Lesson Design and Instructional Strategies for ELD Karina Martir Agenda Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Checking for Understanding Lesson Re-Design Questioning in the ELD classroom How do you learn new things? Pick one of the following activities. Think about how you learned the activity. Share with a partner your experience with how you learned. List similarities with your learning process. Learned how to… ride a bike tie your shoe use new computer software In some classrooms… Teacher Responsibility Focus Lesson “I do it” (Teacher) “You do it alone” (Student) Independent Student Responsibility Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 “I do it” > “You do it alone” I show you how I swim. Now you swim. In other classrooms… Teacher Responsibility “You do it alone” (Student) Independent Student Responsibility Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 “You do it alone” You jump in alone or “sink or swim” Or you might see this… Teacher Responsibility Focus Lesson “I do it” (Teacher) “We do it” Guided Instruction (Teacher/Student) “You do it Independent alone” Student Responsibility Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 “I do it” “We do it” “You do it” I show you how I swim. I give you cues, prompts and questions. You practice independently. Gradual Release of Responsibility Teacher Responsibility “I do it” Focus Lesson (Teacher) “We do it” Guided Instruction (Teacher/Student) “You do it together” Collaborative (Student/Student) “You do it Independent alone” (Student) Student Responsibility Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 “I do it” “We do it” “You do it together” “You do it” Instructional Delivery How do I use the GRR Model? The GRR model is not necessarily a lesson template. It is a frame of reference to guide your lesson. Checklist Instructional Planning & Delivery Which framework are you most familiar with? Instructional Planning Delivery Framework The HOW M. Hunter Holt’s DI 6-step Strategies within each framework: WICR, SDAIE, RT, X step GRR Questioning, Grouping Lesson Differentiating, design Scaffolding AIPD T, M, P, A Glencoe’s The WHAT = 4 step the standards/ content/skills Focus Lesson “I do it” Teacher must clearly establish a purpose: ELD Language Objective Three methods used most often in focus lessons are: Modeling Metacognitive awareness Think-alouds 5-20 minutes Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Language Objective Students will be able to (Language Function), using (Grammar Form) ….. Students will be able to: make predictions, describe objects, sequence events, using: future progressive tense. comparative adjectives. adverbs. The Language Objective Language FUNCTION Desired Grammar Language FORMS Result Why use language functions? Give a reason to use language Are used in both academic & social discourse Can develop higher level thinking Are embedded in reading/language arts and other subject areas Are used at every phase level Sample Language Functions Modeling Think aloud/Metacognitive Awareness Katie/blouse Katie’s blouse The dog/bone The dog’s bone The teacher/students The teacher’s students Focus Lesson “I do it” Think-alouds Combines cognition and metacognition as the teacher shares how he or she uses both to understand the content. Write it out before you do it in front of the class. Keep it tight and brief. (Think like the expert you are!) Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Focus Lesson “I do it” Metacognitive Awareness Extends the cognition through monitoring the use of the content being learned Instructional Strategies may look like: Public Problem Solving Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Metacognition Knowledge of general strategies for learning, thinking and problem-solving Rehearsal-repeating words or terms Organizational- outlining, drawing, thinking maps, graphic organizers, etc. Knowledge about cognitive tasks Knowledge of what strategies to use and how to use them Self-knowledge Knowledge of one’s own strengths and weaknesses in relation to cognition and learning Integrating knowledge of strategies, task at hand GIVEN your knowledge of self as learner Metacognition In order for students to self-regulate, they have to: Beaware of what they are doing Monitor as they work & process their experiences Reflect on what works & doesn’t, as they get to know their own learning strengths & weaknesses Metacognition does not naturally occur in all students without explicit instruction in how to monitor their own learning. Break into ELD level groups Pick a unit from your Teacher’s Edition As a group identify a language objective for the unit and rewrite it using a language function, grammar usage and desired outcome. ELD Modeling Write down what the teacher modeling will look like for your unit. Be prepared to present your modeling to the group. Guided Instruction (Teacher/Student) Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Guided Instruction Guided Instruction “We do it” Where the cognitive load begins to shift from teacher to student. Strategic use of cues, prompts, & questions Begin planning differentiated instruction based on the needs of the students Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Guided Instruction “We do it” Effective Instructional Strategies may include: Guided Reading Guided Writing Student Think-alouds after teacher has modeled Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Guided Practice Checking for understanding White boards, choral response, think-pair- share, 4 Square/Group of 4, etc. What are some reasons to check for understanding? ELD level groups As a group write down what your guided instruction will look like. Include at least one form of checking for understanding and why that CFU strategy is appropriate. Collaborative (Student/Student) Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Collaborative Collaborative Provides opportunity for students to work together to complete specific tasks. Students work together to solve problems, discover information, and complete projects. Teacher works with small groups, while the other students are engaged in meaningful activities Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Collaborative Effective Instructional Strategies may include: Reciprocal Teaching Visual Displays Graphic organizers or Thinking Maps Literature Circles Labs or simulations Jigsaw Skills Practice (especially true of actions that students need to know to automaticity) Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Collaboration by ELD Levels Basics: Students use language objective with sentence stems to present dialogue in front of class. A: Students use language objective with self created sentences to present dialogue in front of class. B: Students use language objective to create story to present dialogue in front of class. Collaboration by ELD Levels C: Students use language objective to create mini-drama to present in front of class. 1P: Students use language objective to create a short play to present in front of class. ELD Collaboration Write down what the collaboration will look like for your ELD unit. Please note how you will group students, and what will they work together to produce. Independent Practice (Student) Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Independent Practice Provides students with opportunities to apply what they have learned through focus lessons, guided instruction, and collaborative learning. Should help students become increasingly self-directed and engaged. Not a pile of worksheets or packets If homework, concept needs to be previously taught and learned. Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Examples of Independent Practice What are some effective examples of independent practice? What are some ineffective examples of independent practice? ELD Independent Practice As a group write down what your ELD independent practice will look like for your unit. Indicators of a GRR Classroom Focus Lessons: The teacher establishes the purpose of the lesson The teacher uses “I” statements to model thinking Questioning is used to scaffold instruction The lesson builds on metacognitive awareness, especially indicators of success Focus lessons move to guided instruction, not immediately to independent learning. Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Indicators of a GRR Classroom Guided Instruction Small-group arrangements are evident Grouping changes throughout the semester The teacher plays an active role in guided instruction, not just circulating and assisting individual students Dialogue occurs between students and teachers as they begin to apply a strategy or skill Teacher uses cues and prompts to scaffold understanding when a student makes an error and does not immediately tell the student the correct answer Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Indicators of a GRR Classroom Collaborative Learning Small-group arrangements are evident Grouping changes throughout the year The teacher has modeled concepts that students need to complete collaborative tasks Students have received guided instruction of the concepts needed to complete the collaborative tasks Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Indicators of a GRR Classroom Independent Learning Students have received focused lessons, guided instruction, and collaborative learning experiences related to the concepts needed to complete the independent task Independent tasks extend beyond practice to application and extension of new knowledge Adapted from Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey, 2008 Questioning Carousel Go around the room and give reasons for each of the questions. When might recitation questioning be used? Review before a test Check for understanding (choral response, white boards, etc.) Provide opportunities for practice Model good questioning for students Assess student knowledge (before, during or after instruction) Practice with purpose Look at the purpose for questioning and develop questions for the text excerpt. Why is it important to establish a purpose for questioning? Guides instruction and learning Provides depth and complexity for the material Q-Card Stems Associated with Questioning and Answering at all Cognitive Levels ELD Questioning Go through your re-designed lesson and create questions with purpose for each section of the Gradual Release of Responsibility. Questions? Thank you for your time!
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