Forging a New Destiny for - Uttaranchal

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					 Forging a New Destiny for


Greater Boston, Massachusetts
      August 4-5, 2001

       Seminar Guide
    Documents & Proposals

       Third Annual Convention
Uttaranchal Association of North America
  Dedicated to the Martyrs of the Uttarakhand Andolan

         ———— Dignity, Integrity, Sacrifice ————

      Let us honour their memory by working towards
a just, equitable, and prosperous future for our motherland.
                                                                                                                                                                          Third Annual Convention

                                                            Table of Contents

Demography of Himalayan Villages ..............................................................................................................................................................5
Continuing Exploitation of the Uttarakhand Himalaya....................................................................................................................8

Development Policy
An Achiever Model: Blueprint for Uttaranchal State.......................................................................................................................11
Drawing the Contours of Development Policy .....................................................................................................................................13

Uttaranchal: Evolving a Development Model........................................................................................................................................15
Sustaining Uttaranchal’s Forest Biodiversity............................................................................................................................................18
Socio-Economic Development Initiative for Mandar Valley Watershed .................................................................................20

Personal Appeals
Jai Badri Kedar: Uttaranchal Seva Manch ..............................................................................................................................................26
Calling All the Uttarakhandis from the Corporate World ............................................................................................................27
An Open Letter to Uttarakhandi Brothers and Sisters in the US and Canada ................................................................29

Seminar Schedule.................................................................................................................................................................................................33
Uttaranchal Vision 2020.................................................................................................................................................................................34
Uttaranchal Vision Trust.................................................................................................................................................................................38
A Call to Collective Action on Recent Landslides .........................................................................................................................42
Open Letter on Development in Uttaranchal ......................................................................................................................................44
Five Suggestions for the Association..........................................................................................................................................................45

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                                                                                                                                           3
Uttaranchal Association of North America


                Samanya, Namaskar,
                The creation of the state of Uttaranchal after a long and arduous struggle by the people
                of the region holds great promise while presenting many challenges.
                It promises the possibility of fulfilling the aspirations of the people for prosperity, happiness,
                and a life of dignity. For a people who have been forced to leave their homes and hearth,
                Dhars and Khals, mountains and valleys in search of livelihood in the plains, and whose
                local economy has become a money order economy, the new state raises the hope of
                making a fresh new start.
                However, how this is to be done is one of the most important challenges facing our people.
                The manner in which the new government was created and the way it has functioned
                since its creation, has disillusioned some, made cynics of others, and forced others to
                regroup, take account of the situation, and develop a new strategy to fulfil the aspirations
                for which people have struggled so long. Issues such as the choice of capital, chief minister,
                cabinet, and the looming crisis of assembly seat redistricting have all met with great
                controversy and continue to cast a shadow over the politics of the region. Furthermore,
                skyrocketing land speculation threatens to make Uttarakhandis tenants on their own
                land and the growing ecological crisis continues to claim victims as witnessed by the recent
                How can people harness the natural and human resources to fulfil their needs and affirm
                the rights of all? How can governance be structured to empower the people in every village
                throughout the Uttarakhand Himalayas? How can the region escape from the
                immobilising pessimism and disunity that has blighted the hills? How can the ecology and
                geology of the Himalayas be saved and preserved as our living heritage? These are the
                topics of conversation in villages, towns and cities, at home and abroad. Many proposals
                are being discussed by people from all walks of life. The much anticipated fresh start has
                yet to overcome business as usual, yet in the formative stages of the new state, people are
                making their voices clear and their expectations known.
                This seminar as part of the Uttaranchal Association of North America's third annual
                convention, will serve to add the overseas community's voice and concerns to those
                discussions, so that we too can apply our knowledge, expertise, and resources to the task of
                building a better future for our native land. Assembled here in this seminar guide are
                various background notes, proposals, and personal reflections to aid us in our deliberations.
                As Americans and Canadians with enormous resources at our disposal, we are duty-
                bound to assist in the process of positive social change. Only together and with a spirit of
                humble service, can we build a new Uttarakhand which fulfils the aspirations of all
                Uttarakhandis for Sukh and Raksha, prosperity and dignity.
                The work has only just begun.

                Uttarakhand Support Committee
                Boston, Massachusetts
                August 1, 2001

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                                                                                        Third Annual Convention

                      Demography of Himalayan Villages
                             Commentary on the State of the People
Amartya Sen’s colourful description of a disturbing demographic phenomenon – ‘missing women’ – to denote
the continuous fall in the sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) in India, takes a U-turn in Uttarakhand villages
in the Himalayas. My fieldwork takes me to desolate villages with lonely women and missing men. The tiny
terraced fields cannot sustain even tiny hamlets and men must migrate to sustain life. Traditionally, the young
men went to the army and the para-military forces – the legendary Kumaon and Garhwal regiments, famous
for their bravery – and even today the army is a great attraction. Men have also migrated in large numbers to
cities all over India, as domestic helpers, drivers, cooks, peons, clerks and occasionally in higher government
jobs. Salvation lies in getting secure government jobs and the ultimate is migration of the entire family from
the village to escape the hardships of life in Himalayan settlements. Only the lucky few succeed in this
process of total migration. For the rest, it is a truncated family, with the women, children and the old left
behind while the men brave the harshness of city life dreaming of secure employment and income. The lonely
women cultivate little plots of land throughout the year, work from sunrise to sunset, looking after the cattle,
the children and the old people, and yet the census seems to weed them out of the workforce as marginal
workers. The men too have to fend for themselves in the hostile urban environment, make money and send
home what little they can save to take care of their families, especially during the lean months when they
have to buy food, as their own agriculture support rarely produces enough to see them through the year. The
physical isolation of women is made worse by their emotional isolation from their husbands – there is hardly
any communication and when the men come home, they usually spend as much time as possible with their
friends and fellow-villagers, very often over drinks. The wives miss them: most of them are in an emotional
Men in the hills have always put a premium on education which is their passport to migration. They sent
their children to towns like Almora and Nainital for better schooling and the process goes on: now boys are
sent to distant cities to stay with relatives so that they get good education. The educational facilities in most
Uttarakhand villages are appalling and everybody knows that the substandard education cannot carry the new
generation far. The need for better education, apart from employment, is a major factor triggering off
migration. Villagers on the route to glaciers, temples and other places of tourist interest or of pilgrimage fare
much better – there is scope for tea shops, restaurants, guides and transport workers. So villagers stay back (e.g.,
there is no migration at all from Jatoli hamlet which is on the way to the Sunderdhunga Glacier). In the
perception of both men and women, cultivation is a woman’s activity, men must do something else. And yet,
the census fails to do justice in recording women’s work. When preparations were on for the 1991 Census,
the UNIFEM rightly asked demographers: ‘Why is the rural female workforce participation rate so low when all
the women work (e.g., Punjab has an unconvincingly low figure for female workforce participation)?’ Perhaps
the same question will be asked again, now that preparations are on for the 2001 Census. I recall attending
numerous national and international workshops and seminars where women’s work was debated and yet the
controversies persist. EPW has carried numerous excellent articles on this subject but one is still at a loss to
define women’s work. The male census enumerators and the male heads of households tend to take women for
granted – ‘they are of course housewives looking after their husbands and children. Agricultural work is
subsidiary or marginal work.’
Nevertheless, the 1991 Census of India does record fairly high female workforce (main + marginal workers)
participation rates in the hill districts of Uttar Pradesh. Compared to a female WPR of only 12.3 per cent in
UP as a whole, the figures for the hill districts were as follows: Almora 49.6 per cent, Pithoragarh 49.5 per
cent, Uttarkashi 49.2 per cent, Chamoli 47.7 per cent, Tehri Garhwal 46.2 per cent and Garhwal 37 per
cent, while in the urbanised districts of Nainital and Dehradun the figures were 22.6 per cent and 14.8 per
cent respectively [Bose 1991].

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Uttaranchal Association of North America

Women and Work

I am in a small village – Mankote – in the newly created Bageshwar district in Lesser Himalayas. The house
where I stay is surrounded by terraced fields and I watch women working in the fields and forests from
sunrise to sunset: cutting grass for the livestock, bathing and feeding the cattle and goats, preparing food for
the family, fetching household water from the ‘naula’ down the hills (and the steep climb back with copper
pitchers on their heads), collecting firewood from the forest, cutting fresh grass again in the evening, feeding
the animals, smoking the cowshed by burning damp dead leaves and dung to keep mosquitoes away, collecting
dry leaves and pine needles for bedding the cowsheds, locking the animals securely inside to protect them
from prowling leopards (called ‘bagh’) at night, and so on. The range of agricultural activities is formidable:
weeding, preparing the soil for sowing foodgrains and seasonal vegetables, transplanting, taking care of the
fruit trees, collecting cow-dung manure for the fields, protecting the crops from insects, birds and monkeys,
preparing seeds for the next crop, storing the foodgrains, etc. I watch an 85-year old woman dragging a biggish
dry pine branch to her field and planting it in position so that the tendrils of the young ‘rajma’ bean stalks
can climb up. Her husband died many years back, her sons are away, the daughter-in-law cannot cope with the
agricultural work. The old woman works hard and also takes care of the grandchildren.
My advice to the census organisation would be to record all women in such areas as full-time workers and
not as marginal workers because they work regularly throughout the year for 8-10 hours a day in their fields,
growing crops, seasonable vegetables and fruits, and taking care of their cattle whose dung they need to
fertilise the fields much more than the small quantity of milk they yield. These women are in no way lesser
workers than professional women working in New Delhi in television companies and advertising agencies.
Their primary activity is agricultural work and not domestic work. Cooking does not take much time: the
standard lunch for the poor and the not so poor is rice and ‘dal’ for the midday meal and ‘roti’ and some
sort of vegetable (mostly potatoes) for the evening meal.
There is a conceptual hitch here. According to the census, for defining economic activity, production must
enter the market, i.e., it must be production for non-domestic use. Only then workers engaged in such
activities can be classified as full-time workers in agriculture. But in a subsistence economy, what is produced
is consumed and there is no marketable surplus. But should this mean that women engaged in such farming
are primarily domestic workers? It must be noted that it is only because of their work that life is sustained in
these villages. No doubt there are remittances from male migrants, but the major portion of the household
income (though in kind: foodgrains, vegetables, fruits, milk, etc) is generated by women workers. Whether one
applies the criterion of time or income, the major activity of women is productive work and not domestic
work and as such they should be classified as full-time workers.
I discuss the demographic and the economic scene in the remote Himalayan villages with Ashit Mitra,
executive director of People’s Water and Sanitation Programme run by Kassar Trust. He has been in this
region for the last 15 years and knows the hill economy much better than most economists I have met. I am
impressed by the tremendous capacity building that he has undertaken: he has trained his village staff to use
computers which run on UPS and generators in this power-starved region. The young team leaders of his
project were farmers and petty traders without much formal education. Today they are promoting the innovative
technology for drinking water and sanitation and mobilising people to help themselves in scattered hamlets
and villages in the hills. Unlike many NGOs who choose roadside villages, Kassar Trust, as a policy, selects
remote and inaccessible villages. Their activities include provision of water and sanitation at a cost (‘no free
lunches’ Mitra’s adage), ‘balwaris’, improved agricultural and horticultural practices through technical know-how,
polyhouses (green houses with UV stabilised plastic sheets) and plastic-lined tanks for supporting kitchen
gardens, organising health camps and other activities focused around the daily lives of the people and aiming
at improving the general quality of life.
On the issue of missing men, I seek Mitra’s reaction. He says, “People migrate from the hills because they see
no future here: they have very little land and that too is poor and fragmented and largely dependent on the
mercies of the rain god. The forest department is the biggest landlord which holds 60-65 per cent of the total
land leaving hardly 20 per cent to the people to cultivate on their own. There has been no worthwhile
employment generation in the villages and whatever government jobs are available are mostly cornered by

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                                                                                     Third Annual Convention

people from the UP plains. What option do they have except to migrate? In Sorag village alone, deep in the
Greater Himalayas, which is a two-day march from the last motor road, more than 150 males and 70 females
have migrated. Of the 23 households of Baluta hamlet (5 km from the nearest motor road) situated in the
Lesser Himalayas, seven are headed by young married women (in the age group 23-33 years) whose husbands
are away in the army or working as drivers, tailors and shopkeepers in towns and cities. They truncated
families dream of moving out as a whole from the crushing, respiteless grind of the daily life here to a
paradise. Heat and dust and toxic fumes of cities make life unliveable – “out of the frying pan to the fire.”

