; Annual Reports 1999
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Annual Reports 1999

VIEWS: 179 PAGES: 34

  • pg 1
									 ML B O U
M E E L B O URRNNEE   Annual Reports 1999

                      THE FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

                      OF THE   VICTORIAN COLLEGE   OF   OPTOMETRY




                      THE TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT

                      OF THE   DEPARTMENT OF OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCES




                      THE THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT

                      OF THE   MELBOURNE OPTOMETRY CLINIC




                      THE FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT

                      OF THE   VICTORIAN EYECARE SERVICE
M   E L B O U R N E     O   P T O M E T R Y




A   N N U A L   R   E P O R T S    Contents
                                   Highlights                       1

                                                                    2
                                   Organisation
                                                                    4
                                   Staff
                                                                    6
                                   People
                                                                    7
                                   Education
                                                                    9
                                   Research Training
                                                                    10

                                   Continuing Education             12

                                   The Melbourne Optometry Clinic   16

                                   The Victorian Eyecare Service    17

                                                                    18
                                   Research Overview
                                                                    19
                                   Research Grants
                                                                    22
                                   Publications
                                                                    31
                                   Research Reports
                                                                    32

                                   International                    34

                                   Report To Members                35

                                   Membership of the College        36
                                                                                        M     E L B O U R N E                O   P T O M E T R Y




Melbourne Optometry continued to move               Professor Barry Cole officially retired from his    Y2K
forward in Nineteen Ninety-Nine under the           position in the Department of Optometry and         The information systems team of Melbourne
management team led by the new Director of          Vision Sciences in March 1999 and Associate
                                                                                                        Optometry, Dr Adrian Bruce, Ms Nonie
the College and Head of Department,                 Professor Alan Johnston resigned his position
                                                                                                        Donald and Mr Neville Turner made sure
                                                    in July 1999. The Department appointed Dr
Professor Neville McBrien.                                                                              there were no computing problems entering
                                                    Erica Fletcher and Dr Andrew Metha to new
                                                                                                        the new millenium.
                                                    lectureship positions in late 1999.
Ethics and Practice Standards
                                                    The postgraduate Diploma in Advanced                Clinical Services
A highlight for the College in 1999 was the
                                                    Clinical Optometry had forty four optometrists
adoption of a new Code of Ethics and Practice                                                           The Melbourne Optometry Clinic provided a
                                                    enrolled in the program and a further five
Standards, which after extensive consultation,                                                          total of 54,415 consultations including 35,562
                                                    optometrists graduated in 1999.
was adopted at the November Council
                                                                                                        first visits and supplied 31,409 visual aids in
meeting. This is a major step forward for the
                                                    Continuing Education                                1999. The number of primary care patients
College in promoting best contemporary
                                                    The College organised 10 technical meetings,        seen in 1999 was 28,509, an increase of 4.5%
practice standards in the changing health
                                                    13 clinical workshops, two grand rounds, two        compared to the previous year but 0.2% less
care environment.
                                                    one day courses, a symposium with                   than in 1997.
The College also introduced a practice              Ophthalmology on infant vision and 3 'no
accreditation scheme for participating practices                                                        Ocular Disease Services which were established
                                                    frills' lectures in 1999. In total we provided
in the country Victorian Eyecare Service. From      3,040 optometrist hours of continuing               in late 1998 had over 400 patient services in
January 1999 all new practices applying to          education. The audio-visual postal service had      1999. A total of 7,053 specialist services were
participate in the VES service will be required     104 subscribers and 1,347 loans of audio and        provided in 1999.
to be accredited. The Department of Human           video material. Mr Rod Baker was appointed
Services strongly support the introduction of the                                                       The first full year of operation within the new
                                                    manager of Continuing Education Services in
scheme to ensure the highest patient care and       October 1999 taking over from Mr Richard            Broadmeadows Health Service was completed
practice standards to eligible patients of the      Lindsay, who remains on the Continuing              in 1999. Co-operative working relationships
country VES.                                        Education Board.                                    were formed with the endocrinology,
                                                                                                        ophthalmology and general practice
Education                                           Research                                            departments at Broadmeadows.
Thirty seven students completed their Bachelor      The Department and College continued the
                                                                                                        Clinic staff continue to provide a strong
of Optometry degree in the Department of            strong performance in research in 1999,
                                                    attracting external grant income totaling           community education programme with 23
Optometry and Vision Sciences in 1999.
                                                    $613,207 for the year. A total of 30 papers         presentations to community groups in 1999.
The Department's Bachelor of Optometry              and 42 conference proceedings and reports
course was awarded full accreditation by the                                                            The country Victorian Eyecare Service provided
                                                    were published in 1999 (25 papers and 22
Optometry Council of Australia and New                                                                  low cost optometric care to 27,752 eligible
                                                    reports in 1998)
Zealand for the maximum period of eight                                                                 persons in 1999.
years. The Melbourne course is the first course     Three graduate students completed their PhD
                                                    degrees in 1999 and two Masters students            In total VCO clinical services were provided to
to be accredited by the Optometry Council,
                                                    also graduated in 1999.                             63,314 patients.
whose assessment team praised the high
standard of teaching and the commitment of
all the teaching staff.

