Glossary of Terms Acetate Film A clear plastic film that can be used in planning and make-up and can also be fastened over artwork for protection when wiro binding. Acid-free Paper Paper made from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper. A4 Paper ISO paper size 210 x 297mm a size most commonly used for Letterheads. Against the Grain At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain. Also see Grain Direction. Airbrush Pen-shaped tool that sprays a fine mist of ink or paint to retouch photos and create continuous-tone illustrations, a technique now commonly available in all graphics programs. Anti-aliasing The rendering of hard-edged objects so they blend smoothly into the background, a technique for merging object-orientated art into bitmaps. Aqueous Coating / Varnish A water base coating that is applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the print. Artwork All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art. Author's Corrections - AA Changes and additions to the copy after it has been typeset. AA's are usually considered an additional cost to the client. Back Up (1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side. Barcode A pattern of lines and numerals carrying information about the product which is scanned and realised/interpreted by a computer. Binding A process of fastening pages together of a printed item. Bindery Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects. Bitmap Image that is composed of square pixels, each pixel is encoded as binary data and can require a large volume of data which could be a disadvantage. Blanket In offset printing, a rubber surfaced fabric is clamped around a cylinder which then transfers the image from plate to paper. Bleed If the printed image extends to the trim edge, it is called bleed, always allow at least 3mm bleed and 5mm when die cutting. Blind Emboss A design stamped without a metallic leaf or ink, giving a bas-relief effect. Body The main text of work not including the headlines or the text of a booklet. Bond Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper. Bulk Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight also measured in microns. Calibration Bars Appears on a negative, proof or printed piece, a strip of tones used to check print quality. Caliper (1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts. Cameo To highlight type against a background i.e. outline with white space. Carbonless Paper Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing. Cartridge A strong, stable compressed paper with a natural, uncoated surface. Cast Coated A paper with a very high gloss finish, made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet. Cibachrome A photographic colour print. Chromalin Full colour proof showing all colours, serves as a colour guide. CMYK Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colours. Coarse Screen Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter). Coated A paper with surface coating which produces a smooth, glossy finish. Collate To organise printed matter in a specific order as requested. Colour Correct To adjust the relationship among the process colours to achieve desirable colours. Colour Gamut The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-colour process printing. Colour Separations The process of separating a full colour original into the four primary printing colours; cyan, magenta, yellow and black. Commercial Printer Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different. Composite Proof Proof of colour separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof. Compression Decreasing the size of a data file for storage with little or no distortion of the image data and quality. Concertina Folding A method of folding a continuous web of paper without cutting it into sheets, also called zig-zag. Contact Screen A photographically made half-tone screen on film with a dot structure of graded density, used in vacuum contact with the photographic film. Continuous Tone A photographic image which has not been screened and contains gradient tones from black to white (dark to light), also known as a vignette. Contrast A wide range between the lightest the darkest tones of an image. Correx A very lightweight, plastic, corrugated display type board, can be used for outdoor, image is usually screen printed. Cover Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back. Coverage Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy. Cover Paper Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books. Creep Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called out push, push out and thrust. Crop To cut off or mask the unwanted part. Crop Mark Lines printed indicating the dimensions of the final printed page; these marks are used for final trimming. The bleed should exceed this area by at least 3mm. Cure To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff. Cyan The primary blue, used in four colour printing (process blue). Deboss To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface. Decal An adhesive substrate i.e. sticker. Decompression Restoring a decompressed data file to its full size. Densitometer A quality control device (electronic) for measuring the thickness, strength and opacity of ink. Density Black expressed in percentage values. Desktop Publishing (DTP) Technique of using a personal computer to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Die Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing. Die Cut To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die. Commonly used for shaping swing tags, packaging etc. Die Stamp A printing process using an engraved, intaglio (depressed) image and producing an embossed, relief effect on the substrate. Digital Print A print process that is produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper that is quick and ideal for small print runs. Dot Gain The size of the dot develops (enlarges) from film, to plate, to paper, CTP (computer to plate) has minimised this; there is almost no dot gain in digital print. DPI Dots Per Inch, a measure of output resolution produced by printers, imagesetters and printers. Drill In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter. Dummy A preliminary layout of a printed piece, showing how the various elements will be arranged, size or major features as a guide to production. Duotone A two colour half-tone reproduction from a one colour photograph. Duplex Paper Paper or board with a different colour or finish on each side. Dyeline An inexpensive blue print proof of unpublished, full colour material. Emboss The deformation of paper or board by means of a relief block that will impress a raised image. Emulsion Side The side of the film coated with the silver emulsion which should face the lens during contact exposure. Encapsulate A plastic sleeve that is bonded by heat and pressure to printed matter for either protection or appearance and is available in matt and gloss finish as well as in varying thicknesses. EPS Encapsulated PostScript, a file format used to transfer PostScript image information from