Executive Summary - Water resources Tsunami impact assessment and

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					WATER RESOURCES TSUNAMI IMPACT ASSESSMENT
    AND SUSTAINABLE WATER SECTOR RECOVERY
                                STRATEGIES

                                        For

    MALDIVES WATER & SANITATION AUTHORITY




                              SEPTEMBER 2005
The preparation of this report has been financed by the
World Health Organization at the request of the
Maldives Water and Sanitation Authority.
                  CONTENTS


                                                                              Page
                 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………….                        i-iv
1.               INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………                           1
1.1              Terms of Reference………………………………………………………….                      2
1.2              Preliminary In-Country Discussions…………………………………...              2
1.3              Island Selection……………………………………………………………….                       3
1.4              Structure of the Report …………………………………………………….                   4
2.               ISLAND SURVEYS…………………………………………………………….                          6
2.1              Water Quality Testing of Monitoring Boreholes……………………           7
2.1.1            Salinity Readings……………………………………………………………..                      8
2.1.2            Other Piezometer Observations…………………………………………                  10
2.2              Household Surveys………………………………………………………….                       10
2.2.1            Water Usage…………………………………………………………………..                         11
2.2.2            Rainwater Availability……………………………………………………….                   12
2.2.3            Rainwater Quality…………………………………………………………….                      14
2.2.4            Groundwater Availability…………………………………………………..                  15
2.2.5            Groundwater Quality………………………………………………………..                     17
2.2.6            Sewage System Availability……………………………………………….                  20
2.2.7            Tsunami Impact………………………………………………………………                         21
2.3              Electrical Resistivity Surveys……………………………………………..              22
2.4              Electromagnetic Surveys…………………………………………………..                   27
3                WATER RESOURCES ASSESSMENT……………………………………                       32
3.1              Freshwater Lens Storage, Recharge and Sustainable Yield…..     32
3.1.1            Freshwater Lens Storage………………………………………………….                    32
3.1.2            Recharge Estimation and Sustainable Yield………………………..           33
3.2              Dry Season Groundwater Yields………………………………………..                 39
3.3              Groundwater Contamination……………………………………………..                   40
3.4              Rainwater Harvesting……………………………………………………….                     41
3.5              Tsunami Impact and Recovery………………………………………….                   43
3.5.1            Tsunami Impact………………………………………………………………                         43
3.5.2            Tsunami Recovery…………………………………………………………..                       45
4.               WATER GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENTS…………………………….                      50
4.1              National Water Governance………………………………………………                    50
4.2              Regional Water Governance……………………………………………..                   51
4.3              Atoll Water Governance……………………………………………………                     52
4.4              Island Water Governance…………………………………………………                     52
4.5              National Water Policies and Planning…………………………………              53
4.5.1            Plan Review…………………………………………………………………….                         53
4.5.2            Integrated Water Resources Management, Land Use………….           54
4.5.3            Global Water Policy………………………………………………………….                     54
5.               SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY OPTIONS………………………….. 56
5.1              Rainwater Harvesting……………………………………………………….                     56
5.2              Groundwater Abstraction…………………………………………………..                   57
5.3              Desalination……………………………………………………………………..                       59
5.4              Additional Augmentation and Water Demand Management…..         61



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6.               SUSTAINABLE SANITATION OPTIONS………………………………                       63
6.1              Collection Systems………………………………………………………….                         63
6.2              Transfer Systems……………………………………………………………                           63
6.3              Treatment Systems…………………………………………………………                           64
6.4              Disposal Systems…………………………………………………………….                          66
7.               CONSEQUENCES FOR THE TSUNAMI RECOVERY PROGRAMME..                68
8.               CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………………………….                              72
8.1              Water Resources Management…………………………………………                        72
8.2              Water Governance…………………………………………………………..                          72
8.3              Water Supply Options………………………………………………………                         73
8.4              Sanitation System Options………………………………………………..                     73
8.5              Implications of the Tsunami Recovery Programme………………              74
9.               RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………….                             75
9.1              Water Resources Management………………………………………….                       75
9.2              Water Governance……………………………………………………………                           75
9.3              Water Supply Options……………………………………………………….                        76
9.4              Sanitation System Options…………………………………………………                      76
9.5              Implications of the Tsunami Recovery Programme……………….             77
                 References and Selected Bibliography


