HEALTH_ WELFARE AND LEGAL NOTES

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					                            INCLUDING GUIDANCE ON FARM VISITS
                     HEALTH, WELFARE AND LEGAL NOTES


1.       Many teachers know from experience the positive benefits which can accrue
         from the responsible observation of living creatures at close quarters, both in
         terms of securing an engaging delivery of the science curriculum and of
         enhancing pupils’ personal, social and moral development. This briefing
         explores the context in which animals may be encountered by students in
         schools1 – whether in the classroom, the school grounds or on a farm visit.

2.       Although such a view is not shared by everyone – the RSPCA, for example,
         discourages the keeping or studying of animals in school on animal welfare
         grounds – it is not the purpose of this guidance to explore the ethical
         implications of this subject. Rather, the advice contained in this briefing has
         been compiled to summarise the main legal, safety and animal welfare
         considerations which should be borne in mind by those involved in decisions
         surrounding the bringing into or keeping of animals in schools.

Animals in Schools – Legal Considerations

3.       The Pet Animals Act 1951 prevents the sale of animals to children under 12
         years of age. This should be borne in mind if the sale, by a school, of surplus
         animals to children is contemplated at any stage.

4.       The Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974 places a duty on employers
         to safeguard the health, safety and welfare at work of teachers, pupils and
         visitors. This includes an obligation to minimise the risk of the transfer of
         disease from animals to people. Schools should satisfy themselves that
         animals are sourced from reputable providers, are kept in a good state of
         health, and that suitable hygiene precautions are followed by anyone coming
         into contact with the animals. Sick animals should be isolated and advice
         sought from a veterinary surgeon.

5.       The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, as amended, has implications for
         the study of animals and plants outside the classroom, such as on nature
         walks and field trips. This Act – and a number of related laws – affords strict
         protection to a wide range of species, such as:


1
     Throughout this document, the word ‘schools’ refers to all educational settings, including
    children’s centres and sixth form colleges.
      •      wild birds, including their nests and eggs;

      •      some amphibians such as natterjack toads and crested newts;

      •      red squirrels, bats and badgers;

      •      common otters, seals and deer; and

      •      some reptiles, fish, butterflies, moths, crickets, dragonflies, beetles,
             grasshoppers, spiders and snails.

6.    Many other creatures have partial protection which may allow their temporary
      removal to a classroom for observation, but requires that they are returned as
      soon as possible to a suitable habitat – preferably to the site from which they
      were originally taken.

7.    The legislation also affects wild plants – see Appendix 2 for further details.

8.    In all cases, up to date advice should be sought at the outset to ensure
      compliance with current law. Comprehensive information of this kind can be
      found on the website of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, at
      http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-1377.

9.    Dangerous animals, as defined by the Dangerous Wild Animals Act 1976,
      may not be brought into school. This includes most monkeys and apes,
      crocodiles, alligators and poisonous snakes. It does not include domestic
      dogs and cats. Changes to the list of species have been under consideration
      and are planned to be introduced during 2006. Further information on these
      changes, and the Act itself, can be found on the DEFRA website, at
      http://www.defra.gov.uk/wildlife-countryside/gwd/wildact.htm.

10.   Finally, the Scientific Procedures Act outlaws any act causing pain,
      suffering, distress or lasting harm to vertebrates unless licensed and carried
      out in ‘designated premises’. Schools are not eligible to be licensed in this
      way.

11.   An animal which has been humanely killed, however, may be used for
      dissection and other related purposes in schools. The RSPCA stresses,
      though, that animals should never be killed as part of a lesson, or in front of
      pupils. Where it is deemed necessary to ‘put down’ a sick animal, such
      procedures should only be carried out by a trained person – preferably a vet.

Animal Welfare

12.   Where animals are kept in schools, whether on a temporary or permanent
      basis, it is of course vital that their welfare is accorded paramount
      importance.
13.   Schools often keep a wide variety of animals, such as fish, mice, gerbils, rats,
      giant African snails, stick insects, locusts, toads and snakes. For each
      creature kept in a school, a proper care programme should be established to
      ensure the maintenance of minimum welfare standards, including:

      •      regular and appropriate nourishment;

      •      water;

      •      checks on general health; and

      •      a comfortable environment, tailored to the animal’s needs in terms of
             heat, light, space, cleanliness, noise levels, shelter, and the possible
             impact of other animals and humans in the vicinity.

14.   Furthermore, any health and safety issues arising as a result of keeping the
      animals should be identified in advance, and appropriate measures put in
      place to counter or remove such risks.

15.   Where animals are brought in for a short period – for example just for a day –
      a proper protocol should be implemented which ensures the wellbeing of the
      animal, and the health and safety of others, for the duration of its visit.

16.   This should include the provision of assurances from the owner as to the
      means of transporting and housing the animal, and the responsibility to bring
      any equipment, food or water likely to be required during the day. Liaison
      with parents would also be highly advisable.

17.   Animals must be accommodated separately; different species, or individuals
      of the same species from different litters, must never be placed together in
      the same cage, vivarium, tank etc. This will help to:

      •      ensure the return of each animal to the correct owner;

      •     minimise the risk of transmission of disease from one creature to
      another; and

      •     reduce the likelihood of aggression or conflict between incompatible
      animals.

