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					                         Analytical summary

                  journal of communication studies
            ISSN 1137-1102. Vol. 11, nº 20, p. 1-526, 2006.

            Copying of the summary pages is authorised

RAUSELL KÖSTER, Claudia (Lecturer of the University of Alicante,
Narration and description: The nature and function of the
shot and the syntagm in audiovisual discourse (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, nº 20,
2006, p. 11-24.

     This article aims to rewrite the narration-description dichotomy
proceeding from literature in terms of narration, visual description,
psychological description, qualification and designation in order for it to be
correctly applied to audiovisual discourse. To this end, a distinction is made
between three strata: the shot, the syntagm and the discourse. In each of
them we differentiate between the nature of the segment, determined by the
type of relationship set up amongst the elements that form it, and the regime
or function that it fulfils in the fragment that encompasses it. This distinction
enables us to understand how descriptive audiovisual discourses can be
formed of narrative syntagms or narrative audiovisual discourses from
descriptive segments, as well as allowing us to distinguish between singular
and habitual actions or between nodes and satellites in narrative discourses.
This requires the qualification that description in audiovisual discourse,
understood as description of visible qualities, can occur simultaneously to
the narration and that audiovisual description does not require, as it does in
literature, that the time of the narrative should stop.

Key words. Description. Narration. Sytagm. Audiovisual. Discourse.

Zer, 20, 2006, p. 515-                                                      515
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RODRÍGUEZ, Miren (PhD awarded by the University of the Basque
Communication policies of the public institutions facing
projects that give rise to social opposition. The Zabalgarbi
case (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 25-55. 7 figures, 1 table.
     In recent years there has been a considerable increase in the number of
institutional crises caused by movements opposed to the realisation of cer-
tain public projects: the firing range in the Bárdenas Reales, the Madrid-Va-
lencia motorway, the transfer of water from the Ebro river, the Ordunte wind
farm, the installation of incinerators, the Basque “Y”, etc. What all of these
projects have in common is that they are public works developed by the
government institutions, as well as being the object of strong opposition
from citizens in the form of ecologist groups, political parties and citizens’
coordinators. Besides, in each project the Administration and the opposition
groups have generated such a volume of news that the mass media have be-
come stages and actors in the process. How, then, should a communication
policy be drawn up that is capable of overcoming media and popular
pressure so that the project can be developed? This article approaches this
phenomenon on the basis of analysing the process that led to the construc-
tion of a garbage incinerator in Bizkaia, known as the Zabalgarbi case.
Key words: Communication policies. Communication crisis. Public opinion.
DIRCOM. Citizens’platforms and coordinators. Public projects.

YANES, Rafael (Lecturer, Complutense University of Madrid)
Ethical limits of the persuasive message in communication
policy (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 57-69.
    Although there are those who consider that journalistic persuasion
placed at the service of political action can become a useful tool for mass
manipulation, in a democratic society it constitutes a necessary technique for

516                                                Zer, 20, 2006, p. 515-526
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the political communicator to be able to effectively address the citizenship.
This is a model of message that is always intentional and that never pursues
objectivity, since its aim is to convince the citizens of the goodness of cer-
tain ideological proposals. Like all journalistic activity it has certain ethical
limits that can be summed up in a “decalogue of principles of the good po-
litical communicator”.

Key words. Political communication. Persuasion.

HUERTA WONG, Juan Enrique (Assistant Researcher of the
Chair of Research and Globalisation in North America, Centro
de Investigación en Comunicación e Información, ITESM-
United States television programs and the perception of
violence in television spectators of Monterrey, Mexico (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 71-86.
     Agiri honek 2004ko maiatzaren eta ekainaren artean egindako inkesta
telefoniko baten berri ematen du. Haren xede nagusia ikertzea da ea Estatu
Batuetako telebistak ezberditzen duen Monterreyko zonalde metropolitanoko
ikusleek haien inguruko bortizkeriari buruzko irudia egiten duten modua.
Lan honen funts teorikoak lantzearen analisian eta enfoke hau Estatu Batue-
tatik at normalean erabili ez denean datza. Galdera hau planteatzen da: Ba al
dago erlaziorik Estatu Batuetako telebista ikusi eta hango biztanleek bortiz-
keriaren eta biktima izateko aukeraren aurrean mantentzen duten errealita-
tearen eraikuntza sozialaren artean? Aurkikuntzek Estatu Batuetako progra-
mazio guztiak erlazio-mota hau duteneko idea alde batera uzten dute, eta,
aldiz, film estatubatuarrek ikusle regiomontenoenganako beldurraren eragi-
narekiko erlaziorik badutela diote.
Hitz gakoak: Telebista. Bortizkeria. Mexiko