one program to another. Equivalent Paper Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. Also called comparable stock. Estimate Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender. Estimator The individual performing or creating the "estimate." Etch To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film. Foam Board A very lightweight display board which has strong foam sandwiched between two sheets of art board, very warp resistant. Fifth Colour Any colour selected in addition to the four process colours. File A collection of digital data stored on a magnetic medium, which can be processed by a computer. Fill In Extreme dot gain that can be reduced by using stronger inks. Film A transparent material coated with a light sensitive substance. Finish (1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations. Finished Size Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size. Fixed Costs Costs that remain the same regardless of how many pieces are printed. Flat Size Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size. Flexographic Printing Also known as Flexo, utilising a rotary web letterpress, using rubber plates and fast drying flexo inks. Can be utilised for newspaper, magazines and labels. Flush Cover Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush Flyleaf Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case. Foil Stamping / Emboss The application of metallic or metallised images to a substrate by means of a heated relief block and controlled pressure. Folio (page number) The actual page number in a publication. Font A complete assortment of type of one size and face. Four Colour Process Printing The use of Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. Material is printed from a of two or more half-tone plates to produce intermediate colours and shades. Gamut The range of colours that a specific device can produce. Gate Fold A type of fold in which the ends of a pair of pages are folded inwards and meet at the centre of the page. The gates open outwards like hinged doors or gates. Generation Each succeeding stage in reproduction from the original copy. Ghosting Image patterns appear in solids. Gloss A shinny surface with a smooth texture also light reflecting on various objects e.g. ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish. Grade General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper. Grain Direction The direction in which most fibers lie which corresponds with the direction the paper is made. Grain Long Paper Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper. Grain Short Paper Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper. Grammage The weight in grams of a square meter of paper expressed in g/m2. Graphic Design Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message. Gravure An intaglio printing process, a depressed/sunken surface for the image, then filled with ink. Often used for long runs of publication and packaging print. A distinctive feature for recognising is that the entire image is screened (type and line drawings). Usually a 150# line screen, invisible to the naked eye. Greyscale The variation of tonal values of black and white. Gripper Edge The leading edge of paper as it passes through the printing press. Gripper Margin An unprintable edge of paper on which grippers of the machine bear. GSM The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter). Gutter The blank space or inner margin from the printing area to the margin. Hairline / Rule Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances. Half Tone The reproduction of photography through a screen which separates the image into patterns of dots in various sizes. The more the density, the result is a sharper definition. A newspaper will use about 85 lines per inch (34 dots per cm) whereas a high quality magazine will use 150 lines or more per inch (60 lines per cm). Halo Effect Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Head-to-tail Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages. Hickeys Spots or imperfections in printing due to dirt on the press such as dried ink, paper particles etc. Highlight The lightest or whitest pats in a photograph represented in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of dots. Hinged Cover Perfect bound cover scored (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine. House Sheet Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet. Hue The main attribute of a colour which distinguishes it from other colours. Image Area The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage. Imagesetter A device used to output a computer image or composition at high resolution onto photographic paper or film using a laser beam. Imposition Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound. Ink Jet Printing Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Ink Weight Total amount of ink (CMYK) laid down by a printing press in a particular area, the total amount of ink should not exceed 250% of all four colours. Intaglio Sunken form of printing. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing. Interleaf Printed or blank pages loosely inserted between sheets or in a publication. Ivory Board A high quality board produced by laminating two or more papers of identical quality together. Job Number A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping. Job Ticket Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Justification The spacing of text in a column or page of type matter to achieve regular left and right-hand margins. Kerning Adjusting the spacing between two characters closer, so that part of one letter extends over that of the other. Keyline An outline drawing on finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size of various elements e.g. half- tones, colour tints etc. Kraft Paper A paper or board containing unbleached wood pulp, brown in colour. A strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes. Laid Finish Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain. Laser Printer A printing device in which a laser is used to produce an image, commonly used in offices and studios for proofing purposes. Laminate A thin transparent plastic film bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for either protection or appearance available in matte and gloss finish. Lay Edge The edge of a sheet of paper feeding into a press. Layout A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired. Leading The determination of the space between the lines of text. Leaf One sheet of paper in a publication, each side of a leaf is one. Letter fold Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold. Legend The name, description or date of an advert or printed item for control or tracking purposes. Letterpress Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal type or plates whose surfaces have been etched away from image areas. Also called block printing. Linen Finish An embossed paper with the appearance of linen (also called crash). Litho Offset Lithography. A process of printing from plates (flat surface) contacted by film or from disc. Sheet-fed, one