Animal Handling

18.   Pupils will naturally wish to handle animals, but certain considerations need to
      be addressed in advance of any such activities. In particular, it should be
      checked that:

      •      the animal is used to being handled;
      •      the animal is not likely to be stressed by excitable children;

      •      where there is a correct way to hold any animal, this must be taught to
             children from the outset; and

      •      handling of small animals should be carried out over a table or
             preferably some form of soft surface to minimise the risk of injury
             caused by falling or being dropped.

19.   The handling of certain animals should be avoided altogether. Those which
      are nervous, nocturnal or prone to biting or scratching, should be observed
      and not touched. Other creatures, such as invertebrates, are too fragile to
      be handled any more than absolutely necessary. Sometimes any handling of
      a pet should be limited to the owner, who will have the necessary expertise to
      do it properly.

Hygiene, Diseases, Parasites and Allergies

20.   The likelihood of diseases being passed on to humans from pet animals is
      low. In all cases, good hygiene will reduce the risks even further.

      •      Children and adults should always wash their hands soon after coming
             into contact with any animal or its equipment.

      •      Cuts and abrasions on hands and arms should be covered to minimise
             the risk of infection.

      •      Cleaning routines and arrangements for the disposal of animal waste
             should be carried out with due regard for good hygiene standards.
             Pregnant staff and anyone with suppressed immunity should exercise
             particular caution and avoid all contact with animal waste products.

      •      Contaminated surfaces should be properly washed and disinfected.

21.   For cats and dogs, it is sensible to check their general health, and whether or
      not they have recently been wormed and treated for fleas. Where staff and/or
      children are known to have allergies to particular animals, it is of course
      sensible to restrict their exposure to any animals which might provoke an
      allergic reaction. In an emergency, medical advice should be sought without
      delay. Further information on hygiene control is set out in the NUT briefing on
      the subject, available at http://www.teachers.org.uk/story.php?id=1548.

Physical Injuries

22.   It may be sensible to err on the side of caution and restrict animal visitors to
      those least likely to cause injury. In cases where animals prone to biting,
      scratching, or causing irritation to skin, eyes etc are allowed in the classroom,
      suitable precautions should be taken to minimise the risk of injury occurring.
      Such precautions might necessitate checks such as:

      •      the level of protection afforded by the animal’s housing; and

      •      the need for any rules which may be required about approaching,
             touching or handling animals with such tendencies.

23.   Where pupils have fears or phobias about particular animals, these should be
      respected and appropriate arrangements made to ensure the separation of
      the animal from the pupil(s) concerned.

Allergies

24.   Allergic reactions can be triggered by a wide range of animals and indeed
      plants. Common examples of allergenic risks found in a school laboratory
      might include:

      •      working with small laboratory animals such as rats and mice;

      •      working with insects such as moths or locusts.

25.   Some allergens can lead to severe reactions including anaphylaxis. For
      guidance on dealing with anaphylaxis in schools, see the most recent NUT
      advice        on          the         subject,         available       at
      www.teachers.org.uk/resources/word/ANAPHYLAXIS_IN_SCHOOLS.doc.

26.   In all cases, a suitable and sufficient risk assessment must be
      undertaken before the work is commenced - to be suitable and
      sufficient, risks must be identified, and appropriate measures put in
      place to control the risks.

27.   Statistics reveal that around 15 per cent of adults and over 50 per cent of
      children are allergic to pets. It is estimated that these allergies affect 14
      million people in 6 million households in the UK alone and this number is set
      to double over the next 10 years in response to the increased propensity of
      younger generations to have immune deficiencies.

28.   The proteins from animals’ hair, saliva or urine can cause allergic reactions
      that may include a range of symptoms, such as irritation to the eyes and
      airways, asthma or dermatitis.

29.   It is often difficult to avoid the allergens which can come from animals – even
      where no animals are housed, animal allergens can be transported by people
      who have been in contact with animals. As such, school classrooms can be
      overloaded with pet allergens unwittingly brought in by children exposed to
      animals at home. Most often the allergies are to cats or dogs, but rats, mice,
      guinea pigs, hamsters, pet birds, horses, cows or poultry can be involved.
30.    Where cats and dogs are concerned, it is sensible to check their general
       health, and whether or not they have recently been wormed and treated for
       fleas. Where staff and/or children are known to have allergies to particular
       animals, it is sensible to restrict their exposure to any animals which might
       provoke an allergic reaction. In an emergency, medical advice should be
       sought without delay. Further information on hygiene control is set out in the
       NUT         briefing       on         the      subject,      available      at
       http://www.teachers.org.uk/story.php?id=1548.

31.    A more stringent approach, which would nevertheless reduce the risks of
       allergic reactions, would be to confine the presence of animals to a limited
       part of the school only. This could be a single classroom, specifically set out
       to aid the teaching of those elements of the curriculum where the presence of
       real creatures is considered to be an important asset. Such a room should
       preferably not contain carpets or any heavy upholstery, and should be
       cleaned regularly with moist rags and a vacuum cleaner which has a vortex
       with no bag, and an allergen filter.

