                       18th Annual Australian Winter
www.safety2006.info                                        School on Alcohol and Other Drugs           www.nisu.flinders.edu.au
                                                           4-7 July 2007
XII International Winter Road                              Brisbane
Congress                                                   Contact: Tel: +61 7 3834 0211, Fax: +61 7
27-30 March 2006                                           3832, 5625, E-mail: winterschool@adfq.org
Torino, Italy                                              Website: www.winterschool.info
Contact: Tel: +39 0112 446 911, Fax:
+39 0112 446 900, E-mail:
Website: www.aipcr2006.it

Think Before You Act: Effective
Treatments for Suicidal Individuals
1-3 April 2006
Aeschi, Switzerland
Contact: Michel Konrad, E-mail:
konrad.michel@spk.unibe.ch Website:
www. a e s c h i c o n f e r e n c e . u n i b e . c h /

2nd International Seminar on
Injury Research Methods
6-7 April 2006
Cape Town, South Africa
Contact: Saakje Mulder, E-mail:

3rd International Conference on
Healthy Ageing and Longevity
28-30 April 2006
Contact: Conference Organisers, Tel: 1300
553 275, Fax: +61 2 6680 9643, E-mail:
Website: www.Longevity-international.com

3rd Conference of the International
Network on the Prevention of

 Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                                      Page 23
               References                                                  Editor’s Note
    1. Bugeja L. 2004. Farm related fatalities in Victoria, July
       2000-June 2003. State Coroners Office, Victoria.              The Injury Issues Monitor is the journal of the
                                                                    Research Centre for Injury Studies at the Flinders
    2. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission
                                                                             University of South Australia.
       (NOHSC). National OHS Strategy, 2002-2012. NOHSC:
       Canberra, 2002. See www.nohsc.gov.au/nationalstrategy

    3. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission                   Letters to the Editor are welcome.
       (NOHSC). Work-related fatalities associated with design                  Editor: Renate Kreisfeld
       issues involving machinery and fixed plant in
       Australia, 1989 to 1992. Sydney: AusInfo, 2000. See
                                                                              Mark Oliphant Building, Laffer
    4. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission
                                                                               Drive, Bedford Park, SA 5042,
       (NOHSC). National data set for compensation-based
       statistics. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing
                                                                                 Tel: 08 8201 7624 (Renate
       Service, 1987.
                                                                                  Kreisfeld), 08 8201 7602
                                                                              (Reception); Fax: 08 8374 0702;
    5. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission                                  E-mail:
       (NOHSC). The role of design issues in work-related                      renate.kreisfeld@flinders.edu.au
       injuries in Australia 1997-2002. NOHSC: Canberra, 2004.
       See www.nohsc.gov.au/SafeDesign/Information_sources/

    6. Design issues in work-related serious injuries: Phase 3
       report. NOHSC: Canberra, 2004.

    7. Further information is available at      www.nohsc.gov.au/

    8. Pan CS, Chiou S, Hsiao H, Wassell J. Assessment of
       perceived traumatic injury hazards during drywall
       hanging. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics,

    9. Lipscomb HJ, Dement JM, Loomis DP, Silverstein B,                            ISSN No 1039-4885
       Kalat J. Surveillance of work-related musculoskeletal                       AIHW Cat. No. INJ74
       injuries among Union carpenters. American Journal of
       Industrial Medicine, 1997;32:629-640.

  10. Chiou SS et al. Assessment of fall potential associated
      with drywall lifting. Advances in Occupational
      Ergonomics and Safety, 2001;4 55-61.

  11. Health and Safety Laboratory. Musculoskeletal problems
      in bricklayers, carpenters and plasterers: Literature
      review and results of site visits. Health and Safety
      Executive: Sheffield, 2001. page 80.

  12. Chiou SS, Pan CS, Keane P. Traumatic injury among
      drywall installers, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Occupational
      and Environmental Medicine, 2000;42(11):1101-1108.

  13. Lappalainen J, Kaukiainen A, Sillanpää J, Viljanen M,
      Roto P. Effects of Gyproc ERGO Plasterboard on the
      health and safety of workers: pilot study. Applied
      Occupational and Environmental Hygiene,

  14. Stuckey R, LaMontagne A. Occupational light-vehicle
      use and OHS legislative frameworks: an Australian
      example. Int J Occup Environ Health 2005;11:167–179.

Injury Issues Monitor No 33, July 2005                                                                             Page 24

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