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					                          Western Cape Education

                           Wes-Kaap Onderwys

                        Isebe IeMFUNDO IeNTSHONA

                     Teachers Guide for the
                       Foundation Phase


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                     This manual is a guide. It aims to give guidance to teachers of the Foundation Phase, as well as school managers and
                     officials. By following this guide and aligning practice, contradictory instructions regarding classroom organisation and
                     method will be obviated.

                     This guide forms part of the Western Cape Education Department (WCED) 2009 Lifeskills Work Schedules for Grades 1
                     to 3. It completes each Work Schedule because it provides methodology, progression, resources, integration and ideas
                     for classroom practice. It should therefore be considered as an integral part of these Work Schedules.
                     The material in this document has its origins in a Junior Primary guide issued by the Department of Coloured Affairs in
                     1982. It has been updated here for our current curriculum context.
                     The first question that readers will ask is “why use this old and outdated material?”!
                     The reason is simple.
                     *   Most of the concepts and content that are addressed by the National Curriculum Statement are to be found in this
                         material. They are just as relevant today as they were in 1982.
                     *   The methodology that is described in this manual addresses best practice when it comes to basic principles of
                         teaching young children, namely, moving from the concrete to the abstract, from the known to the unknown, and
                         from the simple to the complex.
                     The answer is therefore:” why re-invent the wheel!”

                     HOW TO USE THIS MATERIAL
                     Teachers in the Foundation Phase should apply the information in this guide in light of our outcomes-based curriculum
                     as well as the well-researched and documented practices of sound early childhood development practice.
                     The ideas in this guide will assist teachers with “the HOW TO”. The work schedule provides the content that must be
                     taught and this guide gives ideas as to how to teach it.
                     The reference to the chapters in this guide can be found in the work schedule, alongside the relevant section of the
                     work schedule.
                     Chapters and some sections within the chapters will be referred to more than once because they describe differentiation
                     and progression over all the grades. Teachers will have to ascertain where the learner is and refer to the appropriate

                     Although this guide can stand alone and will be useful to all Foundation Phase teachers, it is part of the Lifeskills work
                     The Western Cape Education Department Directorate Curriculum: GET sincerely hopes that teachers will find it easy to
                     read and use and that, together with the Literacy Work Schedule, it will provide them with confidence to implement
                     the curriculum.

                     DIRECTOR: Curriculum GET
                     February 2009

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                     Topic 1       – Planning the Lifeskills Lesson .................................................................................................. 1

                     Topic 2       – Care of the Body ..................................................................................................................... 6

                     Topic 3       – Food         .................................................................................................................................... 8

                     Topic 4       – Healthy Living            .................................................................................................................... 11

                     Topic 5       – Learning and knowing about communicable disease ............................................................ 14

                     Topic 6       – Country pride             ..................................................................................................................... 17

                     Topic 7       – Culture and religions ........................................................................................................... 23

                     Topic 8       – Morals and Values                ............................................................................................................. 27

                     Topic 9       – Relationships                    .............................................................................................................. 32

                     Topic 10 – Dealing with Emotion .......................................................................................................... 33

                     Topic 11 – Rights and Responsibilities ................................................................................................... 34

                     Topic 12 – Forms of abuse and how to deal with abuse ......................................................................... 38

                     Topic 13 – Safety               ............................................................................................................................... 43

                     Topic 14 – Introduction to Co-operative Learning ................................................................................. 48

                     Topic 15 – Care of the Environment ..................................................................................................... 55

                     Topic 16 – Seasons                ............................................................................................................................. 58

                     Topic 17 – Dwellings ............................................................................................................................. 61

                     Topic 18 – Observation Activities ........................................................................................................... 62

                     1. http:/
                     2. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

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                     TOPIC 1                                PLANNING THE LIFESKILLS LESSON

                     AIMS OF LIFESKILLS
                     Lifeskills is taught in the Foundation Phase for the following reasons:
                     * The school beginner must be made to feel secure in his new environment.
                     * He must become aware of the beauty and order in nature.
                     * A desire must be awakened in him to become better acquainted with people and nature, and he should learn to
                       understand that human beings, animals and plants are dependent upon one another.
                     * The learner must realise that he is a human being like others, with particular needs and desires.
                     * He must understand how climate, seasons and the nature of the region in which he lives influence his health and mode
                       of life.
                     * He must know how the economic development of his environment (light, power, refrigeration, transport, means
                       of communication, industry and commence) has a bearing on his life.
                     * He must gain knowledge about his immediate environment – his school, home, places of interest and industry.
                     * The learner must also understand how to lead his own life as usefully and happily as possible.
                     * He should develop a love for and an appreciation of his own culture and a respect for that of others,
                     The knowledge a learner gains should help him towards a meaningful way of life by
                     * acting considerately, helpfully, politely, decently and responsibly;
                     * maintaining a desire to learn about people, places and forms of life;
                     * maintenance a spirit of wonderment in respect of the beauty, order and things of interest in nature;
                     * developing the habit to create order in his own environment as far as possible;
                     * being able to distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil;
                     * careful observation, drawing clear and correct conclusions and being able to report thereon.

                     When planning the work, the teacher should constantly bear the local environment in mind. The work schedule
                     indicates which aspects should be covered, but actual application will vary from school to school. The experiences of
                     learners who live and go to school in the industrial area of a city, will differ from those of learners who live and attend
                     school on a farm. Teachers are free to plan the work in such a manner that different interests and needs are satisfied.
                     There should be provision for concentric or spiral planning of the work, i.e. all the work indicated in the work
                     schedule is dealt with in every grade, but the level of presentation will differ from grade to grade. In Grade 1 the
                     learner’s interest is mainly in those things and experiences which directly concern himself. At this stage too, interest is
                     normally not maintained over a long period, but is confined largely to the interest of the moment.
                     The work schedule for each term will include the following topics:
                     * incidental work
                     * my body
                     * healthy living
                     * communicable diseases
                     * country pride
                     * culture and religions
                     * morals and values
                     * relationships
                     * dealing with emotions
                     * rights and responsiblities


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                     * abuse
                     * safety
                     * care of the environment
                     * groupwork strategies
                     * seasons
                     * dwellings
                     * observation activities

                     The same outcomes are dealt with in all grades and the same themes are drawn across all the grades. Careful planning
                     is, therefore, required to obtain progressive development over the three school years.

                     Grade1 lessons are usually of an informal nature, and a story approach may followed.
                     The Grade 2 learner should be ready for a more formal approach to the work. His interest in a topic can be maintained
                     over a longer period of time.

                     In Grade 3 the learners should themselves do a certain amount of simple research in an observation of the environment.
                     What a learner finds out for himself, is of lasting value. He may be given a series of simple questions on a particular
                     topic to which he must find the answers. Such answers may be found in reference books (this skill will first have to be
                     taught) or by visiting the place or area concerned and questioning people. Learners should be encouraged to classify
                     objects such as plants, insects and trees and to talk about and write down their observations or discoveries. This may
                     be correlated with Literacy and Numeracy lessons.

                     The following exposition indicates how the work develops progressively from grade to grade e.g.
                     Theme 1: Pets (dogs)
                     Grade 1
                     The dog’s play habits, his movements, sounds and ways of eating
                     Loving care for the pet (daily food and water, clean bed, bathing, combing, playing with the dog and petting.)

                     Grade 2
                     Revision of work done during the previous year
                     The external appearance of the animal (slightly scientific)
                     Ways to which the dog ‘talks’
                     The work of the Animal Welfare Society
                     The dog as companion and playmate
                     The watchdog

                     Grade 3
                     Revision of work done during the previous years
                     Types of dogs (mainly from the environment, but also a few others)
                     Special services rendered by dogs (the guide dog, the St. Bernard, the police dog, the sheep dog)
                     Dangers: rabies (inoculation), distemper (inoculation)
                     The task of the veterinary surgeon
                     Keeping up good relationships with the neighbours (keeping the dog on the premises)
                     Local laws in connection with keeping dogs

                     Theme 2: The house and the local residential area
                     Grade 1
                     Our family (love, protection, care, ‘being together’)
                     Activities in the home (working and doing together) (stories about families)


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                     Grade 2
                     The family
                     Ways of earning a living
                     The building: The different rooms
                     Conveniences in the home
                     Helpers in the house

                     Grade 3
                     Revision of the own home
                     Different types of houses
                     Homes from the past
                     How houses are built (building material and other requirements)

                     OCCASIONAL WORK
                     Occasional planning is mainly in respect of work which cannot be planned timeously, such as natural phenomena
                     (snow, flood, drought), birthdays, important visitors, interesting occasions in which the learners are interested and
                     seasonal activities.
                     In Grade 2 the News lesson is of prime importance. (Distinction should be made between the News lesson as subsection
                     of Oral work in Literacy and the news for Lifeskills. The first is a daily lesson in which the learners talk freely on any
                     interesting topic. The news for Lifeskills in Grade 2 and Grade 3 is given once or twice during the week during the
                     Lifeskills lesson and consists of feed-back of observations that resulted from previous lessons. This is where
                     theme writing is appropriate. A separate News book is made on, for example, observations and news in Spring.
                     When the schemes for the year are drawn up, the section on occasional work is left blank because the teacher does
                     not know in advance what is going to happen during the year. Some of these aspects she will know at the beginning
                     of the term and enter into the scheme. Other aspects are added as they occur.

                     The seasonable display on the nature table should last only as long as the theme is being dealt with, i.e. from two to
                     four weeks. However, at all other times the table should also be fresh, clean and interesting. It should be a place where
                     the learner is able to observe growth and development in nature. The following plants or animals may be used:
                     cut-off tops of turnips, carrots or beetroot in a saucer containing a little water (the learners note how the leaves sprout out)
                     mealie-, bean- or sunflower-seed on cotton-wool in a saucer with water (the learners observe where and how the little
                     root appears, followed by the small stem)
                     a pot plant during the flowering period only
                     silkworms from the time the eggs hatch until eggs are laid again (the learners note the life-cycle of the silkworm)
                     goldfish (part of the term only)
                     a bird(in a clean cage – for a limited time only; a tray under the cage facilitates cleaning)
                     tadpoles (in a large open container)
                     (not too many tadpoles; as soon as the cycle is complete, the young frogs should be taken to a dam)
                     The teacher should be fully acquainted with the requirements of plant, insect or animal care in the classroom. No
                     cruelty (starvation or maltreatment) must be allowed. The care of animals by the learners may only be allowed under
                     the direct supervision of the teacher.

                     Young learners often find the large school building and grounds confusing. They must be taught how to find their way
                     to the classroom, the toilets and the school exits. Even the classroom, the furniture and the apparatus are strange to
                     the child. Each earner should, therefore, be led to his seat, be handled with friendliness and love so that a relationship
                     of trust and a feeling of security may develop in the child. At a later stage the learner should also learn how to find his
                     way to the principal’s office.


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                  In Grade 2 the learner should extend his knowledge. He should be introduced to the ‘geography’ of the school. He
                  should know where the school hall and the classrooms of other teachers are. This work correlates well with other
                  learning programmes.

                  Knowledge of the school does not mean ‘geography’ only. Human relationships form the focus of school life. Hence,
                  learners should learn that there are people in charge who should be obeyed and respected. Courtesy must be observed.
                  He should learn that there are rules to be obeyed and fellow-learners to be considered. He should thus experience that
                  he is part of an organisation.

                  Learners should be informed about the functions of the principal, the teachers, the secretary and the caretaker. They
                  should be encouraged to greet everybody courteously. It may be arranged that individual members of the staff are
                  invited to the classroom and informally introduced to the learners. An informal conversation with the school janitor
                  will do much towards enlisting the co-operation of the learners in keeping the school and its grounds neat and tidy.
                  Healthy relationships should be fostered as part of the learners’ general education. Qualities such as unselfishness,
                  loyalty, consideration for others and truthfulness may be illustrated in the form of stories. When a learner then
                  realises these qualities in his conduct at school, he should be praised. The most effective lessons, however, are illustrated
                  by the good example of the teacher and her attitude towards the people with whom she deals in the course of the
                  school day.

                  Safety education and the practical application thereof on and around the school premises are of prime importance.
                  The school should have definite rules as regards walking, running, types of games, cycling on the school premises and
                  climbing up buildings, poles, fences and trees. The learners should know the rules as well as why such rules are laid
                  down. These facts may be taught to Grade 1 learners by means of stories. Grade 2 learners should discuss the rules and
                  should also be led to decide for themselves what actions could be dangerous. Classroom role play and dramatisation
                  may be of great value.

                  Apart from safety on the school premises, learners should know the basic Road Safety rules which apply to them.
                  Each school situated in a city or large town should have its own scholar patrol. Learners should know what the
                  function of the scholar patrol is and that its instructions must be obeyed at all times. Learners should know the basic
                  road signs, where and how to cross a street. It is very important that the learner should learn to be courteous – many
                  accidents occur as a result of discourtesy. Accidents may be prevented by taking the others into consideration. Learners
                  should also be informed of the necessity of wearing Safety Belts and the necessity for good behaviour in public
                  transport (train and bus). Lessons should, as far as possible, be demonstrated in concrete situations. Consolidation
                  occurs when the subject-matter is correlated with other subjects (songs, recitations, oral composition and plays).

                  Special attention should be devoted to the plants on the school premises. Learners should, wherever possible, help
                  with the care of the lawns, flowers, shrubs, trees and potplants. Learners become aware of seasonal changes and the
                  wonder of nature when their attention is drawn to the process of growth in plants and the changes that occur in
                  them. Learners should also learn the name of the different shrubs, flowers and trees on the school premises.
                  Learners should learn to recognise the distinguishing features of their school, viz. Its colours, uniform, emblem,
                  motto and song. Unfortunately pride of the own is often fostered at the expense of the respect for that of others. True
                  pride in and love for one’s own should include respect for that of others.

                  A home is created by the personal relationships of the members of the family. The learners should, therefore, in the
                  first instance, be made aware of the fact that he is a member of the family. He has a father and a mother who care
                  for him – they provide housing, food and clothing, but especially upbringing, safety and security. He should, therefore,
                  regard his parents with respect, love and obedience. He should also respect and love his brothers and sisters and enjoy
                  their friendship and playing together. He and his brothers and sisters should perform their home duties with joy and
                  in such a way as to contribute towards the general order in the home.
                  Every learner should know his home address and telephone number
                  The respect with which the learner regards his parents and other members of the family, should be extended to
                  neighbours, friends and other families, as well as to helpers and regular visitors (milkman, postman, garbage removers
                  and others). Learners should consider the amount of additional tasks they would have had to perform, and the privileges
                  they would miss, had these services been lacking.
                  The learner should have some further knowledge of houses (different rooms and furnishing) and the care and


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                  maintenance thereof. He should be made aware of how modern conveniences make life easier (lighting, water, cooking
                  amenities, sanitation, telephone, radio and television).
                  The different meals, table manners and saying grace should be discussed. In Grade 2 learners should know the origin
                  of some of the kinds of food they eat (the story of bread, of milk, cheese and meat). In respect of other kinds of food,
                  particular themes may be worked out, e.g. about apples and the products of these.
                  As in the case of the school garden, the learner should also know his home garden and the names of the different
                  plants, and develop respect for his own garden and that of others.

                  If the Lifeskills lessons are live, practical and fascinating, there will be opportunity to integrate the work with other
                  learning areas e.g.
                  Reading and Written Composition
                  The use of the weather chart and seasonal clocks, arrangement of labels on the nature table and captions in the Nature
                  scrap-book provide opportunity for learners to apply their developing reading ability.
                  Grade 2 and Grade 3 learners should be encouraged to make summaries of their observations. These notes should be
                  read aloud for the benefit of the class.
                  There are a considerable number of well-illustrated books on aspects of environment that have been specially written
                  for children. Efforts should be made to obtain these books for the reading corner.
                  Very often a discussion during the Lifeskills lesson may lead to reading aloud or learning descriptive poems related to
                  the topics.
                  Familiar stories about animals and their habits may be read or told during the story period.
                  Art and Culture
                  The topics dealt with in the Lifeskills lesson often require illustrations, which may be made by the learners.

                  GRADE 3
                  In Grade 3 Lifeskills should be presented in a more scientific manner. Much of the work in the workschedule points to
                  basic principles of General Science.


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                  TOPIC 2                                                                   CARE OF THE BODY

                  THE HUMAN BODY
                  The human body is the entire physical and mental structure of a human organism,
                  and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. By the time the human
                  reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 10 trillion cells, the basic unit of
                  life. Groups of cells combine and work in tandem to form tissue, which combines to
                  form organs, which work together to form organ systems.

                  1. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
                  The Skeletal System serves many important functions; it provides the shape and form
                  for our bodies in addition to supporting, protecting, allowing bodily movement,
                  producing blood for the body, and storing minerals.
                  Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached.
                  Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system. The brain is protected by the surrounding skull as the heart and lungs
                  are encased by the sternum and rib cage.
                  Bodily movement is carried out by the interaction of the muscular and skeletal systems. For this reason, they are often
                  grouped together as the musculo-skeletal system. Muscles are connected to bones by tendons. Bones are connected to
                  each other by ligaments. Where bones meet one another is typically called a joint. Muscles which cause movement of
                  a joint are connected to two different bones and contract to pull them together. An example would be the contraction
                  of the biceps and a relaxation of the triceps. This produces a bend at the elbow. The contraction of the triceps and
                  relaxation of the biceps produces the effect of straightening the arm.
                  Blood cells are produced by the marrow located in some bones. An average of 2.6 million red blood cells are produced
                  each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver.
                  Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When an excess is present in the blood,
                  buildup will occur within the bones. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low, it will be withdrawn
                  from the bones to replenish the supply.

                  2. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
                  The human body contains more than 650 individual muscles which are attached to the skeleton, which provides the
                  pulling power for us to move around. The main job of the muscular system is to provide movement for the body. The
                  muscular system consist of three different types The human body contains more than 650 individual muscles which
                  are attached to the skeleton, which provides the pulling power for us to move around. The main job of the muscular
                  system is to provide movement for the body. The muscular system consist of three different types of muscle tissues :
                  skeletal, cardiac, smooth. Each of these different tissues has the ability to contract, which then allows body movements
                  and functions. There are two types of muscles in the system and they are the involuntary muscles, and the voluntary
                  muscles. The muscle in which we are allow to control by ourselves are called the voluntary muscles and the ones we
                  can? control are the involuntary muscles. The heart, or the cardiac muscle, is an example of involuntary muscle.

                  3. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
                  The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract – a series of hollow organs joined in a long,
                  twisting tube from the mouth to the anus – and other organs that help the body break down and
                  absorb food (see figure).
                  Organs that make up the digestive tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large
                  intestine – also called the colon – rectum, and anus. Inside these hollow organs is a lining called the
                  mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce
                  juices to help digest food. The digestive tract also contains a layer of smooth muscle that helps break
                  down food and move it along the tract.


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                  Two “solid” digestive organs, the liver and the pancreas, produce digestive juices that reach the intestine through small
                  tubes called ducts. The gallbladder stores the liver’s digestive juices until they are needed in the intestine. Parts of the
                  nervous and circulatory systems also play major roles in the digestive system.
                  Why is digestion important?
                  When you eat foods – such as bread, meat, and vegetables – they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment.
                  Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the blood and
                  carried to cells throughout the body. Digestion is the process by which food and drink are broken down into their
                  smallest parts so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy.
                  How is food digested?
                  Digestion involves mixing food with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract, and breaking down large
                  molecules of food into smaller molecules. Digestion begins in the mouth, when you chew and swallow, and is completed
                  in the small intestine.