Population and Ecology

I ask Mitra about population and ecology. He explains that overall density figures for the hill areas tend to
be highly misleading. The density will work out to be very high if the population is related to the land
actually belonging to the people. Increasing population and mounting pressure on the land are rendering the
hill economy and ecology rapidly more brittle. The government family planning programme is largely
unsuccessful. Inability to feed themselves throughout the year in this tenuous region under the present
conditions frustrates any attempt at limiting the size of the family. However, Mitra cautions that if on the
pretext of providing for increasing population, land area is extended by cutting down forests, it will spell
ecological disaster not only for the hills but for all areas downstream to Bengal.
I ask Mitra for micro-level demographic data. He culls out fascinating data from his laptop. We prepare a data
set for six hamlets/villages in Lesser Himalayas and three in Greater Himalayas. As the table indicates, there
are in all 473 households out of which 186 households (39.3 per cent) have at least one out-migrant. Since
the outmigrants are mostly young men we relate the data to the age-group 18 to 35 years. It will be seen that
45.3 per cent of the young males have migrated from these villages. The table also brings out the
interrelationship between population and ecology. In the Greater Himalayas where the carrying capacity is
higher, 19.6 per cent of the households are outmigrating households whereas in the Lesser Himalayas where the
carrying capacity is low, the outmigrant households account for 53.6 per cent. But the differences are not so
striking when one considers the migration of adult males. In the Greater Himalayas 39.3 per cent have
migrated compared to 49.2 per cent in the Lesser Himalayas. One has to study in greater depth the complex
relationship between population, ecology and society before making any generalisation. The heavy recruitment
in the army is a critical factor affecting the migration pattern. The sex ratio of the resident population in
these nine hamlets/villages works out 1,172 (females for 1,000 males) whereas the sex ratio of the outmigrant
population is only 377.
Finally, I ask Mitra, who studied in England and knows Switzerland well, “why can’t Uttarakhand be like
Switzerland? The land is rich in natural resources and the people are hardy and god fearing.” I was of course
simplifying things. Mitra gets into a pensive mood (he was brought up in Sri Aurobindo Ashram in
Pondicherry) and continues, “most planners can only think in terms of investment and return, they talk
about the trickle down process but forget the people. Given the sophistication of new technologies and the
competitiveness of the market, even a modest investment would require qualified manpower, which is lacking
here and has to come from elsewhere. How do the local people benefit? The investment has to benefit all
people and therefore equity is of great importance, not only for a stable society but also for stable industrial
growth. It we encourage people-oriented and resource-based agro-industries with high value addition, there is
some hope. Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and essential oils, for example, have a tremendous scope but we have to
develop the human resources first. The hill people are very intelligent and have a great aptitude to learn
things fast but government education has made them unfit for any skilled labour and has produced only
worthless certificates and deep frustration. We have to get back the missing men and start afresh”.
As I write this, I overhear village boys and girls practising music with my wife. The popular hill song goes
somewhat like this “beru pako bara masa...” – the longings of lonely women for their missing men...

Ashish Bose
— reprinted from Economic and Political Weekly, July 1, 2000

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                              7
Uttaranchal Association of North America

    Continuing Exploitation of the Uttarakhand Himalaya
                            Commentary on the State of the Environment
In the 1970’s, the Chipko Andolan brought India’s – and the world’s – attention to the problem of
commercial exploitation of the forests and mineral resources of the Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya. Activists
demanded that the resources of the hills be used for the benefit of hill people and to preserve ecological
stability. This uprising of villagers, students, and women in particular led to significant policy changes,
including the 1981 ban on commercial logging above 1000m and on private mining operations in the Doon
Valley, and was a catalyst for the 1980 Forest Conservation Act. Issues raised by the Chipko Andolan
contributed to the values underpinning the 1988 National Forest Policy. The principle aim of this policy is
“to ensure environmental stability and maintenance of ecological balance” and it pronounces that “the
derivation of direct economic benefit must be subordinated to this principle aim.” It specifies that two-thirds
of mountain areas must be under protective tree cover “to prevent erosion, land degradation and ensure
stability of the fragile eco-system.” Although many people that were active in the Chipko Andolan and other
contemporary activists in the region today believe that these regulations were successful in slowing the rate of
deforestation, most recognise that serious threats remain. The pressures today derive from a range of illegal and
commercial activity and – perhaps most ironically – from large-scale government ‘development’ schemes that
have little direct benefit for the people living in the hills. Resource extraction from the hills to benefit
commercial interests in the plains remains the dominant economic policy.

Illegal extraction

Much of the commercial extractive activity – such as logging, mining and poaching – in Uttarakhand is
illegal. It is able to take place because of a mixture of misguided policy, ineffective management, corruption
and criminality, lack of resources for enforcement, and continued social inequalities. These problems take
different forms.
Perhaps the most far-reaching problems are in the area of forest protection. Uttarakhandi people have long
demanded a halt to large-scale extraction of timber for export to the plains. The government’s response to the
Chipko Andolan’s demand to end the contractor system was to create the UP Forest Corporation to oversee
logging on all forestlands. Since the ban on green felling was imposed, legal timber extraction is limited to
dead and damaged trees and only the Forest Corporation is allowed to harvest them. It can then sell this
timber on the open market and keep the profits. Local people generally cannot afford to buy this wood and
so most is sold in the plains. Many comment that this system has two main problems. First, local people are
not able to benefit from the harvest of dead and damaged wood, causing them to seek other ways to meet
their needs. Second, there are accusations that the Corporation itself engages in illegal activities to increase
the amount of trees it can classify as dead or damaged so as to increase its revenues.
Forest fires are the principle cause of saleable, reclaimed timber. Chir pine, a dominant species in much of the
region, is highly fire resistant and a fire on the forest floor will only damage a small portion of the tree.
Many Uttarakhandis believe that the Corporation is involved in encouraging fires so as to extract fire-damaged
wood. Some villagers even claim that forest officials have blocked them from putting out local fires. In
Uttarkashi District, local people claim that forest officials exaggerate the extent of damaged trees in the forest
surveys. There are also cases where large Deodar cedar trees are lopped in such a way that they appear to be
dead. By these methods, healthy trees are felled illegally and sold. In a recent publication by a consortium of
local activists, - the ‘People’s Committee for Forest Survey, Uttarakhand’ - the extraction carried out by the
Forest Corporation has been declared worse than the contractor system that the Chipko movement succeeded
in banning. (1)

1 Contact Suresh Bhai – Himalayee Paryavaran Shiksha Sansthan. Post – Lambgaon Tehri Garhwal U. P. 249165
Tel: 01379 – 62665 for this detailed report on forest exploitation in Uttarakhand. (in Hindi only)

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                                                                                        Third Annual Convention

According to Ramesh Pahari, of the Gopeshwar-based Dasholi Gram Swaraj Mandal (DGSM), the conflict of
interest inherent in the Forest Corporation’s mandate is a major problem. DGSM argues that all commercial
sales of timber from the region should be banned and the Corporation should be abolished. It advocates that
dead and damaged timber products should instead be allocated to local people for their use. Local employment
could be generated by using this timber in small-scale manufacturing co-operatives, thus helping to stem the
flow of migrants from the region.
The Forest Corporation system creates other opportunities for corruption. As a Forest Department official in
Nainital District points out, the Department’s forest management system is based on a policing strategy. Local
people must receive permission before taking timber for personal needs. He argues that this has created
opportunities for corruption, as officials can be tempted to accept or even to demand bribes from local people
who need timber for home construction, cremations, or other personal needs.
Another major threat is the “timber mafia,” which steals wood from the forests. According to D.P. Joshi, a
retired Chief Conservator in UP Forestry Department, the green-felling ban has encouraged a thriving timber
mafia that was practically non-existent before the 1970s. It is comprised of criminal networks involving local
and plains people, in league with politicians – including some at the highest levels of the UP Administration
– and local police. Checkpoint guards are often open to bribes. Their typical monthly pay is about 1000
rupees per month and the typical bribe from one truck is 500 rupees; an irresistible temptation. Forest
officials who try to intervene are subject to abrupt transfers from their posts. A significant number have been
shot trying to prevent illegal felling. According to Ajay Singh Rawat, of the Centre of Development Studies
in the UP Academy of Administration in Nainital, at least 35 to 40 truck loads of illicitly felled timber
from Western Kumaon alone passes through checkpoints in the Tarai each day.
Illegal mining also takes place in more remote regions. Eastern Bageshwar district is the site of extensive
illegal mining of a substance colloquially referred to as ‘soapstone’, used in talcum powder, and other
cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This mineral is close to the surface and is mined by uncovering the topsoil
and then manually chipping away at the substance. The scale of these operations is substantial. According to
Dr. Ramesh Pant, a local activist, approximately 100 trucks a day transport soapstone from the Dophar area.
Other mining sites are located on the main road between Bageshwar town and Chaukori. The mining
companies are owned by local elites. For example, the president of the Bageshwar District Panchayat reportedly
owns the Basanavi Mining Co. Fear of reprisals is a significant factor in stifling local protest from the
mining, as most people are too afraid to confront it.
Poaching of jharabhooti plants and other wild animals continues in many remote areas. According to Anup
Sah, a Nainital-based naturalist and photographer who is engaged in wildlife protection, smuggling across the
border into Nepal to supply East Asian markets is increasing. Few resources are directed to enforcing bans on
this trade and it appears to be a significant threat to the area’s bio-diversity. Many claim that the Nanda Devi
Biosphere Reserve has provided unfettered opportunities to poachers because its closure to outsiders has placed
it beyond public scrutiny and left few other opportunities for legal economic activity. It is worrying that
poaching is generally not regarded as an important issue and there is little sign that the resources needed for
prevention and enforcement will become a priority.

Legal State-sponsored sphere of threats

State-sponsored development activities, particularly large-scale dams, also pose a significant threat to maintaining
the ecological balance of the region. Construction of the long-disputed Tehri dam is well under way, but
Tehri is just one of a series of large dams that have been given official sanction. According to Manoj Pandey
of the Himalaya Seva Sangh, there are a total of 56 large dams to be built in the Uttarakhand region alone.
Other major dams under construction include Vishnuprayag in the Badrinath valley and the five-stage
Dhauliganga project on the fabled route to Lipu-Lekh and Mt. Kailash. In March, the US-based Synergics
Energy Development was awarded the contract to build a 90-metre dam on the Alaknanda River above
Srinagar. Currently under survey, the 315-metre Pancheswar dam on the Mahakali would be the largest dam in
terms of height in the world. If the plans for all these dams go ahead, hundreds of square kilometres of forest,
prime agricultural land, and dozens of sites of cultural heritage will be submerged and thousands of families

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                                  9
Uttaranchal Association of North America

displaced. Besides submergence, this proposed network of dams would have far-reaching consequences for the
downstream Ganges basin.
The process of constructing these dams also has ecological costs. For example, the dam being built on the
Dhauliganga above Dharchula has necessitated widening roads at sections along the 300-km route from the
plains to the site, to allow access by heavy construction vehicles. Massive housing complexes are under
construction for the operating staff. Building materials are extracted locally, destabilising the hillsides. There
are no provisions for managing associated waste, which is thus dumped in the river. Local people gain little
from any of these developments. Electricity will be exported to the plains and outsiders mostly fill the labour
While general improvements in the road network is desired by many in the region, construction methods are
unnecessarily destructive. According to various estimates at least 60 mature trees are felled and 40-80,000 m of

debris is produced in the construction of 1 kilometre of road in this region. The debris is dumped on
adjacent slopes, causing further down-slope destruction, clogging local streams and, in many cases, destroying
agricultural terraces. The DGSM advocates a ‘cut and fill’ technique to be implemented, so that excavated
material is not dumped down the slopes. But the Public Works Department appears have so far ignored these

Government violating its own laws and policies?

Many officials and outside analysts perceive Uttarakhandi people to be the primary source of environmental
degradation. They accuse head-loaders, farmers and livestock grazers as the main culprits. But the extent of
destruction caused by large-scale projects and government complicity in illegal extraction is surely making
greater dents in the resource base. This raises serious questions as to the governments’ commitment and
capability to fulfil its own laws and policies to protect India’s ecological heritage. Activists in the region have
long tried to pressure the government into living up to its commitments. But the power inequities between
business and civil society leads to the “derivation of direct economic benefit” taking precedent over the
“maintenance of ecological balance”. It appears that grassroots activism is still needed to ensure that the
government abides by its own laws and policies.

Lorne Stockman and Catherine Barnes
34 Conrad House, Clifton Grove, London E8 1DL, United Kingdom
tel / fax modem: 44.20.7254.4265; e-mail:
— originally submitted to Himal Magazine

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                                                                                      Third Annual Convention

      An Achiever Model: Blueprint for Uttaranchal State
                    Op-Ed Piece on Achieving Change in the New State
OF the three new states in the offing, Vananchal and Chhatisgarh, with their natural resources and rich
industrial base, do not present formidable issues of economic viability. Uttaranchal, however, does force the
question, as it does not have any industries worth the name, nor apparently is it endowed with an unusual
bounty of mineral wealth. Its once abundant forest cover has been significantly reduced and degraded. So can
it succeed with such odds stacked against it?
The stock response is that it will rely on tourism. But there is no indication of what's going to be different
now after all these years of pushing tourism in the region. There is talk of selling power and a casual
mention of water resources as potential sources of income. While there may be merit in each of these, there is
no clearly discernible plan to achieve specific economic goals.
This uncertain economic scenario, however, presents an exceptional opportunity to develop a       visionary plan
that embraces change and innovation in all areas. This is the time critically to examine the      need for each
element of government and re-engineer the components to help provide effective governance in       the electronic
era. A modern corporation pays great attention to planning and structuring a new enterprise. It   seeks the best
advice it can get internally and externally.
There is no reason why a task force of government and private sector representatives, specialist organisations
and professional consultants cannot be constituted to look at relevant issues and provide well-considered
recommendations for the new state. This will not only help the new state to prioritise and channel resources
in the most effective manner, but can serve as a pilot for new models of governance, especially e-government,
for possible adoption by other states.
Uttaranchal comes into being at a time when it is extraordinarily well-placed to benefit from the new
information economy if it is able to play by the rules of the new era and is responsive to the demands of
the global services economy, which when it seeks the best locations for itself, looks for several factors.
The first is excellent physical infrastructure, top-notch communication facilities including high capacity
bandwidths, modern roads and transport, water and power on demand. The second is effective governance with
an efficient and consistently helpful government, a secure environment and a quick and reliable legal and
judicial framework.
The third is superior social support systems, the convenient availability of good quality housing, medical
services, shops and restaurants, schools and colleges, as well as leisure and entertainment facilities.
These are simple but fundamental requirements and the primary aim of the new state should, therefore, be to
foster, encourage and develop these within the shortest period. By creating the right infrastructure and ensuring
a secure environment, it will find that the third condition will usually emerge on its own. In fact, the new
economy enterprises and other non-governmental entities will themselves tend to be the key players in helping
achieve this.
Uttaranchal has some other things going in its favour. It has clean, pollution-free air and water and
spectacular natural surroundings that will help it attract the best knowledge-based industries -- think of IT
powerbases like California and Colorado, and closer home, Bangalore. A big pull for all these places has been
the natural environment. Uttaranchal is thus a natural location for the IT and software industry, R&D
establishments, hospitals and educational institutions. In fact, it already boasts of some of the most well-known
schools in the country -- Doon, Sherwood and Woodstock are a few that spring to mind.
If a clean, pollution-free environment is going to serve as a competitive advantage, it stands to reason that the
new state should do everything it can to promote it. This might include a programme to encourage cleaner,
environment-friendly transportation systems and efforts at large-scale afforestation.
While the focus on infrastructure and effective government will certainly bring in the investors and industry
in due course, the immediate focus of the economy will have to include afforestation, energy supply,

