To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate by aihaozhe2


									Almost everyone agrees that vaccination has been one of the single most effective
public health measures ever undertaken however it still remains one of the most
controversial issues facing medicine today. We will take a look at these controversies,
attempting to dispel truly fallacious information and focusing on real issues of
concern to families.

Once the efficacy of vaccines became established, governments rushed to both make
vaccines available to the populace and to make vaccination compulsory in many cases.
In the twentieth century, as immunizations for childhood diseases were developed,
including diphtheria, measles, mumps and rubella, vaccination became required for
public school attendance.

In 1974, the WHO launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Through
their efforts the last naturally occurring case of smallpox in the world occurred in
Somalia in 1977.

Governmental entities strive to immunize as many people as possible in order to reach
"herd immunity". Herd immunity takes place when enough people are vaccinated to
substantially lower the likelihood that a susceptible person will come into contact with
an infected person.

Unfortunately, while the discovery of vaccines has probably been one of the single
most important steps in eradicating disease (along with sanitation and antibiotics),
there have been and continue to be safety issues associated with vaccine

In 1955, two batches of polio vaccine contained live virus, which caused an outbreak
of polio. In the 1970s a paper was published linking pertussis vaccination to
permanent brain damage. The ensuing boycott of vaccinations and slate of lawsuits
drove vaccine manufacturers out of the business, creating shortages and a rapid
increase in disease incidence. The theory was later disproved but the controversy led
to the development of the National Vaccine Information Office, the National Vaccine
Injury Act, which provides some liability protection to manufacturers and the National
Vaccine Injury Compensation Fund which provides monetary compensation when a
vaccine is proven to have had a deleterious effect. In 1976, there was evidence that the
swine flu outbreak could create an epidemic as bad as the flu epidemic of 1918, which
killed 50,000,000 people worldwide. Swine flu vaccine was rushed to the public
without adequate testing, resulting in about 500 cases of Guillain-Barré
syndrome before the program was cancelled.

Vaccines, like any drug or foreign material that enters the body, can cause allergic
reactions, often due to the adjuvant, i.e., materials that the vaccine uses as a vehicle
for administration. Side effects such as localized swelling, fever, crying and more are
often associated with injections.
Beyond the concern about specific vaccine problems as described earlier, there is a
strong minority of people who believe that the increasing rates of autism and learning
disabilities in the U.S. are related to its mandatory immunization program. A good
deal of research has been cited on both sides of the issue and there's no clear evidence
to either support or completely deny these beliefs.

Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impairment of social behaviors
and interactions. These behaviors usually become observable at about eighteen
months. Most vaccinations are given on a schedule that begins at age 2 months,
creating a question about whether the immunizations cause the autism. Historical
review shows that the incidence of autism did increase at about the time of the
introduction of the MMR vaccine in the U.S. However, awareness of autism as a
distinct disease increased at the same time. Autism in the UK did not increase after
MMR was introduced there.

In the past, thimerosal, organic mercury, was used as a component of vaccines. Fears
of a link between mercury and autism caused the Institute of Medicine to request
removal of thimerosal from vaccines as a precautionary measure. This move, which
was not based on scientific evidence, lent credibility to these fears. The current
scientific consensus is that thimerosal causes or worsens autism; by 1999, this
ingredient was removed from almost all vaccines.

Overall, vaccines have improved the lives of billions of people worldwide, eradicating
many diseases or reducing them to small, manageable outbreaks.

Proponents in favor of TO VACCINATE cite the following arguments.

Getting vaccinated protects the individual and the community; it's an obligation of
living in a society to support the public good.

While most vaccination proponents recognize that there maybe individual situations
where vaccination is not recommended, they point to the fact that if vaccinations
weaken the immune system, there should be a higher rate of infections after
immunization. A 2001 study of over 800,000 children in Denmark determined that
there was no correlation.

It is not fair to subject vaccinated children, especially those who have been vaccinated
because their medical conditions suggest that the disease would have serious negative
effects, to the potential of getting the disease from those who have chosen not to be
vaccinated (since vaccinations are not 100% effective in most cases.)

Manufacturers are constantly working to reduce chemical agents in vaccines such as
thimerosal. Children who are not vaccinated with MMR (Mumps, Measles and
Rubella) are 35 times more likely to get the diseases, which can be severe. Varicella
(chicken pox) can lead to hospitalization and/or death. Polio vaccination is still
important because polio is still present in developing countries. These diseases are
rare because of the high degree of immunization. If people choose to stop vaccinating,
the diseases will rebound as studies in other countries have shown.

There is still no credible evidence of a correlation between autism and vaccination.
This position is supported by the World Health Organization, the CDC, The AMA and
the American Academy of Pediatrics.

However, while vaccines are spectacularly successful in the macro sense, on a person
by person, basis, vaccines can pose mild to severe risks for side effects and/or
permanent and debilitating damage. There is a fundamental belief that the government
should not be able to force people to submit to unwanted medical interventions.

As a result, some people, especially parents of vaccination-age children, are in favor
of NOT TO VACCINATE and utilize the following arguments

The U.S. vaccination rate is already way above herd immunity thresholds.

Each person or family has the right to make their own free choice about invasive
medical procedures. Recognizing the macro value of vaccination, each person or
family need the liberty to evaluate their own situation, particularly with respect to
vulnerabilities, and then choose the best course of action for the individual.

Vaccines are actively promoted due to the profit motive of manufacturers. When
lawsuits related to immunizations go to trial, pharmaceutical manufacturers can
supply "purchased" experts to plead their case.

The U.S. Vaccine Compensation Program has paid over 2000 awards (over $1.2
billion) for damages due to vaccines including a recent case where the court found
that simultaneous immunizations caused autism symptoms. Children with auto
immune diseases are at greater risk for serious side effects from vaccination and
should be able to be exempted from participating.

The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a government-run program
that collects data on adverse events related to vaccines receives over 1,000 reports per
month, estimated to be approximately 10% of actual events.

Hepatitis B immunization is not worthwhile - the disease does not even affect children
(less than 1% of all reported victims are under the age of 15) yet it carries some risk
of adverse effects up to and including death. For less dangerous diseases such as
measles and chicken pox, natural immunity is preferable because it is 100% effective.
Vaccines contain known toxins and carcinogens such as aluminum and thimerosal.

Side effects of the MMR vaccination are similar to the disease and can be severe.
Varicella side effects are similar to the disease; naturally acquired disease provides
lifetime immunity, vaccination requires boosters. Polio vaccination is unnecessary
because there hasn't been a case of wild polio in the Untied States in 20 years. These
diseases are so rare that it's highly unlikely that anyone would contract them anymore.

While the correlation between the increase in autism and the increase in vaccinations
may not be causal, it may yet be proved to be causal. Consequently, vaccinations
should not be mandatory.

It's not surprising that there are strong feelings on both sides of this issue, fueled by an
enormous amount of misinformation on the Internet. In the meantime, is there middle
ground or any solutions to this controversy?

The solution is more and better research on several fronts. People need answers to the
question of autism and vaccines. Equally important is research on new and better
ways to engineer vaccines so that they can be more targeted and less likely to create
adverse events in specific individuals.

The middle ground is probably represented by the United States and Canada which
enjoy an extremely high level of vaccination and low levels of preventable diseases
but at the same time provides the opportunity for individuals in most cases to be
exempted from the need for vaccination based on religious or medical grounds. This
balance allows the majority of the population to be well protected while still giving
individuals the right to exercise the freedom to choose.

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