                  4. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
                  The nervous system is essentially a biological information highway, and is responsible for controlling all the biological
                  processes and movement in the body, and can also receive information and interpret it via electrical signals which are
                  used in this nervous system
                  It consists of the Central Nervous System (CNS), essentially the processing area and the Peripheral Nervous System
                  which detects and sends electrical impulses that are used in the nervous system
                  The Central Nervous System is effectively the centre of the nervous system, the part of it that processes the information
                  received from the peripheral nervous system. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for
                  receiving and interpreting signals from the peripheral nervous system and also sends out signals to it, either consciously
                  or unconsciously

                  5. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
                  The circulatory system is an organ system that moves nutrients, gases, and wastes
                  to and from cells to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to
                  maintain homeostasis. This system may be seen strictly as a blood distribution network,
                  but some consider the circulatory system as composed of the cardiovascular system,
                  which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which distributes lymph.
                  The Life Pump
                  •   Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body.
                  •   White blood cells are like soldiers protecting the body.
                  •   ARTERIES are vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
                  •   VEINS are vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
                  •   Blood CIRCULATES – circles – all around your body in about one or two minutes.
                  •   Inside the heart are four hollow chambers. Each chamber is a little pump. The pumping pushes blood all around
                      your body.

                  6. THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM
                  The excretory system is a system that connects to the digestive system. It starts at the mouth and continues down the
                  esophagus, after that it travels down to the large chamber of the liver and stomach. It travels past the pancreas and the
                  gall bladder. You swiftly follow the path of the small intestine and finally goes to the large intestine and finally to the
                  rectum. The kidneys, main organs are filters. There are two of them located near the spine in the middle of the back.
                  The main organs of the excretory system are the bladder, kidneys, lungs, liver and skin.
                  The excretory system is like the sewage system because the excretory system gets rid of waste that the body does not
                  need. The body also gets rid of natural gasses which can be fatal if not released from the body.


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                  TOPIC 3                                                                                                         FOOD

                  1. EATING HEALTHILY
                  There's a lot of discussion these days about healthy children. People who care (parents, doctors, teachers, and others)
                  want to know how to help children be more healthy.
                  Being healthy is a way of saying a person eats well, gets a lot of physical activity, and has a healthy weight. If a
                  child is healthy, feels good, his / her body works well and can do all the things it should do, like work and play.
                  Some steps only parents can take — such as serving healthy meals or deciding to take the family on a nature hike. But
                  children can take charge, too, when it comes to health. Adults need to teach children to take charge of their health.
                  Here are five rules to live by, for a child who wants to be healthy. The trick is to follow these rules most of the time,
                  knowing that some days (like birthdays) might call for cake and ice cream.

                  1. Eat a variety of foods, especially fruits and vegetables. A child may have a favorite food, but the best choice
                  is to eat a variety. If a child eats different foods, he /she is more likely to get the nutrients his / her body needs. Some
                  foods, such as green veggies, are more pleasing the older one gets. Tasting new foods and old ones is important. The
                  aim should be for at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day — two fruits and three vegetables.
                  Here's one combination that might work
                      •    at breakfast: ½ cup (about 4 large) strawberries on cereal
                      •    with lunch: 6 baby carrots
                      •    for a snack: an apple
                      •    with dinner: ½ cup broccoli (about 2 big spears) and 1 cup of salad

                  2. Drink water and milk most often. Cold water is the best thirst-quencher. And there's a reason why milk should
                  be drunk. Children need calcium to build strong bones, and milk is a great source of this mineral. How much do
                  children need? Those younger than 9 years old should drink 2 cups of milk a day, or its equivalent. Aim for 3 cups of
                  milk per day, or its equivalent. Combining milk and some other calcium-rich dairy foods is another way to get enough
                  calcium. Here's one combination:
                      •    2 cups (about half a litre) of low-fat or nonfat milk
                      •    1 slice cheddar cheese
                      •    ½ cup (small container) of yogurt
                  Once in a while it's OK to have 100% juice. But sugary drinks, like juice mixes and fizzy drinks must be avoided. They
                  contain a lot of added sugar. Sugar just adds calories, not important nutrients.

                  3. Listen to your body. Sometimes, people eat too much because they don't notice when they need to stop eating.
                  Eating too much can make a person feel uncomfortable and, over a period of time, can lead to unhealthy weight gain.
                  Children must be able to notice how the body feels when eating and when your stomach feels comfortably full.

                  4. Limit time spent at TV and computer games. Limit screen time. The more time spent on these sitting-down
                  activities, the less time available for active stuff, like outdoor games, soccer, bike riding, etc. Try to spend no more than
                  1 hour a day in front of a ‘screen’, not counting computer use related to school.

                  5. Be active. Children need opportunity to experience different activities and determine which one/s they like best.
                  Schools’ extra curricular programmes and parents, volunteers, etc can assist children to do their favorite activities
                  regularly. Children must be active every day.


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                  FOOD GROUPS
                  The food group pyramid is one way for people to understand how to eat healthily. A series of stripes represents the five
                  food groups plus fats and oils. Here's what they stand for:

                                                              grains   vegetables    fruits   fats                    meat,
                                                                                                     milk and dairy
                                                                                              and      products       beans,
                                                                                              oils                    fish, and

                  The Pyramid Speaks
                  Here are some of the messages this symbol is trying to send:
                  Eat a variety of foods. A balanced diet is one that includes all the food groups. In other words, have foods from every
                  food group, every day.
                  Eat less of some foods, and more of others. The bands for meat and protein and oils are skinnier than the others.
                  That's because less of those kinds of foods are needed than fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy foods.
                  Also the bands start out wider and get thinner as they approach the top. That's designed to show that not all foods are
                  created equal, even within a healthy food group like fruit. For instance, apple pie would be in that thin part of the fruit
                  band because it has a lot of added sugar and fat. A whole apple however would be down in the wide part because one
                  can eat more of those within a healthy diet.

                  Vitamins and minerals are substances that are found in foods we eat. Ones’ body needs them to work properly, grow
                  and develop. When it comes to vitamins, each one has a special role to play. For example:
                  Vitamin D in milk helps bones.
                  Vitamin A in carrots helps sight.
                  Vitamin C in oranges helps the body heal, for example, if cut.
                  B vitamins in leafy green vegetables help the body make protein and energy.

                  There are two major types of carbohydrates in foods: simple and complex.
                  Simple carbohydrates: These are also called simple sugars. Simple sugars are found in refined sugars, like white
                  sugar. A sweet, like a sucker, is simple carbohydrates. But simple sugars are also found in more nutritious foods, such
                  as fruit and milk. It's better to get simple sugars from food like fruit and milk. Why? Because they contain vitamins,
                  fiber, and important nutrients like calcium. A sweet does not.
                  Complex carbohydrates: These are also called starches. Starches include grain products, such as bread, crackers,
                  pasta, and rice. As with simple sugars, some complex carbohydrate foods are better choices than others. Refined grains,
                  such as white flour and white rice, have been processed, which removes nutrients and fiber. But unrefined grains still
                  contain these vitamins and minerals. Unrefined grains also are rich in fiber, which helps the digestive system work well.
                  Fiber helps one feel full, so a person is less likely to overeat these foods. That explains why a bowl of oatmeal fills one
                  better than sugary sweets that have the same amount of calories as the oatmeal.
                  So which type of carbs should one eat? Both can be part of a healthy diet.


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                  How the Body Uses Carbohydrates
                  When one eats carbohydrates, the body breaks them down into simple sugars. These sugars are absorbed into the
                  bloodstream. As the sugar level rises in the body, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin is needed to
                  move sugar from the blood into the cells, where the sugar can be used as a source of energy.
                  When this process goes fast - as with simple sugars – one is more likely to feel hungry again soon. When it occurs more
                  slowly, as with a whole-grain food, one will be satisfied longer. These types of complex carbohydrates give one energy
                  over a longer period of time.
                  The carbohydrates in some foods (mostly those that contain a lot of simple sugars) cause the blood sugar level to rise
                  more quickly than others. Scientists have been studying whether eating foods that cause big jumps in blood sugar may
                  be related to health problems like diabetes and heart disease. The right track is to limit simple sugars and eat more
                  complex carbohydrates (like vegetables, oatmeal, and whole-grain wheat bread).

                  Many foods contain protein but the best sources are beef, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes
                  like black beans and lentils. Protein builds up, maintains, and replaces the tissues in the body. Muscles, organs, and the
                  immune system is made up mostly of protein.
                  The body uses protein to make lots of specialized protein molecules that have specific jobs. For instance, the body uses
                  protein to make hemoglobin the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to every part of the body. Other proteins
                  are used to build cardiac muscle (heart). In fact, whether running or just relaxing, protein is doing important work like
                  moving the legs, lungs, and protecting the body from disease.

                  Accessed from


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                  TOPIC 4                                                                             HEALTHY LIVING

                  The aims of Health Promotion, as stated in the work schedule, imply that
                  * good health habits should be acquired in a practical way
                  * the teacher should be observant with regard to possible physical defects and deviations from normal health and attend
                    to them
                  * a formal 15-minute lesson need not always be given but may be replaced by practical application of health rules at
                    any appropriate time during the school day. This does not mean that those aspects which are best brought home to
                    learners in formal lessons may be neglected.
                  * The incidence of colds, rash, ringworm or injuries may be used as opportunities for lessons.

                  THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
                  The teacher can contribute largely towards the creation of a climate in which good health habits may be acquired.
                  Classrooms are usually built with the large windows on the lefthand side of the room so that the light falls on the
                  learners’ books from the left. Where windows are not positioned in this way, the teacher should arrange the desks to
                  allow the maximum light to fall on the learners’ books. The desk of the lefthanded learner should be positioned in such
                  a way that he can see on the writing board and still has sufficient light on his exercise book.
                  The teacher should never teach while standing in front of the windows because then the learners will only see her
                  silhouetted figure and not her face and facial expression. She should stand in front or at the back of the classroom but
                  not against the windows.
                  A learner who frequently comes to school untidy will find it very degrading if he is reprimanded in front of the class. A
                  private talk to the learner concerned will be more effective. If several such talks bear no fruit, the teacher should visit the
                  parents and acquaint herself with the circumstances. A friendly, yet serious talk to them may have the desired effect.
                  Parents should realise that many junior primary learners cannot yet be held fully responsible for their daily personal
                  hygiene. Sometimes it may be necessary to help the learner concerned privately to clean himself. If home circumstances
                  are very unhygienic and visits and admonishment to the parents do not result in any improvement, it may be necessary
                  to report the matter to a welfare or health organisation.
                  The teacher should always pay attention to any abnormal appearance or behaviour of her learners. The following are
                  symptoms of slight or more serious deviations which should be referred to a doctor or perhaps a psychologist.
                  *   a learner who limps
                  *   limp muscles (spasticity)
                  *   one shoulder lower than the other
                  *   wrong posture of the upper part of the body (spinal distortion)
                  *   contraction of the eyes or squinting when looking at the writing board or at other objects
                  *   persistently holding the book too near the eyes
                  *   squinting
                  *   turning the head sideways in order to hear
                  *   non-reaction to instructions unless looking directly at the speaker’s lips
                  *   abnormal listlessness (lack of energy or a symptom of illness)
                  *   abnormal activity (hyperactivity)
                  *   an unusual blushing complexion (feverishness)
                  *   a white spot on the eye (cataract)
                  *   foul-smelling breath (bad tonsils or teeth or feverishness)
                  *   bad teeth


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                  It is recommended that a health corner be organised. In order to help the learners to clean their nails, a nailbrush, a pair
                  of small scissors and a nail-file should be placed alongside or near the washbasin. Articles such as Vaseline, ointment,
                  a few headache tablets (taken from the school’s first aid supply), and a small amount of sugar (for sugar-water as
                  treatment against shock when a learner is injured) may also be kept here.
                  Learners must be encouraged to come to school clean and tidy. They may, however, not be punished if they are not
                  well groomed, e.g. if the nails are not clean. They should be allowed to complete their care at the health corner.
                  Learners must be taught to take a pride in their personal appearance.
                  Some activities such as washing the hands after visiting the toilet require day-to-day practice and not formal lessons. After
                  visiting the toilet the teacher should remind the learners of the health rule: “John, did you wash your hands before you came
                  back to the classroom?” A practical approach, therefore, means that good habits should be instilled by regular practice
                  rather than by formal lessons.
                  Other aspects of the syllabus which require regular practice are:
                  *   washing the hands before eating
                  *   using a handkerchief or tissue whenever it is necessary
                  *   turning the head away when coughing or sneezing
                  *   taking off jerseys and jackets when it is hot
                  *   taking off wet shoes and socks, as well as other wet clothes
                  *   keeping learners in the classroom under supervision during lunch break when it rains
                  *   remaining in the shade and preferably playing only quiet games when it is very hot
                  *   buying fruit juices instead of sweets from the school sweet shop
                  refraining from:
                  *   passing on sweets which a learner has had in his mouth
                  *   looking directly at the sun
                  *   putting objects into the nose or ears
                  *   drinking water directly from the tap
                  *   continuous scratching of the skin†
                  *   biting the nails†
                  *   breathing through the mouth†
                         † Such behaviour may indicate serious abnormalities and the teacher should try to determine the cause. A
                         learner may scratch himself because of itching, rash or even emotional problems. The ailment should be treated
                         immediately or the learner may be referred to the clinic. Nail-biting may be caused by nervousness. The teacher
                         may herself be the cause of the learner’s nervousness, in which case she should change her attitude and manner.
                         In case of serious nervousness without any obvious cause, the learner should be referred to a psychologist or
                         clinic for treatment.

                  The observant teacher avails herself of every suitable opportunity to instruct her learners. The following are examples of
                  such lessons.
                  *   In order to establish the habit firmly of washing hands after visiting the toilet, before eating and after break, a
                      formal lesson is given to explain why this habit is necessary.
                  *   Jamie was reprimanded for biting his nails. A lesson should follow to explain why this is a bad habit.
                  *   Some of the learners suffer from colds. Give a lesson to explain the use of the handkerchief or tissue, the necessity
                      of breathing through the nose, the importance of turning the head away when sneezing or coughing. (More than
                      one lesson should be given. The habits mentioned above should be established and the subject-matter should be
                  *   Cover the seed of a pea with water and leave until swollen. Explain that what happens is the same when similar
                      objects are thrust into the nose or ears where they get stuck. Learners should be prevented from doing so.
                  *   When any contagious illness or affliction such as chicken-pox, mumps, flu, scabies, ringworm, or infestation with
                      lice should appear, the learners should be informed as to the nature thereof, basic isolation rules and treatment.


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                  *   During the news lesson a learner reports on a television programme which appeared very late the previous night.
                      A lesson on bedtime and the amount of sleep necessary for growing children should follow.
                  *   A learner falls and hurts himself, or cuts his finger. This should be followed by a lesson on the treatment of the
                      particular injury as well as on the care to be taken when handling dangerous and sharp instruments.

                  FORMAL LESSONS
                  In the planning of schemes of work provision must be made for formal lessons such as
                  *   care of the teeth
                  *   care of the hair
                  *   daily grooming
                  *   regular change of clothes
                  *   good sleeping habits
                  *   good eating habits


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                                                                 LEARNING & KNOWING ABOUT
                  TOPIC 5                                           COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

                  1. TUBERCULOSIS
                      *    TB is an infectious disease that mainly affects the lungs but can also be found in other parts of your body.
                      *    Children and adults can be infected with the disease.
                           -     You can get the disease if someone who is infected coughs or sneezes near you.
                           -     The beginning of getting sick with TB affects your body. You need to go to the clinic, hospital or doctor as
                                 soon as possible. The test are not painful.
                           -     People infected with TB are sometimes too sick to work or to go to school and need to stay at home for a
                                 while. Children and adults sometimes stay in hospital.
                       *   Take all your pills every day. Do not stop taking your pills even when you feel better. It takes at least 6 months
                           to cure TB.

                  The first signs of TB
                      *    Sweating at night even in cold weather
                      *    A cough that does not go away
                      *    Coughing up of blood
                      *    Not wanting to eat. Feeling tired and weak.
                      *    Losing weight

                  If you are infected with the HIV/AIDS virus and you get TB it is more difficult to cure.
                      *    TB can be cured with treatment most times.
                      *    Live in a clean environment. Get plenty of sunshine and fresh air. Eat healthy foods like fruit, vegetables, milk,
                           eggs, meat, fish, etc.
                      *    Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze.
                      *    Do not spit in the street, because in this way germs are spread into the air.
                      *    People with TB need care and support until they feel stronger.

                  2. ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT AIDS
                  Aids are an incurable disease which is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, direct contact with blood
                  e.g. sharing of needles and through mother to child at birth or breastfeeding.
                  Aids are caused by a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which enters the body and weakens its defenses (white
                  blood cells). This then results in a body that will not be able to defend itself from illnesses. HIV does not kill people
                  directly but weakens the immune system to the extent that even non-fatal diseases end up killing a person.

                  Infection Process
                  Stage 1: Non infection.
                               This stage is the first stage when a person is healthy and the immune system is unaffected.

                  Stage 2: Infection
                  This is the stage when the person is infected with the HIV virus through any of the following ways:
                               1. Unprotected sex
                               2. Direct contact with blood
                               3. Mother to child transmission during birth or breastfeeding.
                  There are no symptoms at this stage and the person is still HIV negative. The stage is also known as the window period.
                  It takes 3 to 6 weeks for the person to test positive.


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                  Stage 3: Sero-conversion
                  The virus is already in the blood system and the person is now HIV positive. The person still shows no symptoms. The
                  period lasts between 2 months up to 15 years depending on the person’s lifestyle. Healthy living allows the person to
                  have a long life.

                  Stage 4: Early signs
                  This is the stage when the person experiences the following symptoms as the immune system weakens.
                           1. Weight loss
                           2. Swollen glands
                           3. Fever
                           4. Diarrhea
                           5. Night sweats
                           6. Weakness/Debility

                  Stage 5: AIDS
                  This is the stage when the immune system has been completely weakened and the body is susceptible to dangerous
                  infections such as the following:
                           1. Brain illness (meningitis)
                           2. Tuberculosis
                           3. Cancer
                           4. Pneumonia, etc

                  Stage 6: Death
                  Managing risk of transmission.
                  Did you know?
                  *   When helping a bleeding person you need to cure any cuts or sores with waterproof plaster and gloves.
                  *   Do not share toothbrushes and blades.
                  *   Wash your hands with soap after you have been in contact with blood or puss.
                  *   Avoid touching other people’s blood or puss.
                  *   Scissors and other instruments contaminated with blood or body fluids should be washed and placed in
                      strong bleach.

                  Did you know?
                  You cannot get HIV:
                  *   Through touching and social contact
                      Aids cannot be transmitted through touching and social contact as long as there is no direct contact with blood,
                      pus or exchange of bodily fluids, except tears or saliva.
                  *   By working with or alongside someone with HIV/AIDS
                      People with HIV or AIDS do not pose a threat to the public, since the illness cannot be contacted by being in
                      the same room as someone infected. People with HIV need as much support as possible from families, society,
                      and colleagues.
                  *   From sharing utensils and appliances.
                      Sharing of utensils cannot pose a threat of HIV transmission. Sharing toilets, cutlery, swimming pools etc. cannot
                      transmit HIV.
                  *   From insect bites
                      -Research shown that HIV cannot be contracted from insect bites like mosquito bites, etc.


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                  Did you know that no! means no!...?
                  You can say no!!! to any of the following.
                  Pressured sex
                  Having sex with your partner is not a way of proving that you love him or her. If it feels wrong then it is “wrong”. Do
                  not allow to be pressured into having sex, you have a right to say No! It is your choice.

                  Drugs are not good for your health no matter what your friends say. Drugs ruin lives and futures. Drugs influence
                  people’s actions, which often result to irresponsible behaviour. This behaviour may cost you your future or even life.

                  Alcohol has various side affects and is very unhealthy when taken excessively. Just like drugs, alcohol causes us to
                  lose control. As a result, we may engage in irresponsible behaviour, which we would not have done when sober. This
                  behaviour may include unprotected sex.

                  Sexual advances or any uncomfortable behaviour
                  You have a right to say No! to any form of uncomfortable behaviour or harassment.