32.    Such an arrangement might lead staff or pupils with mild forms of animal
       allergy - or with allergies which are generally well controlled with appropriate
       medication - to display improvement in the frequency or the severity of such
       symptoms. For those who need greater separation from animals, however,
       alternative arrangements would ultimately be required.

Aquariums

33.    Aquariums pose particular safety hazards which will need to be addressed.
       Aquariums can present the risk of electric shocks. Regular maintenance
       checks carried out by competent persons should enable such hazards to be
       effectively controlled. Teachers should look out especially for broken light
       bulbs, frayed wires, cracked glass or exposed filaments on heating units.
       Suitable safety devices such as circuit breakers should be fitted in all cases.

34.    It is important from an animal welfare point of view to properly look after the
       fish and to make regular checks on the water cleanliness and temperature.
       Aerosol sprays in the vicinity of the tank is to be avoided and fish should be
       fed according to the relevant instructions.

NOTES ON ANIMALS FROM LOCAL HABITATS

Land Invertebrates

35.    Invertebrate animals, such as woodlice, snails and earthworms, are often
       brought into schools for short-term studies. They prefer cool, dark and damp
       conditions. Spiders and centipedes should be avoided because of the
       difficulties involved in providing them with a carnivorous diet. (DEFRA)

Fish
36.   Pond water for indigenous fish, such as minnows, should be cool and well
      oxygenated. Live food should be provided. Specialist advice on keeping cold
      water fish should be sought where a long term habitat is envisaged.

37.   Pond water may harbour Weil’s disease. Again, good hygiene practices are
      paramount.

Reptiles and Amphibians

38.   Frog spawn is a common focus for study in schools. Spawn should be taken
      in small amounts, and ideally the water in which the tadpoles will develop
      should be aerated and filtered. When the tadpoles become young adult
      frogs, they should be released back into an appropriate environment –
      preferably the pond from which the spawn originated.

39.   Terrapins are sometimes kept in classroom tanks: it should be noted that their
      waste products often contain salmonella.

Birds and Mammals

40.   Wild birds and mammals may carry parasites and diseases and should
      therefore not normally be taken directly from the wild and brought into
      schools. Various conservation groups, when invited into schools, may bring
      ‘rescued’ wild animals to display as part of a presentation about their work. It
      is a good idea to establish that such animals – for example hedgehogs or
      owls, have been kept in captivity for long enough to have benefited from
      proper treatment against diseases and parasites. It may not be appropriate
      for children to handle such animals.

Injured Animals Brought in by Pupils

41.   It is not uncommon for pupils to take pity on an injured bird or mammal, and
      to bring it in to school in the belief that it will be possible to successfully treat it
      and restore it to perfect health. It would be sensible to instruct pupils that
      attempts to retrieve ‘abandoned’ animals in this way may damage the animals
      concerned and spread infection. Instead, the problem should be reported so
      that others can act if appropriate. The injured animal will often be rescued by
      its parents once the coast is clear. Schools might wish to have a procedure in
      place to address such eventualities. Such a procedure should include:

      •      precautions needed to minimise the risk of transmission of disease or
             parasites;

      •      the maintenance of scrupulous standards of hygiene;

      •      in all cases of doubt, the seeking of expert advice from either a vet, the
             RSPCA or the People’s Dispensary for Sick Animals (PDSA)
Avian Influenza

42.   Under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) regulations
      2002, employers must set out the steps they have determined to eliminate or
      reduce the risk of contracting biological hazards, including Bird Flu.

43.   Specific government rules have recently been introduced to minimise the
      possible spread of avian influenza H5N1, or ‘bird flu’. Much of this advice
      takes the form of strict adherence to proper hygiene procedures – which is
      applicable in any case as mentioned elsewhere in this briefing. Quite apart
      from any risk posed by bird ‘flu, birds carry other respiratory infections.
      Further, birds can carry infections which can cause gastrointestinal infections
      such as Salmonella and Campylobacter.

44.   In line with the points set out above, pupils should be strongly advised against
      any form of contact with any dead birds which they might find in or around the
      vicinity of the school or home. If, despite such entreaties, it is discovered that
      children have handled a dead bird, it is vital that their hands abre thoroughly
      cleaned with soap and water as soon as possible - and certainly before eating
      or drinking. Where there is evidence of staining or soiling of clothes, they too
      should also be subjected promptly to careful cleaning.

45.   Should an unusual number of wild bird deaths be found in one area, contact
      should be made with the Defra Helpline (08459 33 55 77) which is open from
      8:30am to 8:00pm. Details of such findings will be requested, in order that
      any appropriate action or investigation might be promptly initiated.

46.   In the meantime, the government has drawn up an influenza pandemic
      contingency plan, which can be viewed at www.dh.gov.uk/pandemicflu, whilst
      Defra              advice             is               located             at
      http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/notifiable/disease/ai/qanda/index.ht
      m

47.   The NUT Health and Safety Unit will continue to monitor the situation relating
      to avian influenza, and issue further guidance as and when necessary. The
      information provided here is for general information only, and is in no way
      intended as a substitute for professional advice based on the specific
      circumstances applying to any individual case.