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MACHADO, Elias; Marcos PALACIOS (Professors at the Federal
University of Bahia, Brazil)
The experience of the FACOM-UFBA (1995-2005) in
teaching digital journalism (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 87-103.
     In this paper we present an account of the experience of teaching digital
journalism carried out in the Communication Faculty of the Universidad
Federal de Bahia since the year 1995. The teaching model passed through
three different phases; all of them articulated around products and the en-
couragement of research into new languages. In the first, involving
methodological inquiry and apprenticeship, the Lugar Incomun newspaper-
workshop, a weekly magazine completely prepared by the students, was
launched in March 1995. The second, in 1999, involved self-criticism of the
initial practices, culminating in the development of a tool for publication
with the creation of the experimental newspaper Panopticon. The third,
which began in 2004, involves applied research and attempts to implant a
multi-user teaching and publication platform, distributing multimedia jour-
nalistic contents.
Key words: Journalism. Panopticon platform. FACOM-UFBA.

DADER, José Luis; Eva CAMPOS (Complutense University of
Parliamentary Internet in Spain (1999-2005): Resources for
citizen contact and their use, with a European comparison
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 105-132.
    The websites of parliamentary chambers and of the representatives them-
selves, together with the public email addresses of the deputies and senators for
exchanging messages with citizens, open up expectations of an electronic de-
mocracy or cyberdemocracy, in line with the aspirations of so-called “delibera-
tive democracy”. The comparison made between the resources for contact

518                                                 Zer, 20, 2006, p. 515-526
                                                               Analytical summary

offered by the British, French, Italian and Spanish parliaments show a relative
backwardness in the Spanish case. The additional experiment of electronic con-
sultation with all of the Spanish deputies and senators with a public contact
address generated an index, with a highly minority character, of answers to the
supposed common citizen who sent messages. The figure for answers obtained
is even lower than that of a similar study from 2001, which, together with
another prior study from 1999, is used as a basis for comparison. The distribu-
tion of answers by chamber, political party, region, etc., is analysed compara-
tively with the earlier studies we have mentioned, and leads to a reflection on
the conditions for fomenting a viable cyberdemocracy.
Key words: Internet. Cyberdemocracy. Electronic democracy. Virtual political
communication. Electronic parliamentarism. Citizens.

PÉREZ ORNIA, José Ramón; Luis Núñez LADEVÉZE
(Complutense University of Madrid and CEU-San Pablo of
What children see on television (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 133-177.
    This paper offers a commentary on the data of two research projects which
analysed the contents of children’ programs broadcast in the 2001-2005
seasons. The analysis attempts to establish the identity marks of the product and
its rhetorical-formal characteristics, as well as the features of the basic actors of
the narrative. Besides this, it pays attention to three variables that are of special
concern: violence, sex and discrimination. It also comments on the dissonance
between the normative criteria of the parents and their effective behaviour with
respect to the quantity of television that their children should watch, the contents
and consumption habits.
Key words. Television. Children. Parents. Audience. Content. Tutors. Mass
communication. Programming. Family. Violence.

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PÉREZ GARCÍA, Guadalupe (PhD awarded by Complutense
University of Madrid
The Ifni War and the false blame laid on international
communism by the Francoist regime (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 179-196.
In 1957 Spain and the recently independent state of Morocco were engaged
in a war over the territories of Ifni and the Western Sahara. The Francoist re-
gime managed to expel the armed groups of the Liberation Army sent by
Rabat; in Ifni, on the contrary, the military presence was reduced to the
perimeter of the capital, Sidi Ifni. Spanish propaganda, which was
accustomed to making use of the eternal communist enemy chose to
represent the Spanish-Moroccan war to public opinion as a Soviet attack, in
order not to jeopardise its precarious relationship with the Arab world.
Key words: History. Ifni. Spain. Francoism.

SANTÍN DURÁN, Marina (Lecturer at the King Juan Carlos
University of Madrid)
Self-reference as a promotional strategy: Journalism or
advertising (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 197-209.
     News that has the mass media themselves as its subject is becoming in-
creasingly frequent. This presence of self-referential content is not a problem
in itself; the problem arises when this self-reference serves interests that are
not strictly informative. The newspapers on occasion use their layout content
to promote themselves, producing news items by which they make known
the products that are offered with the newspaper or the contents of their
supplements. This is self-referential news that shows how the growing com-
petition in the communication sector and the processes of media concentra-
tion are blurring the frontier separating news from advertising. This article

520                                                 Zer, 20, 2006, p. 515-526
                                                           Analytical summary

presents the results of research whose object was to study the self-referential
news appearing in the newspapers ABC, El País and El Mundo.
Key words. Self-reference. Promotion. Commercial strategy. Synergies.