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                  TOPIC 6                                                                           COUNTRY PRIDE

                  Understanding the national symbols of South Africa is imperative for instilling Country Pride in learners. This chapter
                  will explain the national symbols of South Africa in detail to support the work done in the Life Skills work schedules.
                  The following national symbols are discussed in detail namely:
                  1.   The national anthem
                  2.   The flag : Symbolism
                  3.   The role of a Coat of Arms
                  4.   National animal
                  5.   National bird
                  6.   National fish
                  7.   National flower
                  8.   National tree

                  Die Stem van Suid-Afrika is a poem written by CJ Langenhoven in May 1918. The music was composed by the Reverend
                  ML de Villiers in 1921.
                  The South African Broadcasting Corporation played both God save the King and Die Stem to close their daily broadcasts
                  and the public became familiar with it. It was first sung publicly at the official hoisting of the national flag in Cape Town
                  on 31 May 1928, but it was not until 2 May 1957 that government made the announcement that Die Stem had been
                  accepted as the official national anthem of South Africa. In the same year, government also acquired the copyright and
                  this was confirmed by an Act of Parliament in 1959. In 1952, the official English version of the national anthem, The
                  Call of South Africa was accepted for official use.

                  Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika
                  Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika was composed in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga, a Methodist mission school teacher. The words of the
                  first stanza were originally written in Xhosa as a hymn. Seven additional stanzas in Xhoza were later added by the poet,
                  Samuel Mqhayi. A Sesotho version was published by Moses Mphahlele in 1942. Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika was popularised
                  at concerts held in Johannesburg by Reverend JL Dube's Ohlange Zulu Choir. It became a popular church hymn that
                  was later adopted as an anthem at political meetings. It was sung as an act of defiance during the Apartheid years. The
                  first stanza is generally sung in Xhosa or Zulu followed by the Sesotho version. Apparently there is no standard version
                  or translations of Nkosi and the words vary from place to place and from occasion to occasion.

                  This is the official version of the national anthem, combining Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika and Die Stem/The Call of
                  South Africa:
                  Nkosi sikelel' iAfrika
                  Maluphakanyisw' uphondo lwayo,
                  Yizwa imithandazo yethu,
                  Nkosi sikelela, thina lusapho lwayo.
                  Morena boloka setjhaba sa heso,
                  O fedise dintwa le matshwenyeho,
                  O se boloke, O se boloke setjhaba sa heso,
                  Setjhaba sa South Afrika - South Afrika.
                  Uit die blou van onse hemel,
                  Uit die diepte van ons see,
                  Oor ons ewige gebergtes,


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                  Waar die kranse antwoord gee,
                  Sounds the call to come together,
                  And united we shall stand,
                  Let us live and strive for freedom,
                  In South Africa our land.

                  2. THE FLAG: SYMBOLISM
                                                   The national flag was designed by a former South African State Herald, Mr Fred
                                                   Brownell, and was first used on 27 April 1994. The design and colours are a synopsis
                                                   of principal elements of the country's flag history. Individual colours, or colour
                                                   combinations represent different meanings for different people and therefore no
                                                   universal symbolism should be attached to any of the colours.
                                                   The central design of the flag, beginning at the flagpost in a 'V' form and flowing
                                                   into a single horizontal band to the outer edge of the fly, can be interpreted as the
                  convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity. The theme of convergence
                  and unity ties in with the motto Unity is Strength of the previous South African Coat of Arms.
                  The colours of the flag:
                  Black – recognises the black people of south africa

                  3. THE COAT OF ARMS
                                         A national Coat of Arms, or state emblem, is the highest visual symbol of the State.
                                         The Coat of Arms is also a central part of the Great Seal, traditionally considered to be
                                         the highest emblem of the State. Absolute authority is given to every document with an
                                         impression of the Great Seal on it, as this means that it has been approved by the President of
                                         South Africa.
                                         South Africa’s Coat of Arms was launched on Freedom Day, 27 April 2000. The change
                                         reflected government's aim to highlight the democratic change in South Africa and a new sense
                                         of patriotism.

                  The design of the Coat of Arms
                  The Coat of Arms is a series of elements organised in distinct symmetric egg-like or oval shapes placed on top of
                  one another.
                  The lower oval shape represents the elements of foundation
                  The first element is the motto, in a green semicircle. Completing the semicircle are two symmetrically placed pairs of
                  elephant tusks pointing upwards. Within the oval shape formed by the tusks are two symmetrical ears of wheat, that
                  in turn frame a centrally placed gold shield.
                  The shape of the shield makes reference to the drum, and contains two human figures from Khoisan rock art. The
                  figures are depicted facing one another in greeting and in unity.
                  Above the shield are a spear and a knobkierie, crossed in a single unit. These elements are arranged harmoniously to
                  give focus to the shield and complete the lower oval shape of foundation.
                  The oval shape of ascendance
                  Immediately above the oval shape of foundation, is the visual centre of the Coat of Arms, a protea. The petals of the
                  protea are rendered in a triangular pattern reminiscent of the crafts of Africa.
                  The secretary bird is placed above the protea and the flower forms the chest of the bird. The secretary bird stands with
                  its wings uplifted in a regal and uprising gesture. The distinctive head feathers of the secretary bird crown a strong and
                  vigilant head.


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                  The rising sun above the horizon is placed between the wings of the secretary bird and completes the oval shape of
                  The combination of the upper and lower oval shapes intersect to form an unbroken infinite course, and the great
                  harmony between the basic elements result in a dynamic, elegant and thoroughly distinctive design. Yet it clearly
                  retains the stability, gravity and immediacy that a Coat of Arms demands.

                  The oval shape of foundation
                  •   The motto

                      The motto is: !ke e: /xarra //ke, written in the Khoisan language of the /Xam people, literally meaningdiverse people
                      unite. It addresses each individual effort to harness the unity between thought and action. On a collective scale it
                      calls for the nation to unite in a common sense of belonging and national pride - unity in diversity.

                      Pronunciation of !ke e: /xarra //ke:

                  •   The ears of wheat

                      An emblem of fertility, it also symbolises the idea of germination, growth and the feasible development of any
                      potential. It relates to the nourishment of the people and signifies the agricultural aspects of the Earth.

                  •   Elephant tusks

                      Elephants symbolise wisdom, strength, moderation and eternity.

                  •   The shield

                      It has a dual function as a vehicle for the display of identity and of spiritual defence. It contains the primary symbol
                      of our nation.

                  •   The human figures

                      The figures are derived from images on the Linton stone, a world-famous example of South African rock art, now
                      housed and displayed in the South African Museum in Cape Town. The Khoisan, the oldest known inhabitants of
                      our land and most probably of the Earth, testify to our common humanity and heritage as South Africans and as
                      humanity in general. The figures are depicted in an attitude of greeting, symbolising unity. This also represents the
                      beginning of the individual’s transformation into the greater sense of belonging to the nation and by extension,
                      collective humanity.

                  •   The spear and knobkierie

                      Dual symbols of defence and authority, they in turn represent the powerful legs of the secretary bird. The spear and
                      knobkierie are lying down, symbolising peace.

                  The oval shape of ascendance

                  •   The protea

                      The protea is an emblem of the beauty of our land and the flowering of our potential as a nation in pursuit of
                      the African Renaissance. The protea symbolises the holistic integration of forces that grow from the Earth and
                      are nurtured from above. The most popular colours of Africa have been assigned to the protea – green, gold, red
                      and black.

                  •   The secretary bird

                      The secretary bird is characterised in flight, the natural consequence of growth and speed. It is the equivalent of the
                      lion on Earth. A powerful bird whose legs - depicted as the spear and knobkierie - serve it well in its hunt for snakes,
                      symbolising protection of the nation against its enemies. It is a messenger of the heavens and conducts its grace
                      upon the Earth. In this sense it is a symbol of divine majesty. Its uplifted wings are an emblem of the ascendance
                      of our nation, while simultaneously offering us its protection. It is depicted in gold, which clearly symbolises its
                      association with the sun and the highest power.


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                  •   The rising sun
                      An emblem of brightness, splendour and the supreme principle of the nature
                      of energy, it symbolises the promise of rebirth, the active faculties of reflection,
                      knowledge, good judgement and willpower. It is the symbol of the source of life, of
                      light and the ultimate wholeness of humanity.
                      The completed structure of the Coat of Arms combines the lower and higher oval
                      shape in a symbol of infinity. The path that connects the lower edge of the scroll, through the lines of the tusks,
                      with the horizon above and the sun rising at the top, forms the shape of the cosmic egg from which the secretary
                      bird rises. In the symbolic sense, this is the implied rebirth of the spirit of our great and heroic nation.

                  National animal
                  Typical of this species is the pronk (jumping display), which led to its common name. Both
                  sexes have horns but those of the ram are thicker and rougher. This species has adapted
                  to the dry, barren areas and open grass plains and is thus found especially in the Free
                  State, North West province and in the Karoo up to the west coast.
                  They are herd animals and move in small herds during winter, but often crowd together
                  in bigger herds in summer. They eat both grass and leaves and can go without drinking-
                  water, because they get enough moisture from the succulent leaves. Where drinking-
                  water is available they will use it.
                  Springbuck stand 75 cm high and weigh about 40 kg. They breed throughout the year and lambs are born after a
                  6-month gestation period.

                  National bird
                  Blue crane
                  This elegant crane, that stands about one meter high, is almost entirely restricted to South Africa in its distribution. The
                  blue crane is a light blue-grey, has a long neck supporting a rather bulbous head, long legs and elegant wing plumes
                  which sweep to the ground. It eats seeds, insects and reptiles. Blue cranes lay their eggs in the bare veld, often close
                  to water. They are quite common in the Karoo, but are also seen in the grasslands of KwaZulu-Natal and the highveld,
                  usually in pairs or small family parties.
                  The blue crane has a distinctive rattling croak, fairly high-pitched at call, which can be heard from far away. It is,
                  however, usually quiet.
                  The habitat of the blue crane is open grass fields or Karoo-like plains with low shrubby bushes. It likes wet parts and
                  lays its eggs on the ground. It grazes in the field and eats seeds, insects and small reptiles.

                  National fish
                  The galjoen is found only along the South African coast. It keeps to mostly shallow water, is often found in rough surf
                  and sometimes right next to the shore and is known to every angler. Near rocks, the colour of the galjoen is almost
                  completely black, while in sandy areas the colour is silver-bronze. It is also known in KwaZulu-Natal as blackfish or black
                  bream. The record size is over 55 cm and 7 kg, however the average is much smaller. The galjoen is a game fighter.
                  The diet of the galjoen consists mainly of red bait (ascidians), small mussels and barnacles. The scales are very firmly
                  attached. The fins are well-developed with prominent spines.

                  National flower
                  Giant or king protea
                  The giant or king protea is widely distributed in the south-western and southern areas of the Western Cape, from the
                  Cedarberg up to just east of Grahamstown.
                  The artichoke-like appearance of the flower-heads of the king protea lead to the specific name ‘cynaroides’, which
                  means ‘like cynara’ (the artichoke). The name does not do justice to the beautiful flower-heads of this protea, which is
                  the largest in the genus. A number of varieties in colour and leaf shapes are found, but the most beautiful is the pink
                  coloured flower.


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                  National tree
                  Real yellowwood
                  The yellowwood family is primeval and has been present in this part of Africa for more than 100 million years. The
                  species is widespread and is found from Table Mountain, along the southern and eastern Cape coast, in the ravines of
                  the Drakensberg up to the Soutpansberg and the Blouberg in Limpopo.
                  In forests, they can grow up to 40 metres in height with the base of the trunk sometimes up to 3 metres in diameter.
                  In contrast, trees that grow in unsheltered places like mountain-slopes, are often short, bushy and gnarled. The bark of
                  the real yellowwood is khaki-coloured to grey when it is old, deeply split and peels off in strips. The crown is relatively
                  small in relation to its height and is often covered with grey lichen. Male and female cones resemble pine cones and
                  are white, light green or pink. The female cone has a fleshy podocarpium on which the seed, which takes on the shape
                  and colour of a cherry, develops.

                  The School
                  Learners should be taught to take a pride in their school. They should realise that their school is identified by its
                  particular uniform, colours, badge (emblem) and motto. The school badge should be examined and explained. The
                  meaning of the motto should be discussed in simple words. Most learners love to see a doll dressed up in the school
                  colours. They should learn to sing the school sing.

                  Note: Only that which is applicable to the learners’ own school must be taught.

                  Just as learners are taught to respect, be proud of and loyal to their own school, they should equally be taught to
                  respect neighbouring schools and to identify the colours and badges of these schools.

                  Learners should have some knowledge of the organisation of their school. Questions such as the following may serve
                  as a guide to help them to understand the functions of people working at the school:
                  *   What does the principal do?
                  *   What would happen to the school if there were no principal?
                  *   What do the teachers do?
                  *   What would happen to this class without the teacher?
                  *   Why has the school an art teacher?
                  *   What does the secretary do?
                  The teacher should take the learners to the offices of the principal and the clerical assistant and let them see some of
                  the work done by these officials.

                  Learners should be taught why and how discipline is maintained in the classroom and in the school.
                  *   Why do we choose class leaders?
                  *   What is the duty of a class leader?
                  If the school has a prefect system, learners should know why prefects are chosen, what their duties are, and why
                  prefects should be obeyed. They should realise that all learners have privileges as well as duties.

                  * To receive schooling in all its different aspects
                  *   To have the opportunity of making friends
                  *   To increase their knowledge of the world around them by reading books
                  *   To belong to a group
                  *   To take part in sports and other activities

                  *   To help one another
                  *   To be friendly
                  *   To be obedient
                  *   To take part in school activities


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                  *   To keep the classroom neat and attractive. This aspect includes the arrangement of the desks in the classroom,
                      the arrangement and organisation of books and writing materials on the desks, keeping the floor tidy, organising
                      useful collections and pictures in connection with current topics and daily work, tending to plants and animals in
                      order to study them.
                  The duties of the caretaker and cleaners should be explained. Learners should be taught to respect these workers, and
                  to help them by being neat and tidy and by putting scraps and waste into the dustbins.

                  Nature conservation
                  If learners are taught to respect themselves and others, their property and that of others and to be proud of their
                  school and country, nature conservation should follow as a natural consequence. Learners should learn to recognise
                  the different trees, plants and flowers in the school grounds and in the vicinity and be able to name them. They should
                  also learn to take part in conservation by keeping picnic spots, riverbanks, camping sites and stops along the main
                  road clean, and reporting at school on their activities in this respect. They should report on their actions in protecting
                  animals, birds and plants.


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                  TOPIC 7                                                    CULTURE AND RELIGIONS

                  1. Different Cultures in South Africa
                  South Africans have been referred to as the 'rainbow nation', a title which epitomises the country's cultural diversity.
                  The population of South Africa is one of the most complex and diverse in the world. Of the 45 million South Africans,
                  nearly 31 million are Black, 5 million White, 3 million Coloured and one million Indian. The population density is 32.9
                  people per km².

                  The African Black population is divided into four major ethnic groups, namely Nguni, Sotho, Shangaan-Tsonga and
                  Venda. There are numerous subgroups of which the Zulu and Xhosa (two subgroups of the Nguni) are the largest.

                  Most of the Coloured population live in the Northern and Western Cape provinces, whilst most of the Indian population
                  lives in KwaZulu Natal.

                  The majority of the White population is of Afrikaans descent (60%), with many of the remaining 40% being of British
                  descent. The Afrikaner population is concentrated in the Gauteng and Free State provinces and the English population
                  in the Western and Eastern Cape and KwaZulu Natal.

                  There are eleven official languages in South Africa i.e. English, Afrikaans, Ndebele, Sepedi, Xhosa, Venda, Tswana,
                  Southern Sotho, Zulu, Swazi, Tsonga

                  Xhosa: Approximately 18 percent of South Africa’s population speaks the language, and when doing the mathematics,
                  that makes it around 7.9 million people. Xhosa is marked by a number of tongue-clicking sounds.

                  Zulu: To 24% of South Africans, Zulu is considered to be their home language and 50% of the South Africa’s inhabitants
                  understand the language. Zulu falls under the Nguni group and is one of the Bantu languages. Xhosa and Zulu are the
                  only two languages mutually understandable.

                  Afrikaans: The Afrikaans language is one of South Africa’s official languages and a majority of South Africa’s population
                  uses this as their first or second language. Afrikaans is a born language and attached is a fascinating history.

                  Venda: This language can be known as Luvenda or just Venda, and Tshivenda is originated from the Bantu language.
                  Around 666 000 of Tshivenda speakers live in the Northern parts of South Africa’s Limpopo Province.

                  Ndebele: Many South African African people can speak Ndebele and it is in fact a beautiful language if you know how
                  to speak and understand it well. Ndebele is a Bantu language that is spoken by Ndebele South Africans (the Ndebele
                  people are also sometimes referred to as amaNdebele).

                  Sepedi: Sepedi is also sometimes referred to as Sesotho sa Laboa or Northern Sotho. The language of Sepedi is spoken
                  by approximately 4,208,980 individuals and it is one of the eleven official languages in South Africa.

                  Setswana: Setswana is commonly known as Tswana, and is actually Botswana’s national language. However, the
                  majority of Tswana or Setswana speakers are found in South Africa. It is the Northern Cape that is the source of the
                  Setswana and Afrikaans speakers.

                  Southern Sesotho: This Bantu language originates from the Bantu-Nguni era and is also known as Suto, Souto,
                  Sisutho as well as Suthu. The dialects originates from Suto, Pedi as well as Tswana which are intelligible but at the same
                  time is also considered to be separate languages.

                  Swati: Swati might not sound familiar to you, but rather Sewati, Swazi or siSwati as these are all the same language,
                  just in different names. Swati is a part of the Nguni Group and it is one of the many Bantu languages. It is mainly spoken
                  by people in South Africa and Swaziland.

                  Tsonga: The language of Tsonga is mainly spoken throughout southern Africa by the Shangaan - Tsonga culture.
                  Tsonga is a part of Bantu branch when it comes to the Niger-Congo languages. The speakers of this language are often
                  referred to as Shangaans, but the Tsongas say this is incorrect.


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                  Religious groups
                  Almost 80% of South Africa’s population follows the Christian faith. Other major religious groups are the Hindus,
                  Muslims, Jews and Buddhists. A minority of South Africa’s population do not belong to any of the major religions, but
                  regard themselves as traditionalists of no specific religious affiliation.
                  The Constitution guarantees freedom of worship and the official policy is one of non-interference in religious practices.

                  Christian churches
                  There are many official and unofficial ecumenical relations between the various churches. One of the most important
                  of these links is the South African Council of Churches (SACC), although it is not representative of the full spectrum of

                  The Church of England in Southern Africa has congregations among all sections of the community.

                  The major African indigenous churches, most of the Afrikaans churches, and the Pentecostal and charismatic churches
                  are, as a rule, not members of the SACC, and usually have their own coordinating liaison bodies.

                  Church attendance in South Africa is favourable in both rural and urban areas, and churches are well served by a large
                  number of clerics and officials.

                  On the whole, training for the church ministry is thorough and intensive, and based on a variety of models due to the
                  variety of church denominations.

                  Apart from the work of the churches, a number of Christian organisations (para-church organisations) operate in South
                  Africa, doing missionary and evangelical work, and providing aid and training.

                  Regular religious programmes on radio and television, and the abundance of places of worship, reflect the importance
                  of religion in South Africa. Many newspapers carry a daily scriptural message, and various religious magazines,
                  newspapers and books are produced and sold in religious bookshops.

                  African independent churches (AICs)

                  The largest grouping of Christian churches is the AICs, and one of the most dramatic aspects of religious affiliation has
                  been the rise of this movement.

                  Although these churches originally resulted from a number of breakaways from various mission churches (the so-called
                  “Ethiopian” churches), the AICs have developed their own dynamics and momentum, and continue to flourish. The
                  majority are no longer regarded as Ethiopian churches, but rather Zionist or Apostolic churches. The Pentecostal move
                  ment also has its independent offshoots in this group.

                  The Zion Christian Church (ZCC) is the largest of these churches in South Africa and the largest church overall. The
                  teaching is a syncretism between Christianity and African Traditional Religion. More than a million members gather
                  twice a year at Zion City, Moria, east of Polokwane in Limpopo, at Easter and for the September festival. Traditionally,
                  Easter is the religious highlight of the year. ZCC members, estimated to exceed four million, are not obliged to make
                  the pilgrimage, but have loyally observed the tradition for more than 80 years.

                  The 4 000 or more independent churches have a membership of more than 10 million people, making this movement
                  the single most important religious group in South Africa.

