Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

MKTG 368_Qualitative and Survey Designs_Chapters 6-8_S2011

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 39

									    Qualitative Methods:
Interviews and Focus Groups

       Chapters 6-7
        Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods
• Qualitative
   • Used in exploratory designs to gain prelminary insights into
     decision problems and opportunities

• Quantitative
   • Using formalized standard questions and predetermined
     response options (yes, no) in questionnaires or surveys
     administered to large numbers of respondents

• Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches 
Advantages/Disadvantages
 of Qualitative Methods
                           Focus Groups
• Focus Groups

• Formalized small group of people have an interactive,
  spontaneous discussion on one topic or concept

• Can…
   • help identify root problem underlying symptoms
   • help identify questions to ask in a survey
   • provide insights into quantitative results
   • uncover hidden needs, wants, attitudes, feelings,
     perceptions and motives regarding products/services
   • lead to new ideas for products/services
   • help develop new measures for quantitative survey
   • provide insights into how people “experience”
     products/services (what they mean to them)
                  Composing a Focus Group
• Selecting Participants

• Select a good group of participants (relatively homogenous groups make
  people feel comfortable, but should have some variability in views)

• Potential group members should have enough knowledge to contribute

• Try to incorporate some randomization in selection (within a target group)

• Size should be between 8-12 people with a moderator

• Use a friendly invite and provide incentives (typically between $75-100)

• Pick a comfortable location
        Some Additional Interview Techniques
• Case Study
   • Analyze in depth one or more situations similar to the problem
     you are trying to solve

• Experience Interviews
   • Interview people believed to be knowledgeable about the
     problem you are trying to solve

• Protocol Interviews
   • Ask people to verbalize the thought processes and activities
     they would go through in a given situation (e.g., buying a car)

• Articulative Interviews
   • Listening to people in order to identify value conflicts they may
      have (e.g., want to buy a nice bike but also be frugal)
                     Analyzing Qualitative Data
•   Inductive Approach

•   Goal is understanding why people do what they do and what
    products/service mean to them

•   Insights and theory-development are “bottom up”

•   They emerge as researchers read and interpret responses

•   Insights are “contextualized” within a culture/subculture (thick description)

•   Three Major Steps

•   Data reduction

•   Data display

•   Drawing conclusions
                              Data Reduction
•   Statements coded, categorized into themes; then themes are compared with
    one another (and across targets, groups etc.)

•   Themes used to build a theory (integration) and then specify what leads to
    the categories and what results from the categories (axial coding), similar to
    “independent” (causes) and “dependent” (consequences) variables

•   Sometimes, researchers look for a central idea or theme around which all of
    the other concepts revolve (selective coding)

•   Often an “iterative” process; insights that emerge may be subsequently
    tested on new participants, or data may be re-analyzed to verify later insights

•   Important to look for cases that do not confirm the theory (negative case
    analysis) so that data analysis is not driven by “confirmation bias”

•   Also important to summarize observations (quantitatively) in a table, so that
    a few salient comments do not overshadow the larger picture
          Data Display & Drawing Conclusions
Data Display
• Tables can be useful for summarizing:
    • Competing themes (backpacking is relaxing, but also involves hassles)
    • Themes for different concepts (backpacking vs. hiking)
    • Quotes that are representative of certain themes
• Figures can be useful for:
    • Showing how concepts evolve over time and are related to one another

Drawing Conclusions
• Goal is to establish “credibility” (validity) of analysis
• Emic Validity
    • Making sure the conclusions make sense to participants (member checking)
• Cross-researcher reliability (2 or more researchers code data, then compare)
• Triangulation
    • Approaching the study from different perspectives (different researchers
       code data, variety of participants, different time periods)
• Peer review
        Dr. Clotaire Rapaille


Archetype Discoveries Worldwide
         http://www.rapailleinstitute.com/


 I don’t care what you’re going to tell me intellectually.

        I don’t care. Give me the reptilian. Why?

           Because the reptilian always wins.
                     Dr. Clotaire Rapaille

• Internationally known expert in Archetype Discoveries and Creativity

• Archetype: In psychology, according to the theory of psychologist Carl Jung, an idea
  or way of thinking that has been inherited from the experience of the race and
  remains in the consciousness of the individual, influencing his perception of the
  world. (Webster’s)

• Dr. Rapaille's technique for market research based on his work in the areas of
  psychiatry, psychology, and cultural anthropology.

