Edexcel IGCSE in Geography London Examinations Geography (4370) Content Relevant Boardworks Presentation(s) Unit 1 People and he Natural Environment Unit A Water The hydrological cycle: characteristics Rivers: stores and transfers The Drainage Basin System Features of a drainage basin: Rivers: watershed, source, mouth, channel The Drainage Basin System network The hydrograph (discharge, base flow, Rivers: stormflow) and river regimes: factors The Drainage Basin System affecting them ( precipitation, temperature, water abstraction, dams) Processes: weathering and mass Rivers: movement; erosion and deposition. Landforms and Processes in the Upper Factors affecting these processes Course (stream velocity, slope, geology) Formation of valleys, interlocking spurs, Rivers waterfalls, meanders, ox-bow lakes, Landforms and Processes in the Upper flood plains and levees Course Landforms and Processes in the Middles and Lower Courses The water balance, areas of water surplus and water shortage The uses of water: agriculture, Rivers: industry, human hygiene and leisure Flooding and River Management including the reasons for arising demand Reasons for differences in water quality. Sources of pollution (sewage, industrial waste, agriculture). Managing the supply of clean water (dams and reservoirs, pipelines, treatment works). Flooding: causes ( intensity of rainfall, Rivers: snowmelt, steep slopes, impermeable Flooding and River Management surfaces, human activities) and control ( construction of spillways , embankments) Unit 1 People and the Natural Environment B-Hazards Different types of hazard (climatic, Covered in KS3 tectonic etc.) The global distribution, causes and Covered in KS3 characteristics of tropical storms. The global distributions, causes (plate Covered in KS3 movements), and consequences (volcanic and earthquake activity) The influence of the level of Covered in KS3 developments on storm impacts (quality of advice and precautionary measures) Reasons why people continue to live in Covered in KS3 areas at risk from tropical – can this be sustainable Coping with volcanic eruptions and Covered in KS3 product earthquakes (predicting and taking precautions). Short term effects (Deaths ad injuries, damaged building and infrastructure); long term effects ( homelessness; cost of repairing damage) After the event – Short-term responses Covered in KS3 Product ( emergency aid and disaster relief); long-term responses (risk assessment, adjustment, improving prediction) Unit 2 People and Work A Production The classification by employment by Industry: sector primary, secondary, tertiary and Industry: An introduction quaternary The relative importance of these Industry: economic sectors varies between and Industry: An introduction within countries as well as over time Industrial Change – South Wales Industry in LEDCs Informal employment characteristics Industry and causes Industry in LEDCs Specialisation in farming: types and Covered in KS3 product factors overcoming the limitations of the physical factors (irrigation, use of glasshouses, genetic engineering of plants and animals) The causes of overproduction and food Covered in KS3 Product shortages and attempts to tackle these problems Factors affecting the changing location Industry: of manufacturing (raw materials, Industrial Change – South Wales labour, new technology) High technology Industry The rising demand for energy and the energy gap The relative merits of using renewable Energy and non-renewable sources of energy Non-renewable Energy (Wind and nuclear power versus fossil Renewable Energy fuels) Unit 2 People and Work B – Development The meaning of development; the generation and spread of Wealth, political freedom, safety and security, well-being Development indicators: Economical Covered in KS3 Product (GNP; employment by sector ; energy Industry: consumption; export/import pattern) Industry in LEDCs Population (birth-rate, death rate etc.) Settlement: LEDC Cities Concept of different levels of economic Covered in KS3 Product development, MEDC, NIC, LEDC, LLEDC Spatial patterns of unequal Covered in KS3 Product development. North South Divide. The Energy: concept of a development gap Non-renerable Energy The underlying causes of unequal Covered in KS3 Product development between MEDCs and LEDC, as well as between regions in production and Wealth Changing development pattern in a changing world Areas of growing prosperity, measures Covered in KS3 Product of change, economic and political factions ( human resources; changing demands) Areas of declining prosperity; symptoms ( e.g. deprivation, depopulation dereliction) economical and political factors ( e.g. resource exhaustion, collapsing markets, trade policies, government intervention) Unit 3 People and Places A- Migration Components of populations change and natural change and migration change Concepts of migration, migration Covered in KS3 balance and net population change Types of migration rural to urban, urban to rural, urban to urban, interregional, international (emigration, immigration). The push pull model: decision-making Settlement: push and pull factors, intervening LEDC Cities obstacles and opportunities. N.B role of perception in decision making. Voluntary (economic migrants) versus forced migration ( refugees) Present day international refugee problem: poverty; famine; war; asylum seekers Rural to urban migration in LEDCs: Settlement: push and pull