                  The independent churches attract people from both rural and urban areas. There are, for
                  example, hundreds of separate churches in rural KwaZulu-Natal, and at least 900 from all
                  ethnic groups in the urban complex of Soweto alone. In the northern KwaZulu-Natal and
                  Mpumalanga areas, these churches serve more than half the population.

                  Afrikaans churches
                  The Afrikaans churches are predominantly Protestant. Of these churches, the Dutch
                  Reformed Church family of churches in South Africa is the largest and represents
                  some 3,5 million people. The Dutch Reformed Church, also known as the Nederduitse
                  Gereformeerde Kerk, has a total of about 1 200 congregations countrywide.


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                  Other churches are the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa, the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and the
                  smaller Reformed Church in Africa, with predominantly Indian members. The Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk and the
                  Gereformeerde Kerk are regarded as sister churches of the Dutch Reformed Church.

                  There are several other churches with Afrikaans-speaking adherents, some with very large memberships, such as the
                  Apostolic Faith Mission and theAfrikaanse Protestantse Kerk.

                  The Dutch Reformed Church also has six fully fledged English-language congregations, one congregation for Dutch-
                  speaking people, and four for Portuguese-speaking people. In total, there are about 2 000 members in each of these

                  Roman Catholic Church
                  The Roman Catholic Church has grown significantly in number and influence in recent years. It works closely with other
                  churches on the socio-political front. The Southern African Catholic Bishops’ Conference, founded more than 50 years
                  ago, is the representative body of this church in southern Africa.

                  Other Christian churches
                  Other established churches in South Africa include the Anglican Church Southern Africa, the Methodist Church, various
                  Lutheran and Presbyterian churches, and the Congregational Church.

                  Although the different Baptist groups are not large, they represent a strong church tradition. Together, they form the
                  nucleus of the SACC.

                  The largest traditional Pentecostal churches are the Apostolic Faith Mission, the Assemblies of God and the Full Gospel
                  Church, but there are numerous others. Many of them enjoy fellowship in groups such as the Church Alliance of South
                  Africa, and operate in all communities.

                  Hundreds of independent charismatic churches have mushroomed across the country. The largest of these groups
                  is the International Fellowship of Christian Churches (IFCC). Rhema Church, with its 32 000-member congregation,
                  spearheads the movement. The IFCC, representing over 400 churches, is also a member of the SACC.

                  Also active in South Africa, among the smaller groups, are the Greek Orthodox Church, the Seventh Day Adventist
                  churches, the Church of the Nazarenes and the Salvation Army.

                  African traditionalists
                  Because the traditional religion of the African people has a strong cultural base, the various groups have different
                  rituals, but there are certain common features.

                  A supreme being is generally recognised, but ancestors are of far greater importance, being the deceased elders of
                  the group. They are regarded as part of the community; indispensable links with the spirit world and the powers that
                  control everyday affairs. These ancestors are not gods, but because they play a key part in bringing about either good
                  or ill fortune, maintaining good relations with them is vital and they have to be appeased regularly through a variety
                  of ritual offerings.

                  While an intimate knowledge of herbs and other therapeutic techniques, and the use of supernatural powers, can be
                  applied for the benefit of the individual and the community, some practitioners are masters of black magic, creating
                  fear among people. As a result of close contact with Christianity, many people find themselves in a transitional phase
                  somewhere between African Traditional Religion and Christianity.

                  Other religions
                  The majority of Indians who originally came to South Africa were Hindu. They retained their Hindu religion and today
                  some two thirds of South Africa’s Indians are Hindus. The rest are Muslims and a minority are Christians.

                  The Muslim community in South Africa is small, but growing rapidly. The Cape Malays, who are mostly descended from
                  Indonesian slaves, make up most of this group, with the remaining 20% being of Indian descent.

                  The Jewish population numbers less than 100 000. Of these, the majority are Orthodox Jews.

                  Buddhism is barely organised in South Africa. However, the Nan Hua Buddhist temple has been built at Bronkhorstspruit
                  near Pretoria.


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                  The number of Parsees has decreased, while there is a small group of Jains in Durban. Followers of the Baha’i faith are
                  establishing groups and temples in various parts of the country.

                  Number of individuals by religion (Census 2001)
                  Number of individuals by Religion (Census 2001)          %
                  Christian                                                79,8%
                  African Traditional Religion                             0,3%
                  Judaism                                                  0,2%
                  Hinduism                                                 1,2%
                  Islam                                                    1,5%
                  Other                                                    0,6%
                  No religion                                              15,1%
                  Undetermined                                             1,4%
                  Total                                                    100%


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                  TOPIC 8                                                              MORALS AND VALUES

                  1. Unity
                  Unity is built from a shared vision, an altruistic aim, or a cause for the common good. Unity gives sustenance, strength,
                  and courage to make the impossible possible. Combining with determination and commitment, unity makes the biggest
                  task seem easy.
                  The stability of unity comes from the spirit of equality and oneness, the noble values embodied in core universal
                  principles. The greatness of unity is that everyone is respected. Unity creates the experience of cooperation, increases
                  zeal and enthusiasm for the task, and makes the atmosphere powerful and enabling.

                  Causes of Disunity
                  One note of disrespect can cause unity to be broken. Interrupting others, giving unconstructive and prolonged
                  criticism, keeping watch over some or control over others are all strident chords which strike harshly at connections
                  and relationships. Ego and inferiority produce disharmonious sounds. Such discord can be easily heard or quite subtle
                  and can range from dwelling on weaknesses of others and hunger for recognition to jealousy, insecurity, and doubt.
                  Sometimes, even in little matters, people quickly get upset, aggressive, angry, or violent; they then isolate themselves
                  into subgroups, producing dissension and conflict. Retuning and fine tuning then become essential.
                  A basic human need is to feel a sense of belonging, to be part of the unified whole. People do not want to remain in
                  isolation, oblivious to the world outside. It is also uniquely human to be curious about other people and cultures and
                  to feel a deep sense of compassion over sufferings of and injustices done to others. It is, therefore, human instinct to
                  want to be together and to form natural gatherings or structured meetings which provide a common platform to talk
                  to each other. In such ways, people get to know, understand, or help each other. This holds true for individuals as well
                  as for nations. Consciously or unconsciously, we choose to be and act together.

                  2. Cooperation
                  Human achievement is like a mountain range of cliffs, crags, slopes and valleys. To aim for excellence in collective
                  achievement is to aspire to climb to the crowning point. The endeavor requires each climber to be equipped with
                  essential skills and knowledge and good amounts of determination and will power. However, no climb should ever be
                  undertaken without the most indispensable piece of equipment: the safety rope of cooperation. Cooperation ensures
                  equanimity, empowerment, easiness and enthusiasm. Cooperation provides the means for each climber to take a step,
                  no matter how small, and for those steps collectively to reach the pinnacle.

                  Mutual Benefit
                  Cooperation is not a bargaining game in which one person’s success is achieved at the expense or exclusion of the
                  success of others. The constant aim of cooperation is mutual benefit in human interactions; it is governed by the
                  principle of mutual respect. Courage, consideration, caring and sharing provide a foundation from which cooperation
                  as a process can be developed.
                  If the power of discrimination is sharp at the time a person, group or nation needs cooperation and the accurate
                  method is applied, there will be success in human interactions and relations. The method can be as simple as providing
                  an explanation, giving love or support, or listening. However, if there is lack of power to discern the type of cooperation
                  needed and the correct method to give that, success in the form of agreement and contentment will not be experienced.
                  That can be likened to a doctor not accurately diagnosing the illness. Instead of getting well, the patient would
                  experience complications created by the treatment.
                  Cooperation is possible when there is easiness, not heaviness. Easiness means being sincere and generous of spirit.
                  Such liberality makes one worthy of receiving cooperation from everyone. If one has faith and confidence in others,
                  that in turn, builds faith and confidence in others. Such feelings produce a comfortable environment of empowerment,
                  respect, support and togetherness.

                  Everyone’s Responsibility
                  Cooperation is everyone’s responsibility, yet it takes courage and inner strength to facilitate the process. Sometimes


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                  those who take on the responsibility become the target for insult and criticism. Fundamental preparations are required
                  to create an internal support mechanism through which such individuals are able to protect themselves and maintain
                  equanimity and poise. The necessary attitude is one of detachment, in which nothing is taken personally.

                  3. Freedom
                  Freedom is a precious gift which promises an experience of liberation and a feeling of no limits as if the earth, the skies,
                  and the seas are at one’s service!
                  The concepts of freedom and liberty have fascinated human beings. One of the greatest aspirations in the world today
                  is to be free. People want the freedom to lead a life of purpose, to select freely a lifestyle in which they and their
                  children can grown healthily and can flourish through the work of their hands, heads, and hearts. They want to do and
                  go as they please and to enjoy social, political, and economic rights and privileges. In short, they want the freedom to
                  choose, to risk, and to succeed!

                  True Freedom
                  Full freedom functions only when rights are balanced with responsibilities and choice is balanced with conscience.
                  There cannot be the experience of freedom, individually or collectively, if attention and effort are focused only on rights
                  and choice. When rights and choice are misunderstood or misused, debts are incurred mentally, physically, spiritually,
                  socially, economically, politically, and so on.

                  4. Happiness
                  At present, many question the purpose of life. Some are tired of living, others have lost hope. Some make effort to earn
                  wealth, believing that will bring happiness. Some who have wealth may not have health, and that causes unhappiness.
                  Some choose certain professions, believing that will give happiness. Others seek happiness through relationships. Yet,
                  however much happiness such measures may bring, they are temporary and limited sources of the material world, and
                  in many instances, they bring equal amounts of sorrow and unhappiness.
                  The warmth and comfort of happiness is hidden within the self. When individuals turn within and take strength from
                  the internal powers of peace and silence, they revive their virtues and allow the mercury of happiness to rise.
                  The vault of spiritual knowledge holds treasures on how to live and act with truth. True actions are pure, and purity
                  is the mother of happiness and comfort. True actions bring strength and happiness to the self and pleasure to others.
                  Spiritual treasures include guidelines on how to reform character and activity. For many, self-progress and personal
                  transformation are keys that unlock the Gate of Happiness.
                  People speak of peace of mind. Happiness of mind is a state of peace in which there is no upheaval or violence.
                  Happiness does not carry a price tag. It cannot be bought, sold, or bargained for. Happiness is earned by those whose
                  actions, attitude, and attributes are pure and selfless. In other words, the quality of the consciousness and activities of
                  individuals determines the richness of life.
                  Happiness is prosperity which comes from self-sovereignty. Self-sovereignty means being master over the mind, intellect,
                  personality traits, and physical senses of the body; being complete.

                  5. Honesty
                  Honesty is a clear conscience “before myself and before my fellow human being.”
                  Honesty is the awareness of what is right and appropriate in one’s role, one’s behavior, and one’s relationship. With
                  honesty, there is no hypocrisy or artificiality which create confusion and mistrust in the minds and lives of others.
                  Honesty makes for a life of integrity because the inner and outer selves are a mirror image.
                  Honesty is to speak that which is thought and to do that which is spoken. There are no contradictions or discrepancies
                  in thoughts, words, or actions. Such integration provides clarity and example to others. To have one form internally
                  and another form externally creates barriers and can cause damage, wince one would neither be able to come close to
                  anyone else, nor would others want to be close. Some think, “I am
                  Honest, but no one understands me.” That is not honest. Honesty is as distinct as a flawless diamond which can never
                  remain hidden. The worth is visible in one’s actions.

                  6. Humility
                  A person who embodies humility will make the effort to listen to and accept others. The greater the acceptance of
                  others, the more that person will be held in high esteem, and the more that person will be listened to.
                  Humility eliminates possessiveness and narrow vision which create physical, intellectual and emotional boundaries.


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                  Such limitations destroy self-esteem and build walls of arrogance and pride, which distance others. Humility gently
                  works on the crevices to allow for breakthroughs.
                  When one has the virtue of humility, everyone “bows down,” since everyone bows to those who themselves bow first.
                  Thus, the sign of greatness is humility. Humility enables the individual to become dependable, flexible and adaptable.
                  To the extent one becomes humble is the degree to which one becomes great in everyone’s heart. A person who
                  embodies humility will make the effort to listen to and accept others. The greater the acceptance of others, the more
                  that person will be held in high esteem, and the more that person will be listened to. Humility automatically makes one
                  worthy of praise.

                  7. Love
                  The basis of real love between people is spiritual. To see another as a spiritual being, a soul, is to see the spiritual reality
                  of the other. To be conscious of that reality is to have spiritual love: each person, complete within, independent yet
                  totally interconnected, recognises that state in the other. As a result, there is constant and natural love. Love is not
                  simply a desire, a passion, an intense feeling for one person or object, but a consciousness which is simultaneously
                  selfless and self-fulfilling. Love can be for one’s country, for a cherished aim, for justice, for ethics, for people, for
                  nature, for service or for God. Love flows from truth, that is, wisdom. Love based on wisdom is real love, not blind love;
                  and to discover the secrets of love is to watch the secrets of life unfold.
                  •   Spiritual love means not dwelling on the weaknesses of others. Instead, there is concern for removing one’s own
                      defects. The method to do that is to “check one’s own pulse” regularly to monitor how much one has adopted the
                      natural habit of giving happiness, not sorrow, to others. However, true love from the heart also means one cannot
                      bear to see weaknesses in another for whom there is love. There is the pure desire to correct what is inaccurate.
                      Such correction would be carried out, on one hand, with the feeling of love, and on the other hand, with the power
                      of words. There would be balance between the two. When there is too much force in the words or too much love,
                      the result is not successful. If words are too sharp, another may be insulted or put off by bossiness. When one has
                      the right balance of love and power in words, that gives others an experience of compassion, mercy, and benefit.
                      No matter how powerful or bitter the message, it will touch the heart of the other and will be experienced as
                  •   Human beings have become caught up in a pattern of behavior which ahs distorted the value of love and the ability
                      to trust one another with feelings and intentions. One minute there is love; the next minute that love is broken,
                      resulting in intense sorrow and pain. It is as if the human intellect has lost connection with the One eternal source
                      of love and has taken support from temporary sources. As a result, instead of having one strength and one support
                      from an unconditional source, human souls remain thirsty for true love, even one drop. Without that love, they
                      continue to wander around in distress, searching.

                  8. Peace
                  People say in one breath that they want peace of mind, and in the next breath they say hurtful things. Wasteful gossip
                  spread peacelessness, as does anger. Peacelessness initially begins with a few angry, forceful thoughts which are then
                  expressed in words and in some instances escalate into uncontrolled proportions of violence.
                  People say they want peace in the world, but what kind of peace do they desire? People ask for peace, but whose
                  responsibility is that? Can anyone who remains peaceless be an instrument for peace?
                  In its most common form, peacelessness can be felt as stress and pressure due to family, work, social, and other
                  obligations. In its more serious condition, peacelessness is manifested in breakdowns, addictions, abuse, crime,
                  emotional imbalances and psychosomatic ailments.
                  Bringing peace back into the social, economic, political and other fibers of society would require looking at peace
                  from two levels: the external and the internal. Peace education, conflict resolution and all peace initiatives must take
                  seriously the critical connection between individual and world peace. Programs and projects must include an emphasis
                  on individual peace, offering proactive and practical means to peace, beginning with the first step of knowing the inner

                  9. Respect
                  To know one’s own worth and to honor the worth of others is the true way to earn respect. Respect is an acknowledgement
                  of the inherent worth and innate rights of the individual and the collective. To show disrespect and to wk against
                  the laws of nature is to cause ecological imbalances and natural calamities. The power of discernment establishes a
                  respectful environment in which attention is paid to the quality of intentions, attitude, behavior, thoughts, words and
                  actions. To the extent that there is the power of humility in respecting the self – there will be success in the form of


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                  valuing individuality, appreciating diversity, and taking the complete task into consideration.

                  10. Responsibility
                  Moral responsibility is to accept what is required, to honor the role which has been entrusted, and to perform
                  conscientiously and to the best of one’s ability. The actor has been given the part. He or she should be mindful of that
                  and not wish to be somewhere or someone else. Duties should be carried out with integrity and a sense of purpose.

                  Acting Responsibly
                  Personal responsibility in life comes from many expected and unexpected sources and involves partnership and
                  participation, commitment and cooperation. Social and global responsibility requires all the above as well as justice,
                  humaneness and respect for the rights of all human beings. Particular attention is paid to ensure that benefit is for all
                  without discrimination.
                  Some interpret responsibility as a burden and fail to see it as personally relevant. It becomes convenient to project it as
                  someone else’s problem. These people den their responsibility, yet when it comes to rights, they are the first in line!
                  A responsible person perseveres, not stubbornly with a blind focus, but with the motivation of fulfilling the assigned
                  duty by staying true to the aim. When there is the consciousness of being an instrument or a facilitator, a person stays
                  neutral and flexible in his or her role. One remains detached yet has a clear understanding of what needs to be done.
                  When the role is played accurately, there is efficiency and effectiveness which result in satisfaction and contentment at
                  having made a significant contribution.
                  Responsibility often calls upon humility to help overcome obstacles crated by ego. For instance, one acting responsibly
                  does not take over or control the outcome. One acting responsibly also has the maturity to know when a responsibility
                  should be handed to another. A major barrier is becoming too attached to
                  the responsibility. Being over-conscientious leads to worry, doubt, and fear, which can have a crippling effect on
                  decision-making and result in devastating consequences.

                  Collaboration is Essential
                  Responsible individuals work in collaboration. That is true for all tasks and especially important in areas which affect
                  the lives of others.
                  Responsible individuals operate on two premises:
                  1. that all participants have something worthwhile to offer, and
                  2. that the situation required a cooperative rather than a competitive environment.
                      Responsible people do not fall into the traps of inferiority or superiority; they recognize that the optimum outcome
                      cannot depend on one person, one group, or one nation alone.
                  Responsibility is managing time and resources to being maximum benefit while accommodating necessary change.

                  11. Tolerance
                  The world – our extended family of people – can be depicted as a large tree with many limbs, branches, and shoots.
                  Each nation – represented by a limb – is a brother or a sister having families of their own. Those families – represented
                  by branches – are the various provinces and communities made up of all religions and ethnic groups. When the roots of
                  history are seen by placement of family members on such a generalogical tree, that perspective shows complementarity
                  among all people and demonstrates that coexistence is possible Since the tree takes sustenance from common, original
                  roots which grew from one seed, the human family tree can be no different. Coexistence stems from the very seed
                  from which life sprang! And tolerance, which also develops from that one seed, not only has roots which run deep
                  and which sustain, but also expresses itself in other diverse ways, including enriching the soil and providing showers of
                  acceptance and support.

                  The aim of tolerance is peaceful coexistence. While tolerance recognizes individuality and diversity, it removes divisive
                  masks and defuses tension created by ignorance. It provides opportunity to discover and remove stereotypes and
                  stigmas associated with people perceived to be different because of nationality, religion, or heritage. Just as a gardener
                  recognizes characteristics of each variety of seed and prepares the grounds accordingly, a tolerant person takes into
                  consideration the uniqueness of all people. Through understanding and open-mindedness, a tolerant person attracts
                  someone different, and by genuinely accepting and accommodating that person, demonstrates tolerance in practical
                  form. As a result, relationships blossom.


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                  The seed of tolerance, love, is sown with compassion and care. The more one becomes loving and shares that love, the
                  greater the power in that love. When there is lack of love, there is lack of tolerance. For instance, the example of mother
                  and child: When an obstacles comes to a child, because the mother has love for that child, she is prepared to and has
                  the power to tolerate anything. At that time, she does not worry about her own bell-being but uses love to confront
                  all circumstances. Love makes anything easier to tolerate.
                  Family is the first classroom to learn tolerance, as there is always some adjustment to be made to accommodate others.
                  School is the second classroom. However, tests of tolerance are taken each and every day of one’s life. Those who pass
                  most often have the consciousness of appreciating the good in people and in situations. Those receiving lower marks
                  usually have shades or degrees of disapproval. And those who pass with honor use the power of tolerance as a shield
                  of protection so that internal serenity remain untouched.

                  Discrimination in Decision-making
                  Tolerance is inner strength which enables the individual to face and transform misunderstandings and difficulties. The
                  method for that is first to use discrimination in decision-making. By delving into the conscience, one can determine
                  what is right or wrong, what will bring benefit or loss; and what will bring short- or long-term attainment.

