Emotion Management Outline

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					Sociology
of the Emotions



19 November, 2007


                    1
The Emotions: Lecture Outline
 Classical sociology and the emotions
 Sociological approaches to the
  emotions
 The Managed Heart (Hochschild 1985)
    – Theoretical background
    – Methodology
    – Findings
    – Conclusions
                                     2
The Emotions in Sociology

   Classical theory
   Historical neglect
    – Dualist philosophical tradition
    – Focus on large-scale issues
    – Emotions experienced as unique,
      individual


                                        3
The Emotions in Sociology
   Relevance for sociology
    – Simultaneously individual and social
        Link individual experiences to social structure

    – Relational and interactive
    – Underlie large-scale processes
          Expressed through group solidarity and conflict

   The emotions follow sociologically-
    relevant patterns

                                                       4
The Emotions in Sociology
   Two sociological approaches to the
    emotions
    – Historical/structural (Elias)
    – Interactionist (Goffman)
   Both intended to challenge biological
    ‘reductionism’
    – While acknowledging that the emotions
      are embodied
                                              5
Emotion Management
   An attempt to display/experience
    ‘appropriate’ emotions
    – Surface acting
    – Deep acting

   Draws upon Goffman’s
    notion of impression
    management
                                       6
Feeling Rules
   Govern our emotional displays
    – Shape expression and experience
    – Relevant to social roles
          Also to issues of power and deference
   Learned through social interactions
    – Called to account
    – Reactions to supposed emotions
   Open (somewhat) to negotiation
    – Particularly in informal interactions

   Errors require intervention                    7
    Arlie Hochschild:
               The Managed Heart
    Examines ‘how society uses feelings’
    Influenced by:
     –   Symbolic interactionism
     –   Marxism
    Asks ‘How do companies structure
     emotional exchange?’
    Methodology:
     –   Observations and interviews with flight
         attendants, instructors and executives
         at Delta                               8
Emotional Labour
   Emotion management on
    the job
    – Face-to-face or voice-to-voice contact
    – Intended to create emotions in the
      customer
    – Training involves control of the worker’s
      feeling states
          Surface acting
          Deep acting
                                                  9
The Costs of Emotional Labour
   Modifying feelings/displays on the job
   How to identify with role and hold onto a
    separate ‘self’: requires depersonalisation
    – Option 1: Surface acting
           Viewed as ‘phony’
    – Option 2: Deep acting
           Estrangement from the emotions
           Undermines authenticity
   Alienates the worker from her emotions 10
Implications
 Resistance
  – As demands increase
        emphasis on ‘genuine’
 Cultural
 emotions
  – Rise in emotional therapies
 Move toward re-sensualization
 (Maffesoli 1996)
  – Shift to the ‘natural’ and ‘collective’
 Paradox    for emotion management      11

				
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