                 TABLES

1                Island Selection Criteria
2                Estimated Freshwater Thickness at Piezometer Boreholes
3                Household Survey Data Available for Selected Islands
4                Secondary Potable Water Resources Options (dry season)
5                Duration of Dry Season Household Rainwater Tank Empty Periods
6                Rainwater Tank Type and Storage Capacity
7                Microbiological Contamination of Domestic Household Rainwater
8                Household Illnesses Attributed by Interviewee to Water Quality
9                Groundwater Abstraction Techniques
10               Groundwater Level Data (July 2005)
11               Perceived Risk to Household Groundwater Wells
12               Household Well Survey Groundwater Salinity Summary
13               Mean Concentrations of Selected Hydrochemical Parameters in Well Waters
14               Household Well Survey Groundwater Nitrate Summary
15               Household Well Survey Groundwater Ammonia Summary
16               Household Well Survey Groundwater Phosphate Summary
17               Microbiological Groundwater Quality (showing sewage contamination)
18               Household Sanitation Infrastructure
19               Summary Tsunami Impact from Household Questionnaires
20               Ground Electrical Resistivity, Groundwater Conductivity and Ground Conductivity
                 Values
21               Base of Freshwater Lens from Electrical Resistivity profiles
22               Freshwater Lens Volume Estimates in July 2005
23               Freshwater Lens Residency Times in July 2005




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24               Estimates of Average Annual Recharge for the Freshwater Lens identified in July
                 2005
25               Average Sustainable Yield Estimates for the Freshwater Lens identified in July
                 2005
26               Domestic Water Demand per capita (after Falkland, 2001)
27               Annual Dry Season and 2005 Dry Season Sustainable Yields for Freshwater
                 Lends identified in July 2005
28               Mean Concentrations of Selected Hydrochemical Parameters in Well Waters
29               WHO Guideline Concentrations and Well Water Percentage Compliance
30               Rainwater Harvesting Household Roof Yields
31               Tsunami Impact on Groundwater Salinity and Freshwater Lens
32               Description of the Tsunami Event on the Survey Islands
33               Changes in Freshwater Lens Salinity March 2005 to July 2005
34               Groundwater Recovery post-Tsunami compared to pre-Tsunami baseline
35               Freshwater Lens Geometry Reduction 2001 to 2005 (due to tsunami impact and
                 2005 dry season)
36               Freshwater Lens Sustainable Yield Reduction 2001 to 2005 (due to tsunami
                 impact and 2005 dry season)

                 FIGURES

1A               Map of the Maldives Archipelago
1B               Locations of Selected Islands
2                Schematic conceptual illustration of a freshwater lens (after Falkland)
3                Borehole Salinity Profiles July 2005
4                Groundwater Well Surveys, Kulhudhuffushi, Haa Dhaalu
5                Groundwater Well Surveys, Fillaldhoo, Haa Allfu
6                Groundwater Well Surveys, Dhidhdhoo, Haa Allfu
7                EM and ER Survey Locations (2005), Kulhudhuffushi, Haa Dhaalu
8                EM and ER Survey Locations (2005), Fillaldhoo, Haa Allfu
9                EM and ER Survey Locations (2005), Dhidhdhoo, Haa Allfu
10               Electrical Resistivity Profile adjacent to KUL1 and Sports Stadium (oriented
                 north-south), south Kulhuduffushi
11               Electrical Resistivity Profile (oriented north-south) adjacent to KUL 2 in School
                 playing field, north Kulhuduffushi
12               Electricall Resistivity Profile (oriented north-south) in sports grounds, 100m
                 north of cemetery, eastern Kulhuduffushi
13               Electrical Resistivity Profile (oriented east-west adjacent to Island Schoo, north
                 Filladhoo
14               Electrical Resistivity Profile (oriented east-west) 20m south of DHI 1, in sports
                 ground, south Dhidhdhoo
15               Electrical Resistivity Profile (oriented north-south) adjacent to DHI 2, in school
                 playing field, north Dhidhdhoo
16               EM34 10m Coil Separation Conductivity Readings at Multi-Level Piezometers
                 with known Freshwater Lens Thickness
17               EM34 20m Coil Separation Conductivity Readings at Multi-Level Piezometers
                 with known Freshwater Lens Thickness
18               Surveyed Freshwater Lens, Kulhudhuffushi, Haa Dhaalu