                  Ability to accommodate
                  Certain circumstances often demand tolerance. Extremities of seasons and varying levels of bodily pain are cases in
                  point. The artisans of science and technology have been invaluable in assisting human beings to accommodate extreme
                  heat and cold, and advanced medical treatment has done wonders in helping individuals tolerate pain. Yet, such
                  benefits do not mean that discomfort is eliminated completely. At some level for all, and for some more so than others,
                  tolerance becomes an indispensable power to cope.
                  Tolerance develops the ability to accommodate the problems of everyday living. The hundreds of people who rush
                  to the train station after a hard day’s work may be tired and weary. Their accommodation skills are tested when the
                  announcement is heard: “All trains have been cancelled due to technical difficulties with the lines. Passengers are
                  requested to use alternative routes.” To tolerate life’s inconveniences is let go, be light, make others light, and move
                  on. Mountains are mad into molehills, and molehills are made into mustard seeds!


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                  TOPIC 9                                                                                RELATIONSHIPS

                  SOCIAL ATTITUDES
                  1.   At home and at school
                  The school community is a society in which there are people in charge, to be obeyed and respected, courtesies to be
                  observed, rules to be obeyed, fellow-learners to be considered and work to be done.
                  Healthy personal relationships in a school cannot be cultivated merely by teaching formal lessons on the subject, but
                  should be fostered at all times as part of the learner’s general education. The teacher should encourage the qualities
                  of unselfishness, loyalty, consideration for others and truthfulness. By far the most effective lessons, however, will be
                  those illustrated by her own good example and her attitude towards the people with whom she deals in the course
                  of the school day. A good deal of teaching is done through comments made and explanations given by the teacher
                  as she deals with all the various situations which arise in the daily classroom situation. Practical application when the
                  opportunity arises should be the rule.
                  In addition, learners should be trained to convey messages of congratulation, invitations and thanks when necessary.
                  This can be done in a practical way, e.g. if a learner has a birthday and some of the learners are invited to the party, the
                  teacher may encourage and help these learners to write short “thank-you” notes to the learner concerned.

                  WHAT IS A ROLE MODEL
                  A role mode is somebody who inspires those around them by living a life that is exemplarily. A role model therefore
                  does not focus on him or herself but focuses on what he/she can do to make the world a better place, spreading love
                  and hope to others through their daily actions. It is important that role models take care about what they say but it is
                  more important that they set an example by the life that they live that others will be tempted to follow it.
                  True role models are those who possess the qualities that we would like to have and those who have affected us in a
                  way that makes us want to be better people. To advocate for ourselves and our goals and take leadership on the issues
                  that we believe in. We often don't recognize our true role models until we have noticed our own personal growth and
                  A person can have many role models in their lives. Each role model teaches a person about themselves.
                  Role models have changed over the generations. People used to describe their role models as being people they didn't
                  know i.e. movie stars and athletes. Now, (evident by this discussion) people tend to find role models that are in some
                  way or another involved in their lives. This is great as it emphasizes one of the favorite sayings, "It takes a village to raise
                  a child." Moreover, a role model is no longer just someone who you look up to or is successful, but someone who has
                  had to go through similar struggles/ challenges as we.


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                  TOPIC 10                                                  DEALING WITH EMOTIONS

                  An emotion is a package of thoughts and feelings. Nothing more- nothing less. You experience a never-ending flow of
                  thoughts. But you also have a never-ending flow of feelings.
                  Out of these two streams- the stream of thought and the stream of feeling- come the artificial labels we call
                  Anger is a package of thoughts and feelings. Fear, joy, happiness, sadness; they're all labels we use to try to explain
                  and understand our thoughts and feelings. Emotions are labels we use in an attempt to gain some bit of control over
                  what we're feeling.
                  Obviously, labels have their place. It's good to be able to describe what we experience. But it's much more important
                  to understand the streams of thought and feeling.
                  Let it in: a never-ending flow of thoughts and feelings constantly and continuously bubble up inside you.
                  Now let's look at those root emotions.

                  The 7 Human Root Emotions
                  The root emotions:
                  One of these seven is your root emotion.
                  It may be the one you feel the most, but it doesn't have to be.
                  Your root emotion resembles an anchor. It's the one you 'return to' as you go through your trials and tribulations.
                  You use it to justify and rationalise and explain to yourself 'why things are going the way they are'.
                  Oftentimes, it's the emotion you 'wallow' in. It's the one you're most comfortable with. It's the one that makes the
                  most sense.
                  Obviously, all of the 7 human root emotions are felt by everyone at one time or another. Because thoughts and feelings
                  are a gift, as humans, we have the right to feel and think anything we want. Nothing can take away that right because
                  it's a 'human gift'.
                  But you've latched onto one of those emotions. You've made it more than it was meant to be.
                  Start by going over the list of the 7 root emotions. Let yourself feel each one- one at a time. Like trying on a new outfit.
                  Give yourself permission to feel each one with wreckless abandon. Immerse yourself. Fill yourself- fully and completely-
                  with each one. Let it absorb into your skin. Imagine yourself as a sponge.
                  Now here's the key point:
                  While a sponge will just sit there filled with water, you can channel that emotion right through you.
                  Imagine your eliminatory canal. You take food and water into your mouth, the nutritive value is extracted by your
                  digestive system, and the waste passes right through you and leaves your body.
                  In a similar fashion, you can take in each emotion, extract power and energy from it, and release it. When you 'clearly'
                  feel any emotion, you'll always feel more alive. And it always releases.
                  As you go through these 7 emotions, look for the one that seems a little too familiar, a little too strong, a little to deep.
                  Most likely, that's your root emotion.
                  Remember- the root emotion is the one you always return to. The problem is, it's also the one that can clog up your
                  streams of thoughts and feelings.


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                  TOPIC 11                                        RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILTIES

                  Human Rights Begin with Children’s Rights
                  In The Universal Declaration of Human Rights it is stated that every member
                  of the human race is entitled to dignity and to fundamental rights that are equal
                  and inalienable. The right to “dignity” implies that every person has the right to
                  be respected and is of worth simply because he or she is human.
                  Children are also human beings! They are also entitled to fundamental human
                  rights, and have the right to dignity, and to be valued as human beings. This
                  is stated categorically in the Universal Declaration. However, the Universal
                  Declaration of Human Rights also proclaims that childhood is entitled to “special
                  care and assistance”.
                  This is why The Convention on the Rights of the Child was drawn up – to
                  protect and promote children’s rights and provide guidelines for monitoring as
                  well as for redress where violations do occur.

                  All children have the right to have their basic needs met, not only for survival and protection but also to be able to
                  develop to their full potential, to participate as members of society (according to their age and development), and to
                  grow up to be caring and responsible citizens.
                  The expression of the Human Rights for Children take into account children’s needs – the needs that must be met for
                  children to have a happy and fulfilled childhood.
                  Survival: Children first and foremost have a right to life – to have their basic physical needs met of food, shelter, safety
                  and health care.
                  Protection: They also need to be protected from injury and harm, not only physical but also emotional.
                  Development: They need all the things that will help them to grow and develop. They need friends and family, love
                  and laughter. They need fresh air and safe places to play. They need stories and music, schools and libraries and all that
                  stimulates the mind. They need to practise their culture and religion and to develop a sense of awe and wonder.
                  Participation: They need to share in the life of their family, school, community and nation, to take responsibilities and
                  to have a voice.

                  From the above starting point that children’s rights equal children’s needs we develop the following principles:
                  •   Children’s needs must be individually and developmentally understood, looking at the whole child.
                  •   All rights and needs apply to every child without any discrimination by race, culture, religion, gender, class, ability
                      or age.
                  •   Rights must also take into account the fact that every child is unique and has special needs according to his or
                      her individual age, character and developmental stage; and these needs change as the child grows.
                  •   Children with special needs such as those who are physically and mentally less able – or more able – have the
                      right to have their special needs met. Other children with special rights are those in especially difficult circumstances
                      – those who are in war zones, the refugees or displaced, the abused, hurt or bereaved, those suffering from gross
                      poverty, those involved in child labour and sex work, children living with HIV/AIDS, and so on.
                  •   Developmental rights at the appropriate stage: Children as they grow and develop need to complete the
                      developmental tasks that are their priority at each stage of their lives. They need to have the opportunities, at
                      certain optimal developmental periods, to learn such things as language, social skills, cognitive skills, and fine-
                      motor skills. If the optimal stage is missed, they need special help to try to make it up. For example, a child who is
                      deaf still needs to learn a language before he or she is five, whether it is spoken or sign language. This is the best


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                      time for the brain to build all the connections needed for language. If this “window of opportunity” is missed, the
                      child has the right to special or remedial care to catch up on his or her development.
                  •   Rights and responsibilities and children’s participation: Children’s rights are often paired with children’s
                      responsibilities but rights are not earned by fulfilling responsibilities – rights are inherent. We cannot refuse to give
                      a child something that is his or her right because we disapprove of certain behaviour.
                  •   Rights are reciprocal: What children should learn is that rights are part of a pattern of human relationships.
                      Everyone has rights, and we need to respect these, and to negotiate when rights conflict. For example the child
                      has a right to have a voice but he or she also has to listen to others! As the UN Convention states in the Preamble:
                      children have the right to be brought up in a spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity.
                  •   Age and capacity: Children have the right to have their decisions taken into account, according to their age
                      and maturity but they should not be burdened with responsibilities that are beyond their capability. For example,
                      they have the right and duty to participate and share in family and school chores, and other group responsibilities
                      according to their capacity. (See also Children’s Participation).

                  THE CHILDREN’S CHARTER OF SA
                  Article One Freedom from Discrimination
                  1. All children have the right to protection and guarantees of all the rights of the Charter and should not be
                     discriminated against because of their parents or families’ colour, race, gender, language, religion, personal or
                     political opinion, nationality, disability or for any other reason.
                  2. The Government of National Unity as well as Provincial and Local Governments, all political parties, communities, all
                     extra parliamentary groups, families, parents and children, should do everything possible to ensure that children are
                     not discriminated against due to his/her or his/her parents or family’s color, race, sex, language, religion, personal
                     or political opinion, nationality, disability or for any other reason.
                  Article Two Name and Nationality
                  All children have the right to a name and nationality as soon as they are born.
                  Article Three Right to Opinion and Participation
                  1. All children have the right to express their own opinion and the right to be heard in all the matters that affect their
                     rights and protection and welfare.
                  2. All children have the right to be heard in courtrooms and hearings affecting their future rights and protection and
                     welfare and to be treated with the special care and consideration within those courtrooms and hearings, which
                     their age and maturity demands.
                  3. All children have the right to free legal representation whenever they are required to appear in court or when their
                     circumstances require legal representation.
                  4. All children have the right to participate in the government of the country and special attention should be given to
                     consultations with children on their rights and situation.
                  Article Four Freedom of Beliefs and Culture
                  All children have the right to freedom to practice their own religion, culture or beliefs without fear.
                  Article Five Protection from Violence
                  1. All children have the right to be protected form all types of violence’s including: Physical, emotional, verbal,
                     psychological, sexual, state, political, gang, domestic, school, township and community, street, racial, self-
                     destructive and all other forms of violence.
                  2. All children have the right to freedom from corporal punishment at school, from the police and in prison, and at
                  3. All children have the right to be protected from neglect and abandonment.
                  4. All children have the right to be protected from township and political violence and to have “safeplaces” and to
                     have community centers where they can go for help and safety from violence.
                  5. All children have the right to be educated about child abuse and the right to form youth groups to protect them
                     from abuse.
                  6. All persons have the duty to report all violence against, abuse of and neglect of any child to the appropriate


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                  7. Children should not be used as shields or tools by the perpetrators of violence.
                  8. Children have the right to say not to violence.
                  9. The media has the duty to prevent the exploitation of children who are victims of violence and should be prohibited
                     from the promotion of violence.
                  10. All children have the right to be protected from violence by the police and prisons.
                  11. Children should not be obligated or forced to follow adults in their political involvement.
                  12. All children have the right to be free from torture, detention or any other physical or emotional violence during
                      Apartheid or at times of unrest or war.
                  13. All children have the right to be protected from drug and alcohol abuse by their parents, families and others and
                      to be educated about these forms of violence.
                  14. Children have the right to a special children’s court and medical facilities to protect them from violence.
                  15. Special groups and organizations should be formed within the communities to protect and counsel victims of all
                      types of violence.
                  16. No child should be held in prison or police cells at any time.

                  Article Six Family Life
                  1. All children have the right to a safe, secure and nurturing family and the right to
                     participate as a member of that family.
                  2. All children have the right to love and affection from their parents and family.
                  3. All children have the right to clothing, housing and a healthy diet.
                  4. All children have the right to clean water, sanitation and a clean living
                  5. All children have the right to be protected from domestic violence.
                  6. All children who do not have a family, are abandoned, displaced or who are
                     refugees should be given special protection and every effort should be made to
                     place them with a safe and secure family where necessary.
                  7. Subsidised adoptions should be instituted to assist children with being placed in
                     new families where necessary.
                  8. Children with intellectual capacity should be allowed to take decisions or make
                     choices as to which parent they should go to in cases of divorce, separation or

                  Article Seven Health & Welfare
                  1. All children have the right to adequate health care and medical attention both before and after birth.
                  2. All children have the right to be protected from harmful and toxic substances such as cigarettes, drugs and alcohol
                     and to be educated about the effects of their health and environment.
                  3. All children have the right to free and comprehensive health services, especially in schools, including screening of
                     diseases, treatment of diseases and physical and psychological treatment and service.
                  4. All children have the right to demand health and medical care without the permission of their parents or
                  5. All children have the right to be protected and educated about AIDS and to be given adequate health care and
                     protection. Any child whose family is infected with AIDS should be given special care and protection.
                  6. Disabled children have the right to special health care and protection.

                  Article Eight Education
                  1. All children have the right to free and equal, non-racial and compulsory education within one department as
                     education is a right not a privilege.
                  2. All children have a right to education, which is in the interest of the child and to develop their talents through
                     education, both formal and informal.
                  3. All teachers should be qualified and should treat children with patience, respect and dignity. All teachers should be
                     evaluated and monitored to ensure that they are protecting the rights of the child.


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                  4. Parents have the duty to become involved in their children’s education and development and to participate in their
                     children’s education at school and at home.
                  5. All children have the right to play and to free and adequate sports and recreational facilities so that children can be
                  6. All children have the right to participate in the evaluation and upgrading of curriculum, which respect all the
                     traditions, culture and values of children in South Africa.
                  7. All children have the right of education on issues such as sexuality, AIDS, human rights, history and background of
                     South Africa and family life.
                  8. All children have the right to adequate educational facilities and the transportation to such facilities should be
                     provided to children in difficult or violent situations.

                  Article Nine Child Labour
                  1. All children have the right to be protected form child labour and any other economic exploitation, which endangers
                     their mental, physical or psychological health and interferes with their education so that they can develop properly
                     and enjoy childhood.
                  2. All children, especially in the rural area, should be protected from hard labour including farm, domestic or manual
                     labour or any other type of labour and that instances of violations of age restrictions should be investigated by a
                     Child Protection Service and employers should be prosecuted.
                  3. All children have the right to be protected from prostitution and sexual exploitation such as pornography. People
                     found to be exploiting children in this fashion should face severe consequences.
                  4. There should be a minimum age of employment and no child should be forced to leave school before completion
                     of matric for the purpose of employment. The circumstances of the parents of children found to be working at an
                     early age should be investigated and, where necessary, they should be assisted with bursaries from their employers
                     or with free education of their children up to matric level.
                  5. There should be regulations and restrictions on the hours and types of work and penalties for those who violate
                     these regulations.
                  6. All children have the right to be protected from child slavery and from the inheritance of labour or employment
                     from their parents or families.

                  Article Ten Homeless Children
                  1. No child should be forced to live on the streets or forced to return home if his/her basic rights will continue to be
                     violated but homeless children should be encouraged to return home wherever possible.
                  2. Homeless children have the right to be protected from harassment and abuse from police, security guards and all
                     other persons and every person has the duty to report any abuse or violence against children.
                  3. Homeless children have the right to a decent place to live, clothing and a healthy diet.
                  4. Street children have the right to special attention in education and
                     health care.
                  5. Communities and families have a duty to protect their children form
                     becoming homeless and abandoned.
                  6. All persons should be made aware of the plight of homeless children
                     and should participate in programmes, which act to positively eradicate
                     the problem of homeless children.
                  7. Local, Provincial and National government has a duty and responsibility
                     for homeless children.
                  8. Disabled homeless children need special attention for special needs.

                  SABC Children’s Broadcasting Charter
                  We, the peoples of the Southern African Developing Countries of Angola,
                     Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South
                     Africa, Swaziland and Zambia, affirm and accept the internationally
                     adopted Children’s Television Charter, which was accepted in Munich
                     on 29 May 1995.


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                  TOPIC 12                             FORMS OF ABUSE & HOW TO DEAL WITH ABUSE

                  Abuse refers to the use or treatment of something (a person, item, substance, concept, or vocabulary) that is harmful.
                  It can be classed by the target of abuse or the type of abuse.

                  FORMS OF ABUSE
                  1. Physical abuse
                  Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, pain, injury, or other physical
                  suffering or harm.
                  Basic forms include:
                  •   striking
                  •   punching
                  •   pushing, pulling
                  •   slapping
                  •   Whipping
                  •   striking with an object
                  •   locking in or out of a room or place/false imprisonment
                  •   excessive pinching
                  •   kicking
                  •   having someone fall
                  •   kneeing
                  •   strangling
                  •   head butting
                  •   drowning
                  •   sleep deprivation
                  •   exposure to cold,
                  •   freezing
                  •   exposure to heat
                  •   exposure to electric shock
                  •   placing in stress positions (tied or otherwise forced)
                  •   cutting or exposure to a dangerous animal
                  •   throwing or shooting a projectile
                  •   exposure to a toxic substance
                  •   infecting with a disease
                  •   withholding food or medication
                  •   spanking is subject to controversy as to whether it qualifies as physical abuse.
                  •   assault
                  •   bodily harm
                  •   humiliation
                  •   torture
                  •   Biting


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                  2. EMOTIONAL ABUSE
                  Psychological abuse, also referred to as emotional abuse is a form of abuse characterised by a person subjecting
                  or exposing another to behavior that is psychologically harmful. It involves the willful infliction of mental or emotional
                  anguish by threat, humiliation, or other verbal and non-verbal conduct. It is often associated with situations of power
                  imbalance, such as situations of abusive relationships and child abuse.

                  3. VERBAL ABUSE
                  Verbal abuse is more difficult to see since there are rarely any visible scars unless physical abuse has taken place. It is
                  also less visible simply because the abuse often takes place in private. The victim of verbal abuse lives in a gradually
                  more confusing realm. In public, the victim is with one person. Privately, the abuser becoms a completely different
                  person. A victim is often the target of angry outbursts, sarcasm, or cool indifference. The abuser's reaction to these
                  actions is frequently cloaked in a "What's wrong with you?" attitude. She is accused of "making a mountain out of a
                  molehill." Over time she loses her equilibrium and begins to wonder if she is the one who is crazy. The key to healing
                  is to recognise verbal abuse and begin to take steps to stop itand bring healing. Since the abuser is usually in denial, the
                  responsibility for recognising verbal abuse often rests with the partner.