The Department of Optometry and Vision
Sciences made some significant improvements
to the Bachelor of Optometry course in 1999
with the introduction of direct patient
management of low vision patients by final               Graham O Hill                                 Neville A McBrien
                                                                President                                         Director
year students and clinical teaching at a
regional clinic in the Broadmeadows Health
Service. The combined effect was a substantial
increase in clinical teaching experience and
diversity to students.

                                                                                                                                                          3
M     E L B O U R N E                   O     P T O M E T R Y




                                                            The Melbourne Optometry Clinic                       The Department of Optometry
Organisation                                                and the Victorian Eyecare Service                    and Vision Sciences
                                                            The Victorian Eyecare Service is a social            The Department of Optometry and Vision
The Victorian College of                                    support scheme funded by the Victorian               Sciences is an academic department of the Faculty
Optometry                                                   Department of Human Services.
                                                                                                                 of Science in The University of Melbourne.

The Victorian College of Optometry is an                    It provides optometric care at nominal cost for      The Department is responsible for a four year
incorporated body affiliated to the University              persons on low incomes. The Optometry Clinic         course in optometry leading to the degree of
of Melbourne. Its broad mission is the                                                                           Bachelor of Optometry. It also offers subjects in
                                                            provides this service in Melbourne through its
advancement of education and research in                                                                         the visual and optical sciences leading to a
                                                            main clinic in Carlton and its regional clinics in
optometry. It is the corporate entity responsible                                                                `major’ in the BSc course of the Faculty of
                                                            Community Health Centres in Darebin,
                                                                                                                 Science of the University of Melbourne.
for strategic directions, administrative services
                                                            Broadmeadows, Berwick and the Western
and infrastructure.                                                                                              The Department provides courses of training
                                                            Hospital.
                                                                                                                 by research leading to the degrees of MSc,
It provides continuing education and
                                                            It also provides specialist diagnostic and           M Optom and PhD. It also offers an honours
information services for the profession and                                                                      year of research training in the Vision Sciences
                                                            treatment services for patients referred by
maintains a library and an historical archive.                                                                   for students who have completed a 3 year
                                                            optometrists and medical practitioners.
                                                                                                                 university degree.
It promotes high professional standards by                  Among the specialist services is visual
adoption and advocacy of codes of ethics and                rehabilitation of the severely visually              The Department also offers two post graduate
practice standards.                                                                                              diplomas, a postgraduate diploma in Science
                                                            handicapped, which is provided in several low
                                                                                                                 and a post graduate diploma in Advanced
                                                            vision clinics operated in conjunction with the
                                                                                                                 Clinical Optometry.
                                                            Vision Australia Foundation.
                                                            In country regions of Victoria, low cost
                                                                                                                 The National Vision Research
                                                            optometric care is provided by a network of
                                                                                                                 Institute of Australia
                                                            participating optometrists and
                                                                                                                 The National Vision Research Institute was
                                                            ophthalmologists throughout the State. The
                                                                                                                 established in 1972 to provide a substantial
                                                            College is responsible for the administration,       on-going resource for research into vision and
                                                            cost effectiveness and the quality of care           its disorders.
                                                            provided by this service.
                                                                                                                 The Institute is committed to the exploration of
                                                                                                                 the processes that underlie the disorders of
                                                            Digital Fundus Camera
                                                                                                                 vision and this requires its work to embrace
                                                                                                                 comprehensive studies of the fundamental
                                                                                                                 mechanisms.