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Uttaranchal Association of North America

agricultural and horticultural development, as well as delivery of education and health services. Some
intelligent, short-term income-generating schemes will be needed to better utilise the unemployed, especially the
educated youth. For example, major afforestation initiatives could be planned under an employment guarantee
A state can have a big government but little governance, just as there can be too many laws but little justice.
A disservice the fledgling state can do to itself is mindlessly to repeat all the mistakes.
The focus should be on a lean and agile government. It should have a few, but high-calibre executives, with a
mandate for change and responsiveness to the needs of the people, who can steer the economy successfully in
the face of continuing and global competition. The government must not be allowed to degenerate into a
low quality employment provider for every vested interest group. Less is truly more.
The politicking and posturing that we see today, arguably unavoidable in a democracy, should not become the
main focus of government, without concomitant action. Instead, by having a few but well-chosen goals to start
with and meeting these within a sufficiently challenging timeframe, more will be done for alleviation of
poverty than by any amount of populist slogans.
The mindset of poverty, with its inevitable pettiness, distrust, paralysing controls, nitpicking delays and, above
all, corruption must not be allowed to take over. The attitude has to change to that of achieving societies
which think of increasing the size of the pie for everyone and aim for an enabling environment that
facilitates balanced economic, social and individual growth.
These are just a few quick sketches for a more elaborate strategy that the new state needs to develop and work
hard to execute successfully. A task force of professionals can help deliver a well-thought-out strategy quickly.
Though it will start as one of the most backward states in the country, Uttaranchal has the potential to be
one of the most successful. Whether it lives up to its credible promise or becomes just another marginalised
under-achiever will depend on the script that is written for it and how well it is able to translate it into

— originally published in the Times of India

12                                                                               Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                             Third Annual Convention

             Drawing the Contours of Development Policy
               In tune with the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments
                   A high-powered team of UP PUCL undertook a tour of Kumaun and Garhwal regions
                   of Uttarakhand in the last week of September 2000. It may be recalled that a similar
                   team had toured some other areas of the region in the month of June from 13th to
                   19th. It had covered Dehra Dun, Tehri, Srinagar, Karnaprayag, Gopashewar,
                   Joshimath, and Jairisain. This team comprised the President of UP PUCL Ravi Kiran
                   Jain, Organizing Secretary K K Rai, Treasurer Omkar Dutt, and sociologist from
                   Govind Ballabh Pant, Sociology Institute, Allahabad, Dr. K N Bhatt.
                   The present team that toured Kumaun comprised besides Ravi Kiran Jain and K N
                   Bhatt, Sociologist D K Giri, Sociologist and Panchayat Raj specialist Dr. Mahipal,
                   Rajindar Dhasmana of Uttarakhand Patrikan Parshid, Delhi and Vice President of UP
                   PUCL Chittaranjan Singh. This team visited Nainital, Betalghatgarh, Almora,
                   Bageshwar, Berinag, Pithoragarh and Haldwani between September 26 and 30.
Everywhere the team held discussions with intellectuals, women, activists, journalists, social and political
workers, and the citizens in general. The basic aim of these small and large meetings everywhere was to discuss
and exchange views on the future political, economic, social, and cultural dimensions of the new state. It was
also an attempt to find out the opinion of the common citizen about the shape of things to come.
The following points emerged as the representative ideas about the future policies of the new state:
1.   There is a unanimous opinion that the demand for a separate state and the consequent agitation was an
     expression of opposition to centralization and for decentralized development. It is therefore in the spirit of
     things that politically and economically the new state should adopt egalitarian and decentralized models.
     If the new state fails to implement the spirit of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments in creating the
     edifice of policies, it will fail the aspirations of the people of the area. Policies that adopt the required
     direction will not only fulfill local aspirations but will be a beacon of light on the rest of the country.
     The only way to ensure freedom from backwardness of the area is the idea of 'collective right to
     development', which is the basic idea of these amendments.
2.   Women are the spine of the body-economic of Uttarakhand. Their life structure in this region is hard and
     difficult like a mountain. It is, therefore, going to be difficult to develop the area unless their life is
     totally transformed. It is, therefore, necessary that in the politics of the region, from the village to the
     state 50% participation by women has to be assured.
3.   The development priorities have to ensure that first every village has to be provided drinking water, health
     facilities educational opportunities, and electricity. Without these basic necessities, development will remain
     a dream. Forest here were traditionally regarded as the wealth of local society and were managed by them.
     These have to be returned to the village Panchayat. The PUCL team found unanimity on the opinion
     that forest are going to be the centre of development activities in Uttarakhand. Joint forest management
     schemes are a conspiracy to eliminate whatever remain of the traditional rights of the people on forest
     polices. Therefore, they should be withdrawn forthwith and forest areas should be included in the
     responsibilities of Panchayats. The most developed and preserved forests in the area even today are those
     that are under the jurisdiction of Panchayats.
4.   Those who run the political structure and institutions of the state will have to keep in mind the peculiarities
     of the region and base the development potential in tune with them. Hydro electric generation, electronic
     and information technology, industries connected with pharmaceutical and medicinal plants, forest fruit
     farming, village industries connected with local crafts, tourism and pilgrimage, film industry, educational
     and research institutions in all these fields are some examples of developmental efforts that can strengthen
     the demand of self sufficiency of the region. Healthy competition in market economy depending on
     industries that use local products will be the precondition of development.

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Uttaranchal Association of North America

5.   There seemed unanimity on the point that decentralized and accountable governance by people's institutions
     represented an alternative to the politics of indirect representation. The people of Uttarakhand therefore,
     seemed to believe firmly that the new state should evolve from the Constitution a scheme of self-
     governance in which 60 percent of the state budget should be taken out of the control of bureaucracy
     and transferred to local self-governing bodies.
6.   Everywhere people were found to be looking forward to begin a new politics for local development which
     will be able to fulfill the aspirations of the people and guarantee a model decentralized structure. Egalitarian
     decentralization and development have to be the nucleus of the politics of the state. The region needs a
     political leadership which understands these nuances and are prepared to work for their healthy
     developments. The traditional mainstream political parties on the other hand are for centralization and
     have always failed to work for the fulfillment of regional aspirations. If an appropriate political group
     does not come up at this juncture, the state will slip into the traditional rut. The activists and the
     leaders who organized the agitation for the state can come together and form such a group. This is the
     only way to save the new state from entrenched vested interests in the country. An alternative
     development model at its core can be propagated as the only political platform that is committed to these
     ideas. All such social, economic, political, and cultural activist groups should get together.
A question was raised on the use of the terms ‘Uttarakhand’ and ‘Uttaranchal’. It was clarified that the people
of the region had all along fought for ‘Uttarakhand’. The name was changed by the Central government in
utter disregard of the sentiments of the people. However, this was not an issue at present.
The PUCL, an organisation known as PAHAR, and Social Science Institute, Delhi propose to jointly
organize in the second week of December a two-day workshop in Roorkee University to further discuss these
ideas and the ways to concretize them. Representatives from Uttarakhand, leading sociologists of the country,
intellectuals, lawyers and human rights workers will be invited to this meet. It will be an attempt to evolve
constructive policy indicators for the new State in the light of the observations of the PUCL team.

People's Union for Civil Liberties
PUCL Bulletin, Nov., 2000

The PUCL has done groundbreaking work for Civil Liberties throughout
India. For the Uttarakhand Andolan in particular, they were instrumental in
getting the word out to the rest of country and world, that police atrocities
were being committed on activists. Their thorough investigations into the
events of 1994 exposed the cover-up campaign of the Uttar Pradesh
Government. Below, their teams have tried to evolve a blueprint for the
nascent state, citing as foremost its right to development and the need to
safeguard the civil rights of all the new state's citizens.

14                                                                                  Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                                     Third Annual Convention

             Uttaranchal: Evolving a Development Model
(Seminar conducted by “Tapobhumi,” a socio-cultural non-govt. organization on
          30th Sept, 2000 in India International Center, New Delhi)

Reflections and responses

                   On 30th September 2000, we conducted a seminar on issues confronting the new state of
                   Uttaranchal. This seminar, entitled “Uttaranchal: Evolving a Development model”, drew
                   an impressive panel of speakers and an equally distinguished audience. The range of
                   opinion and the diversity of approach led to lively and fruitful discussion and deliberation.
                   The common thinking and consensus that emerged in the course of the seminar was
                   along the following lines:
It is imperative that we as a new state learn from the mistakes of our predecessor state, and also benefit from
the shared experience of the other Himalayan regions. The distinct socio-cultural identity of Uttaranchal has to
be preserved, but the people have to guard against possible insular tendencies for the greater common good.
Beginning afresh with a clean slate can provide Uttaranchal with the opportunity to sidestep some of the
predictable mistakes in planning and prioritization, and also to leapfrog to new technological platforms in
communications and other related infrastructure.


1) Towards an effective and downsized bureaucracy

A strongly supported idea that emerged in the seminar was that the size of the bureaucracy must be contained
and downsized for greater administrative and financial viability. To sidestep and avoid the inevitable fiscal
crisis which all Indian states are facing, the institutional framework of the new state must be designed to curb
infructuous expenditure. Control of expenditure on government personnel is essential, for often the only
benefit of government employment is the direct employment provided by it, which in the absence of funds
for non-salary expenditure, becomes even more unproductive. The remedy lies in invoking the 73rd amendment
of the Constitution to bring about a decentralized administration.

2) Revenue Police system

The majority of participants were for continuations of Patwari system in rural Uttaranchal as is already in
practice. This system is relatively less prone to corruption and more responsive to local needs. Only road side
settlements be covered under Urban Policing, and local governance to be encouraged.

Forestry, Agriculture, Land Use

Most of the planning during the last 54 years of Independence had been done in Uttaranchal without
conducting any comprehensive land use survey of the area. As a result all development planning has tended
to be arbitrary and lopsided. It is therefore necessary that a detailed land use survey of the region should be
conducted before launching any immediate development plans. The varying altitude in the region where the
human settlement are situated range between 1000 ft to 8000 ft from sea level, and detailed differential
planning is essential.
Different crop patterns should be identified and encouraged according to the compulsions of terrain and
altitude. Experts opined that, ideally, agriculture activity can be based on the following general categories:
    !   Development of Herbs and medicinal plants.
    !   Floriculture

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Uttaranchal Association of North America

     !   Horticulture
     !   Apiculture
     !   Agro-forestry
     !   Coarse grain in non-irrigated land and traditional crop in irrigated land.
It was emphasized that Uttaranchal should concentrate on producing high cost and low volume products.
Eventually this would mean that the network of small processing plants should be established at different
nerve centers of the marketing activity for agricultural / horticultural production. Here value addition can take
place which help equitable distribution of benefits to the grower instead of the middle man.
Dairy development is one area which needs to be revived in this region.
Traditionally hill people have always kept livestock. The breed of the local cattle have to be upgraded through
careful crossbreeding, and a cycle of cold chain transportation, marketing and value addition has to be
established for dairy products like butter, ghee, cheese, chocolates, with a brand identity that derives from their
mountain origin.


Some of the participants expressed apprehension about the category of tourism that would be developed in the
new state. It was feared that an overemphasis on a tourist economy might be shortsighted and in the long run
may adversely affect local ecological and cultural priorities.
However identification of and emphasis on specialized categories of appropriate tourist activity, such as spiritual
tourism, establishment of holistic health centres, meditation centres/camps, adventure tourism, river rafting,
trekking, mountaineering and so on should be encouraged in a cautious and focused way, to make it
appropriate to the high end tourist. It is important to see that the local population derive tangible benefit in
the form of employment and opportunity from these tourist activities, rather than getting further marginalised
in the economic cycle. Home Tourism was also an idea that found favour among the participants.

Women-based Development

In the mountainous village society of Uttaranchal, the women folk are the basis of the economy. Uttaranchali
women have spearheaded the chipko movement and the agitation for statehood. Local knowledge-based
education must be promulgated, and the woman-power resources used effectively, especially in afforestation,
water supply and sanitation projects. Opportunities for self-employment in the form of Cottage / Home
industry should be created. A money order economy, coupled with an alarming increase in alcoholism and
other social dysfunctionalities, has put an enormous strain on the womenfolk of Uttaranchal. The education
and empowerment of its women is the only route to an educated and empowered state. Support systems in
terms of employment, entrepreneurship development, micro credit availability, and an integrated mother and
child health and welfare system, have to be translated into ground realities.