• Dr. Rapaille searches for the “code” behind certain words and ideas (e.g., luxury),
  and uses these insights to help marketers promote their products.
                     Dr. Clotaire Rapaille

• On the Limitations of Traditional Marketing Researchers:

• “They are too cortex, which means that they think too much, and then they ask people
  to think and to tell them what they think. Now, my experience is that most of the time,
  people have no idea why they’re doing what they’re doing. They have no idea, so they’re
  going to try to make up something that makes sense. Why do you need a Hummer to go
  shopping? “Well, you see, because in case there is a snowstorm.” No. Why [do] you buy
  four wheel drive? “Well, you know, in case I need to go off-road.” Well, you live in
  Manhattan; why do you need four wheel drive in Manhattan? “Well, you know,
  sometime[s] I go out, and I go—” You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to understand
  that this is disconnected. This is nothing to do with what the real reason is for people to
  do what they do. So there are many limits in traditional market research.”

• Dr. Rapaille in action: Finding the code for “luxury” 
                The Reptilian Brain

                                                         Reptilian
                                                         Oldest part of brain
                                                         from an evolutionary
                                                         perspective




Paul D. MacLean (1913 - 2007)   Triune Brain Theory
American physician              • Reptilian brain (instincts)
Neuroscientist                  • Limbic system (emotion)
Yale, NIMH                      • Neocortex (higher order thought)
  Descriptive Designs:
Surveys & Observations

      Chapter 8


                  Is X related to Y?
  When Are Descriptive Designs Appropriate?

1. Want to describe current characteristics of a market (e.g.,
   attitudes toward an existing product or certain aspects of
   the marketing mix)

2. Want to understand your target market’s characteristics
   (e.g., demographics, psychographics)

3. Want to understand relationships between variables (e.g.,
   price and purchase) or differences between groups (e.g.,
   attitudes toward water filters between hikers and
   backpackers)
     Sampling vs. Nonsampling Errors
• Sampling Error
   • Statistically speaking, the difference between the sample
     results and the population parameter
   • Assuming perfect survey, sampling frame, execution, and
     respondents, we will still have error due to sampling
   • Sampling error becomes smaller with larger sample

• Nonsampling (or Systematic) Error
   • A variety of errors that are not related to sampling error
     and/or sample size
   Four Characteristics of Systematic Error
• Nonsampling (Systematic) Error …
   1. Leads to “systematic variation” in responses (e.g., skewed
      toward more socially desirable responses)
   2. Is controllable (e.g., via good survey design and
      procedures)
   3. Can not be estimated (whereas sampling error can be
      estimated; margin of error in a poll)
   4. Are interdependent (i.e., one type of systematic error can
      lead to another)
                   Non-Response Errors
• Non-response error occurs when…
   • The final sample differs from the planned sample

• Often happens when you can’t contact those in the planned sample or
  they refuse to participate

• Those who choose not to respond often of lower income, education, and
  more likely to be male

• Non-response can limit generalizability of findings to broader population

• Strategies for reducing non-response error
   – Create good rapport, respect respondent’s time, enhance credibility of
      research sponsor, use shorter questionnaires
                   Response Error (Bias)
• Response error occurs when…
   • The responses people give are not accurate

• May occur due to
   • Deliberate falsification (e.g., social desirability, hostility)
   • Unconscious misrepresentation (e.g., faulty memory, desire to please
     researcher)

• Might be able to detect with reaction times
   • Very fast or very slow RTs may tell you something
                        Sampling Errors
• Population specification (frame) error
   • Your population is all Republicans, but you define your population as
     Republicans in WA

• Sample selection error
   • When an inappropriate sample is selected from the desired population
   • May be due to either poor sampling procedures or intentionally
     excluding certain people from the sample

• Sample frame error
   • Sample frame = list of potential people in your target population
   • Sample frame error = when the sample frame is not representative of
     your population (e.g., only those with email addresses)
 Four Broad Categories of Survey Methods
• Person Administered
   • In-home, executive, mall-intercept, purchase-intercept

