Docstoc

Antigone 2010--STUDENT PACKET KEY - Katy ISD

Document Sample
Antigone 2010--STUDENT PACKET KEY - Katy ISD Powered By Docstoc
					Antigone Study Questions Prologue/Parados                                    pp. 685-698

 1. Where is the story set? THE CITY OF THEBES
 2. How did Antigone and Ismene’s brothers die? THEY KILLED EACH OTHER IN BATTLE
    OVER THE THRONE OF THEBES
 3. What order has Creon given regarding Polyneices’ body? TO LIE IN THE FIELD TO ROT
    WITHOUT PROPER BURIAL RITES
 4. What motivates Antigone to break Creon’s law? What motivates Ismene to respect it?
   ANTIGONE IS MOTIVATED BY LOVE FOR HER BROTHER AND DEVOTION TO THE
   GODS; ISMENE IS MOTIVATED BY FEAR AND RESPECT FOR THE LAW.

 5.  Give examples of verbal irony (what is said is the opposite of what is meant) in Antigone’s
    scenes with Ismene.
 “YOU MAY DO AS YOU LIKE, SINCE APPARENTLY THE LAWS OF THE GODS MEAN
  NOTHING TO YOU.”
 “YOU NEED NOT BE; YOU HAVE YOURSELF TO CONSIDER, AFTER ALL.”

 6. Why does Ismene tell her sister, “You are mad!”
   BECAUSE ANTIGONE HAS DECIDED TO DEFY CREON AND BURY HER
   BROTHER.

 7. Why doesn’t Ismene help her sister?
   SHE’S AFRAID TO DEFY CREON’S BROTHER.

 8. Which of Antigone’s parting comments to Ismene seem especially cruel or hurtful? How can
     you explain or defend Antigone’s verbal cruelty?
   “I SHALL BE HATING YOU SOON, AND THE DEAD WILL TOO” OR “IT WILL NOT BE
    THE WORST OF DEATHS—DEATH WITHOUT HONOR.” HER CRUELTY COMES
   FROM PASSIONATE FEELINGS, SHE IS BEING SELFISH AND MELODRAMTIC.

 9. When the Chorus members first appear, what background information do they provide?
   THEY GIVE BACGROUND ON THE BATTLE BETWEEN ETEOCLES AND
   POLYNEICES.

 10. What is Parados? What is Strophe? What is Antistrophe?
   PARADOS—1ST ODE OR CHORAL SONG; STROPHE—PART OF THEODE WHERE
   CHORUS MOVES FROM RIGHT TO LEFT OF THE STAGE; ANTISTROPHE—PART OF
   THE ODE WHERE CHORUS MOVES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OF THE STAGE.

 11. How does Sophocles personify the spears of Polyneices forces?
   HE SAYS THEY ARE “FAMISHED” FOR LIFE

 12. Whose “jaws” are likewise described as hungry for the blood of the people of Thebes? What
     fierce beast is the city of Thebes compared to? POLYNEICES; A DRAGON

 13. How does the final antistrophe remind the audience of the time of day and the physical and
     emotional setting? NOW THE BATTLE IS OVER, IT IS A BEAUTIFUL MORNING, AND
     THE CITY OF THEBES IS FILLED WITH JOYFUL HYMNS OF PRAISE



                                                                                                   1
Antigone Study Questions Scene 1/Ode 1                                      pp. 700-705

 1. Briefly explain the line of succession that resulted in Creon’s ascension to power.
 BROTHER TO JOCASTA; AFTER 2 BROTHERS KILL EACH OTHER, HE TAKES OVER
 BEING THE ONLY MALE HEIR TO THE THRONE LEFT IN THE LINE
 2. What is the “Ship of State”? What are the recent storms that threatened it?
 THE GOVERNMENT OF THEMES; THE REBELLION LED BY POLYNEICES

 3. Why has Creon summoned the senators?
 TO INFORM HIM OF THE LAWS REGARDING POLYNEICES BURIAL AND
 PUNISHMENT TO THOSE WHO BREAK THE LAW

 4. How does the end of Creon’s speech differ in tone from the beginning?
 HE STARTED OUT SOUNDING VERY REASONABLE AND HUMANE; WHEREAS NOW HE
 SOUNDS VENGEFUL AND CRUEL
 5. How does the Choragos feel about Creon’s demand? How do you know how he feels?
 HE WILL OBEY IT BUT HE DOES NOT SEEM TO LIKE IT. HE SAYS ITS “HIS WILL”
 AND HIS “RIGHT TO ENFORCE IT.” HE ASKS THAT THE YOUNGER MEN HANDLE
 THE SITUATION.

 6. What does the comment in ll. 63-65 reveal about Creon’s attitudes or mind-set?
 HE HAS A SUSPICIOUS NATURE; HE IS CYNICAL ABOUT THE HONESTY OF TOHERS,
 READY TO BELIEVE THAT ANYONE CAN BE BRIBED.