Eco-friendly and agro-based industry is suitable for Uttaranchal.
All traditional wool-based cotton industry needs to be restored. For this purpose, it would be desirable to
revive live stock, sheep breeding etc.
Precision industries like electronic watch, toys etc. and other assembly items should be considered.
Power industry: Harnessing Micro-hydel power and utilizing non-conventional energy should be accorded the
utmost priority.
Information technology and biotechnology: The new state must keep ahead of innovation and change in
technology by encouraging premier education and research institutes to build bases in Uttaranchal.

16                                                                                    Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                     Third Annual Convention

It was observed that in an era of rapidly expanding telecommunications and information     networks, the whole
concept of industry and workplace is changing to a more flexible and decentralized one.    Telecommunications
facilities and emerging work methods allow organisations to be arranged in a               distributed fashion.
Consequently, there is much less need to cluster communications around a central core.     Decentralised growth
and development is the order of the day.

Disaster Management

The entire Himalayan region is a sensitive and vulnerable geological area. The local populace are long-
suffering victims of earthquakes, landslides and different geological disorders. A significant number of human
lives were lost during earthquakes and landslides of 1992 and 1998 in Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Ukhimath in
Garhwal and Malpa in Kumaon region. The primary reason for such natural disasters are the increasing
imbalance in Himalayan ecology and environment, caused by repeated deforestation and absence of proper
recycling system in the plantation program. A cause for further alarm emerges from the study reports of eco-
scientists and aerial surveys which reveal that the Gaumukh glacier, the main source of the Ganges in the
Himalayas, is shrinking at the rate of 20 meters per annum. Inevitably, the entire Indian subcontinent will
suffer from this ecological retardation, for the adverse hydrological and environment impact will not be
restricted to Uttaranchal alone.
All development and infrastructure activity in Uttaranchal has to maintain a pragmatic understanding of
geographical, geological and ecological constraints. All local construction activity must be planned keeping in
view the geo-physical condition of the seismic zone. We have to avoid imitative “modern” cement and
concrete architecture and build on local tradition to develop indigenous design for earthquake resistant
structures. Preservation of forest cover is the most important imperative. Holistic and integrated planning,
which includes tree-line maintenance, watershed management, rain water harvesting, hydrological resource
planning and implementation, and other such primary activities should assume priority over commencement of
construction in a master plan of the township/villages in the area.
It is necessary to bring about close cooperation and coordination between the local administration and the
public to ensure an effective disaster management response system. In view of the fragile geo-physical balance
fragile in this area, it is advisable that disaster management should be treated as one of the essential
disciplines to be taught and disseminated at the State Academic Centres / universities and to the NGOs who
can help in anticipatory disaster management schemes and awareness programs in disaster situations.

Think Tank

No development model can function in isolation. An informed and engaged political leadership and an
effective bureaucracy need the support of an aware and civic minded electorate. The new state of Uttaranchal
needs a resource base of dedicated people who can contribute ideas, agendas and perspectives from their
particular areas of expertise. Uttaranchali’s needs to create a think tank of creative and qualified minds who
can guide the destiny of the new state. These custodians of culture, environment and enlightened governance
must also watch over the lawful and effective implementation of the development agenda. Those sections of
Uttaranchali society who are living or settled outside India but continue to cherish their home state, must also
be mobilized in realizing the ideal of a dynamic and prosperous state which continues to maintain its
tradition of tolerance, diversity and humanism.

Tapobhumi (samiti)
Post – ADIBADRI, Chamoli Garhwal (Uttaranchal), 246440
Please send your comments and suggestions to:
1.Dr.H.S.Bankoti at
2.Dr.Harish C. Pant at

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                             17
Uttaranchal Association of North America

       Sustaining Uttaranchal’s Forest Biodiversity and
     Working Landscapes Through Participatory Planning
                      And Management
 This proposal is put forth by the Alliance for Development, whose mission is to
  bring to the forefront the concerns and aspirations of local communities and
            steer their efforts towards community based conservation.


                 Protected areas and their associated biodiversity cannot be sustained as natural islands
                 within ecologically degraded and overly developed landscapes. Also, in a democracy,
                 protected areas and biodiversity cannot be sustained without the acceptance and support
                 of “the people” including the local public.
India’s new state of Uttaranchal, established in November, 2000, exemplifies the need for inclusive landscape
scale planning that provides an opportunity for substantive participation by those whose livelihoods, culture
and future are dependent on the landscape and the natural resources it encompasses. The people of
Uttaranchal face many challenges as dramatic change is generated by development pressures that increase
impacts on the ecological systems at unsustainable rates and threaten local inhabitants’ subsistence lifestyles
and social fabric.
The land-holding structure in the mountainous Uttaranchal region has been a stark contrast to that of the
nearby plains and has distinguished the region’s social character. Whereas in the plains there are large
landlords and significant numbers of landless peasants, in Uttaranchal there has been little history of great
disparity in land-holdings among different segments of the society. Private land holdings, however, form a very
minor proportion of the total land and local communities are heavily dependent of common property
resources that are technically owned by the State. However, changes now underway threaten the social character
and the ecological sustainability of the region.
The formation of the new State      has generated an increase in speculators buying land in strategic locations.
While some of these lands are in    the main valleys that are productive agricultural lands, much of the land is
on the periphery of wild life       sanctuaries and protected areas. This has generated conflicts with local
communities and the intrusion of    outsiders has increased poaching.
Development projects will consume productive agricultural tracts. The river valleys are the most productive tracts
but are threatened by 56 proposed large and medium dams and reservoirs in the region. Some bilateral and
multilateral funded ‘development’ projects while intended to enhance community participation and partnerships
are actually adversely affecting the interests of local people and communities and creating an atmosphere of
distrust among local people.
Local people are increasingly alienated by conservation efforts that place lands under restrictions. Portions of
the state are being cordoned off as Protected Areas under the Wildlife Protection Act resulting in
displacement of local people and destroying the fabric of local communities.
Many areas have been deforested and are in need of reforestation to provide the food and fiber necessary to
maintain the subsistence lifestyles and culture of the local people.

The Proposal

A participatory planning process will be initiated to develop a management regime to provide for a
sustainable working landscape in the state of Uttaranchal. The selected landscape will include at its core the
Nanda Devi Bio-sphere Reserve, an internationally recognized protected area. The project will be premised on:

18                                                                                      Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                                   Third Annual Convention

The necessity to maintain the ecological and social sustainability of the landscape of which the Nanda Devi
Bio-sphere Reserve is an integral part.
                   The requirement, in a democracy, for acceptance and support of “the people” including the
                   local public if conservation of protected areas is to be achieved and biodiversity is to be
The project will address:
    !    Protection and management of the Nanda Devi Bio-sphere Reserve including sustainable utilization levels
         of reserve resources by local people
    !    Reforestation of deforested areas
    !    Sustainable multiple use of forest products throughout the landscape including small wood utilization
         and appropriate small scale technology
    !    Sustainable agriculture
    !    Acceptable levels of development

The Project Concept

A task force will be assembled to develop a management regime for the area. The task force consisting of up
to 25 people with support (as needed) from an extended network of issue specific subgroups will include
regional and local technical experts (agency managers, scientists, specialists) and stakeholders (concerned
members of the public including interest groups) as equal partners in the planning/decision-making process.
Through dialogue the experts share technical knowledge and the stakeholders share personal knowledge, values
and experience. Through mutual learning among all participants, a common view of the planning/management
issue(s), shared values and differences emerge. From a common understanding of the problem(s), a consensus
evolves regarding the solution(s) that are embedded in a management plan and program. If the task force
consists of an adequate range of interests including those with veto power over the “solutions” the group then
provides the political power to achieve implementation of the management program. With possible support by
USAID, the task force may be supplemented by technical experts from the U.S. Forest Service. These experts
might be provided in a series of preplanned 2-3 week technical assistance visits to assist the task force with
specific forest management issues identified by the group.

Alliance for Development secretariat:
51/5 Rajpur road, Dehra Dun;
Phones: 0315-764393,763146,651993

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                                       19
Uttaranchal Association of North America

              Socio-Economic Development Initiative for
                      Mandar Valley Watershed
                 Conceptualised pilot model as a follow-up on
      ‘UDAaN – a blueprint for Socio-Economic development of Uttarakhand’

Executive Summary

This follow-up on Uttaranchal Government’s response to private sector participation in developing hill region’s
economy takes an integrated view of its short term ‘needs’ relating to power, water for irrigation and market
for its produce.
Taking a system view and challenges posed by a pessimism–surcharged environment, task operations are split
into 3 focus areas of Machines as related to technology, Money as capital resource and Men as organisation
The approach uniqueness is in organisation element through ‘Social Engineering’. Here ‘awareness’ is to be
raised in target area subjects through a result-oriented crack team (NGO) with rewards linked to tangible
results and at pre-negotiated rates. Members will be selected from social activists, retired defence personnel,
civil servants, active and/or educated women, etc.
Local co-operation and participation is built upon a decentralised model where checks and balances are
created on equity principles. This facilitates resident and non-resident natives – women in particular – to take
advantage of being early starters by contributing through cash and/ or labour and become entrepreneurs by
setting up cottage and co-operative industry units. This takes into account enthusiastic NGOs and social
activists’ response during ‘Creating the future – Issues and opportunities for Uttaranchal’ seminar in Dehradun.
The Methodology adopted is innovative in the Indian context and based on state-of-the-art organisation
development models recommended by global management gurus. Social Engineering is to shift emphasis from
‘jobs’ to creating ‘revenue-generating opportunities’ on Quality Assurance and corporate governance principles
Systems support geared to ISO specifications will be imparted by Team approach.
Recommendations made are to create cooperative trust, cut resource wastage and                         build   transparency,
accountability and predictability in the organisation structure.
In Conclusion, the project is designed to empower and enable the people, most dynamic of region’s resources,
to create a future that they will contribute to build. It has potentials to be replicated as a role model and
bring credit to the government authorities, keen to monitor and safeguard natives’ economic interests. It will
also endear the politicians to the electorate for enabling them (the people) to write own their destiny. What
it needs is display of political ‘will’ and not plea of legislative ’bills’ to be passed.
                 One of the most important natural resources of Uttaranchal is hydropower.
                 With high mountains and numerous snow & rain fed streams and rivers, it is an ideal
                 location for hydropower development, which requires larger discharges and high heads.
                 For efficient utilisation, it is necessary to have a constant and reliable discharge. The
                 stream discharges however vary from season to season and from year to year. It is
                 therefore necessary to build reservoirs, which necessarily involve submergence and
                 consequent problems of rehabilitation and resettlement. The local population must be
                 recognised and must feel that the project is there for their own benefit.

20                                                                                       Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                                 Third Annual Convention

                   A survey of the environment is a pre-requisite before starting any new venture and taking
                   strategic decisions. Environment encompasses a wide spectrum of issues, which is –
                   geographical, social, economical, cultural, technological and political.
                   The aim of development should be to interlink the natural and social sciences, identify
                   strategies for ameliorating environmental damages, and look for alternate pathways for
                   development, etc.
                   In Uttaraanchal region, power can be utilised for fruit preservation industry, for
                   producing woollen garments, for pumping water for horticulture, for forest culture and
                   exports of flowers etc. besides household lighting and heating.
                   Once hydropower is fully developed, Uttaranchal, like Norway and Sweden, can turn into
                   a highly developed state with a high standard of living.
                                                                                              -- Dr. B Pant


This proposal is built upon a premise that management is less about doing different ‘things’ and more about
doing them differently. Looking at enormity of challenges in developing hills regions’ economy, the concept
used is to stem wastage of its water and human resources. With this in view, watershed based development
scheme is centred around agriculture, animal husbandry and forests. It needs to be recognised that repeated
crop harvest in the central Himalayas induces ecosystem stresses, which are directly or indirectly alleviated
through organic inputs from the forests.
Recommendations are made to neutralise nearly two centuries of ecological disaster that started with the British
Raj usurping forest rights and rampant pillage that continues today with or without official consent.
Consequently, region’s actual forest cover is only 43.5% as against 64.6% reported officially, and depleting. To
rejuvenate 2,200 Sq. km of Poorvi and Pashchimi Nayaar area, on co-operative principles, we propose an
integrated and lateral approach to build a series of small dam projects to develop about 150 MW power for
local use, including irrigation.
As economic development ‘need’ is established and ‘hard’ factors like technology & equipment are readily
available on short notices, uniqueness of approach is in its being centred around ‘soft’, i.e. people, factor
through ‘social engineering’. Costs for such alterations can be offset against ballooned costs that almost every
classic project in India has suffered from. Under learning curve principle and good management, this is likely
to taper off by 10th project. The tapering off is to ensure that there are no abrupt system changes and
progressively the prevailing ‘chalta hai’ (anything will do) attitude is brought closer to ‘traditional’ value system.
It is important to emphasise that the paternalistic ‘mai baap’, culture of cow-belt is not very much accepted by
Uttarakhand’s nearly homogenous economic culture retaining its co-operative ‘bhulla-bhaiji’ tradition.
UDAaN’s strategy to ‘fight’ the economic war is based on Pareto’s 80:20 principles. It hypothesizes that 80% of
a populace are normally mute followers and the balance are divided, equally, between cynics & vested interests
favouring status quo on one side and highly motivated but inarticulate change demanders on the other. At
this moment of time the need is to get interested swing in favour of change.
‘Social Engineering’, to fight the first ‘battle’, will be through a team of about 10 highly motivated social
activists sensitising target area people to long-term value and encouraging UDAaN initiatives by sharing costs
and profits.