• Telephone Administered
   • Either by a person or completely automated

• Self Administered
   • Panels, drop off, mailed survey

• Computer Assisted
   • Fax, email, internet
                    Person Administered Surveys

Advantages                                  Disadvantages
•   Interviewer can adapt to respondent     •   Can be slow



•   Interviewer can create good rapport     •   Interviewers may incorrectly interpret
    with respondents                            response (selective listening)



•   Interviewer can clarify questions and   •   Interviewers may give off “clues” to the
    get insight via non-verbal responses        “correct” response



•   Interviewers can ensure they are        •   Can be expensive
    sampling the correct people
                                Telephone Surveys

Advantages                                     Disadvantages
•   Can monitor interviewers for quality       •   Can’t use visual stimuli (though might
    control
                                                   be possible with cell phones)

•   Less expensive than person
    administered                               •   Can be hard to keep a large amount of
                                                   info in memory during interview
•   Following up if respondent not available
    first time is inexpensive
                                               •   People bail on long phone interviews

•   People who don’t agree to person
    administered (e.g., due to time            •   Public is distrusting; can limit sample
    constraints) may be more willing to do a
    telephone interview
                       Self Administered Surveys

Advantages                                Disadvantages
•   Low cost (no need for interviewer)    •   Can’t obtain any information beyond
                                              what is presented on survey (no follow
                                              up questions or probing possible)
•   Respondents not rushed, can take
    time if they want to                  •   Low response rates


                                          •   If respondent doesn’t understand, can’t
•   Interviewer can’t bias response
                                              ask an interviewer; may lead to response
                                              errors
•   Anonymity can lead to more truthful
    responses                             •   Data comes in slowly; may require several
                                              re-contacts
                 Survey Illustration:
     Consumer Animosity in the Global Value Chain
• Consumer Ethnocentrism
   • A belief regarding the appropriateness or morality
     of purchasing foreign-made products (Shimp &
     Sharma, 1987)

• Consumer Animosity
   • Remnants of consumer antipathy related to
     previous or ongoing military, political or economic
     events regarding the foreign country (Klein,
     Ettenson & Morris, 1998)

• Product Judgments
   • Judgments about the quality of the product in
     question (Toyota Corolla)
         Theoretical (Path) Model
                            Conservation vs.
 Consumer                   Openness Values
 Animosity




                 Product             Willingness    Product
                Judgments            to Purchase   Ownership




  Consumer
Ethnocentrism
           Schwartz Value System
                      Self-Transcendence



                     Universalism Benevolence


                                              Tradition
                Self-
              Direction
                                     Conformity
Openness                                                  Conservation
            Stimulation
                                             Security
              Hedonism

                    Achievement      Power




                          Self-Enhancement
Japanese Product Judgments                                                                                        Survey Scales
Products made by Japanese companies are carefully produced and have fine workmanship.
Products made by Japanese companies show a very high degree of technological advancement.
Products made by Japanese companies are usually quite reliable and seem to last the desired length of time.
Products made by Japanese companies are usually a good value for the money.

Consumer Ethnocentrism
It is not right to purchase foreign products, because it puts Americans out of jobs.
A real American should always buy American-made products.
We should purchase products manufactured in America instead of letting other countries get rich off us.
Americans should not buy foreign products because this hurts American business and causes unemployment.

Consumer Animosity toward Canada
I do not like Canada.
I feel angry toward Canada.
I feel angry toward Canada because of their dependence on the U.S. for their national security.
I cannot forgive Canada for their failure to support the U.S. in the international arena.

Consumer Animosity toward Iran
I do not like Iran.
I feel angry toward Iran.
I feel angry toward Iran because they are not negotiating in good faith on the issue of nuclear weapons.
I cannot forgive Iran for their taking of U.S. hostages in 1979.

Consumer Animosity toward India
I do not like India.
I feel that India is taking advantage of the U.S.
I cannot forgive India for their participation in outsourcing from U.S. companies.
I cannot forgive India for their neglect of fair dealings with the U.S. in the economic arena.