                                                                                                                 Its current themes are the aging of the lens,
                                                                                                                 presbyopia and cataract, and the molecular
                                                                                                                 biology of the retinal dystrophies.

                                                                                                                 The Institute operates autonomously and
                                                                                                                 presents its own annual report.


Front of the Victorian College of Optometry building




                           The expanding research profile
                              of Melbourne Optometry is
                       reflected by over 20 postgraduate



5
                                                                         M    E L B O U R N E     O    P T O M E T R Y




                                                Victorian College
                                                  of Optometry
     University of
      Melbourne                                President: Mr G O Hill
                                               Director: Professor N A
                                                      McBrien



                                                              Secretariat and
                                                                                                NVRI Board
  Faculty of Science                                         Financial Services
                                                                                            Chairman: Ms S F Kalff
                                                            Executive Officer: Ms G A




   Department of
Optometry and Vision                                                                         National Vision
     Sciences                                                                               Research Institute
   Head: Professor N A                                                                      Director and Head Lens
        McBrien                                                                           Growth and Cataract Group
                                                                                           Professor R C Augusteyn

                              Continuing Education                                        Retinal Dystrophies Group
                                                                   Clinic Board
                                     Board                                                       Dr M Tymms
   Undergraduate                                            Chairman: Mr I F Gutteridge
      School                   Chairman: Mr M B J Letts

      incorporating
    Clinical School
Coordinator: Mr M D Anjou
                                                                  Melbourne                 Country Victorian
                              Continuing Education              Optometry Clinic             Eyecare Service
                                Manager: Mr R J Baker          Director: Mr M D Anjou     Manager: Mrs H J Johnston
                                                               Deputy: Dr C A Woods
    Research and              Information Services
  Graduate Studies              Manager: Dr A S Bruce           Low Vision Clinics
                                                                         Ms A L Tiu
       Co-ordinator
  Professor N A McBrien          Nathan Library
                                                               Paediatric Services
                               Librarian: Ms C A White
                                                                     Mr T R Fricke
   Visual neuroscience
      Dr E L Fletcher                                        Contact Lens Services
      Dr A B Metha                                                 Mr A G Dowling

Ocular growth and myopia                                     Ocular Disease Clinics
  Professor N A McBrien            Membership                      Ms A L Cochrane
      Dr C L Cottriall             Committee
                              Chairman: Ms H G Robbins           Visual Functions
                                                                    Ms S Pellizzer
   Retinal structure and
         function
                                                               Disability Services
     Dr M Kalloniatis
                                                                    Ms S Pellizzer
 Visual processing models        Laboratory and                  Regional Clinics
Assoc Professor A J Vingrys     Building Services                  Mr P N Carozzi
                              Manager: Mr A L Robertson            Ms J B Cooke
     Optical sciences                                            Ms S A Goldenberg
 Assoc Professor G Smith                                          Ms A L Cochrane

                                                                  Clinic Research
     Clinical Sciences
     and ergonomics                                                 Dr C A Woods
  Professor N A McBrien