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19               Surveyed Freshwater Lens, Fillaldhoo, Haa Allfu
20               Surveyed Freshwater Lens, Dhidhdhoo, Haa Allfu
21               Annual Rainfall at Hanimadhoo (1991-2004)
22               Monthly Mean, Maximum and Minimum Rainfall and Coefficient of Variability for
                 Hanimadoo
23               Dry Season Rainfall as percentage of Annual Rainfall
24               Dry Season Rainfall as percentage of Average Dry Season Rainfall
25               Relationship between mean annual rainfall and mean annual recharge for a
                 number of low lying islands (from Falkland & Brunel, 1993)
26               Tsunami Inundation Map, Kulhudhuffushi, Haa Dhaalu
27               Tsunami Inundation Map, Fillaldhoo, Haa Allfu
28               Tsunami Inundation Map, Dhidhdhoo, Haa Allfu
29               Monthly Diarrhoea Cases Reported in Haa Alifu 2004-2005
30               Monthly Diarrhoea Cases Reported in Haa Dhaalu 2004-2005
31               Monthly Diarrhoea Cases Reported in the Maldives 2004-2005
32               Infiltration Gallery Design (from Falkland 2001)


                 PLATES

1                Purging and Sampling of Monitoring Borehole Piezometer
2                Typical Household Rainwater Harvesting System
3                Health Post Well with electric pump and dhani
4                Communal Mosque Well with dhani and well cover
5                Kulhuduffushi Small Bore Scheme Sand Filter Beds and Disposal Pits
6                Evidence of Tsunami Damage to Village on Filladhoo
7                Setting out of Electrical Resistivity Cables (2m spacing)
8                Electromagnetic Conductivity Surveying using EM34
9                Communal Rainwater Harvesting using a ‘series’ of 2500 litre tanks
10               An unused desalination plant on Fillaldhoo
11               Unused rainwater tanks stored at government buildings

                 APPENDICES

A                Terms of Reference
B                Mission Diary
C                Field Investigation Checklist
D                Piezometer Electrical Conductivity Data
E                Piezometer Salinity Profiles
F                Well Survey Questionnaire
G                Household Well Survey Data
H                Household Rainwater Survey Data
I                Household Sanitation Survey Data
J                UNEP Groundwater Data
K                Household Tsunami Questionnaire Responses
L                Electrical Resistivity Profiles
M                Electromagnetic Survey (EM34) Data
N                Tsunami Impact and Recovery Analysis



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WATER RESOURCES TSUNAMI IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND SUSTAINABLE
WATER SECTOR RECOVERY STRATEGIES


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Asian tsunami of 26 December 2004 caused widespread devastation across the Indian
Ocean, including the Maldives, a low-lying archipelago of atoll islands. Of the 200
inhabited islands 70 were directly affected by the tsunami.
Government and external assistance has been provided throughout 2005 to the affected
islands as part of a tsunami redevelopment programme, with an unprecedented level of
activity focussing on amongst other areas water supply and sanitation.

Study Objectives

It became increasingly apparent however that the sustainability of the redevelopment
programme was partially dependent upon an understanding of the impact of the tsunami
upon the freshwater resources of the islands, how long recovery would take, and how
these issues affected the selection of appropriate technologies. In response the World
Health Organisation at the request of the Maldives Water and Sanitation Authority (MWSA)
commissioned this study on water resources tsunami impact assessment and sustainable
water sector recovery strategies.
Whilst the objectives of the study were national in application, they necessitated the need
to study the tsunami impact at the island scale. Three islands were chosen in Haa Alifu
and Haa Dhaalu atolls, using selection criteria including extent of tsunami impact,
existence of pre-tsunami data (for baseline comparison), existing water resources
monitoring networks, already stressed water resources (so as to provide a worst case
scenario), and reasonable proximity to each other to simplify logistics. The islands chosen
were Dhidhdhoo, Filladhoo and Kulhuduffushi.

