Surrealism in Photography by aihaozhe2


									Surrealism in photography was one of the major revolutionary changes in the
evolution of photography. Rather than art, photography was reviewed as a copying
effort. Surrealism is the introduction of the 憁 ore than real' images to the art forms.
The surrealistic art forms were the true representations of the path of mind. The
incorporation of surrealism into photography seems to be a real absurd act since both
are contradictory, in the principles. But, in fact surrealism was a break through in
photography, which motivated the photographers for more experiments.

Surrealism was a movement in the art and intellectual activities, emerged after World
War I. Andre Breton, was the founder of the surrealistic concepts and he has gathered
the influence from the Dande movement. Surrealism is actually the real expression of
mental emotions, without any polishing. Andre Breton describes surrealism in
Surrealist Manifesto, as the pure psychic automatism expressed in the real
functionality of a person. Surrealistic art forms characteristically differ from the
conventional forms in not having specific shape or idea. It can be the expression of
basic human instinct and imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind. But, when
surrealism comes to photography, the critics did not even imagine such a possibility.
However, "Marquise Casati" by Man Ray, made a change to the belief, as it featured
multiple eyes for the photograph. Even though, it was an accidental blurring, it proved
the chances for the feasibility of surrealistic works.

Man Ray and Lee Miller are considered as legends in surrealistic photography as they
were very successful to overcome the limitations of photography to create surrealistic
images. Maurice Tabard is another famous surrealist, who had his own technique for
surrealistic imaging. Hans Bellmer creatively used mechanical dolls to symbolize
sexualized images, where as for Rene Magritte camera was the tool to make
photographic equivalents of his paintings.

Surrealist photographs are described as the images, which symbolically represent
dreams, night mares, intoxication, sexual ecstasy, hallucination and madness. The
difficulty with photography medium is that it imbibes the reality, and often the real
images cannot be sufficient to express such unconventional patterns. But, the famous
surrealist photographers are able to fulfill the task since they can use the photographic
techniques effectively. The ordinary snapshots, body photographs, anthropological
photographs, medical photographs, movie stills, and even police photographs are
manipulated to create the impression of surrealist images in the photographs.

Surrealism in photography is mainly performed using the different techniques. The
differential techniques of light and lenses can itself be the primary technique for
surrealism. Photomontage is one of the popular processing techniques, in which the
several images are coupled together. In photogram, a photographic paper can be used
instead of camera to imprint the image. The images produced by the flush of light can
create amazing images that has a surrealistic look.
Multiple exposure is another technique for surrealism, in which the camera is clicked
twice or more, without rolling the negative. The second image will be superimposed
on the first image and the final product will be an undefined mixture of both. Cliche
verre or glass negative is the surrealistic technique that uses negative coated from
glass plate. Anyhow, solarization or Sabattier effect seems to be the most remarkable
technique for surrealism. It produces dramatic effect of patterns through the flushing
of the light on the photograph, while developing in the darkroom. It was discovered
by Lee Miller, which have selective reversal of highlights and shadows. The light and
dark areas with the distinct line of reversal make it most appropriate for surrealism.

Surrealism in photography has progressed much from its primitive stages. The new
technology and lenses offer immense opportunity to the new generation
photographers to portray their mental emotions in the frame of cameras.

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