 7. How does the Sentry’s arrival diffuse the tension of the scene?
 HIS COMIC BABBLING BREAKS INTO THE CONFLICT THA HAS BEEN BUILDING
 BETWEEN CREON AND THE CHORAGOS

 8. What is the Sentry’s news?
 SOMEONE HAS COVERED POLYNEICES’ BODY ATTEMPTING BURIAL RITES.
 9. What motive does Creon suspect the person who buried Polyneices had? What will happen
    to him/her if Creon finds him/her? HE BELIEVES THAT THERE ARE THOSE WHO
    WANT TO GET RID OF HIM AS KING AND ARE SCHEMING TO DO SO FOR MONEY.
    THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE WILL BE STONED TO DEATH.
 10. Why is the Sentry so happy to leave Creon? HE WILL BE SAFE FROM CREON’S WRATH
 11. What attitude toward human beings does the Chorus express in Ode 1? What one fact
     tempers their attitude? HUMANITY IS THE GREATEST OF THE WORLD’S WONDERS,
     BUT DESPITE ITS MANY CONQUESTS, IT CANNOT ESCAPE DEATH.

 12. According to the last stanza of the Ode, why do you think the chorus supports Creon?
 CREON EMBODIES THE LAW, AND THE CHORUS TRULY BELIEVES THERE IS NO
 CIVILIZATION WITHOUT LAW. THE CHORUS MAY NOT LIKE CREON, BUT IT
 WANTS THEBES TO REMAIN ORDERED AND SECURE.




                                                                                            2
Antigone Study Questions Scene 2/Ode                                       2 pp. 707-713

 1. How was Antigone captured and by whom? THE SENTRY CAPTURED ANTIGONE AS SHE
    WAS WAILING AND THROWING DUST ON THE BODY IN A BURIAL RITUAL.
 2. What happened right before Antigone was detected alongside of the body? A WIND BLEW UP
    AND WHEN ALL WAS STILL THERE WAS A WAILING AT THE SIGHT OF THE BARE
    BODY
 3. What was Antigone doing with the corpse? GIVING IT A RITUAL BATH
 4. What reason does Antigone give for violating Creon’s decree? What theme of the play does her
    reasoning express? SHE SAYS THAT CREON’S DECREE WAS NOT GOD’S
    PROCALMATION AND THAT IT CANNOT STAND AGAINST HIS IMMORTAL LAWS.
    DIVINE LAW TRANSCENDS HUMAN LAW.
 5. Creon accuses Antigone of boasting in her outrageous deed. Cite one of her lines that
    demonstrate her boasting. “THUS TO ME THE PAIN IS LIGHT TO MEET THIS FATE.”
 6. According to Antigone, why doesn’t anyone praise her for her actions? Do you think Antigone
    reads the motives of the Theban elders correctly? Why or why not?
    THEY ARE AFRAID OF ANGERING CREON. SHE READS THEM CORRECTLY
    BECAUSE CREON HAS ALREADY MOVED TO ESTABLISH HIS POWER AND THEY
    SPOKE EARLIER OF “HIS WILL” AND THE POWER TO ENFORCE IT. GIVEN HAS
    EXTREME HER FEELINGS ARE AND HOW FOCUSED SHE IS ON THE HONOR OF HER
    BROTHER; IT MAY BE THAT SHE’S NOT RELIABLE INTERPRETER OF OTHER
    PEOPLE’S FEELINGS.
 7. In line 103-120, what is Creon’s main point? What is Antigone’s main point?
    CREON: A TRAITOR SHOULD NOT BE HONORED THE SAME AS A HERO.
    ANTIGONE: ALL THE DEAD SHOULD BE HONORED NO MATTER HOW THEY DIED.

 8. In ll. 121-127, the Choragos and Creon apply an image to Ismene. What are the two images?
     How do these images reveal the different viewpoints of the Choragos and of Creon?
    THE CHORAGOS DESCRIBES HER AS A CLOUD RAING SORROW. CREON
    DESCRIBES HER AS A SNAKE SUCKING BLOOD. CHORAGOS USES A GENTALE
    IMAGE THAT SUGGESTS PITY AND SYMPATHY FOR ISMENE. CREON USES A
    SINISTER IMAGE THAT SUGGEST SCORN, HATRED AND FEAR OF ISMENE.
 9. Why does Ismene say that she helped Antigone? Considering everything you know about Ismene
     so far, why do you think she desires death? What is her motivation?
    SHE WANTS TO SHARE THE BURDEN NOW THAT CREON IS ABOUT TO PUNISH
    ANTIGONE. SHE AHS CONSDIERED ANTIGONE’S ARGUMENTS AND CHANGED HER
    MIND ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF HONORING POLYNEICES. IF ANTIGONE IS
    KILLED, ISMENE DOES NOT WANT TO FACE LIFE AS THE SOLE SURVIOR OF THE
    HOUSE OF OEDIPUS THE FINAL TARGET OF THE CURSE OF THAT HOUSE.
 10. In Ode 4, who is meant by the “last flower of Oedipus’ line”—Antigone or Ismene? What
     context clues tell you the answer? ANTIGONE—THE “PASSIONATE WORD” IN LINE 11
     REFERS TO HER DEFIANCE OF CREON, AND “A HANDFUL OF DUST” IN LINE 12
     REFERS TO HER ATTEMPTED BURIALS OF POLYNEICES.