Field Surveys

Water resources investigations were carried out in July 2005 on each island including
piezometer sampling, household surveys, geophysical surveys and water quality sampling
and analysis. These investigations were used to estimate the size and quality of the
freshwater lens on each island, the use of rainwater harvesting, the use of sanitation
systems, and the nature of the tsunami event.
By comparing the field investigation data, with similar data sets collected before the
tsunami and in March-April 2005, it was possible to determine the impact of the tsunami
on the groundwater resources, the amount of recovery since the tsunami, and the amount
of recovery still to happen before pre-tsunami conditions are reached.

Tsunami Impact and Recovery on Groundwater Resources

The tsunami impact and recovery assessment demonstrated that the tsunami impacts
were island specific, and were largely dependent on the extent and direction of wave
inundation and the area covered by seawater. Filladhoo was completely overtopped and
its freshwater lens has been reduced by 95% resulting in almost no potable groundwater
presently existing on the island. Kulhuduffushi (50%) and Dhidhdhoo (30%) suffered
smaller reductions.


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However the recovery from the tsunami impact whilst also island specific was more
complex due to the exceptionally arid dry season (driest for last six years). Filladhoo and
Dhidhdhoo showed signs of recovery (groundwater freshening), whilst Kulhuduffushi
continued to become more saline. Estimates of recovery times were therefore difficult to
make. Annual recharge estimates to the groundwater suggest recovery should occur
within 0.5 to 4 years.
However the extent to which groundwater is presently being abstracted or even over-
abstracted, also becomes an important factor. It appears all islands were affected by the
dry season, although where over-abstraction is occurring, which appears to be the
situation during the dry season on Kulhuduffushi, then salinisation has got worse, and the
recovery not only has been delayed but the groundwater has further to recover.

Rainwater Harvesting

The availability or otherwise of groundwater clearly affects the water supply options that
can be considered for each island. The island surveys confirmed that rainwater was
extensively used during the wet season, although during the dry season most tanks
eventually ran dry, necessitating an alternative dry season secure supply, usually using
mosque well water. However no attempt has been made to size the tanks based upon dry
season rainfall analysis and household demand size. There is therefore considerable scope
to improve rainwater harvesting further.

Inadequate Sanitation

Groundwater quality analysis confirmed that nearly all wells were contaminated with
sewage effluent, with 100% wells failing WHO biological guidelines for potable usage, and
up to 40% failing using hydrochemical parameters.
Existing sewage treatment is almost entirely restricted to household septic tanks, which
are poorly maintained and rarely emptied of sludge. With groundwater levels typically 0.5
to 1.0m below ground level, many septic tanks are actually located within the
groundwater.

Water Governance

The field surveys and discussions in Malé also enabled a preliminary assessment of the
islands and national water governance arrangements to be made. The water resources
and infrastructure management systems are clearly fundamental to the sustainability of
any infrastructure and therefore these issues were considered to be critical.
It was apparent from the island missions that with existing water supply and sanitation
technologies being restricted to the household, that no communal or island wide
mechanisms existed for managing island water resources or communal water supply or
sanitation systems. This will need to change if communal schemes are to be sustained.
At the national level, whilst MWSA has a clear mandate for regulating the Malé water
supply, and promoting best practice to the outer islands, it has neither the responsibility
nor the capacity to operate and maintain island and communal scale systems. At the
regional level neither MWSA nor the islands have any permanent presence.
There is therefore a fundamental problem with the existing water governance
arrangements and the promotion of communal water supply and sanitation systems,
which is that no one has the explicit responsibility nor capacity to manage island or
community systems.

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At the national level, MWSA clearly need to strengthen the relationship with the regional
entities, including the RDMO’s and the Hospitals, both of whom have skill sets which can
be utilised in water and sanitation services provision. These in turn can support Atoll and
Island Offices and Hospitals in providing some input into management of water resources
and infrastructure, most obviously in terms of public awareness and education and water
quality monitoring.
However, it is clear the island communities need to be engaged at an early stage in the
design of these communal schemes so they can consider the degree to which they are
prepared to manage the scheme, the costs of operating it, and how they will ensure the
human and financial resources exist to maintain the systems. It is questionable whether
adequate consultation is on-going as part of the tsunami redevelopment programme.
There is a precedent for utility provision with the island powerhouses. It is therefore worth
considering, with the relocation of MWSA into the Ministry of Energy, Environment and
Water (MEEW) whether the operational model used by STELCO could be applied to water
and sanitation, i.e. whether their staff would be appropriately skilled to operate and
maintain water & sanitation infrastructure, and whether a combined utility provider, at the
island, atoll or even state level would be possible.
At the national level, the lack of a specific water strategy is likely to impact upon the
ability of the Maldives to engage the external assistance that will become available during
the Water for Life Decade (2006-2015). Other SIDS have developed strategic approaches
and plans which are already resulting in tangible support from the global programmes.
Specific external support is available for integrating water into more holistic planning and
management approaches. This should be accessed to provide the resources to enable the
water sector to develop inter-ministerial and cross-sectoral mechanisms, and specifically
the prioritisation of water and sanitation issues into the planning process.

