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					 Object Oriented
Analysis & Design
•   Object Oriented Concepts and principals
•   Object Oriented Analysis
•   Object Oriented Design
OO Concepts and principals
• We live in a world of objects
• Object-Oriented view is an abstraction that
  models the world in ways that help us to better
  understand and navigate it
• OO approach was first proposed in the late
• As time passes, object technologies are
  replacing classical software development
  approaches. Why?
• Object technologies lead to reuse, OO software
  is easier to maintain, to adapt, and to scale.
              OO Paradigm
• For many years, the term OO was used to
  denote a software development approach that
  used one of a number of OO programming
  languages(e.g. Ada 95, C++, Eiffel, Smalltalk)
• Today, the OO paradigm encompasses a
  complete view of software engineering
• Although any one of process models, could be
  adapted for use with OO, the best choice would
  be an evolutionary process model
The OO Process Model
                OO Concepts
• Classes and class hierarchies
  – Instances
  – Inheritance
  – Abstraction and hiding
• Objects
  –   Attributes
  –   Methods
  –   Encapsulation
  –   Polymorphism
• Messages

The object encapsulates
both data and the logical
procedures required to
manipulate the data method          method
                        #1            #2


                       method       method
                         #5           #4

Achieves ―information hiding‖
• It is a characteristic that greatly reduces the
  effort required to extend an existing OO
• Polymorphism enables a number of different
  operations to have the same name.
• For example: drawing different type of
  graphs( e.g. Line, Pie, Histogram )
• It decouples objects from one another making
  each more independent.
• General class graph and one subclass for
  each type.
sender object


                                           receiver object



               [sender, return value(s)]

          message: [receiver, operation, parameters]
Object Oriented Analysis
          Modeling Dimensions
1.  Identification/classification of entities.
2.  General-to-specific and whole-to-part entity
                                               The modeling
3. Other entity relationships                  dimensions 8 and
4. Description of attributes of entities       9 are always
                                               present with SA.
5. Large-scale model partitioning
6. States and transitions between states
7. Detailed specification for functions
8. Top-down decomposition
9. End-to-end processing sequences
10. Identification of exclusive services
11. Entity communications (via messages or events)
 Conventional vs. OO Approaches
• Is OO analysis really different from the structured
  analysis approach?
   – A radical change over process oriented (SA).
   – An incremental change over data oriented
     methodologies (IE).
• Structured Analysis (SA):
   – takes a distinct input-process-output view of
   – Data are considered separately from the processes
     that transform the data.
   – System behavior tends to play a secondary role.
   – makes heavy use of functional decomposition.
            The OOA Landscape
• Dozens of OOA method during the late 1980s and into the 1990s
  are introduced.
• Each of them proposed:
    – A process for the analysis of the product or system
    – A set of diagrams that evolved out of the process.
    – A notation that enabled the software engineer to create the analysis
      model in a consistent manner.
• The most widely use were:
   – The Booch method ( an evolutionary approach is maintained).
   – The Rumbaugh method (Object modeling technique (OMT))
   – The Jacobson method (OO Software Engineering (OOSE))
   – The Coad and Yourdon method (One of the easiest)
   – The Wirfs-Brock method (do not make clear distinction between
      design and analysis tasks)
                OOA & OOP
• OOA is based upon OOP: Classes and
  members, Objects and attributes and so on
• To define them following tasks should be done:
  – Basic user requirements should be communicated
    between customer and software engineer
  – Classes must be identified
  – Class hierarchy should be specified
  – Object to object relationship should be presented
  – Object behavior should be modeled
  – These task should be reapplied iteratively until model
    is complete
       Generic Steps for OOA
1. Elicit customer requirements for the system.
2. Identify scenarios for use-cases.
3. Select classes and objects using basic
   requirements as a guide.
4. Identify attributes and operations for each
   system object.
5. Define structures and hierarchies that organize
6. Build an object-behavior model.
7. Review the OO analysis model against use-
   cases or scenarios.
    A Unified Approach to OOA
• Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh and Ivar Jacobson
  combine the best features into a unified method called:
          Unified Modeling Language (UML)
• UML allows a software engineer to express and analysis
  model using a modeling notation that is governed by a
  set of Syntactic, Semantic, and Pragmatic rules.
   – The syntax tells us how the symbols should look and how they
     are combined. (Word in natural language)
   – The semantics tells us what each symbols means and how it
     should be interpreted. (Meaning of words in natural language)
   – The pragmatic rules define the intentions of the symbols through
     which the perpose of the model is achieved and become
     understandable. (The rules for constructing sentences that are
     clear and understandable in natural language)
        UML and Analysis Views
• User model view. This view represents the system (product) from
  the user’s (called ―actors‖ in UML) perspective.
• Structural model view. Data and functionality is viewed from inside
  the system. That is, static structure (classes, objects, and
  relationships) is modeled.
• Behavioral model view. This part of the analysis model represents
  the dynamic or behavioral aspects of the system.
• Implementation model view. The structural and behavioral aspects
  of the system are represented as they are to be built.
• Environment model view. The structural and behavioral aspects of
  the environment in which the system is to be implemented are