Highlights of Poorvi Nayaar based Mandar Valley Development Project:

Divisional statistics:
    !    Village and hamlets: Approx. 40 Block headquarters, Pabau.

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                                     21
Uttaranchal Association of North America

     !   Altitude: 1200 to 2500 mtrs. ASL.
     !   Population: Approx. 10,000 (Resident 5,500 and non resident 4,500)
     !   Farm Animals: Approx. 25,000
     !   Road: Pauri Ramnagar Rajmarg
     !   Total area: Approx. 15 Sq. kms. or 15,000 hectares.
     !   Average rainfall: approx. 220 to 250 cms. Per anum.
     !   Area Under cultivation: Approx. 2,200 hectares
     !   Area under forest cover: About 9,000 hectares
     !   Land for development: Approx. 3,800 hectares

     !   Entry points: Mandar Khaal, Gvadikhya and Pabau
     !   Mainstream: Poorvi Nayaar from Doodhatoli Range glacier, about 75 kms.

     !   Medical facilities: one defunct secondary care facility
     !   Education facilities: 3 middle schools, one junior college
     !   Industries (manufacturing, food processing, etc.): NIL.
     !   Major Income source: Money order from non-residents.
     !   Development Potential: Agriculture led, onto Education and Healthcare.
     !   Project USP: Building upon region’s ‘Clean and Green’ image.
The Objective is to utilise region’s non-performing human and natural resources to create sustainable wealth
for the natives and the nation.

Aims are to help:

Make projects happen by:
     !   Minimising non-value-adding costs.
     !   Creating environment for co-operative ventures.
     !   Implementing plans by bringing cost effective & result oriented expertise.
     !   Natives become entrepreneurs with potentials for sustained development.
For effectiveness a project needs to be undertaken to bring about changes in a systematic manner. It will
therefore need to have a systemic and strategic impetus taking into account vital ‘3 M’ resource components,

Machine, i.e. technology:

In case of Uttarakhand’s economic development in general and the Mandar Valley project in particular, per
se, it is technology selection criterion that is of concern.

Money, i.e. capital:

Since cost of capital decides viability of a project, the proposal will look into factors influencing capital costs
and explore ways to minimise it incrementally.

Men, i.e. organisation for project execution and sustained management:

It is here that the proposal will ‘do things differently’ to make the pilot project viable and future projects in
the region bankable for all intent and purposes. Men/ organisation and support structure becomes a factor of:
     !   Project management on commercial level
     !   Local participation
     !   Government and system support

22                                                                                    Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                        Third Annual Convention

Major stumbling blocks to economic progress of the country becomes grave in Uttarakhand as it has inherited
the mantle of being a part of UP work culture and ethical norms such as:
    !   Government (Politicians–Bureaucrats–Environment & Policy related, etc.)
    !   Social (Scepticism, Apprehensions, Resource Constraint, etc.)

To overcome these, Uttaranchal’s socio–political efforts should be to establish that the state has a character and
culture different from others. A demonstration project meeting international expectations in terms of
transparency, predictability and accountability can be undertaken to make the region investor friendly.

The Proposal

To generate 3-5 MW power through a 15 mts. high reservoir storing about 18 months of water supply at
Moosagali 2 kms upstream of Pabau.
With Pabau as centre, it is proposed that in medium (2-5 years) term 3 to 5 projects totalling 50 MW
generation is initiated 50 Kms. up and down streams on similar watersheds. Environmentally focussed, these
will provide:
    !   Power, eventually for local use
    !   Water for irrigation and
    !   Setting up processing and logistics enterprises


Downstream: With multistage high lift pumps, lift water by 1,500 mtrs.
Develop agriculture, animal husbandry, horticulture, medicinal herbs, etc.
1. Short term (first 3 years):
    !   Social engineering and setting up Quality Assurance norms.
    !   Prepare infrastructure for fishery and irrigation for farms in high reaches.
    !   Sale of electricity to SEB grid through a favourable PPA.

2. Medium term (first 5 years):
    !   Mineral water and other beverages processing & bottling units and unprocessed/ processed organic foods.
    !   Setting up Cold storage and Chilling facilities.
    !   High quality lean meat (Sheep, goat, venison, poultry) and freshwater fishes of unprocessed and processed
    !   Town planning with effluent treatment and environment safeguards.
    !   Opening of Computer training institutes.
3. Long term (In 10 years):
        !    Food processing Industry for value added farm and stream produce.
        !    Medicinal herbs processing,
        !    Tourism (Doodhatoli/ Bharsaar treks), lakeside tourist resorts, angling,
        !    InfoTech activities like data warehousing, bespoke services, etc.
        !    Post-operative recovery centres, Ayurvedic hospitals, etc.
The project costs are proposed to be met with a tripartite, co-operative arrangement of the government,
financial institutions/ external investors and locals.


To create a bond of trust, a team of social activists selected after rigorous recruitment and assessment process
will be sensitised to project specificity, as a part of ‘training the trainer’ exercise, and fanned out to work in
areas like education, health & hygiene, agriculture, animal husbandry, micro financing, etc.

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                               23
Uttaranchal Association of North America

Exposed to principles of good management, they will be introduced to issues like impact of Quality Assurance
on product marketability, etc. Their role evolving with project’s progress, the team will work with retired but
active – defence & civil service – people and educated/ active women to capitalise their discipline,
administrative experience, etc. to complement and supplement the project skill pool. They can later become
catalysts for similar projects in the state.
For Front-end, project Team’s objective will be ‘to create an environment for entrepreneurs’ and co-operatives.
The new enterprises will become entities as Local Enterprise Companies (LECs), Local Area Networks (LANs)
and Local Area Partnerships (LAPs) and ultimate power consumers. The promoting body (ref. UDAaN) will act
as agents of financial institutions for disbursing micro, meso, macro and other level finances.
For Mid-end, the native returnees, retirees included, will be helped to become sub-contracting entrepreneurs to
service power and irrigation project equipment, Overhaul and Maintenance (O&M), linemen cum Tariff
Recovery agents, etc. Technology, such as numerically controlled switches, exists for integrated and centralised
monitoring devices linked to base computers whereby each consumer can be traced. Being a co-operative, peer
pressure will ‘aid’ revenue collection.
The Back-end support to be provided by Human and Capital resource mobilisation with local input as project
labour (paid in part equity & part wages) and lease land. Strategic advantage of grass root involvement will
        !   Restricting unscrupulous elements from deriving advantage,
        !   Taking people into confidence,
        !   Going to people and investors with worked plan.
On execution and government disinvestments, the project could become a LEC and manage the project to
give cost effective services.
As 1/3rd investment is from locals input, NGOs’ performance will be metered on tangible evidence of
investment generated. For this they will be encouraged to communicate with NRUs – the pillars of ‘money
order economy’ – to swing decisions in their favour and even return as change agents entrepreneur ‘heroes’.
Each service rendered is to be translated in tangible terms and rewarded.
K – HiTeiSHee has the networks to brainstorm with Indian and international agencies for solutions ‘for &
from’ the problem and can incubate the project. Institutions like Roorkee University of Uttaraanchal and
Trent University of Nottingham are proposed to be involved as technical consultants taking environmental
issues and solutions into account. Support can also be taken from Swiss Technology (SwissTech), Industrial
and Power Association of Scotland, etc. Several Hydel experts, power developers, EPC contracts, etc. have
shown interest to participate in the pilot study.


Watershed Gram Panchayats and Government become partners for wealth creating projects like aforestation, etc.
and project-affected people are relocated in common/ jointly developed land.
SEBs to extend support by purchasing power till local off take matures.
For reducing transaction costs and time, Designation of Officer on Special Duty (OSD) be assigned to Project
Chief Executive with rank equivalent to Secretary to the government including a mandate to work with
international bodies. The core staff will be of same strength as that of a Government Secretary. Being a pilot
project it will be an exercise in patience to convince potential corporate investors to commit funds in the
project without meaningful executive power.
A success fee, negotiated as a percentage of the project costs, to be paid in tranches to cover inception,
matrix incubation and planning for techno-commercial negotiation up to financial closure, to proposal author.

24                                                                              Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                         Third Annual Convention


Uttarakhand’s struggle for statehood has displayed people’s respect for law and faith in democratic process.
Schemes like Mandar Development project can be used to empower womenfolk and retired armed force
personnel, major forces in the struggle, to apply their creative energies in shaping their economic future.
Lessons learnt during project conception, incubation, implementation and execution process can be
dynamically applied to identify appropriate policies for the new economy.
In the win-all situation, the country will benefit tremendously as mini dams become buffers between
devastating monsoons and parched summers in its plains.
By making power accessible and affordable – flexibility to pay through labour or cottage industry earnings –
through micro and meso financing, people’s lifestyle can be revolutionised. The womenfolk, pillars of region's
economy, will be saved from becoming surrogate beasts of burden and be empowered to give their children
freedom from economic slavery.

                         With hydropower fully developed Uttaranchal, like Norway and Sweden,
                          can turn into a highly developed state with a high standard of living.

A Proposal by Devendra Kainthola, [MBA (UK), Ch. Eng. (UK)] Former
Consultant to Scottish Enterprise (Government of Scotland) CCO, K-
HiTeiSHee (High Technology interactive Services in Human elements &
engineering) Consultants
Email: /
Acknowledgements: Shri Bibekanand Dhaundiyal, Shri Rajendra Dhasmana
and others of Uttarayani, Dr. Shekhar Pathak, organisers & delegates of
‘Creating the future, Issues & Opportunities for Uttaranchal’ workshop in
Dehradun and Senior ministers & Secretaries of Uttaranchal Government.
Whereas every effort has been made to ensure that the information given in this
report is accurate, K - HiTeiSHee Consultants accepts no responsibility for any
errors, omissions or statements deemed as inaccurate. No responsibility is
accepted to the standard of any organisation or individual mentioned in this

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                             25
Uttaranchal Association of North America

                  Jai Badri Kedar: Uttaranchal Seva Manch
 An appeal to organize a non-political organization of retirees, professionals, and
        military personnel for the overall development of Uttaranchal
Uttaranchal, land of enchanting beauty and peace, known as Dev Bhoomi is today a Deen Bhoomi (land of
poors). We are all aware of the situation in the region, which need not be elaborated here. There is scope
and potential to transform this Deen Bhoomi into Dev Bhoomi once again and make it a blossoming flower
in the garden of our great nation BHARAT.
The following categories of persons of Uttaranchal origin can extend a helping hand to achieve this objective.
     !   Retired persons of Uttaranchal region presently settled all over the country. (Their Knowledge, vast
         experience, free time and inherent love for the Hills is a great asset).
     !   Serving persons with no or little liability.
     !   Businessmen settled in different parts of the country/abroad.
     !   NRIs
     !   Teachers and other interested persons living in Uttaranchal.


Uttaranchal Seva Manch (U.S.M.), a non-political organisation (however politicians may be welcome to join),
is expected to take-up wide ranging activities, aimed at overall development of the region. Some of the
activities which can be considered in the beginning are:
     !   Establish educational institutes (including technical education); to impart good quality education, blended
         with personality development to the students of the area who are otherwise intelligent and hardworking.
     !   Finance / sponsor deserving children from the region, for higher education including professional
     !   Help provide medical support in the villages, by conducting medical check-up camps, and monitor /
         study functioning of Govt. hospitals, PHCs etc. with a view to improve their working. Open centers for
         mentally challenged and handicapped children.
     !   Identify poorest families and provide support / sustenance (food & clothing) through 'USM' means and
         help them approach Govt. agencies for assistance as per existing Govt. rules.
     !   Identify potentially viable environment friendly industries that can be set up in the Uttaranchal region.
     !   Encourage people to set up industries. Some of the areas where co-operative/Pvt. Ltd. companies can start
         are: fisheries, herbal plantation, Ayurvedic medicines, Tourism, packaging paper, helicopter service between
         various pilgrim centres and tourist centres horticulture farms and horticulture based industries, I.T. Parks
     !   Setting up of energy farms - small hydroelectric projects, wind power projects, solar energy etc.
     !   Improve the condition of pilgrim centres, to make them true beacons of knowledge and spirituality.
     !   Work towards eradication/reduction of superstitions/drinking /smoking.
     !   Liase with central/state Govt. agencies / private agencies / NGOs / temple authorities etc. in connection
         with above activities etc.
     !   And many more areas.

Proposals can go on and on, but we would like to have your views, if you think you still have your roots in
Uttaranchal and have emotional attachment to the region and its people, then you can make a difference.

Correspondence from: Lt Cdr Harendra Singh (Retd.)
Virginia Apartments, Airport Rd, Chicalim, Goa -403 802.
Ph: (R) 512532, (O) 515588
And Lt. Cdr. K.S. Rawat, Tel. 0135 - 671920
S-4 D110 Defence Colony, Haridwar Road Dehradun - UP.