Water Supply Options

The priority water supply for reasons of quality and sustainability has to be rainwater
harvesting. This is widely practiced but can be improved to increase the roof area being
utilised, storage tank volume and re-routing of excess rainwater into household wells.
Fresh groundwater is widely available in Kulhuduffushi (70%) and Dhidhdhoo (80%),
although is presently non-existent on Filladhoo. The potability of the groundwater on the
Kulhuduffushi and Dhidhdhoo is affected more by inadequate sanitation than the tsunami.
Improvements in sanitation would enable groundwater to be used for potable uses island
wide. At present when the rainwater tanks empty, most households take potable water
from the communal mosque wells. Boiling of groundwater or other treatment (e.g.
chlorine dosing using bleach) would enable most (60%) of the groundwater to be used for
potable activities on Kulhuduffushi and Dhidhdhoo.
It is recommended infiltration galleries be used during the dry season for improved
groundwater abstraction connected to reticulated or communal standpipe systems. The
galleries need to be surrounded by groundwater protection zones (50-100m wide) to
ensure sewage contamination does not reach them. Sports/playing fields should be
investigated on a site specific basis as future infiltration gallery locations.
37 desalination plants have been brought into the country as part of the emergency
response to the tsunami, and for some islands (e.g. Filladhoo) these provided the only
source of freshwater until the wet season allowed rainwater harvesting to recommence.
The use of desalination outside of Malé and tourist resorts is however considered to be
problematic in the medium to long term, with almost all islands lacking the technical and
financial resources to operate and maintain the equipment. Spare parts, fuel, and
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communal management systems for this type of infrastructure are all absent on the
islands. The use of desalination as anything other than an emergency response option is
considered unsustainable.

Sanitation Options

Whilst septic tanks are poorly managed and clearly polluting the groundwater, they still
have to form part of the sanitation solution for these low-lying islands. In the first instance
household septic tank design and management has to be dramatically improved. There is
evidence that there is no consideration of tank size requirements during the tank design,
and there is very little public awareness for the proper management of their tanks,
specifically the requirements for de-sludging. Resolving these two issues through
education and awareness campaigns would improve the effectiveness of the tanks
considerably.
However well maintained septic tanks are still not capable of providing complete
treatment and the effluent liquor will still pollute the groundwater. It is therefore
recommended that black water be removed from the tanks using a small bore sewerage
system. Small bore systems enable lower hydraulic gradients to be used, which on low-
lying islands is essential. However they do require bio-solids removal at the household
first, and hence the septic tanks need to be used and maintained at the households.
Groundwater sustainable yields per capita for the two islands surveyed with freshwater
groundwater are so low (typically 55 litres per person per day (lpd)) however that the loss
of all effluent from the freshwater lens (approximately 95 lpd) would result in salinisation
of the aquifer. It is therefore necessary to recharge the grey water (typically 40 lpd), after
some simple household treatment back into the aquifer to maintain the water balance.
Whilst this is perhaps not ideal, the nutrient loading in the black water is much greater
than in the grey water and preventing the poorer quality effluent going into the aquifer,
whilst preventing salinisation of the aquifer is the optimum solution. It is recommended
islands with sustainable groundwater yields of <250 lpd recharge their grey water.
Other than primary treatment at the septic tank, there is little experience of managing
secondary treatment plants on the islands, other than at resorts. Sand filter trials have
clogged and failed as has a wetland/reed bed pilot scheme due to poor design and
inadequate septic tank and system management. Again improving primary treatment has
to be the priority issue. Sand filters can be considered but require dedicated operation and
maintenance.
Wetlands and oxidation ponds (both non mechanical technologies) have been successfully
used in the Pacific, but require large land areas perhaps not available in the Maldives.
Where land is available, these options should be considered.
Black water disposal to date has been either from septic tanks, or where simple sewerage
systems have been built is usually directly onto the beach through end of pipe outfalls.
This contaminates the near shore environment.
Black water can be discharged into the ground where the underlying groundwater is
already saline, i.e. near the coast, and where no groundwater abstraction occurs.
Dispersed disposal trenches should be used rather than small pits.
Whilst black water disposal through short sea outfalls into the surf zone, will be an
improvement compared to sewerage system discharge onto the beach disposal, it will
nonetheless contaminate the near shore coastal water quality. It is preferred to have long
sea outfalls which extend beyond the reef and release the raw effluent at depths of
greater than 20m. However it is recognised these outfalls might be prohibitively
expensive.
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It is recommended a trial be undertaken to investigate the efficiency and cost-
effectiveness of deep bore disposal wells. These have been trialled in the Bahamas in
similar hydrogeological environments and found to be effective. These deep bores,
typically 40m+ deep and located on the coast, use the deep karstic fractures of the rock
to release the effluent into the saline water and eventually the marine environment. They
require minimal land take. The technology is unproven in the Maldives but the potential
environmental and financial benefits of the technique warrant site specific studies.

