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					Edexcel IGCSE in Geography
London Examinations Geography (4370)

Content                                     Relevant Boardworks
Unit 1 People and he Natural
Unit A Water
The hydrological cycle: characteristics     Rivers:
stores and transfers                        The Drainage Basin System
Features of a drainage basin:               Rivers:
watershed, source, mouth, channel           The Drainage Basin System
The hydrograph (discharge, base flow,       Rivers:
stormflow) and river regimes: factors       The Drainage Basin System
affecting them ( precipitation,
temperature, water abstraction, dams)
Processes: weathering and mass              Rivers:
movement; erosion and deposition.           Landforms and Processes in the Upper
Factors affecting these processes           Course
(stream velocity, slope, geology)
Formation of valleys, interlocking spurs,   Rivers
waterfalls, meanders, ox-bow lakes,         Landforms and Processes in the Upper
flood plains and levees                     Course
                                            Landforms and Processes in the Middles
                                            and Lower Courses
The water balance, areas of water
surplus and water shortage
The uses of water: agriculture,             Rivers:
industry, human hygiene and leisure         Flooding and River Management
including the reasons for arising
Reasons for differences in water
quality. Sources of pollution (sewage,
industrial waste, agriculture). Managing
the supply of clean water (dams and
reservoirs, pipelines, treatment works).
Flooding: causes ( intensity of rainfall,   Rivers:
snowmelt, steep slopes, impermeable         Flooding and River Management
surfaces, human activities) and control
( construction of spillways ,
Unit 1 People and the Natural
Environment B-Hazards
Different types of hazard (climatic,        Covered in KS3
tectonic etc.)
The global distribution, causes and         Covered in KS3
characteristics of tropical storms.
The global distributions, causes (plate     Covered in KS3
movements), and consequences
(volcanic and earthquake activity)
The influence of the level of               Covered in KS3
developments on storm impacts
(quality of advice and precautionary
Reasons why people continue to live in      Covered in KS3
areas at risk from tropical – can this be
Coping with volcanic eruptions and          Covered in KS3 product
earthquakes (predicting and taking
precautions). Short term effects
(Deaths ad injuries, damaged building
and infrastructure); long term effects (
homelessness; cost of repairing
After the event – Short-term responses      Covered in KS3 Product
( emergency aid and disaster relief);
long-term responses (risk assessment,
adjustment, improving prediction)
Unit 2 People and Work
A Production
The classification by employment by         Industry:
sector primary, secondary, tertiary and     Industry: An introduction
The relative importance of these            Industry:
economic sectors varies between and         Industry: An introduction
within countries as well as over time       Industrial Change – South Wales
                                            Industry in LEDCs
Informal employment characteristics         Industry
and causes                                  Industry in LEDCs
Specialisation in farming: types and        Covered in KS3 product
factors overcoming the limitations of
the physical factors (irrigation, use of
glasshouses, genetic engineering of
plants and animals)
The causes of overproduction and food       Covered in KS3 Product
shortages and attempts to tackle these
Factors affecting the changing location     Industry:
of manufacturing (raw materials,            Industrial Change – South Wales
labour, new technology)                     High technology Industry