                                                                                                                      5
M   E L B O U R N E                 O      P T O M E T R Y




Staff in 2000
Central Administration of                           Department of Optometry
the College                                         and Vision Sciences
Director                                            Professor and Head of Department                Honorary Teaching and Research
Neville A McBrien BScHons PhD Wales MCOptom         Neville A McBrien BScHons PhD Wales MCOptom     Staff of Department
FAAO FBDO                                           FAAO FBDO
Executive Officer                                   Associate Professors                            Professorial Fellows
Gillian A Holley BBus (Mgt) Monash AFAIM            George Smith MSc PhD Reading                    Robert C Augusteyn BSc BScHons PhD Qld DipEd
                                                    Algis J Vingrys BScOptom PhD FAAO FVCO          Ian L Bailey BAppSc MSc Indiana FAAO LOSc
Executive Assistant to Director                                                                     Barry L Cole AO HonDUniv QUT BSc MAppSc PhD
& Deputy Executive Officer                          Senior Lecturer and Deputy Head                 LOSc FAAO FVCO
Heather J Johnston                                  Michael Kalloniatis MScOptom PhD Houston FVCO   H Barry Collin AM BSc MAppSc PhD DSc NSW LOSc
Accounts Officer                                    Lecturers                                       FRCPathLond FNZCO FAAO FVCO
Amanda D Bethune                                    Charles L Cottriall BScHons PhD Wales MCOptom   Principal Fellows
                                                    Erica L Fletcher MScOptom PhD                   (with title of Associate Professor)
Continuing Education Manager
                                                    Andrew B Metha BSc Monash BScOptom PhD          David M Cockburn OAM HonDSc MScOptom LOSc
Rodney J Baker BScOptom FVCO
                                                    Postdoctoral Research Associates                FVCO
Continuing Education Secretary                                                                      Ian F Gutteridge MScOptom LOSc FAAO FVCO
                                                    Alex Gentle BScHons PhD Wales MCOptom
Margot Matthews                                                                                     Jonathan Nathan HonDSc BSc MAppSc LOSc FVCO
                                                    John Wellard BAppSc GradDipSc PhD ANU
Information Systems Manager                                                                         Senior Fellows
                                                    Administrative Officer
Adrian S Bruce† BScOptom PhD FAAO FVCO                                                              Mitchell D Anjou MScOptom FVCO
                                                    Susan K Kenton BA DipEd BEd Latrobe
Library Manager                                                                                     Adrian S Bruce BScOptom PhD FAAO FVCO
                                                    Administrative Assistant                        Barry AJ Clark DipMechEng BSc MAppSc PhD
Carolyn M White* BAppSc (Info Lib Mgt) AALIA
                                                    Joanne DePetro*                                 Richard G Lindsay MBA BScOptom FAAO FVCO
Network Technical Officer                                                                           Anthony J Phillips MPhil FBCO FBOA HD FAAO DCIP
                                                    Laboratory Manager
Leonie M Donald                                                                                     Martin Tymms BScHons PhD Monash
                                                    Adam L Robertson Grad Dip Eng Swinburne
Administrative Assistants                                                                           Craig A Woods BScHons PhD UMIST MCOptom DCLP
                                                    Senior Technical Officers                       FAAO
Barbara H Carrick*
                                                    Frank Anastasopoulos MSc
Clare Cunliffe*                                                                                     Fellows
                                                    Anthony W Sheveleff
Rachel Dight                                                                                        Rodney J Baker BScOptom FVCO
                                                    Guido U Tomisich BAppSc RMIT
VES Claims Officers                                                                                 Anthea L Cochrane BScOptom PGDipAdvClinOptom
Denise G Anderson*                                                                                  FAAO FVCO
Gwenyth M Keil*                                                                                     Ian S Douglas BScOptom FVCO
Diane M Leaf*                                                                                       Timothy R Fricke MScOptom FAAO FVCO
                                                                                                    Sharon A Haymes GradDipSpecEd MOptom PhD FVCO
Diabetes Project Officer                                                                            John G Slack BScOptom FVCO
Fiona M Symington
Technical Assistant                                                                                 Part Time Lecturers and Tutors
David S Leeming*
                                                                                                    Gita Akerstein BA DipEd MEd PhD
Honorary Archivists                                                                                 Paul H Croucher BSc BScOptom FVCO FACBO FCOVD
Michael J Aitken                                                                                    Jacinta deHora MBBS BMedSc
Pamela R Sutton                                                                                     Anthony G Dowling BScOptom FVCO
                                                                                                    Jane F Duffy BScOptom LLB
†   Full time but appointment shared with another                                                   Stephen E Jenkins BSc PhD
    operating division                                                                              Lionel Kowal MBBS FRACS FRACO
*   Fractional full time                                                                            Russell Lowe BScOptom FVCO
                                                                                                    David W McBain FCA
                                                                                                    Heather M McCormack BSc MA PhD
                                                                                                    Sonia Pellizzer BScOptom FVCO
                                                                                                    Françoise S Rateau BScOptom FVCO FACBO
                                                                                                    Morton Rawlin MBBS
                                                                                                    Rodney Sinclair MBBS FACD
                                                                                                    Annette L Tiu BScOptom FVCO
                                                                                                    Neville W Turner BScOptom FVCO
                                                                                    M     E L B O U R N E           O    P T O M E T R Y