Other considerations

48.   Where school-based animals are taken home by pupils, a suitable home-
      school agreement should be devised to encourage the observation of the
      same principles at home as those governing their husbandry in schools –
      both from the perspective of pupil safety and animal welfare.
49.   Similar considerations should apply to circumstances in which a pupil is given
      a work experience placement in an occupation which involves working with or
      alongside animals, such as positions in:

      -       farms;

      -       veterinary surgeries;

      -       animal welfare sanctuaries;

      -       facilities involving animals such as zoological gardens, animal welfare
              sanctuaries, safari parks, or farms open as a public attraction;

      -       pet shops or similar.

50.   It is important to remember that employers providing such placements have
      the same responsibilities for the health, safety and welfare of students as they
      do towards all of their workforce. Further information on health and safety
      matters applying to work experience can be found on the NUT website at
      www.teachers.org.uk.

Farm Visits

51.   The HSE has published advice on safe procedures when children are visiting
      farms. Two leaflets have been prepared. The first, ‘Be Responsible – Keep
      Children Safe on Your Farm’ is aimed at farmers and gives details on
      precautions to take if and when children come on visits. The other, ‘Farms
      Are Not Playgrounds – 10 Ways You Can Get Hurt on a Farm’ is primarily for
      children, especially those aged between 7 to 11, and presents key safety
      points in a clear and well-illustrated format, making it ideal for accompanying
      teachers and other adults to discuss with pupils prior to a farm visit. Both
      leaflets, available from the HSE website at www.hse.gov.uk , would moreover
      be useful reference material for anyone involved in carrying out a risk
      assessment for such a visit.

52.   Members should also look at general NUT guidance on school visits, which
      can                      be                  found                    at
      http://www.teachers.org.uk/resources/word/SCHOOLVISITS2005.doc.

Safety at Water Margins

53.   The DfES and the Central Council of Physical Recreation (CCPR) has
      produced a guidance document aimed at all those who organise and lead
      outdoor educational visits that take place near or in water. It covers such
      activities as walks along riverbnanks or seashores; collecting samples from
      ponds and streams or paddling or walking in gentle, shallow water and not
      activities involving swimming or boating. Copies of ‘Group Safety at Water
      Margins’ can be downloaded from either www.teacher.net.gov.uk/visits or
      www.ccpr.org.uk.
Unexpected Animal ‘Visitors’

54.   Some animal-related difficulties occur where dogs are routinely exercised on
      school property, and concern is expressed regarding the potential health and
      safety hazards which may arise from their presence*. In such cases, schools
      should consider the possibility of taking legal action under Section 547 of the
      1996 Education Act, which provides that trespassers who are making a
      nuisance or disturbance and refusing to leave school premises are
      committing a criminal offence. “Nuisance or disturbance” has a wide
      interpretation and includes, for example, riding motorbikes or exercising
      animals in such a way as to disturb the normal running of the school.


*There are a number of health and safety risks which might arise from dogs
wandering over school premises, the two most serious being:

•     the risk of the spread of serious illnesses associated with canine faeces; and

•     the inherent risk to safety posed by any large vicious animal in the middle of
      an area designed for young children.

55.   Such trespassers cannot be arrested but they can be removed by a police
      officer or anyone authorised by the local authority, or governors in foundation
      and VA schools. They can also be prosecuted and fined up to £500 or, if
      under 16, their parents can be bound over.

56.   Certain schools do have rights of way through their grounds. The law
      provides, however, that rights of way may in certain circumstances be closed
      or diverted. A school’s security risk assessment may identify a security risk
      posed by the existence of a right of way, particularly if there have been
      previous incidents. The school’s governing body may therefore determine
      that it believes that the right of way should be closed or diverted.

57.   In practice, courts prefer applications for closure or diversion to be made by
      the owner of the land; this may be the local authority, the diocese, for
      voluntary aided schools, or the foundation, for foundation schools. The
      governing body should therefore seek the support and assistance of the
      appropriate body in making any such application.

58.   Where difficulties arise in resolving this or any other issue raised by this
      briefing note, NUT representatives should contact their NUT regional offices
      in England or NUT Cymru in Wales for further advice.

NUT Health and Safety Unit
September 2006
Checklist for School Representatives

       Does your school/LEA have a policy on animals in schools?

       If YES, is it adequate or is it in need of revision?

       Does your existing guidance on school trips include safety precautions to be
       taken on visits to particularly hazardous places such as farms, ponds,
       streams etc?

       Where animals are kept, are there adequate signs or notices advising of any
       particular hazards including allergens and toxins?

       Are children taught about basic hygiene measures such as washing hands
       after touching or handling animals?

       Have suitable and sufficient risk assessments been carried out for all
       activities involving animals in the school setting?

       Do existing policies and procedures with regard to school visits include the
       need to assess and manage risks associated with outdoor
       biological/geographical studies?

FURTHER READING AND INFORMATION

Infections at Work – Controlling the Risks

This is an excellent and highly detailed guide to managing the risk of infection in the
workplace, including comprehensive information on common infections from animal
sources. It was put together by the HSE’s Advisory Committee on Dangerous
Pathogens and can be found at http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/infection.pdf.