                  Characteristics of Verbal Abuse
                  1. Verbal abuse is hurtful and usually attacks the nature and abilities of the partner. Over time, the partner/child
                     may begin to believe that there is something wrong with her or her abilities. She may come to feel that she is the
                     problem, rather than her partner.
                  2. Verbal abuse may be overt (through angry outbursts and name- calling) or covert (involving very subtle comments,
                     even something that approaches brainwashing). Overt verbal abuse is usually blaming and accusatory, and
                     consequently confusing to the partner. Covert verbal abuse, which is hidden aggression, is even more confusing to
                     the partner/child. Its aim is to control him/her without her knowing.
                  3. Verbal abuse is manipulative and controlling. Even disparaging comments may be voiced in an extremely sincere
                     and concerned way. But the goal is to control and manipulate.
                  4. Verbal abuse is insidious. The partner's/child’s self-esteem gradually diminishes, usually without her realising it. He/
                     she may consciously or unconsciously try to change his/her behavior so as not to upset the abuser.
                  5. Verbal abuse is unpredictable. In fact, unpredictability is one of the most significant characteristics of verbal abuse.
                     The partner/child is stunned, shocked, thrown off balance by her mate's sarcasm, angry jab, put-down, or hurtful
                  6. Verbal abuse is not a side issue. It is the issue in the relationship. When a couple is having an argument about a
                     real issue, the issue can be resolved. In a verbally abusive relationship, there is no specific conflict. The issue is, the
                     abuse and this issue is not resolved. There is no closure.
                  7. Verbal abuse expresses a double message. There is incongruence between the way the abuser speaks and his real
                     feelings. For example, he may sound very sincere and honest while he is telling his partner/child what is wrong with
                  8. Verbal abuse usually escalates, increasing in intensity, frequency, and variety. The verbal abuse may begin with
                     put-downs disguised as jokes. Later other forms might surface.
                  Sometimes the verbal abuse may escalate into physical abuse, starting with "accidental" shoves, pushes, and bumps.

                  3. SEXUAL ABUSE
                  Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which a child is abused for the sexual gratification of an adult or older
                  adolescent. In addition to direct sexual contact, child sexual abuse also occurs when an adult indecently exposes their
                  genitalia to a child, asks or pressures a child to engage in sexual activities, displays pornography to a child, or uses a
                  child to produce child pornography.
                  Effects of child sexual abuse include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, propensity to re-victimisation
                  in adulthood, and physical injury to the child, among other problems. Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of
                  incest, and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest.
                  When a prepubescent child is sexually abused by one or more other children or adolescent youths, and no adult
                  is directly involved, it is defined as child-on-child sexual abuse. The definition includes any sexual activity between
                  children that occurs without consent, without equality, or as a result of coercion, whether the offender uses physical
                  force, threats, trickery or emotional manipulation to compel cooperation. When sexual abuse is perpetrated by one


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                  sibling upon another, it is known as "intersibling abuse", a form of incest.
                  Unlike research on adult offenders, a strong causal relationship has been established between child and adolescent
                  offenders and these offenders' own prior victimisation, by either adults or other children.

                  Sexual Abuse
                  Good communication between the parent and child is the most important step in protecting a child against sexual
                  abuse. While talking with children about anything is sometimes challenging for parents, talking about child sexual
                  abuse can be even more difficult. The advice that follows below is for parents who want a little help in finding the right
                  way to talk about sexual abuse with their children.
                  Getting Ready
                  You might feel uncomfortable because you may not know how to begin, or because you feel you do not have the
                  answers to all the questions your child may ask.
                  You may worry that you could destroy your child's ability to trust adults and share affection, or leave the child thinking
                  that sex is "bad" or "dirty." You may be afraid of confusing or frightening the child by saying the wrong thing.
                  If you present the information as being a lesson in personal safety (as when you told your child not to touch a hot stove
                  or to walk facing traffic), you will realize that the subject can be handled in a straightforward, matter-of-fact way.
                  How To Start
                  You can start by teaching your child that his or her body is special and should be protected. Begin as soon as you
                  think your child is old enough to understand, usually at about age three. Start simple and keep it that way. While you
                  should try to use the correct names for body parts, this is not a requirement. Using the correct names will help the child
                  develop a healthy respect for his or her body. But, if you have trouble doing this, use other names. Just start talking!
                  Do not try to cover everything in one discussion. Talking to your child about sexual abuse and personal safety should
                  be an ongoing process. And, do not make a big thing of these talks. Be casual and informal, and choose a time when
                  the child feels safe and relaxed. For example, talk to the child:
                  •   while the child is playing;
                  •   during a leisurely walk, or while riding in the car or on a bus;
                  •   while fixing a meal together;
                  •   while watching TV, or when discussing events in the newspaper;
                  •   in connection with a remark made by the child; or
                  •   while tucking the child into bed at night.
                  What To Discuss
                  When you talk it is not as important as what is said. Here are the main ideas you should convey:
                  •   You are special and important.
                  •   Your body is your own.
                  •   You have the right to say "NO" if someone wants to touch you in any way that makes you feel uncomfortable,
                      afraid or confused.
                  •   There are parts of your body that are private. You have the right to say "NO" to anyone who wants to touch your
                      vagina, penis, breasts or buttocks. You have my permission to say "NO" even if that person is an adult ... even if
                      it's a grown-up you know.
                  •   Pay attention to your feelings. Trust your feelings about the way people touch you.
                  •   If someone bothers you, I want you to tell me. I promise that I will believe you.
                  •   If someone touches you in a way that does not seem right, it is not your fault.
                  Children need to know that the safety rules about touching apply all the time, not just with strangers ... or with men
                  ... or with baby sitters.
                  In many cases reported in New York State and nationwide, children are sexually abused by people they know and trust
                  - relatives (even parents or siblings), friends of the family, and authority figures (teachers, youth group leaders, clergy,
                  etc.). Sexual abuse usually occurs in places where children feel comfortable or safe - at home or in the home of a family
                  Also, abusers seldom need to use physical force to get a child to participate in sexual activities. Rather, they take


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                  advantage of the child's trust or friendship and use threats to keep the activity a secret. For example, a child may be
                  told that his or her parents "will not believe a kid." Other commonly used threats are: "If you tell I will hurt you"; "I
                  will hurt your mother"; "I will have to go to jail"; or "The family will break up." Unfortunately, abusers can use threats
                  successfully because children are taught to believe and obey adults.
                  Other Rules To Follow
                  •    Children learn best when given simple rules to follow.
                  •    Establish a set of family rules about personal safety and repeat them often.
                  •    Include touching rules when you talk about other types of safety.
                  •    Teach children that adults may not always be right.
                  •    Remember that there are differences between what younger children and older children can understand.
                  •    Play the "What If" game.

                  The "What If" Game
                  One way to help children protect themselves is to practice responses to potentially dangerous situations. That way, if
                  necessary, the children can react properly and quickly. The "What If" game can make practicing easy and fun. Every
                  time you play, say this to your child, in your own words:
                  "Your body belongs to you and you have a right to decide how and when anyone can touch you. If somebody tries to
                  touch you in a way that doesn't feel good, or doesn't seem right, say 'NO!' It's even OK to shout and yell 'NO!' Then
                  run away and tell somebody. If the first person doesn't believe you, keep telling people until someone does. Always
                  remember, it's not your fault!" Here are some "What Ifs" to start you off:
                  1. What If... something was bothering you and you did not know what to do about it? Who might be able to help
                       Answer... People you trust, such as a parent, another relative, neighbor, teacher, school nurse, police officer,
                  2. What If... someone touched you in a way you did not like and offered you a candy bar, a brand new doll or
                     something else you really wanted to keep a secret?
                       Answer... Say "NO!" and tell someone.
                  3.   What If... a stranger offered you a ride in a shiny new car?
                       Answer... Never accept rides from a stranger.
                  4. What If... you did not want to be hugged by a particular adult?
                       Answer... Say "NO!" to that adult. You may like the person, but you may not want to be hugged at that time.
                  5. What If... you got a "bad feeling" or felt "yukky" when a grown-up gave you a hug or a big squeeze?
                       Answer... Tell the person you do not like it. You have the right to decide when you want to be hugged or touched.
                       Trust your feelings about the way people touch you.
                  6. What If... someone you do not know comes to take you home from school?
                       Answer... Never go with a stranger unless the stranger gives you our special code word. (Select a simple code word
                       and teach it to your child. Make sure the child understands the importance of the word.)
                  7. What If... someone is tickling you and it starts to hurt?
                       Answer... Tell them to stop. If they will not stop, call for help. If I am not home at the time, tell me about it later.
                  8. What If... Mommy, daddy or a doctor touched the private parts of your body?
                       Answer... There are times when others may need to touch your private parts. For example, mommy or daddy may
                       touch your private parts when they are bathing you; or a doctor may need to touch you during an examination.
                       But, if the touching hurts or bothers you, tell them. Alternate... Grown-ups do not usually need to touch children
                       in private areas unless it is for health reasons.
                  9.   What If... the baby sitter wanted to touch you under your night clothes?
                       Answer... No one has the right to put their hand under your clothes; force you to touch them; touch your body; or
                       touch your private body parts.
                  10. What If... your uncle (aunt) wanted you to sit on his (her) lap and you did not want to?
                       Answer... You can say "NO!" to your uncle/aunt if, for some reason, you do not want to do it.


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                  You can make up many more "What Ifs" from your child's own everyday experiences, using familiar names and
                  places. Discuss only one or two per talk. But, be sure to practice regularly so that your child learns to recognize when
                  to say "NO!" and when help is needed. This will increase your child's ability to act quickly and calmly. Emphasize that
                  the child always has a right to say "NO!" And remember, children are safer if they know what to do when they feel

                  Just In Case
                  You cannot prepare children for every single type of situation that can occur. Parents must be on guard and observant
                  at all times. Here are some signs that may indicate a child is being sexually abused:
                  •   unusual sexual knowledge or behavior(s);
                  •   any changes in behavior, such as loss of appetite, nightmares, inability to sleep, or withdrawal from usual
                  •   poor relationships with friends;
                  •   return to bedwetting or thumb sucking;
                  •   genital disease, genital irritation or bleeding, swelling, pain, itching, cuts or bruises in genital, vaginal or anal
                  •   difficulty concentrating at school;
                  •   fear of a person, or an intense dislike of being left somewhere or with someone;
                  •   pregnancy;
                  •   aggressive or disruptive behavior, delinquency, running away or prostitution; and
                  •   self-destructive behavior(s).
                  If the child tells you that he or she was touched inappropriately by an adult or that an adult has committed any of the
                  acts listed under the "Definition" (see inside back cover) of child sexual abuse, there are certain things you must do:
                  •   Listen and believe the child. Do not deny the problem or blame your child.
                  •   Stay calm! If you get upset or angry, you will frighten the child. Try to talk quietly with the child.
                  •   Tell the child that he or she did nothing wrong. Sexual abuse is the fault of the abuser.
                  •   Tell the child that he or she is safe and will not be harmed.
                  •   Tell your child that he or she did the right thing by telling you.
                  •   Do not confront the alleged perpetrator.
                  •   Call the authorities.
                  •   If you believe that the child has been sexually abused by a parent, guardian or relative, or by a staff member of a
                      day care or other child care facility, call: Childline or the Police 10111


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                  TOPIC 13                                                                                              SAFETY

                  Children like adults are faced with the unmistakable reality of dangers of any kind everyday of their lives. Because
                  children’s behaviour is unpredictable as adults we must always be cautious, especially about things and places that
                  children are naturally attracted to such as:
                  •   Water
                  •   Products/gadgets
                  •   Play areas
                  •   Interesting people
                  •   Street etc.
                  Below follows guidelines to protect children from certain dangers e.g.
                  1. School Traffic Safety
                      •   Choose the safest route to school and walk it with your child prior to allowing them to travel it on their own.
                      •    Always look both ways before crossing the street.
                      •    Cross in the crosswalks at the corner, not in the middle of the block. Never cross from between parked cars.
                      •    Never cross an intersection diagonally.
                      •    Cross the street with the Crossing Guard whenever possible.
                      •    Children should look to see that drivers are aware of them. Making eye contact with a driver is a good way to
                           know whether a driver is aware that someone is about to cross the road.
                      •    Cross quickly – do not linger or play in the street.
                      •    Always wear a helmet when riding a bicycle, skateboard, or scooter.
                      •    Remember the same rules (look both ways, use crosswalks, etc) apply when riding a bike.
                      •    Walk bicycles, skateboards, and scooters across the crosswalk.
                      •    Be careful in parking lots – look out for the cars as they may not be able to see you. Never walk or run in front
                           of cars.
                      •    Teach children the meaning of traffic signs. Stop at all stop signs, red lights, and obey traffic signals. When the
                           intersection has crossing signals, only cross when the walk signal is lit.
                      •    When walking on sidewalks, be aware of driveways and alleys from which cars may emerge.
                      •    When walking down a street with no sidewalks, walk as near to the edge of the road as possible, facing traffic.
                           Bright colored clothing increases visibility, but when walking/biking near dusk reflective tape should be used
                           on jackets, backpacks, bikes, etc.

                  2. Water Safety
                      •   Never leave a child alone near water. –This is a biggie and therefore bears repeating.
                      •   Even when lifeguards are on duty, supervise your own child. Lifeguards are not babysitters.
                      •   Parents are responsible for their childrens water safety.
                      •   Teach children to swim and tread water.
                      •   Home pools and hot tubs should always be gated and locked or appropriately covered when not in use. Keep
                          lifesaving equipment near by. Remember that these are “attractive nuisances.”
                      •   Never dive into water less than nine feet deep. Never dive into unknown bodies of water.
                      •   Do not swim during bad weather or in hazardous water conditions.
                      •   If you don’t know how to swim….wear a live jacket or vest around pools.
                      •   Always wear a life jacket or vest on a boat, even if you are a good swimmer.
                      •   Never run near swimming pools.


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                       •   Stay away from wells.
                       •   Always follow the rules at the pool, beach, or lake.
                       •   Stay clear and swim away from platforms and diving boards.
                       •   Follow appropriate sun safety tips as well. Use sunscreen and eye protection. Drink lots of non alcohol, non
                           caffeinated fluids to avoid dehydration. Be aware of the signs of heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Do not swim
                           when tired.
                       •   Learn CPR.

                  3. Pets Safety
                  •    The most important lesson to teach children is to always treat animals gently and with kindness. Animals that are
                       in pain, are afraid, or feel threatened are most likely to bite or scratch to protect themselves.
                  •    Animals, like humans, have times they just want to be left alone. Help the child learn how to recognize the pets
                       mood, and to give him/her some space when they would rather be left alone.
                  •    To ensure animal safety for kids teach the child never to pull an animal’s ear, tail, or feet when playing and to not
                       wrestle roughly with animals. Children should never restrain animals against their will.
                  •    Family pets adjust to children best when they are treated as part of the family. Dogs should never be left outdoors
                       chained up - dogs that are permanently chained up are more aggressive and more likely to bite.
                  •    Spay or neuter the pets; pets that have been spayed or neutered are less likely to bite than pets that have not been
                       “fixed.” Consider enrolling the dog in basic obedience classes – even a well-behaved dog can benefit from such
                       instruction and it is a great bonding experience between pet and owner.
                  •    Keep the pet’s immunizations, preventative meds (heartworm), flea and tick treatment and check-ups current. It’s
                       to the benefit of animal safety for kids to guard against disease.
                  •    Use a microchip and/or tag with up to date contact information so if the pet is ever lost, the odds of being found
                       and returned home safely are greatly increased.

                  4.   Bullying, Help Children Deal with Bullies
                  Bullying is a serious problem and one which parents need be aware. Of all the things parents have to worry about - Did
                  you ever think your child’s peers were one of them?
                  According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration...
                  “Bullying is aggressive behavior that is intentional and that involves an imbalance of power or strength; typically
                  repeated over time.”
                  According to a 2001 study, 15-25% of US students report being bullied “sometimes or more often,” and 15-20%
                  report bullying others with some frequency.
                  Bullying can take many forms:
                  •    Physical - hitting, punching, kicking, etc
                  •    Verbal – threats, teasing or name calling
                  •    Social Exclusion – nonverbal or emotional, being excluded from a group of friends, stopped from making new
                       friends, manipulation, being the victim of vicious rumors, repeated teasing of someone who clearly exhibits signs
                       of distress
                  •    Cyber – insulting or threatening electronic messages by email or instant messaging
                  This issue is certainly nothing new – everyone can think back on their younger days and remember the playground or
                  neighborhood bully of their childhood.
                  Such memories will certainly bring with them differing emotions depending on your viewpoint – that of being the bully,
                  just an innocent bystander, or the victim of that bully’s wrath.
                  Just because it is not a new issue it should not be brushed aside as simply “just how kids are” and nothing to be worried
                  In recent years this issue has received widespread attention as people are now realizing that it is much more serious
                  than simply a natural part of growing up.
                  As any victim will attest to, bullying, of any form, can have severe and lasting effects.
                  with bullying effectively.


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                  5. Stranger Danger
                  Teaching children about "stranger danger".
                  Stranger danger, are the buzz words commonly used to refer to the important topic of teaching children about the
                  inherent dangers they may face as they venture out into the world.
                  Unfortunately the world is a scary place and there are people out there who prey on children.
                  No doubt, it is a very important issue that all parents must address – and one that requires ongoing, open communication
                  with their children.
                  The single most important thing to remember when teaching your children about stranger danger is to instill confidence,
                  rather than fear.
                  You want to equip your child with the knowledge and strategies they will need to protect themselves in dangerous
                  situations. Also, keep your child’s age and maturity level in mind and base lessons upon that.
                  Again, stranger danger lessons should be ongoing – adapt the conversation as your child grows as he/she is likely to
                  encounter different types of situations.
                  Who are "strangers"?
                  First and foremost, children need to understand what is meant by stranger.
                  Not all people unknown to them are necessarily dangerous – they need to understand the difference between “good”
                  and “bad” strangers; an overly simplistic dichotomy, but one that puts the issue in terms a child can understand.
                  This is important so children understand where and to whom to turn if they are ever lost or feel scared, threatened, or
                  if they think someone may be following them.
                  Examples of “good” strangers may include police officers, security guards, teachers, store clerks, etc. These are all
                  examples of people to turn to if when your child needs help.
                  On the other hand, in many situations where your child may be approached by a “bad” stranger – the park, residential
                  street, etc – those easily identifiable people may not be around.
                  Your child should know that there really are many more “good” people, than “bad.”
                  If they are approached by a “bad” stranger who tries to lure or physically pull them away, the best thing they can do
                  is get the attention of other adults - whether that is by running to the nearest home, or making enough noise to be
                  heard by someone, the vast majority of adults will help a child in danger.

                  Stranger Danger, tips and strategies.
                  •   Additionally, the following are important tips and strategies for children to protect themselves:
                  •   Know your name, address, and phone number.
                  •   Use the buddy system – avoid walking anywhere alone.
                  •   Trust your instincts – if you feel you are being followed or something is not right, seek help immediately.
                  •   If a stranger approaches you, you do not have to speak to him or her. Never approach a stranger in a motor vehicle.
                      Just keep walking. Do not accept candy or any other items from a stranger. Never walk off with a stranger no
                      matter what he or she tells you.
                  •   If someone is following you try to remember the license plate of his or her vehicle and immediately tell a trusted
                  •   If a stranger grabs you, do everything you can to stop him or her from pulling you away or dragging you into his
                      or her car. Drop to the ground, kick, hit, bite, and scream. Do whatever it takes to attract the attention of others
                      who can help you. If someone is dragging you away, scream, "this is not my dad," or "this is not my mom."
                  •   While sharing the above tips with your child is extremely important, the best way to teach stranger danger lessons
                      is through role-playing scenarios. Check back soon for our page on role playing scenarios.

                  6. School Safety
                  "School Safety" tips for children:
                  •   Avoid talking to strangers! Let your children and yourself get to know the school staff. Your kids become familiar
                      with staff and know that they belong there.
                  •   What's the old saying? "Safety In Numbers". This holds true in school also. Teach your child to stay in groups with
                      friends this behavior can sometimes prevent kids from being bullied.
                  •   Limit the amount of time spent in hallways, in other words... less time going to the restrooms. Try to save restroom


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                      usage when its break or recess.
                  •   Know who your kids are friends with. Talk with your kids and encourage them to avoid children who have problems
                      dealing with anger. Steer away from kids who tend to pick on others.
                  •   Above all, report out of the ordinary behavior. Such as:
                  •   Kids bringing weapons to school
                  •   Drugs or Alchohol
                  •   Vandalism Let children know that if they report such incidents its not being a "tattle tell" or "snitch". Its helping
                      to keep them safe and their friends safe. Everyone Safe!
                  •   Talk to children about these school safety issues. It's important that we build a trusting relationship with our kids.