The rising demand for energy and the
energy gap
The relative merits of using renewable      Energy
and non-renewable sources of energy         Non-renewable Energy
(Wind and nuclear power versus fossil       Renewable Energy
Unit 2 People and Work
B – Development
The meaning of development; the
generation and spread of Wealth,
political freedom, safety and security,
Development indicators: Economical          Covered in KS3 Product
(GNP; employment by sector ; energy         Industry:
consumption; export/import pattern)         Industry in LEDCs
Population (birth-rate, death rate etc.)    Settlement:
                                            LEDC Cities
Concept of different levels of economic     Covered in KS3 Product
development, MEDC, NIC, LEDC, LLEDC
Spatial patterns of unequal                 Covered in KS3 Product
development. North South Divide. The        Energy:
concept of a development gap                Non-renerable Energy
The underlying causes of unequal            Covered in KS3 Product
development between MEDCs and
LEDC, as well as between regions in
production and Wealth
Changing development pattern in a
changing world
Areas of growing prosperity, measures       Covered in KS3 Product
of change, economic and political
factions ( human resources; changing
Areas of declining prosperity;
symptoms ( e.g. deprivation,
depopulation dereliction) economical
and political factors ( e.g. resource
exhaustion, collapsing markets, trade
policies, government intervention)
Unit 3 People and Places
A- Migration
Components of populations change and
natural change and migration change
Concepts of migration, migration            Covered in KS3
balance and net population change
Types of migration rural to urban,
urban to rural, urban to urban,
interregional, international (emigration,
The push pull model: decision-making        Settlement:
push and pull factors, intervening          LEDC Cities
obstacles and opportunities. N.B role of
perception in decision making.
Voluntary (economic migrants) versus
forced migration ( refugees)
Present day international refugee
problem: poverty; famine; war; asylum
Rural to urban migration in LEDCs:          Settlement:
push and pull factors (incl. Perceived      LEDC Cities
urban opportunities) consequences of
rural losses ( e.g. depopulation) and
urban growth (e.g. spontaneous
squatter settlements)
Urban to rural migration in MEDCs:
push and pull factions (incl. Perceived
urban problems and rural opportunities,
consequences of urban losses ( e.g.
inner-city decline) and counter-
urbanisation (e.g. suburbanised
The need to manage migration versus
civil liberties
Unit 3 People and Places
B – Urban environments
Reasons for the development of mega         Settlement:
cities, especially in LEDCs                 LEDC Cities
The problems associated with the rapid      Settlement:
urbanisation including congestion,          LEDC Cities
transport, housing, health, employment      Sustainable cities
and crime.
The growth location and problems of         Settlement:
shanty towns. Ways in which the             LEDC Cities
problems might be tackled, including
self-help schemes
Models of urban structure: their uses       Settlement:
and limitations                             Urban Land use
Factors encouraging similar land uses       Settlement:
to concentrate in particular parts of the   Urban Land use
urban area (e.g. location needs,            Settlement Hierarchy and Sphere of
accessibility, land values)                 Influence
Reasons for segregation of different
socio-economic groups
An awareness that such has positive
aspects but can generate tensions and
Identification of, and the reasons for      Settlement
areas of social deprivation and poverty.    Inner City Problems and Solutions
Reasons for the decline of inner-city
areas. The need for redevelopment and
The nature of and reasons for the           Settlement:
changes which are taking place at the       CBD Problems and Solutions
edge of MEDC cities (e.g. shopping,         Sustainable cities
commercial and industrial                   Inner City Problems and Solutions
developments). The debate ‘greenfield’
versus ‘brownfield sites;
suburbanisation and counter
The urban managers: planners,               Settlement:
politicians, property developers,           CBD Problems and Solutions
industrialists                              Sustainable cities
                                            Inner City Problems and Solutions
Unit 4 Global Issues
A Fragile Environnent
The fragile nature of environments ;        Scheduled for new KS3 Update
the concept of sustainability
Causes of Soil erosion and                  Covered in KS3 Product
desertification, drought and unreliable
rainfall, human abuse of the savannah
through population pressure, fuel
supply and overgrazing, war and
Consequences: Reduced agricultural          Covered in KS3 Product
output, malnutrition and famine
Causes of deforestation: timber             Covered inKS3 product
extraction, agriculture, mining:
transport and settlement.
Consequences: impacts on forest             Covered in KS3 Product
ecosystems, loss of biodiversity,
contribution to global warming,
economic developments
Managing rainforests in a sustainable      Covered in KS3 Product
way (e.g. agro forestry) the need for
international co-operation
The greenhouse effect and global           Scheduled for KS3 Update
warming ( including the scientific         Energy:
evidence)                                  Non-renewable Energy
Causes: deforestation; air pollution       Scheduled for KS3 Update
through the burning of fossil fusel;       Energy:
agricultural change CFCs                   Non-renewable Energy
Consequences: rising sea-levels;           Scheduled for KS3 Update
climatic hazards; ecosystems changes,
agricultural production; new
employment opportunities; changing
settlement patterns; health and well-
Unit 4 Global Issues
B – Globalisation
Globalisation and the rise of the global
economy (the growth of population and
commodity chains)
Factors encouraging a globalised
economy (trade, foreign
investment, development aid, labour,
modern transport and
information technologies).

The global shift in manufacturing and      Industry:
the reasons for it (the                    High Technology Industry
growth of global assembly lines).

The expansion and changing pattern of
world trade in both goods and services

Transnational companies (TNCs) – their
organisation and role
as key players in promoting the global
The benefits and costs to countries
hosting TNCs.
The growth of global tourism and its       Tourism:
causes (increased leisure,                 The Growth of Tourism
modern transport, marketing).
The impact of mass tourism on the          Tourism:
environment, economy and                   The Growth of Tourism
people of destination areas.               International Tourism
Attempts to make tourism more              Tourism:
sustainable (e.g. ecotourism).             International Tourism
                                           National Parks
Unit 4 Global Issues
C – Human Welfare
The nature of welfare and the quality of
life; measures and indicators (housing,
health, access to services, the PQLI)

The causes of global variations in
human welfare (levels of development,
resources, quality of government).
The role of international aid in reducing
global differences; appropriate aid
(technical assistance versus loans).

Rapid population growth (falling death
rates and high birth rates)
and its consequences for human
welfare (inadequate housing
and physical infrastructure;
unemployment and poverty).
The pressure of population on
Government policies to reduce rates of
population growth (birth
control programmes, incentives).
Regional variations in human welfare
within a country (indicators); the
symptoms of advantaged and
areas (growth and decline; prosperity
and poverty).
Government attempts to reduce
regional disparities (stick and carrot
Patterns of welfare within the city         Settlement:
(inner-city deprivation versus suburban     Inner City Problems and Solutions

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