                                                                                                   3
Antigone Study Questions Scene 3/Ode 3                                           pp. 716-721
 1. What observations are made by the Choragos at the first part of this section?
    SENATORS OBSERVE THAT ONCE THE GODS ARE DISPLEASED, AN ENTIRE
    FAMILY LINE SUFFERS.
 2. What is your first impression of Haimon’s attitude toward his father? HE SEEMS LOVING
    AND OBEDIENT; TOTALLY SUBSERVIENT.

 3. What is ironic about Creon’s giving Haimon advice about Antigone? CREON CAN’T
    UNDERSTAND OR DEAL WITH ANTIGONE. HE MISJUDGES HER WHEN HE
    PREDICTS THAT SHE WILL PLEAD “FAMILY TIES” TO SAVE HER LIFE. THAT
    IS THE CAUSE FOR WHICH SHE IS WILLING TO DIE.
 4. What words are sometimes used to describe the kind of leader Creon is describing in ll. 35-36?
    DICTATOR, TYRANT, DESPOT, CZAR, OPPRESSOR
 5. State in your own words the key arguments Haimon is using in ll. 51-63.   PUBLIC OPINION IS
    AGAINST CREON
 6. What two analogies or comparisons does Haimon use in lines 80-85 to show Creon that it is wise
    to be flexible?  A TREE THAT BENDS WILL NOT BE UPROOTED; A SHIP THAT
    SLACKENS ITS SAILS WILL NOT BE OVERTURNED
 7. Why do you think the Choragos avoids taking sides in the argument between Haimon and Creon?
       HE THINKS THAT HAIMON IS MAKING A VALID POINT, BUT HE KNOWS THAT
    CREON HAS THE POWER TO PUNISH HAIMON OR ANYONE WHO SUPPORTS
    HAIMON.
 8. What character flaws in Creon are revealed by this question, “You consider it right for a man of
    my years and experience to go to school to a boy?” IT SHOWS HIS PRIDE, ARROGANCE,
    AND INABILTIY TO BELIEVE THAT SOMEONE YOUNGER COULD HAVE ANTYHING
    WORTHWHILE TO SAY.
 9. How does Haimon’s attitude toward Creon change since the beginning of the scene in ll. 124-
    125?   HE HAS GONE FROM BEING RESPECTFUL AND OBEDIENT TO BEING
    ANGRY, DESPARATE, AND SCORNFUL.
 10. Why does Haimon leave when Creon orders Antigone brought forth? HE WILL NOT GIVE
     CREON THE SATISFACTION FO MAKING HIM WATCH ANTIGONE DIE
 11. How does Creon intend for Antigone to die? WALLED IN A CAVE WITH ENOUGH FOOD
     AND WATER TO LAST A FEW DAYS TO ABSOLVE HIMSELF OF THE GUILT
 12. Ode 3 responds to Scene 3, in which Creon accuses Haimon of being led by love of a woman.
     What does the Chorus say it believes about love?   LOVE IS GLORIOUS, BUT ITS SO
     POWERFUL THAT NEITHER THE GODS NOR MAN CAN CONTROL IT; THE CHORUS
     CALLS APHRODITE, THE GODDESS OF LOVE, “MERCILESS”




                                                                                                     4
Antigone Study Questions Scene 4                                 pp. 723-726

 1. The play is moving toward its climax. What dramatic action is about to occur?
    ANTIGONE IS BEING LED TO IMPRISONMENT IN A STONE VAULT OR CAVE.

 2. What change do you notice in Antigone’s manner? SHE IS TERRIBLY FORLORN
    ABOUT HER APPROACHING DEATH AND IS LESS FORCEFUL AND AGGRESSIVE
    THAN IN PERVIOUS SPEECHES.

 3. What two things does Antigone ask of the elders of Thebes? TO SERVE AS WITNESSES OF
    HER UNJUST SENTENCE AND TO THINK OF HER WITH LOVE

 4. Who is Niobe and why does Antigone mention her death? ANCIENT QUEEN OF THEBES WHO
    BOASTED SHE WAS SUPERIOR TO LETO BECAUSE LETO’S ONLY CHILDREN WER THE
    TWINS, APOLLO AND ARTEMIS. THE TWINS SLAUGHTERED ALL OF NIOBE’S
    CHILDREN. ZEUS TRUNED THE WEEPING NIOBE INTO A COLUMN OF STONE. SHE
    CONTIUED TO WEEP, HOWEVER, AND HER TEARS BECAME A STREAM. ANTIGONE
    LIKENS THE “TEAR” AND “LONELINESS” OF NIOBE’S DEATH TO HER OWN.

