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					Hyperbaric Oxygen
    Therapy
   By: Adam Richmond
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
         (HBOT)
 Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy = uses a special chamber, sometimes
    called a pressure chamber, to allow a person to get high levels of oxygen
    in the blood. This means that the air inside the pressurized chamber is
    typically 2 1/2 times greater than normal atmospheric pressure. This leads
    to your blood carrying larger amounts of oxygen, and bringing this oxygen to
    organs and tissues in the body. By doing so, wounds, particularly infected
    wounds, can heal more readily.
   HBOT – The Chamber
 shell – steel or aluminum
 windows – acrylic
 human entrance w/ air lock system
 observation window & intercom system
 carbon dioxide scrubber
 control panel
human entrance   windows   control panel




shell
           Hyperbaric Oxygen
               Therapy
 6 lbs. O2 per/day  2 lbs. O2 absorbed into blood
 Hemoglobin = metalloprotein in RBCs that hold/transports O2
 1g hemoglobin = 1.34 mL O2 @ atmospheric pressure
 100% O2 administered @ 2-3 times the atmospheric pressure
 pO2 = 39 mmHg vs. pO2 = 50-80 mmHg
  pressure =  O2 absorption
 7.5 lbs. O2  1 hour  RBC fill  extra O2 dissolves in blood plasma for transport
 HBOT— The role of O2 in the
          body
 Cofactor enzymes:
        -mono-oxygenase
        -Intradioxygenase
        -Interdioxygenase
  O2 =  ATP
 collagen deposition/synthesis
 angiogenesis/epithelization
 O2 = antioxidant  protects tissues from free radicals
 trauma  physiological response  vasoconstriction  hypoxia
 hypoxia – reduces cellular metabolism
              -  defense mechanism
              -  repair of injured cells
      HBOT— What is it USED
             for?
 Decompression sickness       Necrotizing fascitis
 Arterial gas embolism        Anemia
 Carbon monoxide poisoning    Gas gangrene
 Osteomyelitis                Chronic non-healing wounds
 Skin grafts                  Sports injuries
 Burns                        and more…
 HBOT— Primary and
  Secondary Effects



http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic526.htm
HBOT— Decompression
     sickness
 diver resurfaces too quickly
 gas bubbles form in tissue and blood
 blocks lymphatics, veins and arteries
 HBOT
    - reduces bubble size
    - corrects hypoxia
       HBOT— Sports Injuries

 trauma  physiological response  vasoconstriction  hypoxia
 ischemia = swelling cuts off O2 circulation to the affected areas
  O2 leads to…
      collagen deposition/synthesis
      angiogenesis/epithelization
      ATP
          recovery time

 Performance
    speeds recovery between workouts
               HBOT— Treatment
 2.0 ATA oxygen X 90 minutes
        wound healing
        comprised skin grafts               *Average 90 min. HBOT
        thermal burns                       Rx = $300 - $400
        osteomyelitis
        crush injury/compartment syndrome

 2.5 ATA oxygen X 90 minutes
        nonclostridial gas gangrene         * Most ailments require
        necrotizing infections              30-40 sessions
        osteomyelitis
        radiation tissue injury

 3.0 ATA oxygen X 90 minutes
        carbon monoxide poisoning
        clostridial gas gangrene
     HBOT— Contraindications
 Claustrophobia                                Hypothermia
 Pneumothorax                                  Heredity spherocytosis
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease         Optic neuritis
 Seizure disorders                             Malignant tumors
 Pregnancy                                     Acidosis
 Upper Respiratory Infection

   DRUGS
        Cis-platinum            Alcohol
        Doxorubicin             Aromatic hydrocarbons
        Bleomycin               Disulfiram
        Steroids                Nicotine
       HBOT— Oxygen Toxicity
 severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures
 precise mechanism(s) of the damage are not known
 CNS oxygen toxicity
    nausea and vomiting          anxiety
    seizures                     tinnitis
    sweating                     hallucinations
    pallor                       vertigo
    muscle twitching             hiccups

 Pulmonary oxygen toxicity
    dry cough
                                  shortness of breath
    substernal chest pain
                                  pulmonary edema/fibrosis
    bronchitis
                              References
1.   Emedicine from WebMD. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy page. Available at
     http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic526.htm. Accessed November 28, 2006.
2.   HBOT Treatment. Hyperbaric and Sports Injury. Available at
     http://www.hbotreatment.com/terrellowenshyperbaric%20print.htm Accessed November 28, 2006.
3.   Li-Chen Lin, Yu-Ying Tang. Kwua-Yun Wang. The Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in
     Improving the Quality of Life in Patients with Problem Wounds. Journal of Nursing Research.
     2006; 14:219-227.
4.   Medline Plus. Medical Encyclopedia. Available at
     http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002375.htm. Accessed November 28, 2006.
5.   Tibbles, P.M. and J.S. Edelsberg. Hyperbaric-Oxygen Therapy. The New England Journal of
     Medicine. 1996; 334:1642-1648.
6.   Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Available at
     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbaric_oxygen_therapy. Accessed November 28, 2006.

				
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