• UML analysis modeling focuses on the first two views of the system.
• UML design modeling addresses the other three views.
                Domain Analysis
• OO Analysis can occur at many different levels of
   – At the business or enterprise level
   – At the business area level
   – At an application level
• OOA at the middle level called Domain Analysis.
• Domain Analysis is performed to create a library of
  reusable classes applicable to an entire category of
• Using a robust class library produces the system faster,
  cheaper and more reliable.
• But where did such a library come from? By applying
  domain analysis.
          Domain Analysis Process
•    The goal: to find or create those classes that are broadly applicable,
     so that they may be reused.
•    It can be viewed as an umbrella activity for the software process.
•    The role of domain analyst is to design and build reusable
     components that maybe used by many people working on similar but
     not necessarily the same applications.
•    Key inputs and outputs for the domain analysis process:

                                                          class taxonomies
                   technical literature
    SOURCES OF                                            reuse standards       DOMAIN
        DOMAIN   existing applications          DOMAIN                         ANALYSIS
    KNOWLEDGE                                  ANALYSIS    functional models     MODEL
                   customer surveys
                                                          domain languages
                      expert advice

                 current/future requirements
  Domain Analysis Activities (1)
• Define the domain to be investigated.
   – Isolate the business area, system type, product category
   – Extract both OO and non-OO items.
        • OO-items such as: application and support (GUI, DB) classes,
          Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) component libraries and test
        • Non-OO items such as: policies, procedures, plans, standards and
          guidelines; parts of existing non-OO applications, metrics and
          COTS non-OO software.
• Categorize the items extracted from the domain.
   –   Organize items into categories.
   –   Define the general defining characteristics of the categories.
   –   Propose a classification scheme for the categories.
   –   Define naming conventions for each item.
   –   Establish classification hierarchy when appropriate.
  Domain Analysis Activities (2)
• Collect a representative sample of applications in the
   – Ensure that the application has items that fit into categories.
• Analyze each application in the sample.
   – Identify candidate reusable objects.
   – Indicate the reasons that the object has been identified for reuse.
   – Define adaptions to the object that may also be reusable.
   – Estimate the percentage of applications in the domain that make
     reuse of the object.
   – Identify the object by name and use configuration management
     techniques to control them (chapter 9).
• Develop an analysis model for the objects.
   – As a basis for design and construction of domain objects.
          OOA- A Generic View
•   define use cases
•   extract candidate classes
•   establish basic class relationships
•   define a class hierarchy
•   identify attributes for each class
•   specify methods that service the attributes
•   indicate how classes/objects are related
•   build a behavioral model
•   iterate on the first five steps
           The OOA Process
• The OOA process begins with an understanding
  of the manner in which the system will be used
  – People, if the system is human-interactive.
  – Machines, if the system is involved in process control.
  – Programs, if the system coordinates and controls
• Once the scenario of usage has been defined,
  the modeling of the software begins.
• A series of techniques may be used to gather
  basic customer requirements.
Use Cases
Object Oriented Design
• OOD transforms the analysis model created using OOA
  into a design model that serves as a blueprint for
  software construction.
• OOD results in a design that achieves a number of
  different levels of modularity.
• Subsystems: Major system components.
• Objects: Data and the operations.
• Four important software design concepts:
   –   Abstraction
   –   Information Hiding
   –   Functional Independence
   –   Modularity
•   The subsystem layer:
    Representation of each of the
    subsystems that enable the
    software to achieve its customer
    defined requirements.
•   The class and object layer: The
    class hierarchies, (generalization)
    and representation of objects.
•   The message layer: The design
    details of communication of each
    object with its collaborators.
    (external and internal interfaces)
•   The responsibilities layer: Data
    Structure and algorithmic design
    for all attributes and operations.
                    Design Issues
• decomposability—the facility with which a design method helps the
  designer to decompose a large problem into subproblems that are
  easier to solve;
• composability—the degree to which a design method ensures that
  program components (modules), once designed and built, can be
  reused to create other systems;
• understandability—the ease with which a program component can
  be understood without reference to other information or other
• continuity—the ability to make small changes in a program and have
  these changes manifest themselves with corresponding changes in
  just one or a very few modules;
• protection—a architectural characteristic that will reduce the
  propagation of side affects if an error does occur in a given module.
 Generic Components for OOD
• Problem domain component—the subsystems that are
  responsible for implementing customer requirements
• Human interaction component —the subsystems that
  implement the user interface (this included reusable GUI
• Task Management Component—the subsystems that
  are responsible for controlling and coordinating
  concurrent tasks that may be packaged within a
  subsystem or among different subsystems;
• Data management component—the subsystem that is
  responsible for the storage and retrieval of objects.
Process Flow for OOD
        System Design Process
•   Partition the analysis model into subsystems.
•   Identify concurrency that is dictated by the problem.
•   Allocate subsystems to processors and tasks.
•   Develop a design for the user interface.
•   Choose a basic strategy for implementing data
•   Identify global resources and the control
    mechanisms required to access them.
•   Design an appropriate control mechanism for the
    system, including task management.
•   Consider how boundary conditions should be
•   Review and consider trade-offs.
System Design
Subsystem Example
    Subsystem Design Criteria
• The subsystem should have a well-defined
  interface through which all communication
  with the rest of the system occurs.
• With the exception of a small number of
  “communication classes,” the classes within
  a subsystem should collaborate only with
  other classes within the subsystem.
• The number of subsystems should be kept
• A subsystem can be partitioned internally to
  help reduce complexity.
Subsystem Collaboration Table
               Object Design
• A protocol description establishes the interface
  of an object by defining each message that the
  object can receive and the related operation that
  the object performs
• An implementation description shows
  implementation details for each operation
  implied by a message that is passed to an
  – information about the object's private part
  – internal details about the data structures that describe
    the object’s attributes
  – procedural details that describe operations
         Design Patterns
• add some example

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