 5. Is the “family curse” relevant to the action in ll. 35-44? Why or why not? NO, IT SEEMS AS IF
    ANTIGONE IS BLAMING THE CURSE INSTEAD OF TAKING RESPONSIBILTIY FOR HER
    OWN ACTIONS; YES, THE FACT THAT EVEN THE CHORUS MEMBERS MENTIONS THE
    CURSES SHOWS HOW POWERFULLY MYTHS AND CURSES AFFECTED PEOPLE’S
    ATTITUDES, BEHAVIOR, AND JUDGMENT.

 6. Why do you think that Creon publicly reasserts that his hands are clean in this matter? HE MAY BE
    TRYING TO CONVINCE THE ELDERS THAT HE IS ACTING CORRECTLY; HE MAY BE
    TRYING TO CONVICE HIMSELF THAT HE HAS NO REASON TO FEEL GUILTY.

 7. In Antigone’s last lines of the scene, what does she ask the gods to remember? What motives do you
    think she has for making this public request? SHE ASKS THE GODS TO REMEMBER WHAT
    SHE SUFFERED, WHY SHE SUFFERED, AND AT WHOSE HANDS SHE SUFFERED. HER
    MOTIVES COULD INCLUDE PUBLICLY CALLING ATTENTION TO CREON’S DISDAIN
    FOR THE GODS AND SEEKING HONOR FOR HER OWN CHOICES.

 8. What is the main idea conveyed by Ode 4? ANTIGONE’S FATE RESEMBLES THAT OF
    SEVERAL OTHER FAMOUS FIGURES IN GREEK MYTH.




                                                                                                     5
Antigone Study Questions Scene 5 /Paean                                       pp. 728-732

1. Who is Teiresias? According to him, what has caused the gods’ anger? A BLIND SEER
   WHO WARNS AND ANGERS CREON BY POINTING OUT THAT THE GODS ARE
   ANGRY WITH CREON. ACCORDING TO HIM, THEY ARE OFFENDED BY
   CREON’S LEAVING THE BODY OF POLYNEICES TO ROT INSTEAD OF BURYING
   IT PROPERLY.

2. How does ll. 33-35 summarize a major theme of the play? THE CLASH BETWEEN TWO
   PROUD PEOPLE, CREON AND ANTIGONE, IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL THE
   ACTION OF THE PLAY—THE GODS ALWAYS PUNISH HUMAN PRIDE.

3. How do Creon’s words in ll. 41-48 demonstrate his pride?   HE HOLDS HIMSELF ABOVE
   THE PROPHETS AND THE LAWS OF THE GODS.

4. In lines 70-84, who is the child thrust “into living night”? Who is the child “kept from the
   gods below”? What does Teiresias seem to foreshadow in this speech as a whole? What lines
   especially support your conclusion? ANTIGONE; PLYNEICES THAT THE MEMBERS
   OF CREON’S FAMILY WILL DIE BY THE GODS’ REVENGE; “THE TIME IS NOT
   FAR OFF WHEN YOU SHALL PAY BACK/CORPSE FOR CORPSE, FLESH OF YOU
   OWN FLESH.” (LL. 79-80)

5. What does Teiresias advise Creon to do? What does Creon first think of Teiresias’ advice?
   How does Creon change his plans after listening to Teiresias?
   RELEASE ANTIGONE AND BURY POLYNEICES; HE’S ANGRY AT FIRST, BUT HE
   REFLECTS ON HIS WISDOM AND DECIDES TO TAKE HIS ADVICE; HE DECIDES
   TO BURY POLYNEICES FIRST, THEN RELEASE ANTIGONE.

6. In the Paean, what does the Chorus mean by asking Dionysus to come “with clement feet”?
   What is ironic about this plea? TO SAVE THEBES FROM TRAGEDY, THE AUDIENCE
   KNOWS THAT IT COMES TOO LATE.




                                                                                             6
Antigone Study Questions Exodos                            pp. 733-737

 1. Whom does the theme in ll.3-6 most apply to? Why? CREON, BECAUSE HE WAS
    “RAISED UP” TO THE KINGSHIP AND IS ABOUT TO SUFFER A COMPLETE
    DOWNTURN IN HIS FORTUNES.

 2. Why does the messenger say that Creon has lost all?   NOW THAT CREON’S SON IS
    DEAD, CREON’S JOY IN LIFE IS GONE.

 3. What murder has been committed? How? ANTIGONE IS DEAD, HAVING HANGED
    HERSELF AFTER BEING IMPRISONED BY CREON WHOM THE MESSENGER
    REGARDS AS RESPONSIBLE FOR HER DEATH.