Blood-borne Viruses in the Workplace: Guidance for Employers and
Employees

Leaflet INDG342 HSE Books 2001 (single copy free or priced packs of 10
ISBN 0 7176 2062 X)

The Occupational Zoonoses Guidance HSE Books 1992 ISBN 0 11 886397 5

HSE priced and free publications are available by mail order from: HSE Books,
PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA Tel: 01787 881165
Fax: 01787 313995 Website: www.hsebooks.co.uk (HSE priced publications
are also available from bookshops and free leaflets can be downloaded from
HSE’s website: www.hse.gov.uk)
For information about health and safety ring HSE’s Infoline Tel: 08701 545500
Fax: 02920 859260 e-mail: hseinformationservices@natbrit.com or write to
HSE Information Services, Caerphilly Business Park, Caerphilly CF83 3GG.
Appendix 1: Species other than birds specially protected under
The Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981: Schedule 5 (Animals)

Scientific name        English name        Sections of Act cited where         Year
                                           complete protection is not          scheduled
                                           afforded


Mammals
Arvicola terrestris    Water vole          Damage/destruction of place of      1998
                                           shelter/protection S.9(4)(a) and
                                           disturbance while in a place of
                                           shelter S.9(4)(b) only
Cetacea                All dolphins,                                           Tursiops
                       porpoises, whales                                       truncatus &
                                                                               Delphinus
                                                                               delphis - 1981;
                                                                               rest - 1988
Felis silvestris       Wildcat                                                 1988
Lutra lutra            Otter                                                   1981
Martes martes          Pine marten                                             1988
Muscardinus            Dormouse                                                1988
avellanarius
Odobenus rosmarus      Walrus                                                  1988
Sciurus vulgaris       Red squirrel                                            1981
Vespertilionidae and   All bats                                                1981
Rhinolophidae




Reptiles
Anguis fragilis        Slow worm           Killing & injuring S.9(1) (part);   S.9(5) - 1981;
                                           sale S.9(5)                         S.9(1) - 1988
Cheloniidae and        All turtles                                             1988
Dermochelyidae
Coronella austriaca    Smooth snake                                            1981
Lacerta agilis         Sand lizard                                             1981
Lacerta vivipara       Viviparous lizard   Killing & injuring S.9(1) (part);   S.9(5) - 1981;
                                           sale S.9(5)                         S.9(1) - 1988
Natrix natrix          Grass snake         Killing & injuring S.9(1) (part);   S.9(5) - 1981;
                                           sale S.9(5)                         S.9(1) - 1988
Vipera berus           Adder               Killing & injuring S.9(1) (part):   S.9(5) - 1981;
                                         sale S.9(5)                         S.9(1) - 1991




Amphibians
Bufo bufo             Common toad        Sale only S.9(5)                    1981
Bufo calamita         Natterjack toad                                        1981
Rana temporaria       Common frog        Sale only S.9(5)                    1981
Triturus cristatus    Warty (great                                           1981
                      crested) newt
Triturus helveticus   Palmate newt       Sale only S.9(5)                    1981
Triturus vulgaris     Smooth newt        Sale only S.9(5)                    1981




F is h
Acipenser sturio      Sturgeon                                               1992
Alosa alosa           Allis shad         Killing, injuring & taking          S.9(1) - 1991,
                                         S.9(1),(4)(a)                       S.9(4)(a) - 1998
Alosa fallax          Twaite shad        Damage/destruction of place of      1998
                                         shelter/protection S.9(4)(a) only
Cetorhinus maximus    Basking shark                                          1998
Coregonus albula      Vendace                                                1988
Coregonus lavaretus   Whitefish                                              1988
Gobius cobitis        Giant goby                                             1998
Gobius couchii        Couch's goby                                           1998
Lota lota             Burbot                                                 1981




Butterflies
Apatura iris          Purple emperor     Sale only S.9(5)                    1989
Argynnis adippe       High brown                                             1992
                      fritillary                                             (previously sale
                                                                             only)
Aricia artaxerxes     Northern brown     Sale only S.9(5)                    1989
                      argus
Boloria euphrosyne    Pearl-bordered     Sale only S.9(5)                    1989
                      fritillary
Carterocephalus       Checkered skipper Sale only S.9(5)                     1989
palaemon
Coenonympha tullia     Large heath            Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Cupido minimus         Small blue             Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Erebia epiphron        Mountain ringlet       Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Eurodryas aurinia      Marsh fritillary       Sale only S.9(5)            S.9(5) - 1989
                                              Full protection             1998
Hamearis lucina        Duke of Burgundy       Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Hesperia comma         Silver-spotted         Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Leptidea sinapis       Wood white             Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Lycaena dispar         Large copper           Sale only S.9(5)            S.9(5) - 1989
                                              Full protection             1998
Lysandra bellargus     Adonis blue            Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Lysandra coridon       Chalkhill blue         Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Maculinea arion        Large blue                                         1981
Melitaea cinxia        Glanville fritillary   Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Mellicta athalia       Heath fritillary                                   1981
(Melitaea athalia)
Nymphalis              Large tortoiseshell    Sale only S.9(5)            1989
polychloros
Papilio machaon        Swallowtail                                        1981
Plebejus argus         Silver-studded         Sale only S.9(5)            1989
                       blue
Strymonidia pruni      Black hairstreak       Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Strymonidia w-album    White-letter           Sale only S.9(5)            1989
                       hairstreak
Thecla betulae         Brown hairstreak       Sale only S.9(5)            1989
Thymelicus acteon      Lulworth skipper       Sale only S.9(5)            1989