GANZABAL LEARRETA, María (Lecturer at the University of the
Basque Country)
The absorption of women’ magazines by the service
newspapers (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 211-229.
     The study of newspaper supplements aimed at women requires a certain
audacity. Many have disappeared (La Vanguardia mujer, Blanco y Negro
Mujer, El País Estilo and M el estilo de El Mundo), while for others there is
no data available from the OJD or EGM, and there are others that no one has
even heard of. The survival of these supplements, highly specialised and
with a clear function of providing a service to the reader, enters into compe-
tition with the women’ magazines and the advertising companies that prefer
the seriousness and tradition of the classical weekly magazine. Only Mujer
hoy and Yo dona coexist today. These are two serious magazines, each
within its range, that are very well structured and with high indices of pub-
licity. Both have high indices of readership and distribution thanks to the big
publishing groups that produce them.

Key words. Newspaper. Supplement. Weekly magazine. Service journalism.

LÓPEZ GARCÍA, Guillermo (Lecturer at the University of Valencia)
Network communication and mutations of the public
sphere (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 231-241.
    The special characteristics of the digital medium act as a powerful de-
terminant on the appearance of a communicative system, giving rise to a
communications media and public that are clearly differentiated from the
traditional ones. There is a qualitative and quantitative increase in pluralism,

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Analytical summary

thanks especially to the development of different interactive tools and sys-
tems of publication that give shape to an active public, one which can act as
receiver and emitter of information, thus clearly counterposed to the tradi-
tional spectator, reader or listener of the mass media. This article analyses
the media framework that is taking shape following the appearance and de-
velopment of the different digital communication systems in recent decades,
characterised by a new model of communication and even a new composi-
tion of the public sphere.
Key words. Public sphere. Network society. Digital communication. Com-
munication of crisis. New technologies.

GIRÓ, Xavier; José Manuel JARQUE (Lecturers at the
Autonomous University of Barcelona)
The printed press and immigration: Study of the opinion of
newspapers on immigration proceeding from outside the
European Union and on news coverage of outstanding
conflicts related to this (October 1999-June 2002) (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 251-270.
    This article is a synthesis of much wider research that has studied the
discourse on immigration projected by the most significant Catalan
newspapers (La Vanguardia, Avui, El País and El Periódico) in a period
covering October 1999 to June 2002. The research is framed within the
multidisciplinary focus of Critical Discourse Analysis and consists of two
levels for approaching the object of study: (1) The study of the editorial lines
of the four newspapers of the sample; and (2) in-depth analysis of the
discourse in twelve relevant cases of news in which the media situated
immigration at the core of the conflict. In general terms we can say that the
newspapers under study maintained an attitude of denunciation against any
racist or xenophobic act, and that there is a great difference between the
discourse displayed in the editorials and in the news items. In spite of the
generally positive stance of the newspapers, we still found some problems
and excesses that might contribute to legitimising and perpetuating racist,
discriminatory and xenophobic ideas, attitudes and opinions underlying in

522                                                 Zer, 20, 2006, p. 515-526
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Key words. Immigration. Conflict. Press. Critical Analysis of Conflict.

ESCRIBANO, Asunción (Lecturer at the Pontificous University of
Linguistic courtesy as an advertising resource (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 271-297.
    Courtesy is expressed in a series of principles that different authors (La-
koff, Leech, Brown and Levinson) have proposed in order to explain the
functioning of the mechanisms of our communicative exchanges. On the
other hand, advertising develops in a specific society, whose values and
customs reflect, and are also reflected in, these mechanisms of courtesy.
Key words. Pragmatics. Courtesy. Advertising. Linguistic acts. Image.