can print books, posters labels etc. Can be utilsed for short, medium and long runs. Logo / Logotype A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit. Looseleaf Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication. Lpi Line Per Inch, a measure of the frequency of horizontal and vertical lines of dots that make up a screen, usually between 55 and 200. Machine Coated A slightly shiny lacquer over printed on job to prevent scuffing of ink (sealant), does slightly alter colour of job. Magenta Primary red used in full colour print Make-ready Work done prior to printing; adjusting the feeder, grippers, side guide, placing ink in the fountain etc. Manila A strong paper made from hemp or other fibers, often used for envelopes. Mask An outline silhouette used to isolate an area. Matte A dull lusterless paper. Metallic Ink Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal. Metallic Paper Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose colour and gloss simulate metal. Mock Up A reproduction of the original printed matter; called a "dummy” and possibly containing instructions or direction. Moire Pattern An unintended pattern in halftone printing caused by a visual clash between two or more screens or dot patterns (add a little blur to the image in Photoshop to soften the image). Montage Several photographs pasted to one artboard in an aesthetic may. Negative Films containing an image in which the values of the original are reversed i.e. dark areas are light and visa versa. Newsprint Paper made from ground wood-pulp and small amounts of chemical pulp, used for printing newspapers. Opacity (1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through. Onion Skin A specific lightweight type (kind) of paper usually used in the past for air mail. Seldom used today (in the typewriter era). Opaque (1) Not transparent. (2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaque paint. Also called block out and spot. Overlay Layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof. Acetate overlays are used to separate colours by having some type or art on them instead of on the mounting board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions about the underlying copy and to protect the base art. Overprint To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Padding Method of binding using glue to form a pad. Page One side of a leaf in a publication. Page Count Total number of pages that a publication has. Pagination In the book arena, the numbering of pages. Pantone An international system of designating colours for printing. Parallel Fold Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels. Parchment A stiff, yellowish paper, originally made from animal skins. Perfect Bind Where the spin of a catalogue is square backed. Perfecting Press that is capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfecter. Perforation A number of holes punched to facilitate easy separation i.e. Postage stamp Pixel Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device. Plate Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press. Platemaker (1) In quick printing, a process camera that makes plates automatically from mechanicals. (2) In commercial lithography, a machine with a vacuum frame used to expose plates through film. PMS Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colours in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colours, not PMS Colours. Positive Film coating an image in which the dark and the light values are the same as the original, the reverse of a negative. PostScript A page description language, coded and intended for output devices is also used to describe images. Pre-press A collective term for the steps necessary to convert original artwork, to film and then to plates, and in digital, these steps are carried out by the computer. Pre-press Proof Any colour proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press proof. Press Check Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorising full production to begin. Press Time (1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including time required for makeready. (2) Time of day at which a printing job goes on press. Price Break Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops. Printer Spreads Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads. Printing Plate Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate. Process Colour The four basic colours used in normal printing process Magenta, Cyan, Yellow and Black. Process Printing Printing from a series of two or more half-tone plates to produce intermediate colours and shades. Production Run Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared to makeready. Progressive Proofs Proofs of a full colour job which show each colour separately adding one to the next to build up the final colour proof. Mostly used where perfect colour representation is essential. Proof A visual interpretation of the image to be printed, produced from a laser printer, press proof, dyeline, plotter etc. Proofreader Marks Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks. Quality Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the job meets those expectations. Qualify To test substrates, colours and finishes prior to commencing a job whereby the printer can ensure expectations are attainable. Quotation Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job. Raster Image Processor Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter. RAM Random Access Memory, the memory a computer uses to store information it is processing at any given moment, it is short term memory and the information held in the RAM is lost when the power is turned off. Ream Five hundred sheets of paper. Recycled Paper New paper made entirely or in part from old paper. Register The fitting of two or more printing images on the same sheet of paper in exact alignment with each other. Register Marks Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks. Relief Printing Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having inked areas higher than non-inked areas. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography and letter press. Resolution The amount of pixels, particles or dots per square inch, 300# is good enough for most images, higher resolutions do not necessarily improve the final quality, but slow down the image processing. Reverse Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying colour or paper to show through and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink colour. Also called knockout and liftout. RGB Red, green and blue, primary colours, which cannot be produced by mixing colours, which combined, create white light. RIP Raster image process, acts as an interpreter between the input workstation, MAC or PC and an output device such as an imagesetter, converting information into the dot pattern that will be imaged onto film or paper. Roll Fold Consecutive fold as apposed to zig-zag fold. ROM Read-Only Memory, microprocessor based, usually permanent data storage that contains key instructions for the computer to start and operate. Saddle Stitched Two or more pages stapled through the spine from the middle to hold the booklet together. Satin Finish Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper. Saturation Is the clarity of a colour. Scanner A device used to digitize images to be manipulated, output or stored on a computer. Score To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease. Screen Angles Angles at which half-tone screens are placed in relation to one another to avoid moiré patterns. Angles most often used are; black45 degree, magenta75 degree, cyan105 degrees and yellow-90 degrees. Screen Printing Method of printing by using a ‘squeegee’ to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil. Screen Ruling This affects the 'definition' of an image i.e. the sharpness or degree of detail in a half-tone image. The more dots per linear centimeter, the finer and more detailed the image. SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface, a type of connection used to attach peripherals such as an external hard drive or scanner to a computer. Scumming Occurs where ink is offset onto the substrate in a non-printing area or there is the appearance of dot gain. Self Cover Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout. Self Mailer A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently. Separations Pieces of film output, each containing image information for only one printing colour. Setoff The unwanted transfer of ink from a substrate to parts of the press or other parts of the substrate. Sheetfed Press A printing process whereby printing is done on single sheets of paper typically for medium to high runs with a high quality print. Side Stitching Where a brochure is stapled down the side, close to the spine. Silkscreen Based on a stencil principal, a printing method where ink is forced by means of a 'squeegee' blade through the stencil stuck to a cloth or wire mesh, ideal for large format and substrates other than paper with a small print run. It cannot compete in terms of speed and volume, but is the most versatile method of print. Slurring Occurs mainly on coated stock where shadow dots appear and reverse letters fill in. Soft Cover A booklet that has the same stock on the cover as it has in the text. Solid Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint. Specialist Printer Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products. Specifications Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviation : specs. Spectrophotometer Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of colour. Spine Back or binding edge of a publication Spiral Bind A series of round plastic lengths wound through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet or calendar. Spot Colour or Varnish A single colour which is printed in addition to black. Split Run (1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book that has some copies bound one way and other copies bound another way. Spoilage Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste. Spread (1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Static Print A print process where as little as one print can be produced e.g. digital. Step and Repeat A process of duplicating an original piece in order to print more than one piece. Stock / Substrate A base material used to receive a printed image, paper, board, foil etc. Strut A die cut fold-out cardboard (single or double wing) for counter stands and display. Substrate Type of paper or board printed on. SWOP Abbreviation for specifications for web offset publications, specifications recommended for web printing of publications. Tabbing A bindery operation in which tabs are die cut to shape. Tabloid Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet. Tear Test Method of determining the direction of the grain in a sheet of paper, paper tears easily with the grain. Text Paper Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use 'text' to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture. Thermography Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the colour of underlying ink. Also called raised printing. Thumbnails Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to initial concept of a future project. TIFF Tagged Image File Format, a file format used to represent black-and-white, grey scale or colour bitmapped images, particularly those produced by scanners. Tint Various even toned areas of solid colour. Tip In Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s) beyond the normal process (separate insertion). Trapping A pre-press technique which allows for variation in registration during the press run. On computer, this is done primarily by allowing an overlap between abutting colours. Trim Size The size of the printed material in its finished stage. Uncoated Paper A paper without a surface coating, porous, not white and smooth. UV Coating Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. Value How light or dark a colour is. Varnish A thin coating applied over a printed surface to give added protection. Vignette A halftone produced to print so that the edges fade imperceptibly into the white of the paper. Virgin Paper Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper. Wash Up To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components. Waste Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage. Watermark Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water. Web Break Split of the paper as it travels through a web press, causing operators to rethread the press. Web Gain Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through the press. Web Press This is a high speed printing process whereby printing is done on a continuous roll of paper. The end result is normally a complete multi-page item in a sequential page order typically used for high volume brochure work and newspaper printing. Weight Paper and board are measured in grams per square meter (gsm or gsm2). Wiro Binding A series of wire loops pushed through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet or calendar. Woodfree Paper Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered or supercalendered. Wove Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper. Work and Tumble Allows the printer to 'back up' a sheet without having to change plates. Half the sheet has receives the impression of side A and side B, the sheet is then tumbled placing the original gripper edge to the back so that a new edge meets the gripper. Because both ends lead through the gripper, sufficient paper must be allowed for margins. Work and Turn The sheet is printed by turning it over from left to right, so that the same gripper edge is used for both sides. Not having to change the gripper edge makes it easier for the printer to hold proper register. For this reason, work and turn is more widely used than work and tumble. Wove Paper Paper with an unlined surface and soft, smooth finish. Z Fold (zig-zag) Also known as Accordion and Concertina fold, a zig-zag folding style, usually for a single page leaflet with a series of parallel folds each being opposite to the previous fold.