 4. How did Haimon die? UPSET BY ANTIGONE’S DEATH, HE TRIES TO STAB HIS
    FATHER THEN FALLS ON HIS OWN SWORD TO DIE.

 5. What was done with Polyneices’ body?      HE WAS GIVEN A RITUAL BATH AND HIS
    REMAINS WERE BURNED.

 6. What happens to Eurydice? Whom does Creon blame for the deaths of his son and his wife?
    SHE STABS HERSELF CURSING HER HUSBAND; CREON BLAMES HIMSELF

 7. How has Creon changed? HE IS NO LONGER PROUD; HE IS A FATHER MOURNING
    THE DEATH OF HIS SON, AS SHOWN BY HIS SARCASTIC REFERENCE TO HIS
    OWN FORMER “CIVIC WISDOM.”

 8. How would paraphrase the main idea of the final four lines of the play?
    LIFE 9OR SUFFERING) TEACHES THE PROUD THAT IT IS BEST TO SUBMIT                           TO
    THE WILL FO THE GODS FROM THE BEGINNING.

 9. How would you describe the major conflict in Antigone? Is the conflict between absolute
    good and absolute evil, or is the conflict between opposing views of what is good? What
    position does Sophocles seem to take on this question? THE MAJOR CONFLICT IS
    BETWEEN 2 GOODS: RULE BY GOVT. LAWS VS. ADHERENCE TO SPIRITUAL
    LAWS OR VALUES. SOPHOCLES SEEMS TO FEEL THAT STATE CANNOT
    OVERRULE A HIGHER RELIGIOUS MORALITY.




         Literary Terms in Studying Greek Tragedy
                                                                                               7
 1. tragedy PLAY, NOVEL, OR OTHER NARRATIVES, DEPICTING
     SERIOUS AND IMPORTANT EVENTS, IN WHICH THE MAIN
     CHARAVTER COMES TO AN UNHAPPY END.
 2. tragic hero THE MAIN CHARACTER USUALLY DIGNIFIED AND
     COURAGEOUS OFTEN HIGH RANKING; WUSUALLY WINS SELF-
     KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM EVEN THOUGH HE OR SHE SUFFERS
     DEAT, POSSIBLY EVEN DEATH
 3. dramatic structure
    INCITING INCIDENT—SOMETHING HAPPENS TO BEGIN THE
         ACTION OF THE PLAY
    EXPOSITION—BACKGROUND INFORMATION
    RISING ACTION—STORY BUILDS AND GETS MORE EXCITING
    COMPLICATION—SIGNALS THE BEGINNING OF THE MAIN
         CONFLICT
    CLIMAX—MOMENT OF GREATEST TENSION
    REVERSAL—CHANGE OF THE HERO’S STATE OF AFFAIRS
    FALLING ACTION—THE FALLOUT RESULTING FROM THE
         REVERSAL OF FORTUNES
    CATASTROPHE—EVENT THAT OCCURS IN WHICH THE
         PROTAGONIST IS WORSE OFF THAN THE BEGINNING OF
         THE PLAY
    MOMENT OF LAST SUSPENSE—THE FINAL OUTCOME OF THE
         CONFLICT IS IN DOUBT
 4. hamartia AN ERROR IN JUDGMENT; A TRAGIC FLAW
 5. hubris OVERWEENING PRIDE; ARROGANCE BEFORE THE GODS
 6. fatal flaw/tragic flaw A SERIOUS CHARACTER WEAKNESS THAT
    CONTRIBUTES TO THE HERO’S DOWNFALL
 7. catharsis THE PURGING OF EMOTIONS OR RELIEVING OF
    EMOTIONAL TENSIONS
 8. tragic force FORCES BEYOND THE HERO’S CONTROL WHICH
    CONTRIBUTE TO HIS/HER DOWNFALL
 9. arête THE QUALITIES OF VALUE AND VIRTUE MAKING UP GOOD
    CHARACTER
                        Antigone Family Tree
Directions: A family tree showing the relationships between parents and children in8
Oedipus the King and Antigone has been started for you, below. Fill in the blanks as
you read the play (= indicates marriage). You may want to use the extra space
around the diagram to make notes about the characters and their actions.
           CREON                               JOCASTA           =             LAIUS