Security Values                                                          Openness Values
Family security, safety for loved ones.                                  A varied life, filled with challenge, novelty, and change.
Honoring parents and elders, showing respect.                            An exciting life, stimulating experiences.
Self-discipline, self-restraint, resistance to temptation.               Curious, interested in everything, exploring.
                                                                                         Experimental Scenarios
Canada
The Toyota Corolla is a compact sedan manufactured by Toyota Corporation (a Japanese company) in its Ontario, Canada facility. The
Corolla has won the J. D. Power and Associates quality award in its class for the past three years, and is regularly given a ‘recommended
buy’ rating by Consumer Reports magazine. At 30 million cars sold since its introduction in 1966, the Corolla is the best-selling car in the
world. How likely is it that you would purchase the automobile described?

India
The Toyota Corolla is a compact sedan manufactured by Toyota Corporation (a Japanese company) in its Ontario, Canada facility. The
Corolla has won the J. D. Power and Associates quality award in its class for the past three years, and is regularly given a ‘recommended
buy’ rating by Consumer Reports magazine. At 30 million cars sold since its introduction in 1966, the Corolla is the best-selling car in the
world.

While over 97% of the parts for the Corolla are currently sourced from the Canadian operation, Toyota recently concluded an agreement
with Daewoo Corporation, a South Korean auto manufacturer, to purchase their drive train (transmission and steering components) and
engine components plant located near the Indian Ocean port of Bombay, India. Toyota made this purchase in order to expand its Asian
presence and to take advantage of the plant’s world-class quality and overall cost advantage. Because of Toyota’s strict supplier
certification program for all components, this sourcing change will not affect the price, quality or styling of the Corolla, and the remainder
of the car will continue to be produced in Canada. How likely is it that you would purchase the automobile described?

Iran
The Toyota Corolla is a compact sedan manufactured by Toyota Corporation (a Japanese company) in its Ontario, Canada facility. The
Corolla has won the J. D. Power and Associates quality award in its class for the past three years, and is regularly given a ‘recommended
buy’ rating by Consumer Reports magazine. At 30 million cars sold since its introduction in 1966, the Corolla is the best-selling car in the
world.

While over 97% of the parts for the Corolla are currently sourced from the Canadian operation, Toyota recently concluded an agreement
with Daewoo Corporation, a South Korean auto manufacturer, to purchase their drive train (transmission and steering components) and
engine components plant located near the Persian Gulf port of Abadan, Iran. Toyota made this purchase in order to expand its Middle
Eastern presence and to take advantage of the plant’s world-class quality and overall cost advantage. Because of Toyota’s strict supplier
certification program for all components, this sourcing change will not affect the price, quality or styling of the Corolla, and the remainder
of the car will continue to be produced in Canada.
How likely is it that you would purchase the automobile described?
               Animosity and WTP
 5
4.5
 4
3.5
 3
2.5
 2
1.5
 1
      Canada    India    Iran   Canada    India     Iran
               Animosity           Willingness to Pay
               Path Diagram 1
                                                      .37***


                                       Conservation            Openness
                                         Values                 Values




          Animosity

                                     -.13*             .05            .21**




                                             .27**
.25***                    Product                                Willingness
                         Judgments                               to Purchase




           -.42***                   -.13+



           Consumer
         Ethnocentrism
                  Path Diagram 2
                                                       .37***


                                        Conservation            Openness
                                          Values                 Values

              India

-.49***                          -.23***

              Iran
                                                        .04            .23**
                                 -.27***



                           Product            .28***              Willingness
                          Judgments                               to Purchase




            -.41***                   -.16*



            Consumer
          Ethnocentrism
Paco Underhill

  The “King”
of Observation



www.envirosell.com
               When to Use Observation
• When the respondent may not be able to accurately recall the frequency
  of a behavior, and/or may be inclined to give misleading answers

• When the response in question is a behavior (rather than a feeling)

• When the behavior in question is relatively frequent and occurs within a
  limited time frame

• When the behavior in question can be observed (e.g., in public)
                                 Observation

Advantages                                 Disadvantages
•   Gain data on actual behavior (rather   •   Generalizing from a limited number of
    than self-reported behavior which          observations can be difficult
    may be biased)

                                           •   May be difficult to understand why the
                                               behavior occurred



                                           •   If doing observation in person (not
                                               recorded), possible to miss important
                                               behaviors (or other people)

								
To top