Moths
Acosmetia caliginosa   Reddish buff                                       1981
Bembecia               Fiery clearwing                                    1998
chrysidiformis
Gortyna borelii        Fisher's estuarine                                 1998
                       moth
Hadena irregularis     Viper's bugloss                                    1988
                                              Removed, believed extinct   1998
Pareulype berberata    Barberry carpet                                    1981
Siona lineata          Black-veined                                       1981
Thalera fimbrialis        Sussex emerald                                            1992
Thetidia smaragdaria      Essex emerald                                             1981
Zygaena viciae            New Forest burnet                                         1981




Beetles
Chrysolina cerealis       Rainbow leaf                                              1981
                          beetle
Curimopsis nigrita        Mire pill beetle      Damage/destruction of place of      1992
                                                shelter/protection S.9(4)(a) only
Graphoderus zonatus       Water beetle                                              1992
Hydrochara                Lesser silver water                                       1992
caraboides                beetle
Hypebaeus flavipes        Beetle                                                    1992
Limoniscus violaceus      Violet click beetle                                       1988
Lucanus cervus            Stag beetle           Sale only S.9(5)                    1998
Paracymus aeneus          Water beetle                                              1992




Hemipteran bugs
Cicadetta montana         New Forest cicada                                         1988




Crickets
Decticus verrucivorus     Wart-biter                                                1981
Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa   Mole cricket                                              1981
Gryllus campestris        Field cricket                                             1981




Dragonflies
Aeshna isosceles          Norfolk aeshna                                            1981
Coenagrion                Southern                                                  1998
mercuriale                damselfly




Spiders
Dolomedes plantarius      Fen raft spider                                           1981
Eresus niger            Ladybird spider                                         1981
(cinaberinus)




Crustaceans
Austropotamobius        Atlantic stream     Taking S.9(1) (part); sale S.9(5)   1988
pallipes                (white-clawed)
                        crayfish
Chirocephalus           Fairy shrimp                                            1988
diaphanus
Gammarus                Lagoon sand                                             1988
insensibilis            shrimp
Triops cancriformis     Apus                                                    1988




Sea-mats
Victorella pavida       Trembling sea-mat                                       1988




Molluscs
Atrina fragilis         Fan mussel          Killing & injuring S.9(1);          1998
                                            possession S9(2); sale S.9(5)
Caecum armoricum        De Folin's lagoon                                       1992
                        snail
Catinella arenaria      Sandbowl snail                                          1981
Margaritifera           Pearl mussel        Killing & injuring S.9(1) (part)    S.9(1) - 1991
margaritifera                               Full protection                     1998
Monacha cartusiana      Carthusian snail                                        1981
                                            Removed from Schedule 5             1988
Myxas glutinosa         Glutinous snail                                         1981
Paludinella littorina   Lagoon snail                                            1992
Tenellia adspersa       Lagoon sea slug                                         1992
Thyasira gouldi         Northern hatchet-                                       1992
                        shell




Annelid worms
Alkmaria romijni        Tentacled lagoon-                                       1992
                        worm
Armandia cirrhosa     Lagoon sandworm                                        1988
Hirudo medicinalis    Medicinal leech                                        1988




Sea anemones and allies
Clavopsella navis     Marine hydroid                                         1998
Edwardsia ivelli      Ivell's sea                                            1988
                      anemone
Eunicella verrucosa   Pink sea-fan      Killing, injuring & taking S.9(1);   1992
                                        possession S9(2); sale S.9(5)
Nematostella          Starlet sea                                            1988
vectensis             anemone
Appendix 2: Species other than birds specially protected under
The Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981: Schedule 8 (Plants)