                  7. Street Safety tips and rules
                  •   Here are some rules that you can teach children when they are going places like school or a friends house or
                      anywhere that involves them using the streets.
                  •   If at all possible try and walk with a group of friends.
                  •   Know exactly where you are going and do not wander or stroll.
                  •   Give the impression that you have to be somewhere right that minute and running late.
                  •   Stay on the busier areas. Walk in the middle of the sidewalk. Avoid abandoned or empty buildings. Never take
                      short cuts.
                  •   If you see someone doing something wrong.....go the other direction.
                  •   If you feel threatend or feel something is going to happen to to a populated area or store and ask for
                      help. You can also try and yell out "Dad!" and run that direction.
                  •   As mentioned before...never take short cuts. Use the same route everyday going to and from school. If your kids
                      run errands..sit down with them and plan a route you both know to and from stores or friends houses.
                  Never talk to strangers!
                  When walking the need to avoid every possible distraction to keep them focused on where they are going.
                  This may include...not wearing head- phones or playing hand held games.
                  This next rule is a must for me as a parent. There are other alternatives. Have your child carry a cell phone for emergency
                  calls only. Not all parents can do this (Very understandable) maybe have them carry loose change for a phone
                  You can print these rules and practice them with your children. Add to the list with your own ideas and share them
                  with others.

                  8. Fire Safety tips and rules
                  Each year, fires kill and injure hundreds of children. Most of these deaths and injuries are preventable.
                  Learn some simple tips to protect children and lower their risk.
                  Any time parents can take a moment to discuss safety with their children is time well spent.
                  To get you started with teaching children about fire safety, consider the following tips:
                  •   Keep all matches and lighters out of the hands of children. If possible, keep these sources of fire in locked drawers.
                      Consider buying only "child-proof" lighters -- but be aware that no product is completely child-proof.
                  •   To ensure your child's fire safety, find out what the federal safety standards are for children’s pajamas and loose-
                      fitting sleepwear, before you make your next purchase.
                  •   Smoke from a fire can kill very quickly. Sleep with bedroom doors closed at night to help keep smoke out and
                      increase the amount of time you have to get yourself and your children out if you have a fire.
                  •   Purchase a fire extinguisher, and keep it in the kitchen out of the reach of small children.
                  •   Discourage smoking in your home.
                  •   Demonstrate how to stop, drop to the ground and roll if their clothes catch fire.
                  •   Install smoke alarms on every level in your home. Replace the batteries once a year. Test them periodically.
                  •   Teach your child how to dial 911 in case of an emergency.
                  •   Tell your children to remember not to hide under a bed or in a closet during a fire. Parents need to be able to find
                      them quickly.


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                  •   Child fire safety is crucial and it needs to be taught. Children copy adults.
                  •   So if you are lighting matches and smoking or lighting candles, chances are your child will be interested in doing
                      the same.

                  9. Electrical Safety
                  Here are some child electrical safety tips you can implement in your home to maximize the safety of electrical issues in
                  your house and to keep your children safe:
                  •   All electrical outlets should have face plates and there should be no open outlets in your home. Go the extra step
                      and attach sliding child safety plates for outlets that are in use frequently, and covers for those that are never
                  •   Teach your children the basics of outlet safety. They should know not to put objects into the outlets and not to
                      touch anything that has a cord attached. If you think your children need help learning this, post pictures by any
                      item or appliance with a circle and a cross going through it to illustrate that these are “NO TOUCH” items!
                  •   Make sure that all wire boxes and electrical boxes in your home are locked and that the key is in a secure location
                      that only adults have access to.
                  •   Electrical safety goes outdoors as well. Do not allow your children to climb trees that are close to power lines,
                      towers, or utility poles. By the same token, do not allow your children to fly kites unsupervised or anywhere near
                      power lines or electrical towers.
                  •   Show your children how to unplug cords when they are old enough. They should know to pull the cord out by the
                      plug, and not by the cord.
                  •   Teach your children that the fun power tools that daddy plays with are not toys to play with. Keep them locked up
                      and out of reach. If your child has a true fascination for these tools, buy play tools that match the ones at home so
                      that they can play grownup fix-it things just like Daddy.
                  •   Keep any electrical cords in the house tied up or out of sight in high traffic areas. Tripping on cords is a safety and
                      electrical hazard, and there are tie-backs and clips that you can purchase to make sure these cords are out of sight,
                      and out of mind.
                  •   If you are using a space heater, keep the cords out of the way so that children can not pull or yank on them. Have
                      the heater against the wall so that the cords do not interest your children.
                  •   You should not have any damaged cords or electrical cords that are frayed in the house. Discard and replace any
                      of these cords as soon as you notice them.
                  •   Do not allow your children to attempt to replace light bulbs, even if they are older. If they are in their teen years, it
                      will be safe for them to do so, but ensure they know not to change a light bulb until it is cool and that the lamp is
                      physically turned off.
                  •   Do not have night lights near curtains or bedding in your child’s room. This not only represents a fun thing to touch,
                      but it is also a fire hazard if your child’s bedding catches onto the night light.
                  •   Do not have appliances in the bathroom. Use curling irons, straighteners, and hair dryers in the adult bedrooms
                      with mirrors. By the same token, you want to teach your children not to touch any appliances if their hands are wet.
                      If this is a concern, again you can post pictures of dry hands, or pictures of wet hands crossed out near appliances
                      that children may touch.
                  •   Unplug all appliances when they are not being used. Appliances like hair dryers or even coffee makers are very
                      interesting to children with all their colored buttons. Unplug them and keep cords out of reach.


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                  TOPIC 14                           INTRODUCTION TO CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING

                  Co-operative Learning (CL) is a teaching approach for designing groupwork tasks and implementing groupwork
                  groups. It delegates authority to students in an instructional task where everyone is needed to complete the task. As
                  a facilitation method, Co-operative Learning empowers learners to achieve critical lifelong learning outcomes and to
                  develop competencies for performing important life roles.
                  Co-operative Learning employs specific principles and practices that foster co-operative student-student interactions.
                  These principles ensure equal and active participation of all students who view each other as learning resources.
                  Learners discover how to work and learn with others, strive toward mutual goals and continuously improve in the
                  learning and interaction processes. They learn how to assume responsibility for their own and each other’s learning.
                  Co-operative Learning principles and practices enable teachers to design groupwork tasks that reap the benefits of
                  learners learning in small groups.

                  BENEFITS OF GROUPWORK
                  Teachers generally recognise the potential of groupwork to achieve the critical outcomes and for learners to develop
                  their social and intellectual abilities. Groupwork has the potential of enhancing learning more than traditional teaching
                  approaches by offering such benefits as:
                  •   Appreciation and understanding of different points of views
                  •   Greater collaborative skills and attitudes necessary for working effectively with others
                  •   Higher achievement and increased retention that results from talking, explaining and gaining immediate
                  •   feedback from peers
                  •   Greater use of higher level reasoning strategies and increased critical thinking competencies
                  •   Higher self-esteem as a result of self-acceptance, affirmation and acknowledgement by peers
                  •   Greater social support which serves to motivate higher levels of commitment to self and learning achievement
                  •   Less disruptive and more on-task behaviour

                  DRAWBACKS OF GROUPWORK
                  Learners working in small groups can also inhibit learning. In fact, groupwork can not only be a ‘waste of valuable
                  time,’ it can also result in negative experiences among the learners. There are many ways in which the efforts of
                  traditional learning groups may go wrong.
                  Ways in which groupwork can hinder learning:
                  •   Group members seek a free ride on others’ work by “leaving it to George” to complete the group’s tasks.
                  •   Learners who are regularly stuck with doing all the work sometimes become resentful and decrease their efforts.
                  •   High ability group members may take over the important leadership roles in ways that benefit themselves at the
                      expense of lower achieving learners. The more able learners learn more and the less able may flounder.
                  •   Communication may break down because some members dominate or divisive conflicts and power struggles
                  •   Dysfunctional divisions of labour may be formulated: I’m the thinker, you’re the recorder.
                  The challenge of groupwork leis in the teacher’s ability to overcome these kinds of problems.
                  The solutions to these drawbacks lie in how the teacher designs and implements the groupwork tasks. Co-operative
                  Learning provides principles and practices that can ensure optimal benefits from groupwork, equal participation and
                  improved learning.

                  Teaching is about making decisions, implementing those decisions and assessing both. Through careful planning before
                  you greet your learners, you can prevent many of the problems that can occur in implementing groupwork. Here are
                  some practical Teaching Tips to help you get started in implementing Co-operative Learning.


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                  A. MAKE DECISIONS
                  1. Decide on Group Size: Learners often lack collaborative skills, so start with groups of two or three learners. When
                     working in pairs 50% of your learners are speaking at one time and practising the targeted co-operative behaviours.
                     When your learners are ready to work in teams of four, continue to stress pair work and keep changing the pair
                     configuration within the group. The larger the groups, the less percentage of students are actively engaged.
                  2. Assign learners to groups: Heterogeneous groups are the most powerful, so mix abilities, sexes, cultural
                     backgrounds and task orientations. Assign learners to groups randomly or select groups yourself.
                      • Random placement: Divide the number of learners in the class by the size of the group you wish to use. For
                        example, 30 learners divided by group size 3 = 10 groups. Ask learners to number off by the result (e.g. 10), so
                        that all the number one’s form one group, the number two’s form another group, etc. Signpost the room so
                        that learners know where to meet fellow group members. Plan carefully so group placement occurs quickly and
                      • Pre-Assigned groups: Decide on 1 or 2 criteria that you wish to use to compose the groups. When
                        heterogeneous groups are base don different abilities, the members usually consist of a high, two middle and
                        a low achieving learner in each group. However, avoid having extremes in any one group, such as the highest
                        achiever and the lowest achiever. It may be better to pair up low achievers with middle achievers, and middle
                        achievers with high achievers. You can number each learner according to his/her ability in each group, such as
                        number 1’s refer to the lower achievers and the number 4’s refer to the higher achievers. Then you can prepare
                        material for each ability group. For example, if you were doing Jigsaw, the materials for the high ability learners
                        would be more demanding then the material for the low ability learners.
                  3. Arrange the Room: The closer the learners are to each other, the better they can communicate. Group members
                     should sit or stand “knee to knee and eye to eye.” If there is not enough space in the room to comfortably organise
                     your learners, consider the following:
                      • Remove furniture: The less furniture in the room the better. Reduce number of desks: 4 students sit around
                        one table.
                      • Create a common space: Place desks in a semicircle around the outside of the room that leaves a common,
                        open space in the middle. Enough room should be left so that teachers and learners can walk behind and
                        between the desks without disrupting learners’ work
                      • Change locations for special group configurations: Use outdoors when weather permits or use the
                  4. Plan Materials: You need to know beforehand what each group requires in order to perform the groupwork task.
                     These materials should be organised so that the Materials Monitors can collect them independently of the teacher.
                     The materials should be limited so that each group only gets one item, e.g. 1 ruler, 1 instruction paper, 1 sheet
                     of newsprint. This sends the message that they will need each other to complete the task since there is “resource
                     interdependence” – limited supply of materials which have to be shared by all group members.
                  5. Assign Roles: Learners are more likely to work together if each one has a job that contributes to the task. Each
                     learner must see the reason why they are working together in a group rather than alone. You can assign task
                     roles such as Reader, Recorder, Calculator, Checker, Reporter and Material Monitor, or social support roles such as
                     Encourager (for participation), Acknowledger (identify impact of contributions), Checker (for understanding).
                  6. Rehearse routines: Sometimes it is useful to teach the routine of moving in an out of groups. Spend a bit of
                     time “rehearsing” the best procedures and routes to re-locate into groups, Keep time in seconds as learners move
                     through ‘travel routes’ and encourage learners to create ‘travel rules’ so that they are able to make quick and quiet
                     passage as needed.
                  7. Teach the names and routines of the co-operative learning methods: Teach your learners the Co-operative
                     Learning structures with their names, such as RoundRobin, Roundtable, Visual Gathering, etc., using simple tasks
                     the first time. Later you can use the structure for more demanding learning tasks. Once the learners know how to
                     organise themselves, you can just say the name of the Co-operative Learning method and the learners will know
                     exactly what they need to do.

                  B. DESIGN THE GROUPWORK TASK
                  Checklist for a co-operative learning groupwork task.
                  1. Do the learners know what they must achieve individually and together as a group?


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                  2. Are the learners giving each other specific feedback related to the assessment standards (core knowledge,
                     skills, values).
                  3. Are they acting on the feedback to improve their own and the group’s performance?
                  4. Do the learners have to publicly demonstrate their contributions?
                  5. How will the learners show evidence that they are listening, participating, achieving?
                  6. Can any one learner accomplish the task alone?
                  7. How does each learner need the others in order to complete the task? (goals, task, roles, resources, reward).
                  8. What social skills are needed to do the learning tasks?
                  9. How will learners know what the social skill looks and sounds like?
                  10. Are the students getting feedback on their performance of the social skill so they can alter their behaviours

                  1. Explain the task in language that learners will understand. Be sure that learners are prepared for
                      • the task by teaching them what they need to know or enable them to gain access to the materials they need in
                        order to do the task.
                      • the co-operative skills they need in order to work successfully together.
                  2. Specify the expected behaviours. The more specific you are about the kinds of interaction that should take place
                     between the learners the more they will be able to perform them.

                  D. MONITOR AND INTERVENE
                  1. Physically arrange learners so that face each other “eye to eye, knee to knee”. Provide them with the materials
                     and instructions they need so that they can work in self-directed, autonomous groups. The idea is for them to work
                     without teacher supervision.
                  2. Monitor learners’ behaviours. Your job is to circulate around the room and listen in on the learners’ conversations.
                     They should pretend that you are invisible and act as if you were not there. Listen to find out whether they
                     understand the assignment and the material. Take notes of areas where learners need direct instruction. When
                     there is general confusion you might wish to give the whole class clarifying information. Otherwise, record notes to
                     yourself for a future lesson at another time, and to provide specific feedback to the class as a whole.
                  3. Provide Delayed Assistance. Do not intervene immediately. Allow learners time to struggle and work things out
                     for themselves. If you jump in too quickly and attempt to rescue them, you will deprive them of important learning
                  4. Empower learners to self-improve the collaborative skills. When learners are having trouble working together,
                     you may wish to ask them questions so that they can solve the problem. Do not provide the suggestions. Let them
                     come up with ideas and tell you the different options. You can then provide parameters for the plan of action they

                  E. ASSESS AND PROCESS
                  1. Learners and teacher assess learning. Using the assessment criteria and performance indicators, learners assess
                     how well they have completed the task. You should provide feedback as well, using your observation notes.
                  2. Learners and teachers assess the group functioning. In order to improve, learners need time to think back on
                      how they interacted: what assisted their learning and what hindered it. They should identify their strengths and set
                      improvement goals for the next time. Each group should hand in their target goals for the next groupwork task.

                  1. Think-Pair-Share
                      •   Teambuilding
                      •   Information Sharing
                      •   Mastery (thinking skills, information, procedures and calcualtions)
                      •   Conceptual developtment


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                      1. Teacher asks a question.
                      2. Learners are given a specified amount of time where each learner thinks alone about the question and/or works
                         out the problem. Think time may be unstructured or accompanied by guided imagery: (Imagine it was a hot,
                         humid day and you were very thirsty …” or by focusing directive: (“Be able to come up with at least 3 ways
                         you could …”)
                      3. Pair work: After the specific quiet time, learners form pairs to discuss the question with someone in the class,
                         usually a neighbour or group mate.
                      4. Share with Class: students are called upon to share the answer that s/he has developed with his/her partner.

                      • Think-Pair-Square: Rather than have learners share with the whole class, have them share in their groups
                        of four.
                      • Pairs Compare: The pairs discuss with another pair their ideas. They identify ideas they have in common and
                        those that are unique to each pair. They can then add new ideas from the other pair to their own lists.
                      • Stand and Share: When it’s time to share everyone stands up. The teacher asks one learner to share his/her
                        idea. After the learner shares, all learners with that idea or a very similar one sit down. A second learner is then
                        called upon to share and all students with that same idea sit down.

                  2. Mingle/Mingle – Match Me
                      *   Classbuilding: Helps learners get used to idea of working with others in order to do a learning task.
                      1. Learners are asked to walk around the room and make eye contact with others, and say “Mingle/Mingle”
                      2. Learners find another person who has a similar object, answer to question, or has matching or relevant
                      3. When learners find their partner, they discuss what makes them ‘belong’ together, e.g. how their objects are
                         similar, or the answer fits the question, etc.
                      Useful to promote
                      • language development and learning by using terms and ideas in particular subject area
                      • thinking skills, when learners are asked to perform such thinking tasks as comparison, identification, error
                        analysis, etc.
                      • self-directed learners who seek out possible answers from other learners to problems they must solve.

                  3. Four Heads Together (Numbered Heads Together)
                      •   Teambuilding
                      •   Information Sharing
                      •   Mastery:
                          •    To master basic facts and information which have been presented through direct instruction or written
                          •    To review before a test
                      •   Provide for motivation: To create an expectation for the lesson by posing a question relevant to subject content.
                          For example, “How can electricity be dangerous? Make sure everyone in your team can state 3 examples.”
                      1. Learners number off. Each learner in the group has a different number.
                      2. Teacher asks a question formulated as a directive: “Put your heads together and make sure everyone in the
                         group can … eg. “describe the meter in the poem”; or “… name all the chemicals which combine with chlorine
                         to form table salt.”


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                      3. Heads together: learners literally put their heads together and make sure everyone knows the answer. The role
                         of the Checker may be added here. When the team is ready four hands go up.

                      • After learners have decided on their answers, the teacher calls on a number, such as “Number Three” and the
                        learner with that number stands to share with the whole class what his/her group decided. The Teacher then
                        calls on other “Number Three’s” from the other groups to check if they agree or have anything to add.
                      • Give learners time limits: “You have 90 seconds to make sure that everyone on your team knows.
                      • For higher level thinking question. For example, the teacher might say: “Make sure you can all make several
                        predictions about ….”

                  4. RallyTable (2 learners )/ Round Table (3+ learners)
                      •   Team building
                      •   Information Sharing
                      •   Brainstorming
                      •   Synthesizing ideas

                      1. Teacher asks a question with many possible answers, such as “name all the sports you can”, or “list all the
                         possible pairs of numbers which add up to 11,” etc.
                      2. Learners make a written list on one piece of paper, each writing one answer and then passing the paper to the
                         person on his/her left. The paper literally goes around the table.

                      • Can be used with little or no time pressure, or it can be structured so that learners have a limited amount of
                        time to generate as many ideas as possible.
                      • Can serve to capture main ideas from the group’s discussion.
                      • Simultaneous RoundTable. Sometimes several pieces of paper can go around the table at once, each
                        representing a different category.

                  5. That’s Me
                      • Classbuilding: helps learners gain a unique identity within the group and to link up with others
                      • Communication: listening, speaking, asking questions
                      • Language Development: comprehension and self-expression
                      • Feedback from small group discussions

                      1. Learners stand or sit in a community circle so that everyone can see everyone else.
                      2. Teacher calls out a series of questions and those who identify or agree are to jump into the circle or jump up
                         and say: “That’s me!”
                      3. Teacher models establishes the parameters as tot he kinds of things learners might share and ask each other.
                      4. Learners take turns in posing questions to which the group responds

                      Teacher poses general, simple topics appropriate to the learners’ age level and interests:
                      “How many people …”
                      • Walked to school today
                      • Like the colour red best
                      • Like ice cream
                      • Like dancing/soccer/…


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                      • Moved in the last 2 years
                      • Speak two languages or more
                      • Feel happy today / sad/ confused, etc.
                      • …

                      Questions can be about;
                      • subject content
                      • personal learning process
                      • group interaction

                      Reflection & appreciation at the conclusion of That’s Me
                      Turn to neighbour and tell him/her one thing you learned about someone else in the class.

                  6. RallyRobin(2) / RoundRobin(4)
                      • Teambuilding
                      • Develop skill of taking turns
                      • Brainstorming
                      • Information sharing
                      • Review and synthesis

                      1. Group mates (2 learners for RallyRobin; 3 or more learners for RoundRobin) sit next to each other in a circle
                         or around their common table.
                      2. Each learner has a turn to speak in sequence around the group. Everyone listens to what each member has
                         to say.