26                                                                                  Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                         Third Annual Convention

 Calling All the Uttarakhandis from the Corporate World
    A personal appeal for the formation of an association of business executives
           dedicated to the advancement of Uttaranchal and its people
                  from an senior manager based in New Delhi
To cope with the electronic commerce era and dotcom revolution of the 21st century, we, the people from the
Garhwal and Kumaun Hills are proud to have been associated with the Corporate World. While the routine
business of life continues as usual, I am sure you will agree with me that all of us have an additional
responsibility towards society, especially for the cause of our fellow citizens back home in the hills of
Uttarakhand. I am not inviting you to join a Club or an Association for the welfare of a particular
community, class or caste, neither is it a forum to air grievances against the government policies nor a
political movement for a separate state. It is an earnest endeavour to bring together the executives of
UTTARAKHAND on a common platform for closer cooperation and advancement of our people at large. It
is with a sense of brotherhood, unity, love and affection amongst the aspiring members of our proposed
Time constraint is a dominant factor in our daily activities as beyond business time is limited. Moreover, the
demanding nature of our work in the corporate world always keeps us on our toes. It gives me immense
pleasure to state that, in spite of very busy schedule, we have people with an urge to preserve their roots, an
earnest desire to see their homeland prosper with the pace of development other hill states have achieved. Our
brothers and sisters from Uttarakhand have a high sense of pride and self-esteem in whatever discipline they
take part in.
It is with a sense of commitment and respect to our motherland, the birthplace of our ancestors, the holy
place “The Dev Bhoomi” in the central Himalayas, do we have a feeling of oneness with the emigrant
Uttarakhandis who are unwittingly drawn into the big cities. There are several areas where an established group
of executives like us can work together in harmony. Let me highlight some of the major aims and objectives
envisaged for our proposed organisation:

    !   Promote and induce investments in areas such as Hydel Power, Tourism, Agriculture, Horticulture and
        Animal husbandry for all round development of Uttarakhand. I am sure, by virtue of having experts
        amongst us, this area calls for an urgent action. It has become more important in the light of the
        formation of the separate state of UTTARANCHAL.
    !   Help create markets and set-up of Cooperatives Societies for the existing resources, with the help of our
        accumulated experience in the field.
    !   Organising orientation programmes for the teachers and guardians at intermediate schools in the villages to
        improve the quality of education by motivating them regularly.
    !   Conducting awareness programmes on problems relating to sanitation, health, child labour, alcoholism and
        other social evils from the society. Set up KNOWLEDGE HUTS to face the challenges of the cyber age.
    !   Formation of “Awareness Movement Campaigns” by the youths in the villages and imparting training to
        them from time to time.
    !   Provide information about the facilities, infrastructure available to our people of Uttarakhand and thus
        minimise migration. Self-employment and commercial farming and employment opportunities to be created
        by constructive thinking and continual interaction.
    !   To organise career counseling for our youth at the GRAM PANCHAYAT and school level, identify, assist
        and encourage them for selecting suitable career, particularly in the private & public sector
        establishments. It shall be possible by publish magazines, leaflets, video films, documentary on the history,
        culture etc. for awareness amongst the members and general public from Uttarakhand
    !   To assist, interact and co-operate with all such organisations, NGOs and societies associated with the
        attainment of the aims and objectives of our establishment.

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                                  27
Uttaranchal Association of North America

Working in close cooperation among the interested members of our ensuing vibrant organisation is yet
another challenge. It is definitely for a good social cause and should not be overlooked. We, the
Uttarakhandis have pride in our intellectual talent, spiritual belief, ability to keep commitments and
determination to accomplish any assignment well ahead of its schedule. We have potential of doing very well
given the opportunity. So, why do we not have a common platform to share our experience and also care for
the common people of our society?
In this respect, I call upon all the Uttarakhandi Officers, Executives - Junior or Senior in the Private &
Public sector from the Multinationals, self-employed and businessmen, Lecturers Professors and NRIs to join
hands in preparing to meet the future challenges by assuming new roles. The activities under this platform
will help ourselves and our society at large in many ways. I have already got overwhelming response from the
like-minded Uttarakhandis and our well wishers for this project and depending upon the response from all of
you, I shall be in a position to form an Executive Governing Body of the Organisation, Committees, sub-
committees and Activity Groups. Formalities pertaining to the registration of our proposed organisation as well
as any other modalities for furthering the cause of our non-political and a charitable Society will be worked
out. We can also achieve our aims and objectives by setting up an NGO, registration formalities for such
“NGO – UTSAH” are already in process.
Dear Sirs, may I, therefore, invite your frank opinion, valuable suggestion and innovative ideas for the
formation of the society of the 3rd Millennium. I am sure our concerted efforts will yield excellent results in
building a better tomorrow for the society.

Correspondence from:
C. Dangi, Sr. Manager – Hyundai Corporation,
Tel: 688-5035/ 688-5894/688-5549
Res. 15A, Amritpuri, East of Kailash, New Delhi – 110065,
Tel : 628-0478, E-Mail :

28                                                                             Greater Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                      Third Annual Convention

                   An Open Letter to Uttarakhandi
               Brothers and Sisters in the US and Canada
 A retired officer lays out a possible plan for foundation work in North America.
Coining the term NRU (non-resident Uttarakhandi), the author hopes to draw on
the substantial resources available in the West for the economic and social uplift
                                      of our hills.
The proposed state of Uttarakhand (or Uttaranchal), comprising of the hill districts of U.P., has come into
being at long last. The constant struggle of the people and sacrifices made by them, all these years, for the
creation of a separate state and also to project a distinct identity of their own, are bearing fruits. The
formation of a separate state is bound to open vast opportunities for its development, resulting in
improvement in the living conditions of its inhabitants. This will also help in preservation of its salubrious
environment and sacred cultural and religious heritage. However, considering the hilly terrain and difficult
topographical conditions of the area, coupled with the long neglect of the needs of its people in the past,
herculean efforts shall now have to be made to make the nascent state economically viable. A huge back-log
of development has to be cleared so that it catches up with other states of the country. Owing to the lack of
industries, meager agricultural output and inadequate means of transport and communications, the revenue or
resources likely to be generated by the new state shall obviously be very limited. However, it is felt that there
does exist a great potential for development, particularly of hydro-electric power and tourism, in this area
which would eventually bring adequate revenue to the state. The area affords the right environment for the
development of electronics, optical and horological industries as well -- though, it would need 10 to 15 years
to develop the proper infrastructure for their growth. In the meanwhile, the state would have to depend largely
on the funds to be provided by the Central Govt. of India and also potential private or institutional
investors. For obtaining requisite financial help from the Govt. of India, the leaders of the new state are
expected to take the necessary steps. For other investors, apart from indigenous people and institutions, what
better proposition can there be than to seek the help and cooperation of one non-resident brethren? (We
would like to call our non-resident brethren as NRUs, non-resident Uttarakhandies).
It has been heartening to learn that our Uttarakhandi brethren in U.S. and Canada have already formed
Associations with the purpose of making investments in the development of the land of their or their
ancestors' origin. This is praise worthy and fits in the best traditions of service and generosity for which the
people have been known for centuries. Now, the question with how to coordinate, channelize and give a
concrete shape to implement plans in this direction. For this purpose, I venture to suggest the following for
the consideration of your members and other well wishers:
7.   The Associations formed in the US and Canada may be activated, strengthened and duly registered under
     local laws. The members may be suitably motivated to lend their helping hands in the various
     developmental projects which lead to improvement in the living conditions of their less privileged
     brethren in Uttarakhand.
8.   A corpus (central funds of say one million U.S. dollars), may initially, be raised by the members and
     other well wishers for the purpose, within a specified period of time. Investments, etc., can be made out
     of this central fund. In addition, these should be investments, as well as, donations towards philanthropic
     causes, by individuals and institutions in the U.S. and Canada.
9.   An Agency should be formed here, say in Dehradun, with the approval of the members of the
     Associations in U.S. and Canada, to act as a liaison body between the Associations and the Government
     of the New State, NGOs, and other organized bodies engaged in the developmental activities in this area.
     The main function of this Agency would be to collect all the necessary information about the various
     projects, on-going or proposed, in the area; as well as, the facilities, incentives, tax concessions etc.
     announced by the State and Central Governments from time to time and pass them on to the
     Associations. All suggestions and views of the members of the Associations shall also be suitably forwarded

August 4-5, 2001                                                                                              29
Uttaranchal Association of North America

     to the appropriate authorities by this Agency. It is widely known that bureaucracy, as it functions here
     particularly, would not be able to respond in an adequate manner to the queries of the members, nor
     would they reply in time to the requests of investors for any information they may like to have. This
     work can best be done by an independent, separate Agency which would constantly keep in touch with
     the authorities concerned and with other bodies, obtain requisite information etc. and also pursue the
     matter at all levels. In short, this Agency shall act as a link between our brethren in U.S. and Canada,
     the Government and other organized bodies here.
10. This Agency could be manned by 4-5 persons having experience and also adequate time at their disposal,
    as well as, the necessary aptitude for this type of work. They shall work in purely honorary capacity. All
    that this Agency would need is some fund to meet the day to day expenses of maintaining a small office,
    telephone, postage, travel, and periodical meetings with persons concerned. To our mind, approximate
    expenses would amount to nearly 5,000 U.S. dollars a year. This would work out to only 0.5% of the
    corpus to be raised.
If the above proposal finds favor with the members of your Associations, some suitable persons can be
motivated to take up this work in Dehradun. It is hoped that all your members shall give earnest thought to
this and suggest improvements therein. The responsibility of contributing his or her might towards the
development of the New State has fallen on the shoulders of every Uttarkhandi, resident or non-resident.

122, Indiranagar Colony,
Dehradun, 248006 India

The author of this letter is Umed Singh Rawat, who has been a Senior Officer
in the Department of Foreign Trade for the Government of India. During his
working life, he was also associated with development of small scale industries,
apart from export-development. At present, he lives in Dehradun, after
retirement from Government service.

30                                                                                 Greater Boston, Massachusetts
Forging a New Destiny for Uttaranchal
  Uttaranchal Association of North America’s Third Annual Convention
          Greater Boston, Massachusetts • August 4-5, 2001

                              Sunday, August 5, 2001
           Building 4, Room 231 • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
                    77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139

 9:30 am                Registration

10:00 am                Introductory Remarks
                        !   welcome
                        !   statement of purpose
                        !   review of packet contents

10:15 am                Presentations
                        !   Future Generations – Dan Jantzen (
                        !   Uttaranchal Vision Trust – Satish Negi
                        !   Uttarakhand Support Committee – Rajiv Rawat (

11:15 am                Panel Discussion

12:00 pm                Formation of Working Groups
                        1. health
                        2. environment
                        3. education
                        4. infrastructure (i.e., roads, water, power, telecommunications)
                        5. information technology
                        6. entrepreneurship
                        7. culture and heritage

12:15 pm                Working Group Discussions & Lunch

1:15 pm                 Reportback from Working Groups

2:00 pm                 Association Plenary
                        !   state of the association
                        !   review of governance, resources, finances, member participation
                        !   current and future projects
                        !   implementation of seminar recommendations
                        !   next year’s convention

3:00 pm                 Wrap-Up and Concluding Remarks
                           Uttaranchal Vision 2020
           First Draft of the synopsis circulated for Comments*
     (Advance Copy sent to the Hon’ble Minister for comments and also
                        discussed on May 15, 2001)

                                  Addendum to Seminar Guide
As a firm and systematic step towards achieving a high economic growth along with sustainable
human development, the Uttaranchal Government, on the initiative of the Dr. Mohan Singh Rawat
Gaonwasi, Hon’ble Minister of Rural Development, Panchayati Raj and Watershed Management took
a conscious decision to draft ‘Uttaranchal Vision 2020’. The main goal of preparing this documents
is to conduct visioning exercise by designing a road map and long term development strategy, which
will transact like the light house to the future state policy initiatives and will work as the blue-print
to formulate the perspective planning in the Uttaranchal state.
A core team under the Chairmanship of Dr. Gaonwasi, Hon’ble Minister is constituted to draft the
Uttaranchal Vision 2020. The other members of the core team are Shri D. P. Nawani, Shri Ratan
Singh Gunsola, Shri R. K. Verma, Shri Channer Ram, Shri Dan Singh Rawat, Dr. N. S. Bist, Dr.
Devi Dutt Dani, Dr. Harshwanti Bist, Shri Arvind Kumar Khanduri and Shri R. C. Pathak. Dr. H.
C. Pokhriyal has been appointed as the coordinator of the core team. Keeping in view of the
complexity of the task, the need to expand the core team and invite some other subject experts is
also felt and Dr. Ajay Gairola, Dr. P. S. Rana, Dr. Arun Kumar, Dr. M. C. Sati, Dr. R. P. Juyal
and Dr. Yash Pal Sundriyal are requested to participate as the team members in the deliberations
(the address and other details of the members is attached).
The Hon’ble Minister for Rural Development, Panchayati Raj and Watershed Management has set
forth a broader context and a conceptual base to build the Vision 2020. The concept comes out
from the basic developmental thought emphasizing ‘the democratic self-governance, model villages
and self-dependent human being’. Self-governance implicitly includes the participatory and quality
government and efficient as well result oriented development administration. The basic ides behind
the concept of model village and self-dependent human being emphasizes on proactively supporting
the local development initiatives and implementing integrated area development planning approach
to achieve the holistic development at the village level. The integrated view adopted in the Vision
2020 incorporates the rural-urban linkages and complementarities among various spatial and sectoral
diversities prevalent in Uttaranchal.
Two distinct principles coming out of this developmental thought are identified, namely, the most
appropriate as well equity based institutional mechanism, like the Panchayati Raj Institutions and
equally suitable methodology for planning, programme intervention and for delivering the
developmental functions at the grass-root level. With the integration of these two instruments, by
formulating and implementing various programme interventions, in the process-oriented planning, the
ambitious goals of transforming Uttaranchal into a knowledge and learning society will be achieved.
It also implied that the Vision 2020 will take all the advantages of the new technological
development, like the information technology, and rigorously try to see that these advantages must
reach to the most marginal people, to enable them to convert their survival efforts into more
profitable enterprises leading to sustainable local action. Effort will also be made to provide a
paradigm shift in the development policy and planning based on the specific felt needs of the
people and the lessons learnt across the states in the last half century of the post independence
The Vision 2020 would also purposively consider the new changes taking place like the
globalization, liberalisation and the new role assigned to the government as well the institutional
complexities within each of the micro-climatic region in the state. It will equally thrust upon the

initiatives taken by various states in the area of planning for sustainable development at the grass-
root level that will improve both the accessibility and the quality of the government intervention in
fulfilling the development needs of the whole state.
Initially, the core group will prepare the synopsis and elaborate discussion will be carried out with
the legislators and executives to finalize the contents of the synopsis. On the basis of the finalized
contents, the vision document will be prepared in smaller segments by few identified sub-groups and
experts representing different sectors. The consolidated draft will be finalized by the core team
drafting the Vision document and after its finalization it will be circulated to different stakeholders
for a wider public debate and for ensuring the collective ownership. The whole public debate will
be seen as the consensus building on the vision, mission statement, objective formulation, strategy
formulation and fixing priorities among different sectors and programme interventions. Ihe inherited
advantages of higher level of public awareness and people eagerness to express their felt needs in
the Uttaranchal will be used as an important tool to improve the quality of the vision document.
This peculiar characteristic was in many times found missing in some of the vision documents
prepared by a few states, like Andhra Pradesh. The consensus building will also provide political
neutrality to the vision document. The tentative list of the contents of the vision documents is
given hereunder. It is expected that the initial draft of the Uttaranchal Vision 2020 will be
prepared for public debate within six months starting from May 2001 and the final version of the
Vision 2020 will be ready within three months of the draft submitted for public debate.
Main emphasis of the suggestive list of contents is on identifying and redefining of the resource
base for sustainable livelihood in different regions of the new state. While discussing the issues in
the vision document, the answer to these two questions will be specifically explained. What
activities/interventions/programmes    are    to    be    undertaken    and     why?    How      these
activities/interventions/programmes are to be planned and what should be the most efficient,
participative, transparent and economical strategy for managing these interventions? The tentative list
of the contents of the vision documents is given hereunder.

