Thailand Visa and Immigration Law is a hodgepodge of overlapping rules and administrative agencies. For those wishing to obtain a Thai visa the process can seem somewhat confusing at first glance. The first aspect of Thai Immigration procedure that throws many people off is the fact that there seem to be competing rules and regulations that are in operation contemporaneously. This is due to the fact that two government agencies have been deputized with the authority to monitor immigration into the Kingdom of Thailand. The Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs has authority over the issuance of Thai visas and travel documents at Thai diplomatic and consular posts outside of the Kingdom of Thailand. The Royal Thai Immigration Police are an extraordinary division of the Thai National Police Department. This organization is tasked with overseeing non-Immigrants, Immigrants, and Permanent Residents in the Kingdom of Thailand. Both of these government offices have different criteria for adjudicating a foreign national's immigration status. The Embassies and Consulates under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are permitted wide latitude in determining whether an applicant should be issued a Thai visa. Further, these posts are only permitted to issue visas for a limited period of validity (usually one year is the maximum that these posts may issue visas for). Royal Thai Immigration has a category system for compartmentalizing the different types of foreigners present in the Kingdom of Thailand. Foreign nationals from select countries are allowed to enter Thailand without obtaining a visa. These people are technically present in the Kingdom on a visa exemption. Changing one's Thai visa status while present on an exemption can be difficult. Foreigners from some countries are extended the privilege of being able to apply for a visa on arrival. This means that the foreigner can travel to Thailand without a visa, but they will need to have a visa approved before they may pass through the Thai immigration checkpoint. Royal Thai Immigration makes case by case determinations regarding whether a foreign national will be permitted to remain in the Kingdom past the validity of their original visa. If approved, the applicant's visa status is extended and the foreigner may remain for the period of time that the immigration office dictates. Every 90 days, the foreigner present in the Kingdom of Thailand must check in with Thai immigration and update the office regarding the foreigner's current place of abode. Failure to keep the Immigration office updated could result in fines and penalties for the foreign national.