  HAIMON                MAGAREUS                 JOCASTA         =           OEDIPUS




 ETEOCLES               POLYNEICES                   ISMENE                 ANTIGONE




                           Antigone Plot Summation
A summary is a brief restatement of key events and ideas in your own words. It can be
a useful tool in preventing you from getting lost in details, thus helping you to see the big
picture. After each section of the play, record two or three sentences that reveal the key
events and ideas for that section.
                                                                                           9
Section                                                   Summary
Prologue   The reader meets Antigone who wants to bury her brother Polyneices, just like her brother Eteocles who was
           laid to rest with military honors. She feels that it is a “holy crime” that she must commit so her brother can
           rest with his ancestors in Hades, despite King Creon’s rule that forbids the burial. Ismene (the weaker
           sister) does not want to go against Creon’s edict because she is afraid of the penalty (death) and feels
           inferior as a woman.
Parados    The reader meets the Chorus (made up of Senators) that summarizes the battle that Polyneices led against
           Thebes. The Choragos (leader of the chorus) ends by reminding readers of the two brothers’ class and
           ultimate death, and then the chorus speaks of the beautiful morning setting in Thebes that conveys praise
           and hope.
Scene 1    Creon is introduced to the reader in person via this scene as he forbids any of his subjects to bury
           Polyneices, who he considers to be a traitor to Thebes. The Sentry, who sputters out his bad news to the
           king, provides comic relief. He informs Creon of the symbolic burial of Polyneices. Creon threatens to kill
           him if he does not find the culprit. The Sentry ends the scene by almost accusing Creon of a guilty
           conscience for his actions against Polyneices.
 Ode 1     The Chorus upholds Creon’s view that law is required to protect the city from anarchy (chaos). The Chorus
           praises human genius but notes mankind is unable to conquer death.
Scene 2    The Sentry brings Antigone to Creon and she acknowledges that she knew she was breaking his decree by
           the burial, preferring God’s law. Ismene joins the group and states that she is guilty too and want to die
           with Antigone, but Antigone refuses to let her “lessen my death by sharing it.” We find that Antigone is
           supposed to be married to Haimon, Creon’s son, but Creon remains firm in his decision to put her to death
           despite the relationship.
 Ode 2     Chorus states that the gods will always curse the house of Oedipus for arrogance and pride.
Scene 3    Haimon and Creon discuss Antigone’s fate, with the son at first appearing to accept the king’s edit.
           However, Haimon tries to point out to his father that the public sides with Antigone but is afraid to say
           anything. Haimon says that “they say no woman has ever, so unreasonably, died so shameful a death for a
           generous act…” Angry, he threatens his father that one death will cause another and the men rage, with the
           king wanting Antigone to be killed immediately and in front of Haimon’s eyes. The son leaves, vowing to
           never see his father again. Creon calms down, decides to fee Ismene (the one whose hands are clean), but
           plans to lock Antigone in a stone vault to allow nature to take its course.
 Ode 3     The Chorus reminds us that love is glorious, but it is so powerful that neither gods nor men can control it.
           Aphrodite, the goddess of love, is called merciless.
Scene 4    Antigone, imprisoned and nearing death, alludes to never being a bride and refers to the loneliness of
           Niobe’s death. She protests her family’s curse and says she wants pity. The Chorus sympathizes but
           reminds her that she made a choice on her own and must meet justice. Creon remains unmoved.
 Ode 4     The Chorus recaps the myths of noble and half-immortal people who, like Antigone, met tragic deaths
           through fate or destiny.
Scene 5    Teiresias (the blind prophet) tells Creon disturbing predictions and begs him to allow Polyneices’ burial, but
           the king accuses the seer of taking bribes. After Teiresias leaves, the Choragos urges Creon to appease the
           gods and Creon becomes contrite (full of remorse), rushing to bury Polyneices and free Antigone.
 Paean     The Chorus begs Dionysus to be merciful but the audience knows it is too late. (irony)
Exodos     This includes the climax and resolution. The Messenger tells Eurydice (the queen and Creon’s wife) of
           Antigone’s self-hanging and Haimon’s attempt to kill Creon for revenge before he turned the knife on
           himself. Eurydice leaves the scene followed by the Messenger as Creon enters with Haimon’s body. The
           messenger returns with news that the queen stabbed herself, cursing Creon for both her sons’ deaths
           (Haimon and Megareus). The king wishes for death as he accepts all the guilt and is led away. The
           Choragos states that pride is always punished and that only submission to the gods brings wisdom and
           happiness.




                                                                                                               10
                     Climax: SCENE 3
                     CREON SENDS ANTIGONE TO THE
                     CATACOMBS (CAVE) TO DIE




     Complication: SCENE 2 AND 3       Reversal (Turning Point): SCENE 5
     ANTIGONE IS CAPTURED AND          TEIRESIAS ADVISES CREON TO
     BROUGHT TO CREON; HAIMON          FREE ANTIGONE AND BURY
     AND CREON ARGUE ABOUT THE         POLYNEICES OR FACE TRAGEDY
     FATE OF ANTIGONE; CREON           HIMSELF; THE CHORUS REJOICES
     STANDS FIRM                       IN CREON’S AGREEMENT



  Rising Action: SCENE 1                Falling Action: EXODOS
  CREON MAKES THE DEATH THREAT          A MESSENGER TELLS THE CHORUS
  CLEAR TO ALL; SENTRY REPORTS          BOTH ANTIGONE AND HAIMON
  THAT SOMEONE HAS ATTEMPTED            HAVE KILLED THEMSELVES
  TO BURY POLYNEICES




 Exposition: PARADOS                      Catastrophe: EXODOS
 CHORUS GIVES BACKGROUND INFO             EURYDICE HEARS ABOUT THE
 ON THE BATTLE BETWEEN THE                DEATH OF HAIMON AND KILLS
 BROTHERS AND SETS THE TONE               HERSELF
 FOR SCENE 1




