Summary Sheet for Vectors, Determinants, and Parametric Equations by Sfusaro

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									                  Summary Sheet for Vectors in Geometry
 While a scalar quantity has only a single dimension (length/distance, speed, etc), a
  vector quantity has two properties: magnitude (the absolute value of its length/
  distance) and direction (expressed as an angle measured counterclockwise from
  standard position on a Cartesian or polar plane or as a navigational bearing
  measured clockwise from North).

 Vectors obey the same properties of mathematics as do most other sets of numbers;
  i.e., commutative, associative, distributive, identity, inverse, addition, subtraction,
  scalar multiplication and division, etc.

 A resultant vector is the sum of two or more vectors using either the head to tail
  method or the parallelogram method.

 To compose two vectors in a plane written in component form into a resultant vector,
  we add their corresponding components and employ the Pythagorean Theorem to
  determine the magnitude of the resultant. We determine the direction of the vector
                                                     y
  from standard position by computing the Tan-1         of the components.
                                                   x
                                                                                x
  PLEASE NOTE: while the component form of the vector has the pattern              , we
                                                                              y
                            y
  must compute the Tan-1        in order to find the angle of the vector in standard
                          x
  position. Do not confuse the order of the components.

 To resolve a vector in polar form into its horizontal (x) and vertical (y) components,
  we apply the basic rules of trigonometry, where M = Magnitude and  is direction in
                                                               x = M cos() 
  standard position. Thus, vp = M ,         becomes vc =                      .
                                                               y = M sin() 

 Vectors are usually represented in one of three ways: geometrically as rays or arrows
  with a fixed starting point (endpoint of the ray or “head” of the vector), a specified
  length proportional to its magnitude, and a direction; algebraically as an ordered pair
  or ordered triple whose components correspond to the changes in the coordinates of
  x and y (and z for ordered triples); trigonometrically as a magnitude and direction of
  a ray in standard position; navigationally as a speed (the scalar quantity of its
  magnitude) and a bearing/heading (possibly in 3 dimensions).

 Examples:                                                                 O
     OP is a vector starting at Point O extending in the direction of P.           P
             3
     v1 =  -4  is a vector written in component form where 3 is the change in the x
               
             12
      values, -4 is the change in the y values, and 12 is the change in the z values.
     v2 =(( 15 newtons, 67° )) is a force vector written in polar coordinate form.

       v3 =(( 15 knots, bearing 287° )) or v4 = (( warp 4.9 , bearing 287° mark 7 ))
        are vectors expressed in navigational terms.
 Writing Vectors: Several notations are in current use for writing vectors. You need
  to be able to recognize a vector regardless of the form of the notation used, for they
  all mean "vector."

       1.     a single boldface letter can be used for   1. a
              the name of a vector
       2.     a single letter with a vector arrow above
              it designates a vector                      2. V
       3.     a pair of change coordinates in angle
              brackets is the component form of a
              vector and may be written horizontally                                 12
              with Δx first and Δy second or as a         3.      12 , 35
              stacked vector (internationally                                        35
              preferred) with Δx on top and Δy on
              bottom
       4.     a listing in angle brackets of the vector   4.       37 , 71 
              magnitude and its directional angle in
              standard position measured counter-
              clockwise from the positive x-axis in       5.      37 , N 19  E
              that order constitute the polar form of
              vector notation
       5.     a listing in angle brackets of the vector magnitude and its bearing measured
              clockwise from North in that order constitute the navigational form of vector
              notation

                                                   x1                    x2
    The Dot Product of two vectors v1 =                     and v2 =            , written v1   ●   v2 ,
                                                   y1                    y 2
                       x1       x2
            then is          ●          =  x1 x2 +  y1 y2 .
                       y1       y 2
        If the dot product of two vectors equals zero, then the two vectors are
         perpendicular, and are called orthogonal vectors.
        Two non-zero vectors are parallel, only if one is a
                                                                               uv
         scalar multiple of the other.                                          cos(  )
        To compute the angle  between two vectors                            u v
         (where 0    180°), we can use the formula
         to the right, where |u| and |v| are
         the magnitudes of the two vectors.
                                                       x1              x2
 The Cross Product of two vectors v1 =                      and v2 =            , written v1 v2,
                                                       y1              y 2

    represents the vector perpendicular to the plane containing the two vectors
    and is calculated as the determinant of the components of the two vectors.
                                        x1   x2
        Hence,       v1 v2 = Det                =     ( x1y2 – y1x2 )
                                        y1   y2

        v1 v2 if and only if v1 v2 = 0.
 Include personal examples here
                       x
    Often vectors in      form are defined in terms of a third variable (such as time).
                     y
    Such a third variable is called a parameter and usually denoted with the letter t.
  Then we can define a position vector equation in terms of this parameter as follows:

                                x     x         x0 
                                y = 
                                    y
                                                t+     
                                                     y0 

          x                                                                   x0 
  where  y  is the position of a particle/object t seconds into the journey,  y  is
                                                                              0
                                                  x
  the initial position (or starting point), and      is the velocity vector.
                                                y
      Of course, we can always rewrite any position vector equation as two
         parametric equations: x = x ( t ) + x0 and y = y ( t ) + y0
      Further, if the vector were originally given in polar form, then we could write

         the position vector equation as

                             x      M cos      x0 
                             y =             t+ y 
                                    M sin      0
         to produce the two parametric equations
                       x = M cos  ( t ) + x0 and y = M sin  ( t ) + y0

         If we wish to add two vector equations algebraically, where v1& v2 are defined
                    x1      x1             x2         x2 
         as v1=         t +  y  and v2=           t +  y  then the resultant vector
                    y1      1              y2         2
         would keep the initial position of the first vector and add vector coefficients of
         the two vectors. Thus,
                                  x1         x2            x1 
                       v1+ v2 =       (t)+          ( t ) +  y  becomes
                                  y1         y2            1

                                x1+ x2       x1 
                             =           (t) + y 
                                y1+ y1       1
 Practical Vectors with Determinants:
      If we create a 2 x 2 vector determinant where the vector
       components are the consecutive sides of a parallelogram
       in a plane from the same vertex, then the value of the              Det
                                                                                 x1    x2
       determinant is the area of the parallelogram.                             y1    y2
      If we create a 3 x 3 vector determinant where the vector
       components are the three dimensional vectors from the
                                                                            x1    x2    x3
       same vertex, then the value of the determinant is the
       volume of the parallelepiped.                                 Det    y1    y2    y3
                                                                            z1    z2    z3

								
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