Scientific name                                English name            Year scheduled
Vascular plants
Ajuga chamaepitys                              Ground pine             1992
Alisma gramineum                               Ribbon-leaved water-    1981
                                               plantain
Allium sphaerocephalon                         Round-headed leek       1981
Althaea hirsuta                                Rough marsh-mallow      1981
Alyssum alyssoides                             Small alison            1981
Apium repens                                   Creeping marshwort      1988
Arabis alpina                                  Alpine rock-cress       1988
Arabis scabra (stricta)                        Bristol rock-cress      1988
Arenaria norvegica                             Norwegian sandwort      1981
Artemisia campestris                           Field wormwood          1981
Atriplex pedunculata (Halimione pedunculata)   Stalked orache          1992
Bupleurum baldense                             Small hare's-ear        1981
Bupleurum falcatum                             Sickle-leaved hare's-   1981
                                               ear
Carex depauperata                              Starved wood-sedge      1981
Centaurium tenuiflorum                         Slender centaury        1992
Cephalanthera rubra                            Red helleborine         1981
Chenopodium vulvaria                           Stinking goosefoot      1988
Cicerbita alpina                               Alpine sow-thistle      1981
Clinopodium menthifolium (Calamintha sylvatica) Wood calamint          1981
Coincya wrightii (Rhynchosinapis wrightii)     Lundy cabbage           1988
Corrigiola litoralis                           Strapwort               1988
Cotoneaster integerrimus (Cotoneaster          Wild cotoneaster        1981
cambrica)
Crassula aquatica                              Pigmyweed               1988
Crepis foetida                                 Stinking hawk's-beard   1988
Cynoglossum germanicum                         Green hound's-tongue    1988
Cyperus fuscus                                 Brown galingale         1981
Cypripedium calceolus                          Lady's-slipper          1981
Cystopteris dickieana                          Dickie's bladder fern   1981
Dactylorhiza lapponica                         Lapland marsh-orchid    1992
Damasonium alisma                              Starfruit               1981
Dianthus armeria                               Deptford pink           1998 England and
                                                                       Wales only
Dianthus gratianopolitanus                     Cheddar pink            1981
Diapensia lapponica                            Diapensia               1981
Eleocharis parvula                             Dwarf spike-rush        1998
Epipactis youngiana         Young's helleborine       1988
Epipogium aphyllum          Ghost orchid              1981
Equisetum ramosissimum      Branched horsetail        1988
Erigeron borealis           Alpine fleabane           1988
Eriophorum gracile          Slender cottongrass       1988
Euphorbia peplis            Purple spurge             1981 Removed 1992
Eryngium campestre          Field eryngo              1981
Filago lutescens            Red-tipped cudweed        1988
Filago pyramidata           Broad-leaved cudweed      1992
Fumaria reuteri (martini)   Martin's ramping-         1988
                            fumitory
Gagea bohemica              Early star of Bethlehem 1988
Gentiana nivalis            Alpine gentian            1981
Gentiana verna              Spring gentian            1981
Gentianella anglica         Early gentian             1992
Gentianella ciliata         Fringed gentian           1988
Gentianella uliginosa       Dune gentian              1992
Gladiolus illyricus         Wild gladiolus            1981
Gnaphalium luteoalbum       Jersey cudweed            1981
Hieracium attenuatifolium   Weak-leaved               1992
                            hawkweed
Hieracium northroense       Northroe hawkweed         1992
Hieracium zetlandicum       Shetland hawkweed         1992
Himantoglossum hircinum     Lizard orchid             1981
Homogyne alpina             Purple colt's-foot        1988
Hyacinthoides non-scripta   Bluebell                  1998 S.13(2) sale
                                                      only
Lactuca saligna             Least lettuce             1981
Leersia oryzoides           Cut-grass                 1998
Limonium paradoxum          St. David's sea           1981 Removed 1992
                            lavender
Limonium recervum           Recurved sea lavender 1981 Removed 1992
Limosella australis         Welsh mudwort             1992
Liparis loeselii            Fen orchid                1981
Lloydia serotina            Snowdon lily              1981
Luronium natans             Floating water-plantain   1992
Lychnis alpina              Alpine catchfly           1981
Lythrum hyssopifolia        Grass-poly                1988
Melampyrum arvense          Field cow-wheat           1981
Mentha pulegium             Pennyroyal                1988
Minuartia stricta           Teesdale sandwort         1981
Najas flexilis              Slender naiad             1992
Najas marina                Holly-leaved naiad        1988
Ononis reclinata                               Small restharrow         1988
Ophioglossum lusitanicum                       Least adder's-tongue     1988
Ophrys fuciflora                               Late spider-orchid       1981
Ophrys sphegodes                               Early spider-orchid      1981
Orchis militaris                               Military orchid          1981
Orchis simia                                   Monkey orchid            1981
Orobanche artemisiae-campestris (Orobanche     Oxtongue broomrape       1981
loricata) (Orobanche picridis)
Orobanche caryophyllacea                       Bedstraw broomrape       1981
Orobanche reticulata                           Thistle broomrape        1981
Petrorhagia nanteuilii                         Childing pink            1981
Phyllodoce caerulea                            Blue heath               1981
Phyteuma spicatum                              Spiked rampion           1992
Polygonatum verticillatum                      Whorled Solomon's-       1981
                                               seal
Polygonum maritimum                            Sea knotgrass            1981
Potentilla rupestris                           Rock cinquefoil          1981
Pulicaria vulgaris                             Small fleabane           1988
Pyrus cordata                                  Plymouth pear            1981
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius                   Adder's-tongue           1981
                                               spearwort
Rhinanthus serotinus                           Greater yellow-rattle    1981
Romulea columnae                               Sand crocus              1988
Rumex rupestris                                Shore dock               1992
Salvia pratensis                               Meadow clary             1992
Saxifraga cernua                               Drooping saxifrage       1981
Saxifraga cespitosa                            Tufted saxifrage         1981
Saxifraga hirculus                             Yellow marsh-saxifrage 1992
Scirpus triqueter (Scirpus triquetrus)         Triangular club-rush     1981
Scleranthus perennis                           Perennial knawel         1981
Scorzonera humilis                             Viper's-grass            1988
Selinum carvifolia                             Cambridge milk-parsley 1988
Senecio paludosus                              Fen ragwort              1988
Stachys alpina                                 Limestone woundwort      1981
Stachys germanica                              Downy woundwort          1981
Tephroseris integrifolia subspecies maritima   South Stack fleawort     1998
Teucrium botrys                                Cut-leaved germander     1988
Teucrium scordium                              Water germander          1981
Thlaspi perfoliatum                            Perfoliate penny-cress   1992
Trichomanes speciosum                          Killarney fern           1981
Veronica spicata                               Spiked speedwell         1981
Veronica triphyllos                            Fingered speedwell       1988
Viola persicifolia                             Fen violet               1981
Woodsia alpina                         Alpine woodsia             1981
Woodsia ilvensis                       Oblong woodsia             1981