TUCHO, Fernando (Lecturer at the King Juan Carlos University
of Madrid)
Civil society and media system. The Media Reform
Movement in the United States (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 299-317.
    The mass media system in the United States is frequently an object of
analysis by researchers looking for new tendencies in the most influential
media market of the planet, quite apart from the interest it olds in itself for
experts in International Communication.
     This article concentrates not only on the US media system but also on
the movement to reform that system that has emerged from within organised
civil society in this country. The antecedents and the present situation of this
movement are studied, presenting a classification of the type of organisations
that form it, and conclusions are drawn from an analysis of the strengths and
weaknesses of its present state.
Key words. Civil Society. Activism. Reform of the media system. United

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AGUADO, Juan Miguel; Inmaculada J. MARTÍNEZ (Lecturers ate
the University of Murcia)
The mediatisation process of the mobile telephony: from
interaction to cultural consume (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 319-343.
   Within the frame of the studies on the social impact of digital technolo-
gies, mobile telephony has traditionally shown a secondary interest, which
contrasts with the speed, extension and intensity of its social penetration.
Despite being (unlike the Internet) a market related technology in its
designing and development, the massive use of mobile telephony produces
deep socio-economic transformations that allow speaking of a ‘    mediatisation
process’ The milestones of such evolution are identified as translocal
communication (the possibility of being connected while moving in a wide
area or in large trajectories) and the integration of data formats and services
in a digital ‘meta-device’ for an always-on communication and access. This
paper poses a panoramic approach through its implications, especially
considering technological convergence, service diversification and the social
transformations derived from its everyday use.
Keywords: Mobile telephony. Translocal communication. Mediatisation.
Meta-device. Social impact.

FERNÁNDEZ, Benigno; Alexandre PEREIRA MEIRE (University of
Santiago de Compostela)
Noise in advertising: an approach to multilingualism of
Televisión de Galicia’ adverts (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 349-369.
In contrast to the monolingualism in Galician of its conventional
programming, the advertising on Televisión de Galicia (TVG) offers a pic-
ture of bilingualism that is asymmetrical in different dimensions. The pre-
dominance of Spanish and the combinatory diversity between this and

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Galician are its most outstanding characteristics. In spite of advertising only
occupying a discreet 11% of total broadcasting, its importance and effects at
the cultural, social and economic level are more than notable. In the case
under study, we analyse the reinstallation of the traditional diglossic patterns
(in relation to the imbalance between orality and writing, the timetable bands
and different characteristics of the station) in a general setting of distortion
and confusion, a state favoured by the lack of firm rules.
Key words. Advertising. Multilingualism. Asymmetry. Diglossia. Orality.
Graphics. Texts. Linguistic codes. Cultural identity. Effects. Ecology. Lin-
guistic policy. Regulation.

MURCIANO, Marcial (Lecturer at the Autonomous University of
Communication policies facing the challenges of the new
millennium: Pluralism, cultural diversity, economic and
technological development and social welfare (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 371-398.
    Communication policies have conditioned and guided the development
and the form taken by the different systems of national media. In broad
terms, the general interest directed the intervention of the State over the
course of the XIX and XX centuries. The different transformations that have
occurred in the last two decades have created a crisis in the traditional role
assumed by the State until the end of the XX century. Facing this situation,
the emergent values associated with pluralism and transparency, cultural
diversity and creativity, economic and technological development and social
welfare must form the hard nucleus of renovated and integrated policies.
Key words. Communication policies and culture. Mass media. Digital
revolution. Social and economic development. General interest.

TAMARIT, Ana María (Lecturer at the Pontificial University of
Considerations about local journalists in Castille-Leon (Sp)

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Analytical summary

In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 399-409.
    The journalist is the main actor in the narration of facts, that is to say, in
the action of reporting. Through the journalist, the citizens construct their
perception of what surrounds them, specially, in their closest background.
This fact is important enough for us to stop and do an analysis of the local
journalists, taking as an example the journalists of Castilla and León: the
features that define them and their routines.
Palabras clave: Periodistas. Rutinas de trabajo. Castilla y León.

ROJO VILLADA, Pedro Antonio (Lecturer at the University of
Press and technological convergence: Keys to defining a
new model of journalistic business in the Digital Age (Sp)
In: Zer. Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, n. 20,
2006, p. 411-424.
    At the start of the XXI century some newspapers are becoming experi-
mental centres where there is a convergence of media: a platform of contents
and news services, operating through structures more appropriate to multi-
media companies than to printed newspaper companies. This means that in
the Digital Age the newspaper companies will be working without distinc-
tion in areas such as printing newspapers, managing websites and broad-
casting contents by radio, television and mobile devices. In fact, in many
multimedia journalistic companies the journalists of the printed edition also
work for the television or the radio or vice versa. Photographers work with
photographic cameras and videos to capture images of events for the differ-
ent formats and, in the editing office, the different media of the same com-
pany share the same space and even manage the same contents, adapting
them to each of the formats. In the future, the journalistic brand name will
move beyond the printed format to be distributed on numerous platforms.
Key words. Press industry. Digitisation. Contents. Segmentation. Conver-
gence. Reconversion. Business model.

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