                  •   Learners learn how to take turns and listen actively.
                  •   Learners take turns in writing down what their partner says. This helps learners develop ability to listen actively, take
                      notes and paraphrase what they hear.
                  •   Learners share their thinking processes as they consider a particular problem.
                  •   Can be used at the start of a lesson to provide a content-related teambuilding activity. Can be used with any
                      subject area.

                  7. Visual Gathering
                      Classbuilding, Teambuilding, brainstorming, planning
                      Critical and Specific Outcomes:
                      • information gathering from a variety of sources,
                      • information processing: classifying
                      • identification of performance indicators for assessment criteria.
                      1. Hand out to learners small sheets of paper called “cards” =10cm x 21cm strips of A4 paper. Have extra cards
                         (paper strips) available.
                      2. Present question to the class: e.g. “What would you like to learn this term?” or “How many different job
                         careers can you think of?” or “What were the main learning points from the reading?"
                      3. Using thick khoki pens, students write their ideas down:
                         • one idea per card,
                         • no more than 3 lines per card,


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                           • bold print (for all to be able to see).
                      4. Collect cards, mix them, read them one at a time, and display them on large sheets of newsprint. Use prestik or
                         board pins.
                      5. Cluster similar ideas or topics. Learners lead the teacher (the facilitator), in the placement of the cards according to
                         their criteria for categorisation. Their categories will unfold and can be discussed after all ideas are displayed.

                      1. Instead of teacher reading out cards, learners can stand at their places, hold up their card and read it aloud.
                      2. Two learners (or one with teacher) can stand in front of class: one reads the ideas off the cards, the other to
                         stick the ideas on the large sheets of paper on wall. The class directs the facilitator as to where to place the
                      3. After learners write on their cards, they can each go to the board and stick their own idea on the appropriate
                         sheet. Label the sheets (or use different coloured sheets) so learners can display their ideas according to the
                         category labelled on the large sheet of paper.
                      4. Leave idea cards attached to a large sheet of paper. Move the large sheets to other locations in room for future

                  8. Jigsaw – A way to structure positive interdependence among group members by creating resource
                      Classbuilding, Teambuilding, Information Sharing, Mastery, Conceptual Development.

                      1. Base Support Groups: Distribute a set of materials to each group. The set needs to be divisible into the
                         number of members of the group (2, 3 or 4 parts). Give each member one part of the set of materials.
                      2. Preparation pairs: Assign learners the co-operative task of meeting with someone else in the class who is a
                         member of another Base Support Group and who has the same section of the material. They are to complete
                         two tasks:
                           a. Learn and become an expert on their material. One partner reads/shares a small chunk of the information
                              to be learned. The other partner clarifies his/her understanding. Together they discuss, check accuracy, and
                              come to a common understanding. Switch roles: the other partner reads, and the other clarifies.
                           b. Plan how to teach the material to the other members of their groups.
                      3. Practice Pairs: Assign learners the co-operative task of meeting with someone else in the class who is a member
                         of another learning group and who has learned the same material. They are to check information accuracy and
                         share ideas as to how the material may best be taught. They should practice presenting their material.
                      4. Base Support Groups: Assign learners the co-operative tasks of
                           a. Teaching their area of expertise to the other group members in their base support group
                           b. Learning the material being taught by the other members.
                      5. Evaluation: Have learners assess group members degree of mastery of all the material eg. Learners create
                         quizzes for material they taught. Acknowledge the groups whose members all reach the preset criterion of

                      Learners need to first develop the necessary social and academic skills before doing Jigsaw. It is one of the more
                      complex People Organisers.
                      • Enables learners to learn material in depth so they can coach other learners to also learn the material.
                      • Provides an opportunity for learners to draw upon other “intelligences” and ability to demonstrate and teach
                        concepts. Cognitive abilities include drawing, role plays, music, body movement, ability to observe accurately,
                        visualise, organise, analyse, make connections.
                      • Project design: provides conditions so that the natural curiosity, intelligence and expressiveness of learners will
                        emerge, develop and guide learning.


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                  TOPIC 15                                         CARE OF THE ENVIRONMENT

                  1.    The School
                  Each learner should know the name and address of his school (street and street number, suburb and city or town) and
                  where it is situated (e.g. Cape Town – near sea; Upington – on the banks of the Orange River).
                  Practical exercises for better understanding (map-marking) should be given
                  1.1     The teacher provides each learner with a cyclostyled plan of his classroom (as seen from above with the roof
                          taken off). The learner then indicates his seat and the shortest way to the teacher’s table.
                          In this way the learner will see two important aspects of map-making, i.e. seeing things from above and drawing
                          something big on a small area which is the beginning of drawing to scale.

                  1.2     Each learner is provided with a simple plan of the school and is required to indicate his classroom and the
                          shortest routes to the various parts of the school, e.g. the cloakroom, the principal’s office.

                  1.3     Each learner is provided with a simple plan of the school and the playground. He must indicate the areas where
                          he may play. The sportsfield as well as the fence should be indicated.


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                  1.4     Each learner is provided with a simple street map of the area around the school, or the teacher should supply one
                          simple town map to each learner. The learner should indicate the route along which he comes to school. This
                          street may be used for the teaching of road safety. Traffic lights and pedestrian crossings should be indicated.

                  2.    The city or town
                  2.1     The historical development as well as the geographical influence should be stressed, e.g. the reasons for the
                          establishment of the city, town or farm at a particular place (the influence of the availability of water, the
                          presence of raw materials such as iron, coal and gold). Discuss how the name for the city, town or farm was
                  2.2     Explain the pattern of development of the city (sudden expansion or decline). The learners should have some
                          knowledge of the historical buildings in their city or town. At this stage dates have little meaning for the learners,
                          but they can understand something about age, e.g. the town house is about 100 years old, the station is almost
                          70 years old.
                  2.3     Lessons on the trades and professions followed by relatives of the learners in the class should take the form of
                          discussion and the learner concerned should be encouraged to give information on his parent’s/relation’s trade/


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                  3.   Landmarks such as mountains, rivers and plains
                  A trip to a nearby farm should be arranged where possible. A simple raised map or clay model of the environment or
                  the landscape along the road to the farm could be made on a simple map drawn as shown below:

                  The road form the town to the farm should be shown in straight lines. The river may be coloured blue, the mountains
                  brown and the plains light brown or yellow and the fields (or lands) green.
                  The houses, shed and dams on the farm should be shown as well as the water pipes from the dams to the farmer’s
                  house and fields for irrigation. This is necessary in order that the learners may understand the bigger projects whereby
                  cities obtain water. Drawings and pictures should be used as illustrations.

                  4.   Transport on land, by water and in the air
                  These should be represented on a frieze or on a map showing a port with a boat on a river, a ship on the sea
                  approaching the port as well as land transport, e.g. buses, lorries and cars.
                  A frieze to represent various forms of transport in early times, e.g. wagons, ox-carts and coaches, should be made.

                  Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort
                  to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.
                  1. Air pollution
                  Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort
                  to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.
                  The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth.
                  Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to
                  the Earth's ecosystems.
                  2. Water Pollution
                  Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human
                  activities, which can be harmful to organisms and plants that live in these water bodies.
                  3. Land Pollution
                  Land pollution is often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. Haphazard disposal of urban and
                  industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors.
                  Furthermore do we find that urbanization and industrialisation are major causes of land pollution, further exacerbated
                  by all the bad toxic chemicals and waste, that is left or dumped on our land, causing it to become polluted.


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                  TOPIC 16                                                                                        SEASONS

                  SEASONAL WORK
                  According to the aims of Lifeskills, the learner should become aware of the beauty and order in nature. He should
                  understand how climatic conditions, the seasons and the nature of the region in which he lives affects his health and
                  the way of living. The learner should, therefore observe the order and rhythm in nature and realise how man has
                  adapted himself to it.
                  At first, the learner should become aware of the rhythmic succession of day and night, the characteristics of day
                  (sun, light, warmth) and night (moon, stars, darkness, cool/cold) and how man adapts himself to the situation (working,
                  eating, sleeping, clothing). Weather-charts are of great value as an aid to represent the successive day.

                  For Grade 2 a weather-chart or calendar used in previous years may be used. Succession of days and months is clearly


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                  With the succession of day and night as background, the learner experiences the succession of weeks and the
                  resulting way of life (school week-end cycle).
                  The young child, especially the Grade 1 learner, finds it difficult to gain a concept of the succession of the seasons,
                  because one cycle is of a whole year’s duration. Yet the learner should experience this succession consciously. Repeated
                  experience in the Foundation Phases should result in a reasonably good concept of the rhythmical succession of the
                  seasons. The succession of the seasons may be demonstrated on a seasonal clock. A very simple chart depicting the
                  four seasons can be used in Grade 1.

                  For Grade 2 and Grade 3 the seasonal chart may be subdivided into months. In this way the learners learn which
                  months fall approximately in each particular season.

                  A variety of themes may be worked out to illustrate seasonal activities. The nature table will then form the focal point.
                  There should be progressive growth and development in the presentation of the work from Grade 1 to Grade 3. The
                  following is an example of such progressive development:
                  Grade 1
                  The weather and clothing
                  Vegetables and fruit available in the particular season
                  Different kinds of flowers


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                  Appearance of trees (new leaves/leaves falling off/without leaves)
                  Behaviour of pets (seeking shade/warmth/moulting)
                  Suitable seasonal songs

                  Grade 2
                  The weather and clothing
                  The length of the days
                  Vegetables and fruit available in the particular season
                  The ‘life story’ of some fruit; by-products of the fruit
                  Particular characteristics in nature of the season concerned
                  Sport activities
                  Animals: pets and their way of life
                            wild animals and their way of life (how they protect themselves from cold/heat)
                            migration habits of some birds.

                  Grade 3
                  The manner in which man and animals protect themselves against heat/cold
                  Sleeping habits of animals
                  The length of days
                  The position of the sun/shadows (The sun is further north in winter)
                  Kinds of food available
                  Agricultural activities (ploughing, sowing, harvesting)
                  Regional characteristics of the season (summer/winter rain)
                  Special precautions against possible disasters caused by natural forces in a region (floods, drought, fire)
                  Available wild roots and berries
                  Life habits of domestic and wild animals in the season
                  Seasonal insect pests (house-flies, mosquitoes, gnats, fruit-flies)
                  Kinds of fish in the season
                  The teacher should ensure that her lessons are interesting and specific and that observation forms an important part of
                  the learning process. The following comparisons indicate the difference between vague, general statements (which are
                  sometimes faulty) and clearly defined premises:

                               Vague and general                                                    Clear and explanatory

                  In autumn the leaves of the trees fall off.        In autumn the leaves of some trees fall off These are the leaves of trees
                                                                     like fig-, peach- and apricot-tees, the oak-tree and the jacaranda. Some
                                                                     trees do not shed their leaves like the blue gum and citrus trees.
                  In spring trees get new leaves.                    The fig-tree and the oak get new leaves. The peach-tree and the
                                                                     jacaranda first blossom and then get leaves.
                  During autumn birds migrate to warmer              During autumn swallows and … migrate to warmer countries. Pigeons
                  countries.                                         and sparrows (“mossies”) and …keep to the same surrounds.

                  There are now many flowers.                         During autumn we plant … so that they may flower in winter. In the
                                                                     beginning of spring we plant … They flower later in spring.

                  When the theme is in progress, the display of the nature table should reflect the work that has been dealt with. The
                  teacher should ensure that the display never becomes old and dusty. Vegetables and fruit displayed for seasonal work
                  should also not be old, mouldy or rotten.


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                  TOPIC 17                                                                                       DWELLINGS

                  1.    Types of dwellings
                  1.1     Ordinary house, hotels, flats and huts
                          Visits to different types of dwellings should be arranged if it is possible. Learners should be taken into the local
                          hotel, into a house and a flat so that they can see the difference.

                  1.2     Dwellings from the past (historical)
                          Pictorial representation and the use of models are important. This allows for integration with Arts and Culture.

                  2.    How houses are built
                  If a house is being built near the school, the learners should be taken regularly to watch the progress. They may keep
                  a diary and record each week what has been done. The building materials should be noted and also where they come
                  from, e.g. those which are locally grown or made and those which come from elsewhere.

                  Practical application: Learners can make a model or frieze of a street showing the types of houses, flats and hotels.
                  Models could be made from waste materials while paper cutting is used for the frieze. This could be done during the
                  Art lesson to develop artistic ability.

                  3.    Essentials in the home
                  3.1     Water
                          A theme covering several lessons could be worked out on the water supply; where the water comes from, how it
                          is purified (only the main details), how it reaches our homes, and can be had by just turning on the tap. A model
                          could be made, showing the reservoir, the purifying plant, the pipeline and the delivery pipes to the different

                  3.2     Heat
                          Invite the learners to discuss the different ways in which it can be provided, e.g. the open fire, the coal stove,
                          primus, electric and gas stoves, different types of heaters, and what heat is used for. The heat of the sun and
                          reflected sun-rays should be demonstrated by using a mirror (reflection) and a magnifying-glass (concentration
                          of heat).

                  3.3     Lighting
                          Invite the learners to discuss different kinds of lighting, such as candles, lamps, battery-operated lighting,
                          electrical and gas lighting. Pictorial representation as well as the actual objects should be used. A general outline
                          of the historical development of lighting since earliest times is given in a sample lesson.

                  3.4     Food
                          The emphasis should be on the local produce in season. The production of one or more foods should be treated
                          in detail.
                          Example: locally grown fruit
                          Planting: (cutting, grafting), care of the trees
                          Fruit:     Picking time, packing, transport to market or factory, canning and preserving, by-products,
                                     Supply to shops.
                                     (Such a project may include a visit to a local factory, and/or super/hypermarket.)

                  4.    Articles in the home
                  Invite the learners to discuss what these different articles are made of, how they are used and cared for. The ‘history’ of
                  one such article should be treated in more detail, e.g. if crockery is chosen, some detail of the manufacture, packing,
                  transport and sale should be given.


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                  TOPIC 18                                                 OBSERVATION ACTIVITIES

                  1.     THE WEATHER
                  1.1    Weather conditions
                         Discuss with the learners the different kinds of weather. Distinguish between hot and cold. Use a candle or lamp/
                         burner (with a pith) to produce heat. Use ice-water/cubes/cold water for cold. In this way establish the idea of
                         heat and cold. Relate to the clothing worn in different conditions.
                         Learners may draw simple pictorial charts indicating the type of weather.

                  Draw weather charts for February, May, August and November. Discuss seasonal differences. Discuss the use of fans
                  and heaters.
                  1.2    Wind-force
                         Explain to the learners the meaning of the terms strong, moderate, light and calm. Ask questions such as
                         what happens to our gardens when a strong wind blows. What happens when it is a light breeze only? Let
                         them observe and then report to the class what they saw on a very windy day. Wind velocity can be roughly
                         determined by observing the environment. Smoke rising straight up from a chimney indicates a calm day. A light
                         wind will rustle leaves on trees without moving the branches; a moderate wind can move branches without
                         breaking them; a strong wind can move whole trees and break off branches/twigs. Learners can collect pictures
                         which illustrate the above.
                  1.3    The effect of moving air on
                         Observe what happens on the beach or on open stretches of sand when the wind blows. Explain how sanddunes
                         are formed. In deserts we get dust-clouds while light winds cause ripples on the sand. This can be seen on
                         beaches and on sandy parts of the school playground. When the topsoil is blown away we get erosion. Explain
                         this very simply. Learners should mention examples they have seen.
                         Ripples can be seen on small stretches of water such as dams and vleis when there is a slight breeze. Wind
                         causes waves and breakers. Strong winds cause large waves. Invite the learners to give examples. Ripples can be
                         illustrated by letting the learners blow on a basin of water.
                         Discuss the effect of different forces of wind on plants. Light and moderate winds cause little damage. Strong
                         winds bend and break plants. Invite the learners to report personal experiences. Learners should collect examples
                         of seeds dispersed by wind. Discuss the example in the class.
                         Learners should observe clouds. Why do clouds float? What does a fast-moving cloud indicate?
                  Encourage learners to collect pictures illustrating the above.


Lifeskills .indd 68                                                                                                                      2/25/09 2:40:46 PM
                  2. ANIMALS
                  The learners should observe and discuss in detail the characteristics and habits of different animals (mammals, birds,
                  reptiles and insects) found in their won environment.
                  A live animal could be brought to the classroom. Visits to a bird sanctuary, zoo, pigeon loft or any other place where the
                  animal under discussion can be observed, may be planned. A lesson on the dog is given as an example. (See par. 9.2)

                  3. PLANTS
                  The observation of properly identified plants should be a continuous process by which notable characteristics, such as
                  the following, are identified:
                         any change in shape and size during the course of the year
                         any change in the stem and the formation of new branches
                         any change in colour, shape and size of the leaves.
                  Plants may be observed in the classroom or in their natural environment.
                  Classification is a major activity in the biological sciences and learners should, therefore, be assisted in making useful
                  classification from their observations:
                         grass and non-grass
                         evergreen and deciduous
                         annual and perennial
                  Classroom investigations should also include the full cycle of two well-known annual flowering plants (bean, mealie,
                  sweet pea, marigold or other suitable examples). Learners must observe the differences in shape, size and general
                  appearance of seeds; the germination of seeds on moist cotton-wool or blotting paper or by any other visible method;
                  the development of the roots, stem or stalk from the germinated seeds; flowering; the effect of light and water on the
                  development of the plants. The development of roots, stem or stalk from cuttings, such as the geranium, should also
                  be observed.

                  4. INCIDENTAL WORK
                  Incidental work comprises daily events and affairs as they happen. It cannot, therefore, be planned ahead but should
                  be incorporated whenever the opportunity arises.
                  4.1    News: (observation, discovery and discussion)
                         Part of the time allocated to the teaching of Literacy can be used for this purpose. Learners should be encouraged
                         to be observant and to bring news items related to this subject for discussion. The emphasis should be on events
                         taking place in the school, neighbourhood, town or city and on the learners’ personal experience on matters
                         of geographical and scientific importance, e.g. the observation of the changing seasons, a big ship visiting the
                         docks, an agricultural show held locally or a sportsevent. Cuttings and pictures from the newspaper can be used
                         to compile workbooks. The learners paste the pictures into the workbooks and write their own observations
                         The teacher should, therefore, take an active interest in current events related to the subject, so that she can
                         provide the learners with further information about the topic under discussion

                  4.2    Articles brought to school by learners
                         The exhibition table can be used in much the same way as for the Foundation Phases and should reflect the
                         relative season of the year as well as the learners’ particular environment. Should a learner bring an insect or
                         any particular object of which the teacher has very little or no knowledge, she may ask the class to find more
                         information about it. In the meantime she herself should gather as much knowledge as possible about the object
                         in order to control the information given by the learners and to add more interesting facts.
                         The exhibition table should be changed regularly to accommodate learners’ contributions and to reflect current


Lifeskills .indd 69                                                                                                                        2/25/09 2:40:46 PM
                  4.3 Birthdays
                      A list of all the learners’ birthdays must be put up in the classroom. Each week one learner is nominated to consult
                      the list and to write the names of the learners who birthdays occur during that week. They are then entered on a
                      chart, e.g.
                  4.4 Fund-raising
                      Learners should be encouraged to organise small fund-raising efforts, e.g. for victims of a disaster or for a local
                      charity in need of assistance. This could take the form of a cake sale or a puppet show, rummage sale or concert
                      produced by the learners.

                  4.5 Class and school functions
                      Learners should be taught to play their part and to take a pride in all school activities. Participation to all such
                      activities should be encouraged.

                  4.6 Thrift
                      Thrift, as applied to the care of clothing, books, pencils, the use of water and electricity, should be practised.
                      Here the example set by the teacher is of prime importance. Much can be done in this way and by incidental
                      teaching when the need arises, e.g. the lights are switched on because of poor light, but they are switched off
                      when the sun appears; books and pencils should be used economically; taps should be turned off properly to
                      prevent unnecessary dripping; leaking taps should be repaired as soon as possible.


Lifeskills .indd 70                                                                                                                        2/25/09 2:40:46 PM

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