Mosses
Acaulon triquetrum                     Triangular pygmy-moss 1992
Anomodon longifolius                   Long-leaved anomodon 1998
Bartramia stricta                      Rigid apple-moss           1992
Bryum mamillatum                       Dune thread-moss           1992
Bryum neodamense                       Long-leaved                1998
                                       threadmoss
Bryum schleicheri                      Schleicher's thread-       1992
                                       moss
Buxbaumia viridis                      Green shield-moss          1992
Cryphaea lamyana                       Multi-fruited river-moss   1992
Cyclodictyon laetevirens               Bright-green cave-moss 1992
Desmatodon cernuus                     Flamingo moss              1998
Didymodon cordatus (Barbula cordata)   Cordate beard-moss         1992
Didymodon glaucus (Barbula glauca)     Glaucous beard-moss        1992
Ditrichum cornubicum                   Cornish path-moss          1992
Grimmia unicolor                       Blunt-leaved grimmia       1992
Hamatocaulis (Drepanocladus)           Slender green feather-     1992
Vernicosus                             moss
Hygrohypnum polare                     Polar feather-moss         1998
Hypnum vaucheri                        Vaucher's feather-moss 1992
Micromitrium tenerum                   Millimetre moss            1992
Mielichhoferia mielichhoferi           Alpine copper-moss         1992
Orthotrichum obtusifolium              Blunt-leaved bristle-      1992
                                       moss
Plagiothecium piliferum                Hair silk-moss             1992
Rhynchostegium rotundifolium           Round-leaved feather-      1992
                                       moss
Saelania glaucescens                   Blue dew-moss              1992
Scorpidium turgescens                  Large yellow feather-      1992
                                       moss
Sphagnum balticum                      Baltic bog-moss            1992
Thamnobryum angustifolium              Derbyshire feather-        1992
                                       moss
Zygodon forsteri                       Knothole moss              1992
Zygodon gracilis                       Nowell's limestone-        1992
                                       moss



Liverworts
Adelanthus lindenbergianus             Lindenberg's leafy         1992
                                liverwort
Geocalyx graveolens             Turpswort                  1992
Gymnomitrion apiculatum         Pointed frostwort          1992
Jamesoniella undulifolia        Marsh earwort              1992
Lophozia (Leiocolea) rutheana   Norfolk flapwort           1992
Marsupella profunda             Western rustwort           1992
Petalophyllum ralfsii           Petalwort                  1992
Riccia bifurca                  Lizard crystalwort         1992
Southbya nigrella               Blackwort                  1992


Fungi
Battarraea phalloides           Sandy stilt puffball       1998
Boletus regius                  Royal bolete               1998
Buglossoporus pulvinus          Oak polypore               1998
Hericinum erinaceum             Hedgehog fungus            1998


Lichens
Alectoria ochroleuca            Alpine sulphur-tresses     1998
Bryoria furcellata              Forked hair-lichen         1992
Buellia asterella               Starry breck-lichen        1992
Caloplaca luteoalba             Orange-fruited elm-        1992
                                lichen
Caloplaca nivalis               Snow caloplaca             1992
Catapyrenium psoromoides        Tree catapyrenium          1992
Catillaria laureri              Laurer's catillaria        1992
Catolechia wahlenbergii         Goblin lights              1998
Cladonia convoluta              Convoluted Cladonia        1998
Cladonia stricta                Upright mountain-          1992
                                cladonia
Collema dichotomum              River jelly-lichen         1992
Enterographa elaborata          New Forest beech-          1998
                                lichen
Gyalecta ulmi                   Elm gyalecta               1992
Heterodermia leucomelos         Ciliate strap-lichen       1992
Heterodermia propagulifera      Coralloid rosette-lichen   1992
Lecanactis hemisphaerica        Churchyard lecanactis      1992
Lecanora achariana              Tarn lecanora              1992
Lecidea inops                   Copper lecidea             1992
Nephroma arcticum               Arctic kidney-lichen       1992
Pannaria ignobilis              Caledonian pannaria        1992
Parmelia minarum                New Forest parmelia        1992
Parmentaria chilensis           Oil-stain parmentaria      1992
Peltigera lepidophora           Ear-lobed dog-lichen       1992
Pertusaria bryontha          Alpine moss-pertusaria   1992
Physcia tribacioides         Southern grey physcia    1992
Pseudocyphellaria lacerata   Ragged                   1992
                             pseudocyphellaria
Psora rubiformis             Rusty alpine psora       1992
Solenopsora liparina         Serpentine solenopsora 1992
Squamarina lentigera         Scaly breck-lichen       1992
Teloschistes flavicans       Golden hair-lichen       1992


Stoneworts
Chara canescens              Bearded stonewort        1992
Lamprothamnium papulosum     Foxtail stonewort        1988

				
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