Tentative Chapterisation and List of Contents of the Uttaranchal
Vision 2020

1. Introduction

In this section the overview of the Uttaranchal economic and social development will be presented.
The overview would be more focussing on the analysis of the Strength, Weakness, Opportunities
and Threat (SWOT analysis) put before the economy and polity of Uttaranchal. The vision and
mission statements will be specifically spelled out. In continuation of the mission statement, the
objectives and strategies will be analysed and accordingly broad areas of the programme interventions
could also be identified. This section will basically focus on the mission statement, objective
formulation and target setting keeping in view of the twenty years of the perspective. It could also
be taken as the objective formulation for the twenty years starting from 2001withing the perspective
The introductory chapter would comprise 40 to 50 pages.

2. Redefining the Resource Base

This chapter mainly deals with the potentialities available within various sectors. Going away from
the conventional approach, the in-depth analysis will be made of the livelihood resource base and
its sustainable utilisation for improving the standard of living of the people living in the rural and
urban areas. While analysing the potentialities, under the new paradigm shift, various lead sectors
and growth engines will be searched out. In the broader sectoral framework, the possibilities of
expanding capabilities and entitlements through livelihood improvement will be analysed.

Natural resource and Land based resources include private and common property resource base like
the forest including the forest products, mineral, farming system including animal husbandry. This
would also cover the tea cultivation, medicinal plants, horticulture, floriculture and other primary
sector activities.
The secondary sector includes the agro-based micro enterprises and other small and medium
industries those could be established in various parts of the state using the comparative advantages
available there. Many other new activities using the environmental advantages could also be seen.
The potentiality of hydro electricity and its sustainable utilisation under various ownership categories
will also be utilised.
The tertiary sector analysis would include the quality-related issues of knowledge economy. The role
of information technology for further improving the quality of life will be discussed. The
development of tourism and other related issues are critical in improving the income and
employment. The infrastructure development issues will also be analysed in details. These include
role of the physical infrastructure in improving the opportunities, like the roads and other
communication. The social infrastructure and its role in development process, like education and
health, will be analysed in details. Role of information technology in improving the quality of life
and human development will be given appropriate length in this section.
The redefining will give a tentative answer to the potentiality-related issues and the specific public
policy interventions needed to utilise the niches available in different potential sectors.
This section would contain 70 to 90 pages dealing with the potentiality sectors and resource base as
discussed above.

3. Institutional Re-arrangement and Role of the Government

The objective of this section is to define the appropriate institutional framework needed to facilitate
the development process based on the potentialities identified within different sectors already
identifies in the second section.
The complementary role of the government institutions and the market mechanism will be
elaborated in this section. The understanding institutional complexities in the process of
development and right sizing of the government to facilitate the growth process are essential. The
other type of community institutions and their role to facilitate the development process is equally
Around 40 to 60 pages would be required to complete these issues.

Redesigning the Methodology for Planning

This section mainly analyses the approach and methodology to government intervention and
programme management to enable the government to work as the crucial catalytic agent and a
facilitator in designing and supporting the human development process.
The decentralized and participatory mechanism of planning will be analyzed and the appropriate
level of viable planning unit will be identified. The state, district, block, cluster and village planning
integration and consolidation process will be designed. The integration mechanism within multi-level
planning system will be discussed and delineated.
The need based participatory planning and the efficient government programme intervention at the
lowest level of planning unit would be the main discussion points. The emphasis would be on the
delivery of all the development functions effectively at the grass root level by using the available
development administration. The core issue of capacity building and training to the grass root
functionaries will be discussed at length.

In this chapter the answer to the question- how to achieve what is set to achieve will be answered
keeping in view of the broader context of sustainable livelihood improvement.
It is estimated that around 50 to 60 pages would be sufficient to complete this section.

Action Points:

In this section the visioning exercise will be summarized and the road map to achieve the
sustainable livelihood in the Uttaranchal would be presented.
Efforts will be made to identify a clear path of human development through which all the
stakeholders will get share the benefits coming out of harnessing the potentialities through
appropriate public policy and plan interventions.
The summary and recommendation part under the action points would remain very brief and
summarized within five to seven pages. In total we are expecting that the running material of the
whole document of Uttaranchal Vision 2020 should be contained within 175 to 200 pages.
The proposed visioning exercise would also work as the manual for the development administrators,
planners, subject experts and all those concerned with the sustainable future of the people of
Uttaranchal. It will be taken as the beginning of continuous institutional learning and
institutionalizing the development initiatives.

* The tentative draft is prepared by Professor H. C. Pokhriyal,
Senior Fellow, National Society for Promotion of Development
Administration, Research and Training, LBS National Academy of
Mussoorie, 248197, Uttaranchal,
Email - and,
phone - 0135 630842

Date:      July 25, 2001                                                                           UVT: What, Why, How?
To:        The Citizens & Friends of Uttaranchal
Sub:       Uttaranchal Vision Trust: The First Draft Document
                                                                                                              Set the
Purpose:                                                                                                    "Objective"

       This document is being sent to interested citizens & friends of                                        Agree on
   Uttaranchal. The purpose is to create an organization based in Dehradun
   called Uttaranchal Vision Trust or UVT. The organization will be trusted                                  "3 Beliefs"
   with the creation, update, and implementation of the vision document
   highlighted here.
                                                                                                          Agree on
                                                                                                      "10 Point Vision"
     Any comments and suggestions on this documents should be forwarded
   to Saurabh Saklani (
                                                                                                        Put in place a
Kailash C. Joshi
President, TiE
Santa Clara, California
August 7, 2001            Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential             1   August 7, 2001         Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential        2

                 Prime UVT Objective                                                                  UVT Objective
                                                                                         Energize Uttaranchal To Become a
• Development & Prosperity of Uttaranchal
                                                                                              Model State in terms of
                                                                                          Human, Economic, and Societal
                                                                                      Creating a Citizens’ Trust Group (UVT),
                                                                                         which Advocates & Advances the
                                                                                         Vision Document for Uttaranchal
August 7, 2001            Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential             3   August 7, 2001         Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential        4

                 Basis for UVT Beliefs                                                               The 1st UVT Belief

    Who are we and what we believe to be                                              Given the advantages of high literacy rates, sound law and
                                                                                      order environment, great climate, and rich natural
              true and essential                                                      resources, Uttaranchal should achieve one of the most
                                                                                      prominent economic positions among Indian states.

                                                                                      1. The qualities of Uttaranchal are well known.
                                                                                      2. These qualities provide a perfect platform for successful growth

August 7, 2001            Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential             5   August 7, 2001         Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential        6

                 The 2nd UVT Belief                                                            The 3rd UVT Belief

    Government, both elected and appointed officials, must                       Both citizens and the Government must develop human
      facilitate economic growth in the private sector and                         resources and a friendly environment to attract
      government should not engage in business ventures.                           investments in tourism, agriculture*, hydroelectric and
                                                                                   knowledge based (IT & BT) businesses.
    1. Lasting economic value is only created through private,                   1. Without attracting private investments, economic growth can
       profitable undertakings and entrepreneurs                                    not be achieved
    2. Governments worldwide have not demonstrated lasting,                      2. The opportunities in all these areas are abundant
       profitable ventures
                                                                                 *Agriculture includes flowers, herbs, fruits etc.

August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential          7   August 7, 2001             Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential        8

     Basis for UVT 10 Point Vision                                                                        Vision # 1

        Things which UVT needs to support                                                 Basic computer education at each high school
            through every possible available
                                                                             • Each student at high school level in Uttaranchal should have
                     mechanism                                                 ready access to basic computer education
                                                                             • Private sector, with the help of Government and NGOs, must
                                                                               create self-sustaining centers for computer education near each
                                                                               high school

August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential          9   August 7, 2001             Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential       10

                          Vision # 2                                                                      Vision # 3
          Creation of at least one vocational training school
                            in each district                                          A citizens campaign to clean their towns and cities

Why: Modern day employment requires specialized training. For Uttaranchal,
                  some of the vocations to consider are:
•Food Processing                                                             1. Only citizens can maintain cleanliness in their environment
•Computer Related Skills                                                     2. Government plans do not work
•Electricians                                                                3. A ‘Clean Uttaranchal” will invite tourists, investments, and create
•Plumbers                                                                       good health and pride among its citizens
•Auto Mechanics
•Hotel & Tourism related
•Para-legals etc.

August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential         11   August 7, 2001             Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential       12

                         Vision # 4                                                                   Vision # 5

   A computerized system of cooperatives which allows farm                     An easy and low interest loan facility of up to Rs. 10 lakhs
       and forest produce to be aggregated and shipped to                               for small and medium scale entrepreneurs
Why:                                                                        1. Uttaranchal has one of the highest savings rates in India & yet
1. Small farmers and growers can not reach market directly                     loans are not readily available to its citizens
2. Many small farmers do not grow cash crops for lack of markets            2. Loan facilities of Rs. 5-10 lakhs, if available on reasonable terms,
                                                                               will allow the youth to create transportation, agriculture, and
3. A computerized cooperative system across the state can help
                                                                               small computer based businesses
   current growers, distributors, and consumers, and develop a large
   source of revenues for its people                                        3. Uttaranchal savings will be used for the benefit of Uttaranchal
                                                                               and not be sent to other states

August 7, 2001         Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential         13   August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential            14

                         Vision # 6                                                                   Vision # 7
 Private management of religious shrines and temples, which                       Availability of wireless internet and telephones in all
      utilizes the revenues for the development of the area                                          locations of the state

1. Government officials should not be involved in the management
   of shrines and temples as these institutions belong to the people        1. Telephone & internet have become like water and air – they are
                                                                               necessary for any modern society to function
2. If you look at the temples in the south (like Tirupati), the
   temples resources have brought educational institutions, hospitals       2. The difficulties of travel in the hills are significant; ready access
   etc. to large communities. Why not do the same in Uttaranchal?              of phones and internet will make communication and economic
3. Private trusts with full accountability can manage funds and help           growth easier
   develop these areas

August 7, 2001         Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential         15   August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential            16

                         Vision # 8                                                                   Vision # 9

   A plan to develop a grid of hydroelectric plants across the                   A citizens campaign to ban ‘giving and taking of bribes’
                    state under private sector
Why:                                                                        1. Bribes are immoral and illegal and bribes are only taken if
1. This is the largest economic opportunity for Uttaranchal                    someone gives them
2. It is environment friendly & a large market exists                       2. Bribery & Corruption have kept India from becoming a world
3. It will also help agriculture, tourism, & other industries
                                                                            3. Uttaranchal has the traditions of ‘Dev Bhumi’ and a anti-bribe
4. It will not happen under Government’s schemes
                                                                               campaign started here can spread through rest of India

August 7, 2001         Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential         17   August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential            18

                            Vision # 10                                                            Basis for UVT Structure

       A program to recognize citizens and government officials                          How should the UVT function as an
             who perform exceptional service to the people
    1. It is important that honest & hardworking leaders & officials are
       recognized because they become example for others, including the
    2. Recognition of such individuals also becomes deterrent of bad

    August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential          19   August 7, 2001        Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential   20

                         UVT Structure                                                                 UVT Activities

Board of Trustees (in various cities)                                             •       Website
                                                                                  •       Monthly Publications
•       Distinguished citizens invited to join & form an organization             •       Letters to Editors (all papers in the state)
•       Any party but no politics at UVT
                                                                                  •       Lobby the Government for vision items
•       Trustees create sub-groups in their own cities, sharing the vision
                                                                                  •       Encourage and support entrepreneurs across the state
•       Trustees meet often to discuss and plan
•       Trustees contribute some amount for office expenses                       •       An overseas Advisory Board assists the Trustees
                                                                                  •       Annual Award and Recognition System
                                                                                  •       An Office in Dehradun with small staff

    August 7, 2001          Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential          21   August 7, 2001        Uttaranchal Vision Trust - Confidential   22

                               A call for collective action

                                                                                                 1 August 2001

Dear Friends,

We are all aware of the third tragedy, in as many years, that affected the Okhimath region of Rudraprayag
district in early July this year. Volunteers of Samvedana, a group of people/organisations that comes together
during emergencies to provide relief in affected areas, have returned from a five-day visit to the affected villages
in the Fatta-Byoungad area. They reported substantial damage and destruction of vital elements of people’s
livelihood like cowsheds, water mills, agricultural fields and houses.