Inciting Moment: PROLOGUE                    Moment of Last Suspense: EXODOS
THE SISTERS ARGUE ABOUT                      CREON BLAMES HIMSELF FOR THE
WHETHER TO FOLLOW THE LAWS                   DEATH OF HIS WIFE AND SON AND
OF THE GODS OR THE EDICT OF                  BEGS FOR AN EARLY DEATH
CREON




                                                                           11
  Antigone: Scene 1, Ode 1
  Internal Struggle
  Do you sympathize with some characters and how they resolve internal conflicts, but
  not with others? Under each name, list an internal conflict with which that character
  struggles and write your reasons for supporting or disagreeing with the character’s
  resolution of the conflict.

                        ANTIGONE                                               THE SENTRY

CONFLICT:          BURY VS. HONOR DECREE               CONFLICT:          TELL OR NOT TELL CREON




YOUR VIEW:                    BURY                    YOUR VIEW:                     TELL




                           ISMENE                                             KING CREON

CONFLICT:       HELP ANTIGONE VS. NOT HELP             CONFLICT:         LET BURY OR NOT LET BURY




YOUR VIEW:      SHOULD HAVE HELPED; SHE IS            YOUR VIEW:          SHOULD HAVE ALLOWED
                         WEAK                                             BURIAL; TOO MUCH PRIDE


 1. What did you think about the Choragos’s words in line 113 of Scene 1 when he says, “I have been
    wondering, King; can it be that the gods have done this?” Did your opinion of the Choragos
    change after hearing this speech? Why or why not?
    YES, THEY APPEAR TO “GENTLY” TELL CREON HE IS IN THE WRONG; THEY SEEM
    TO BE TAKING A SIDE…AFRAID TO GO AGAINST AUTHORITY.

 2. Would you feel differently about King Creon if his first speech had occurred at the beginning of 12
                                                                                                     the
    play, rather than after the dialogue between Antigone and Ismene?
    YES, WOULD HAVE SIDED WITH HIM FIRST
Antigone: Characters’ Motives
In Antigone, the actions of Antigone, Creon, and Ismene have serious and lasting
consequences. Why do these characters behave as they do? The inner drive or
impulse that makes a person act in a certain way is called motive. Like people,
characters in a play also have motives. You can understand the action of a play if you
identify with the characters’ motives.

       Questions                    Motive                Support Evidence
What is Creon’s motive for                            SCENE 1, LINE 42
forbidding Polyneices’         THOUGHT HE WAS A       “POLYNEICES, WHO BROKE HIS
burial?                            TRADER             EXILE TO COME BACK WITH
                                                      FIRE AND SWORD AGAINST
                                                      HIS NATIVE CITY AND THE
                                                      SHRINES OF HIS FATHERS’
                                                      GODS WHOSE ONE IDEA WAS
                                                      TO SPILL BLOOD.”
What is Creon’s motive for                            SCENE 2, LINE 89
arresting Ismene as well?      FEELS SHE COVERED      “HER MIND’S A TRAITOR;
                              FOR ANTIGONE; AFTER     CRIMES KEPT IN THE DARK.”
                              ALL, THEY’RE SISTERS.




What is Ismene’s motive for                           SCENE 2, LINE 137
accepting Antigone’s crime?   WANTS TO SHARE IN       “DO YOU REFUSE ME,
                                THE HONOR AND         ANTIGONE? I WANT TO DIE
                               PRIDE; DOES NOT        WITH YOU; I TOO HAVE A
                              WANT TO BE ALONE        DUTY THAT I MUST
                                                      DISCHARGE TO THE DEATH.”

What is Antigone’s motive                             SCENE 2, LINE 135
for refusing Ismene’s help?    MATTER OF PRIDE;       “THE DEAD MAN AND THE

                                                                                    13
                                  WANTS THE LABEL OF         GODS WHO RULE THE DEAD
                                  MARTYR FOR HERSELF         KNOW WHO ACT THIS WAS.
                                                             WORDS ARE NOT FRIENDS.”




    Antigone: Imagery

                 Quote                                      Imagery Interpretation
Choragos: Parados, lines 8-13
                                                     WILD OPPONENT AND ENEMY OF HIS
“Polyneices, their commander, roused them with       NATIVE CITY
windy phrases. He the wild eagle screaming
insults above our land. His wings their shields of
snow, his crest their marshaled helms.”

Creon to the Chorus: Scene 1, lines 11-35
                                                     STATE OF SOCIETY AND ITS LAWS
“I have summoned you here this morning because
I know that I can depend upon you…No one
values friendship more highly than I; but we must
remember that friends made a the risk of
wrecking our Ship are not real friends at all.”