factors (incl. Perceived LEDC Cities urban opportunities) consequences of rural losses ( e.g. depopulation) and urban growth (e.g. spontaneous squatter settlements) Urban to rural migration in MEDCs: push and pull factions (incl. Perceived urban problems and rural opportunities, consequences of urban losses ( e.g. inner-city decline) and counter- urbanisation (e.g. suburbanised villages) The need to manage migration versus civil liberties Unit 3 People and Places B – Urban environments Reasons for the development of mega Settlement: cities, especially in LEDCs LEDC Cities The problems associated with the rapid Settlement: urbanisation including congestion, LEDC Cities transport, housing, health, employment Sustainable cities and crime. The growth location and problems of Settlement: shanty towns. Ways in which the LEDC Cities problems might be tackled, including self-help schemes Models of urban structure: their uses Settlement: and limitations Urban Land use Factors encouraging similar land uses Settlement: to concentrate in particular parts of the Urban Land use urban area (e.g. location needs, Settlement Hierarchy and Sphere of accessibility, land values) Influence Reasons for segregation of different socio-economic groups An awareness that such has positive aspects but can generate tensions and injustices Identification of, and the reasons for Settlement areas of social deprivation and poverty. Inner City Problems and Solutions Reasons for the decline of inner-city areas. The need for redevelopment and renewal. The nature of and reasons for the Settlement: changes which are taking place at the CBD Problems and Solutions edge of MEDC cities (e.g. shopping, Sustainable cities commercial and industrial Inner City Problems and Solutions developments). The debate ‘greenfield’ versus ‘brownfield sites; suburbanisation and counter urbanisation The urban managers: planners, Settlement: politicians, property developers, CBD Problems and Solutions industrialists Sustainable cities Inner City Problems and Solutions Unit 4 Global Issues A Fragile Environnent The fragile nature of environments ; Scheduled for new KS3 Update the concept of sustainability Causes of Soil erosion and Covered in KS3 Product desertification, drought and unreliable rainfall, human abuse of the savannah through population pressure, fuel supply and overgrazing, war and migration Consequences: Reduced agricultural Covered in KS3 Product output, malnutrition and famine Causes of deforestation: timber Covered inKS3 product extraction, agriculture, mining: transport and settlement. Consequences: impacts on forest Covered in KS3 Product ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, contribution to global warming, economic developments Managing rainforests in a sustainable Covered in KS3 Product way (e.g. agro forestry) the need for international co-operation The greenhouse effect and global Scheduled for KS3 Update warming ( including the scientific Energy: evidence) Non-renewable Energy Causes: deforestation; air pollution Scheduled for KS3 Update through the burning of fossil fusel; Energy: agricultural change CFCs Non-renewable Energy Consequences: rising sea-levels; Scheduled for KS3 Update climatic hazards; ecosystems changes, agricultural production; new employment opportunities; changing settlement patterns; health and well- being Unit 4 Global Issues B – Globalisation Globalisation and the rise of the global economy (the growth of population and commodity chains) Factors encouraging a globalised economy (trade, foreign investment, development aid, labour, modern transport and information technologies). The global shift in manufacturing and Industry: the reasons for it (the High Technology Industry growth of global assembly lines). The expansion and changing pattern of world trade in both goods and services Transnational companies (TNCs) – their organisation and role as key players in promoting the global economy. The benefits and costs to countries hosting TNCs. The growth of global tourism and its Tourism: causes (increased leisure, The Growth of Tourism modern transport, marketing). The impact of mass tourism on the Tourism: environment, economy and The Growth of Tourism people of destination areas. International Tourism Attempts to make tourism more Tourism: sustainable (e.g. ecotourism). International Tourism National Parks Unit 4 Global Issues C – Human Welfare The nature of welfare and the quality of life; measures and indicators (housing, health, access to services, the PQLI) The causes of global variations in human welfare (levels of development, resources, quality of government). The role of international aid in reducing global differences; appropriate aid (technical assistance versus loans). Rapid population growth (falling death rates and high birth rates) and its consequences for human welfare (inadequate housing and physical infrastructure; unemployment and poverty). The pressure of population on resources. Government policies to reduce rates of population growth (birth control programmes, incentives). Regional variations in human welfare within a country (indicators); the symptoms of advantaged and disadvantaged areas (growth and decline; prosperity and poverty). Government attempts to reduce regional disparities (stick and carrot strategies). Patterns of welfare within the city Settlement: (inner-city deprivation versus suburban Inner City Problems and Solutions affluence).