Though relief is trickling in, it was felt that concerted action by voluntary organisations was needed to properly
address the needs of the area and ensure that, after this initial phase of providing immediate relief, further
work in the area is undertaken in an organised and systematic manner.

For this purpose we invite you to a meeting organised in Agustmuni on 6 August 2001 for volunteers,
organisations and interested individuals to pool in their efforts and strategize a plan of action for the villages
affected by the landslide in the Fatta-Byoungad area.. The main objective of the meeting is to highlight the
situation of the affected region and classify the action priorities, so that organisations/individuals can identify
the areas in which they can provide support.

Enclosed is a rapid assessment report on the prevailing situation in the region.

With best wishes,

Yours sincerely,

Samvedana volunteers

A call for collective action                                                                              Samvedana

A landslide affecting 15 villages in Kedar valley of District Rudraprayag in Garhwal, Uttaranchal occurred on
the night of 15 July 2001. A cloud burst over the villages of Byoungad-Fata in which 27 people were

killed, one handicapped for life and 8 people seriously injured. 24 cattle also died, 28 cowsheds were
damaged, 20 functioning watermills were swept away and over 40 % of agricultural fields in 7 villages has
been severely damaged. 40 houses were also destroyed. The road has been badly damaged along with the
local hospital building and communication services have been disrupted.

The villages affected include:

1.    Fata: a small township, with an intercollege, hospital (PHC) and a medium sized local bazaar on the route to
      Kedarnath. The old market has been completely wiped out, the hospital and intercollege have been partially
      damaged. The principal and his family were killed in the landslide. All the ration shops were flooded and swept
      away. All the records of the State Bank of India were destroyed. Two Nepalese families were also killed, with
      only one surviving member left.
2.    Khumera: a village of 242 families, of which 40 families are in a precarious situation as the gully from Byoungad
      in which the landslide occurred runs below Khumera and is liable to cut away the lower village. The back wall of
      the high school has been damaged.
3.    Tyudi: is situated just above Byoungad with 70 families. 5 watermills have been swept away and agricultural land
4.    Semkurala: The cloud burst caused the most extensive damage in this village. In a forest 1 km above the village,
      the cloud burst and the entire forest came down. It destroyed more than 2 hectares of land, a cowshed, and a
      house of a single family of which three members were killed.
5.    Byoungad (Nagora): This village had a large shop shared by 2 villages, 5-6 tea shops, a water loom, microhydel and
      8 watermills. Two large hops, the microhydel and water loom were destroyed. 6 people died and one girl was
      crippled for life. The road from this village has been severely damaged and has broken down in several places up
      to Fata.
6.    Korkhi, Maikhanda, Khat, Dhargaon: In these four villages substantial agricultural land has been damaged. And due
      to the destruction of ration shops at Fata, there is an acute problem of availability of food in these villages.
7.     Khadiya, Ravigaon, Tarsali, Raile: Agricultural land and cowsheds have been damaged, cattle killed and there is a
      problem of procuring ration. A foot bridge was also washed away.
8.    Jamu: There are 140 families in this village of which 57 families are in danger due to the undercutting of the
      gully created by the landslide and instability of the forest above. One man was killed and 7 cowsheds destroyed.
9.    Byoung: This is a village of 45 families in which the footbridge has been swept away. This was the only
      communication link the footbridge has been swept away. This was the only communication link for the village.
      Now they have to travel a further 3-4 kms.


           Place           Total families   Affectedfamilies*   Lossoflife   Lossofanimallife   Cattleshed damaged      Watermillslost
1.     Khumera                242                  40              0                0                    0                   2
2.     Tyudi                   70                  8               0                0                    1                   5
3.     Semkurala               16                  5               3                0                    2                   0
4.     Byoungad                 3                  3               6                0                    1                  23
5.     Korkhi                  38                  5               0                0                    0                   0
6.     Byoung                  45                  2               0                0                    0                   0
7.     Maikhanda               95                  25              0                0                    0                   2
8.     Khadiya                 95                  20              0                5                   10                   1
9.     Ravigaon                60                  20              0                3                    2                   0
10.    Jamu                   140                  57              1                3                    6                   3
11.    Tarsali                 22                  3               0                2                    3                   0
12.    Raile                   14                  4               0                4                    1                   0
13.    Dhani                   47                  47              0                6                    2                   0
14.    Fata                   150                 150              17               4                    1                   2
       TOTAL                 1037                 389              27              27                   29                  38

•     This does not include families whose agricultural fields have been damaged, as this would include the entire village

A call for collective action                                                                                         Samvedana
                          An Open Letter on Development in Uttaranchal
                                                        Addressed to the Seminar • August 2, 2001

The economy of Uttaranchal is today caught in a vicious cycle of no means of livelihood > increasing emigration >
money order economy > despondent mind set > no means of livelihood. The result is that at present the main
young work force consists of women hard pressed to raise children and do all other chores, school going children,
and old people of low income families. The tragedy is that everyone knows this fact but no one is effectively
coming forward with solid work to change this. Even the government of this new state lacks the political will that
leads to transformation.
Government machinery is at best an obstruction and anti-motivation creator, with a low level of integrity, lack of
devotion, and insufficient finances. Therefore only sincere non-government efforts can suceed. Some such
organisations are active but their coverage and programs are too meagre and halfhearted to make any worthwhile
A viable and vibrant NGO is the need of the hour which can catalyse a positive mindset, encouraging one and all
to creatively march forward towards progress and development through self-help, cooperation, ingenuity, and
teamwork. The action plan of such an NGO has to be women-centred as only the womenforce can deliver the
goods. It is as follows:
1.   To train, organise, assist and guide appropriate family enterprises on a massive scale with the main objective of reducing the excessive
     outflow of able man-power from our hills to other parts of the country in search of livelihood.
2.   To predominantly target the permanent residents in the hills, i.e., women, old persons and children who are presently surviving on the
     money orders sent by their folk, by helping them to setup family enterprises of economic scales. The NGO will help in training for skill
     development, enhanced productivity inputs, mobilisation and marketing through organised channels.
3 . Increasing family incomes through local resources and potentials, i.e., air, water, land, and climate bases - and systematically
    envigourating the local self governing bodies, the Panchayats, to channelise the money-order money and government grants etc into a
    viable development fund.
Some ideas on how to accomplish this are as follows:
1.   Identifying short, medium and long term economic possibilities specific to given areas of the State.
2.   Selecting the most-fit occupations for families with the help of organisations of beneficiaries and panchayats as well as by involving
     concerned government personnel in the process.
3.   Mobilising sufficient finances and preparation of projects for individual families.
4.   Creating mobile training units with topclass instructors in different trades and train a force of trainers for individual activities and areas
     from amongst the local residents.
5.   Launching intensive development activity to develop the areas under- taken to the extent of the area becoming capable of adopting the
     adjacent area for similar development on the pattern of chain-reaction.
N.R.I.s from Uttaranchal can play a pivotal role by mobilising their resources and resourcefulness to finance,
motivate, guide, provide and monitor such a unique campaign for the development of our brethren in the State of
our origin.

Wishing all participants, success and Godspeed,
Sincerely yours,
Dr B.S.Rawat
2176, apt 1, Regency Terrace
Ottawa ON K2C 1H1 CANADA.

The author is a retired Principal Scientist of the Agricultural Research Service of India and has more than twenty years of experience in research, teaching,
training and field work of transfer of technologies from lab to land. He holds an MSc in Agriculture and PhD in Dairy Economics from Belgrade University
and hails from Pauri Garhwal, Ekeshwar Block, Gorli Village and is 72 years old.
               Forging a New Destiny for Uttaranchal
                    Uttaranchal Association of North America’s Third Annual Convention
                            Greater Boston, Massachusetts • August 4-5, 2001

                                  FIVE SUGGESTIONS FOR THE ASSOCIATION

 The following are five suggestions for UANA to consider as it embarks on the challenging path of growing as an organization and contributing
  to the motherland. The last suggestion in particular comes from a personal place and reads more as a plea to the membership to nurture our
                                     collective culture and sustain the fire of social involvement and concern.

1. Invigorate regional chapters of UANA
Smaller regional groups, now established in the D.C., New York/New Jersey, and Greater Boston areas, must
maintain their social cohesiveness and sense of purpose, while continuing the community building process. Those
taking up the challenge of organizing their local communities should as a general rule:
    1.   maintain links with interested individuals,
    2.   seek out new members and arrivals,
    3.   strengthen the shared Uttaranchali identity,
    4.   maintain neutrality and even-handedness with all members, and
    5.   adhere to high principles in representing the association both internally and to the outside world.
As the association grows through the individual exertions and networking of its members, it will be important to
promote harmonious and inclusive relations with all segments of the community, from all parts of Uttaranchal.
Unfortunately, there are many centrifugal forces that could divide the community and it will be up to community
leaders to deal with situations as they arise in a careful, fair, and magnanimous fashion.

2. Establish working groups of UANA
Members interested in pursuing various proposals or starting new initiatives could, through the member database
built up by the association, seek aid from likeminded Uttaranchalis and find partners for their endeavours on behalf
of our native land. Acknowledging that lack of communication has been one of the biggest past obstacles towards
making a substantial contribution to Uttaranchal, the association should build the capacity and infrastructure for
greater interaction between its members. There is no reason why the immobilising effect of being a "voice in the
wilderness" should persist in the information age, and continue to hamper our efforts with the association now in
The association can thus commit to building a skills database, consisting of members and their various areas of
expertise. Such a simple Who’s Who guide would allow members to effectively network and share knowledge across
geographical distances. The working groups in turn can form the foci of major new initiatives and entrepreneurial

3. Implement a NGO project funding protocol
One of the most important aspects of forming associations in North America, and one that carries with it the
promise of making a substantial difference, is tax-exempt non-profit status. Coupled with sound accounting
procedures, UANA as a non-profit organization can coordinate the disbursal of funds to earmarked projects in
Uttaranchal, either through the auspices of the association or as a service to members seeking a prompt and secure
way to make charitable donations.
To do this, it will be necessary to clarify the rules and procedures around financial matters          to ensure their
transparent and accountable management. In order to avoid the pitfalls of nepotism and politicking,    members should
be allowed to donate to their own chosen cause, with UANA acting as a neutral conduit. The             staffing for this
would be considerable however, and forming an accounting committee to aid the treasurer will be        necessary to see
this idea take flight.

4. Liaison with Uttaranchal Government, NGOs, and the private sector
Project oversight and transparency in fund distribution can only be implemented with first-hand knowledge of
working conditions and the character of those involved in project work. Given the low level of trust accorded to
organizations in India over fiscal matters and problems presented by factionalism among NGOs themselves (especially
in Uttaranchal), it will be necessary for the association to establish its own impartial means of reviewing project
proposals and their follow through.
Therefore, in conjunction with the state government and various other initiatives of the expatriate community, office
space, equipment, and even dedicated staff can be commissioned at a future date for liaison purposes. Establishing
such an office would concretize our commitment to the development of Uttaranchal in physical terms. In terms of
financial backing, it should not be difficult to procur the space required at reasonable and even bargain rental rates.
In addition, as the establishment of this centre would benefit everyone participating in the development process, it
might be even possible to arrive at the space free of charge in partnership with other reputable organizations.
Once the level of contributions to the association reaches a significant amount, UANA can finally begin making an
impact proportional to its growing size and monetary capacity. For now, it would be of great help if those traveling
frequently to Uttaranchal for an extended period of time, set aside some time in pursuit of such plans and basic
information gathering.

5. Raising the next generation
As an Uttarakhandi born in Dehra Dun, but raised in Canada, preserving the Uttarakhandi identity has been a
challenge that I’ve been fortunate enough to meet with some success. Coupled with my own social, political, and
environmental awareness, the Uttarakhand Andolan was instrumental in awakening these bonds with the Himalayas,
and firing a passion for social change that enraptured my heart and mind. However, it was only the convergence of
these and several other factors that allowed me to delve deep into our collective ancestry and see them resurrected
on the web at the Uttarakhand home page ( Many others of my generation did not have
the opportunities nor the resources available to me through my schooling. For most, Garhwal and Kumaon remained
largely unknown places. Even for me, I could not overcome my own inhibitions to learn Garhwali and Hindi, and
thus remain crippled in my ability to relate to the whole community.
For children growing up during the years of the movement, achievement of statehood, and founding of UANA, the
obstacles will not be as great, yet the dangers of complacency will be considerable. Our pride and identity cannot
indulge in chauvinism nor can it lose its coherence under the combined onslaught of Bollywood and Hollywood.
The same patriotism, love of nature, humane values, and tradition of progressive struggle, must remain at the core
of our temperament as a people. Furthermore, what I lost in my time, can yet be regained if we make the teaching
and learning of Garhwali and Kumaoni languages a priority. In this way, we can make a lasting contribution for the
generations to come and preserve the traditions and culture of our people even across the oceans in North America.
                                                                                                            - Rajiv Rawat
                                                                                           Uttarakhand Support Committee

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