Haimon to Creon: Scene 3, lines 80-85
                                                     TELLS CREON IT’S WISE TO BE FLEXIBLE;
“In flood time you can see how some trees bend,      IF CREON IS INFLEXIBLE, HE WIL BE
and because they bend, even their twigs are safe.    UPROOTED AND OVERTURNED AS KING
While stubborn trees are torn up, roots and all.
And the same thing happens in sailing: make
your sheet fast, never slacken and over you go,
head over heels and under: and there’s your
voyage.”

Choragos: Scene 4, lines 1-4
                                                     ANTIGONE BEING TAKE TO JAIL TO DIE
“But I can no longer stand in awe of this, nor
seeing what I see, keep back my tears. Here is
Antigone, passing to that chamber, where all find

                                                                                        14
sleep at last.”

Antigone to the Chorus: Scene 4, lines 57-66
                                                     SHE WILL DIE AS A RESULT OF HER
“O tomb, vaulted bridal bed in eternal rock, soon    CRIME, AND BE REUNITED WITH HER
I shall be with my own again where Persephone        FAMILY IN THE AFTERLIFE.
welcomes their ghosts underground, and I shall
see my father again, and you mother, and dearest
Polyneices. Dearest indeed, to me, since it was
my hand that washed him clean and poured the
ritual wine: and my reward is death before my
time.”


Literary Focus: Irony

Irony is the contrast between what is actually true or what will actually happen and
what the characters say, believe, or expect. Use the character below to illustrate the
use of irony in the final scenes of the play. For each line listed, summarize the ironic
contrast.


                     Quote                                  Explanation of the Irony
  Creon’s Proclamation of the edict:
  “I am aware, of course, that no ruler can         He has no loyalty whatsoever; many do not
  expect complete loyalty from his subjects         believe in what he is doing.
  until he has been tested in office.”




  Creon at Antigone’s arrest:
  “The inflexible heart breaks first, the           Ironically, all of these words apply to Creon
  toughest iron cracks first, and the wildest       himself and not Antigone.
  horses bend their necks at the pull of the
  smallest curb.”




  Creon to Haimon:
  “You’ll never marry her while she lives.”         He marries her in “death.” They’ll be together
                                                    eternally in the afterlife. He commits suicide
                                                    because of his father.

                                                                                                     15

  Creon to his servants:
  “Bring Axes, servants. Come with me to the        She is already dead when proclaims this; it is too
  Antigone: Tragic Hero or Heroine
           Who is the tragic figure in Antigone? Some argue that Creon is the real tragic hero. To support their
  position, they offer the following evidence: Creon undergoes a dramatic change, whereas Antigone’s fate is
  determined in the first scene and she disappears from stage halfway through the play. The deaths of Haimon
  and Eurydice are meaningful only to Creon, not to Antigone. And it is the body of Creon’s son that is carried
  onstage, not Antigone’s body.
           The classical scholar, H.D.F. Kitto, has suggested that Antigone is built on a “double foundation,”
  and that the play’s “center of gravity does not lie in one person, but between two.” Kitto says that “of the
  two, the significant one to Sophocles was always Creon.” What do you think? Are there two tragic figures in
  this play or only one? If you think there is only one, who is it? To help you decide, apply each of the
  following questions to Antigone and Creon.

                   Questions                                   Antigone                           Creon
1. What error in judgment or frailty in character    PRIDE; VALUED DIVINE               TOO MUCH PRIDE; GOES
    did the tragic figure display?                   LAW OVER HUMAN LAW                 AGAINST PUBLIC
                                                                                        OPINION; DICTATOR
2. At what point in the play might the character     TRIED TO NEG0TIATE WITH            CONSIDERED PUBLIC
   have saved himself/herself from a tragic          CREON OVER DECREE                  OPINION AND ALLOWED
   downfall?                                                                            BURIAL
3. Define the character’s downfall. How did          HEADSTRONG/PROUD                   PROUD
   he/she change during the course of the play?
4. What emotions did the character’s downfall        SYMPATHY                           DISLIKE
   arouse in you?
5. Which character appears to be more committed      MORE COMMITTED                     NOT COMMITTED
   to a principle?

6. Which character’s fall is brought about by        ANTIGONE, BUT COMES                STRUGGLES WITH
    frailty of character?                            WITH CONSEQUENCES                  CHOICES; “WISHY,
                                                                                        WASHY”
7. Which character has more freedom in the                                              MULTIPLE DEATHS
    choices he/she makes?                                                               AFFECT HIS LIFE
8. Which character’s fall is brought about by        BURIAL CHOICES
    error in judgment?

                                                                                                             16
9. Which character suffers more?                    EVERY CRITICIZES
                                                    HIM/CHOICE
                                                    STRUGGLES/ MULTIPLE
                                                    DEATHS
10. Which character arouses the greater pity or     MORE TO LOSE
    fear? Why?
11. Which character has a moment of recognition     CHANGES CHARACTER;
    or discovery?                                   ALLOWS BURIAL
                                                    “CHANGES TUNE” AFTER
                                                    SEER
12. Which character seems to be the center of all   CREON
    conflicts?




                                                                   17

				
DOCUMENT INFO