Challenges for the Tsunami Recovery Programme

The attention being given to addressing water and sanitation issues as part of the tsunami
recovery programme is to be applauded. There is perhaps an unprecedented level of
support in the Maldives at present with the water and sanitation programme alone
estimated at US$ 100 Million. Communities across the country will benefit from
improvements in their water supply and sanitation infrastructure.
However there are some specific issues the recovery programme appears to have largely
neglected, whilst focussing on infrastructure provision, specifically those of water
resources availability and water governance arrangements. These are intrinsic aspects to
achieving sustainable water management, and without which the sustainability of many of
the interventions is questionable. If these issues continue to be ignored then the legacy of
this unprecedented investment will be malfunctioning or abandoned infrastructure,
environmental pollution and public health deterioration.
Water resources assessment and management has not been considered by the external
agencies, despite the requests of MWSA. As a result rainwater harvesting is not being
designed with respect to the dry season and groundwater resources are not being
considered at all for household potable water supply.
The immediate result of this omission is: i) a tendency to focus on desalination
technologies for potable water supply, which are expensive, fuel dependent, require high
levels of technical expertise, and good local utility management and are therefore
considered unsustainable; and ii) a sanitation strategy that includes black water and grey
water disposal to the marine environment, which for many islands will result in the
freshwater lenses becoming saline, unless grey water is returned to the aquifers.
The lack of water resources assessment as a critical component of sustainable water
supply and sanitation has to be redressed urgently. This in turn should reduce the present
interest in unsustainable desalination technologies.
The second issue is that of community engagement and water governance. It is clear from
existing water supply and sanitation arrangements at the household level, and the
frequent failure of community sanitation pilot projects, that community engagement in the
design process, and community and local government capacity building in the operation
and maintenance of the infrastructure is necessary to sustain the interventions. Whilst
there is evidence of some island consultation, there appears to be insufficient attention
being paid to island scale water sector management strengthening, Furthermore there is
no support being provided to strengthening the necessary linkages between the proposed
island schemes and the country technical capacity, which primarily exists at the national
and to a lesser extent regional level. Without the water governance being strengthened
considerably at the local, regional and national level, it is likely the infrastructure cannot
be sustained in the medium to long term.
Recommendations are made to improve water resources assessment, protection and
management, strengthen water governance and improve appropriate and sustainable
technology selection.

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1.       INTRODUCTION
The Asian Tsunami of 26 December 2004 had a devastating impact across the Indian
Ocean, causing unprecedented economic, human and environmental damage to those
countries in its path.
The Maldives, an archipelago of some 200 inhabited atoll islands, with an average
elevation of 1.5m and maximum land height of just 3m, whilst suffering relatively small
human losses, has per capita received the largest amount of economic damage of any
country, with more than 70 islands directly affected with consequential destruction of
basic infrastructure services.




                                  Figure 1A: Map of the Maldives Archipelago

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