Pheochromocytoma Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment by tuananh1080

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									Title:
Pheochromocytoma Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

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667

Summary:
Pheochromocytoma signs symptoms diagnosis investigations treatment and
management. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of Adrenal glands


Keywords:
Pheochromocytoma, tumor, signs, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment,
metanephrines pheochromocytoma, management


Article Body:
Pheochromocytoma is an important cause of secondary Hypertension. We have
adnenal gland located at upper portion of each kidney. It is divided into
adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of
Adrenal Medulla. Normal function of adrenal medulla is to produce
epinephrine or adrenaline. Which is responsible for controlling blood
pressure and to help cope with stressful situations.
So majority of symptoms of pheochromocytoma are due to excess secretion
of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Most patients of pheochromocytoma
have recurrent episodes of headache, sweating and a feeling of high
anxiety. The following symptoms are listed from the most common to the
least common
Headaches (severe)
sweating Episodes (generalized)
heart palpitations (tachycardia and palpitations)
Anxiety
nervousness (feelings of impending death)
tremors
Pain in the lower chest or upper abdomen
Nausea (with or without nausea)
Weight loss
Heat intolerance

These symptoms may come by situations which causes pressure over tumor
like physical activity, exercise, defecation, anesthesia, or change in
body position.

Who should be examined for Pheochromocytoma
Those who have uncontrolled hypertension
Those who have age between 40 and 60
Those who are already taking 4 antihypertensive drugs but blood pressure
is not controllable.
Those who have episodes of above symptoms

Cause of pheochromocytoma is unknown, however some forms of this tumor
runs in families like,
a-Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN-II). In addition to a
pheochromocytoma, people with MEN-II also have thyroid cancer. Other
forms of MEN-II include pheochromocytoma with thyroid cancer and
hyperparathyroidism (MEN-IIA), and pheochromocytoma with thyroid cancer
and tumors of nerves in the eyes lips, mouth and digestive tract (MEN-
IIB).
b-Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Pheochromocytomas can occur in a small
percentage of people with NF1, a syndrome that includes multiple tumors
in the skin (neurofibromas), pigmented skin spots, tumors of the optic
nerve of the eye, and bone diseases.
c-Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. People with this rare multi system
disorder are at high risk of pheochromocytoma brain eye and kidney
tumors.

Most pheochromocytomas are benign tumors and they don't spread to other
parts of body however some forms do show metastasis (spread) to other
parts of body like lungs, bones and brains. Usually only one gland is
involved however this tumor can be present in both adrenal glands.

Investigations:
Blood and Urine tests: We perform blood and urine tests to diagnose
pheochromocytoma. 24 hr urine collection is tested for epinephrine,
norepinephrine and dopamine. This test is called VMA. Idea is just to
check level of epinephrine and its metabolites in urine. If these are
detected in urine in excess quantity, then tumor is diagnosed.

Abdominal scan.
Now you have diagnosed tumor by blood and urine tests, after that to find
out location of tumor, do Ultrasound, CT scan of abdomen.

Complications:
If high blood pressure remained uncontrolled it may lead to complications
of heart failure, infarction, cerebrovascular accident, vision damage and
kidney failure.

Treatment:
First treatment is to control high blood pressure with medication like
Alpha Blockers and Beta Blockers. When epinephrine is secreted by this
tumor it acts on alpha and beta receptors present on heart and blood
vessels, result is vasoconstriction and increase heart rate. Now if if we
take drugs like alpha blocker and beta blocker, epinephrine will be
blocked by these drugs to act on these receptors so result is
vasodilation and slow heart rate. Common Alpha blockers are Prazosin
(Minipress), Terazosin (Hytrin) Phenoxybenzamine( Dibenzaline). Common
Beta Blockers are Atenolol(Tenormin), Carvedilol(Carveda),
Metoprolol(Mepressor), Inderal.

Treatment of choice for this tumor is Surgery. After   removal of this
gland by surgery, blood pressure becomes normal with   a day. There are two
types of surgeries. General and Laproscopic surgery.   However Surgery is
not an option for those tumors which show metastasis   to other parts of
body. For that we use chemotherapy and radiations.

Whenever you have high blood pressure with any symptom, don't ignore it,
you may be the patient of Pheochromocytoma. Always contact your Doctor.
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href="http://www.highbloodpressuremed.com">Pheochromocytoma</a>, visit
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