                                                 The Melbourne
                                                 Optometry Clinic
Clinical School of the Department                Clinic Director                                     Sessional Optometrists
                                                 Mitchell D Anjou MScOptom FVCO
                                                                                                     Andrew J Anderson BScOptom MOptom
Coordinator of the Clinical School               Deputy Clinic Director                              James A Armitage MOptom
Mitchell D Anjou MScOptom FVCO                   Craig A Woods BScHons PhD UMIST                     Bang Viet Bui MOptom
Clinical Instructors                             MCOptom DCLP FAAO                                   Shane P Debney BScOptom FVCO
                                                                                                     Liza Deuel BOptom PGradDipAdvClinOptom
Angeliki Arvanitis BOptom FVCO                   Senior Optometrists                                 Alex Gentle BSc PhD Wales MCOptom
Rodney J Baker BScOptom FVCO                     Adrian S Bruce BScOptom PhD FAAO FVCO               Riki Gibson BOptom
Jennifer M Brown BOptom                          Anthea L Cochrane BScOptom PGDipAdvClin             Peregrine Horton BScOptom
Adrian S Bruce BScOptom PhD FAAO FVCO            Optom FAAO FVCO                                     Alexandra A Jaworski BSc BOptom
Piers N Carozzi BScOptom FVCO                    Anthony G Dowling BScOptom FVCO                     Julia Kabov MOptom
Anthea L Cochrane BScOptom PGDipAdvClin          Timothy R Fricke MScOptom FAAO FVCO                 John A Khalil BOptom
Optom FAAO FVCO                                  Annette L Tiu BScOptom FVCO                         Linda Kotsos BOptom
Jenny B Cooke BScOptom FVCO                      Managers of Clinical Units and Regional Clinics     Karen KY Leung BOptom
Charles L Cottriall BScHons PhD Wales MCOptom    Piers N Carozzi BScOptom FVCO                       Jacqueline HY Lui BOptom
William E Cutler BScOptom                        Jenny B Cooke BScOptom FVCO                         Theo Markos BScOptom
                                                 Silvia A Goldenberg BScOptom FVCO                   Genevieve A Napper MScOptom PhD FVCO
Shane P Debney BScOptom FVCO
                                                 Suit May Ho BScOptom PhD FVCO                       Alan Pang BSc BOptom
Paris P Deliyannis BScHons BScOptom PhD FVCO
                                                 Sonia Pellizzer BScOptom FVCO                       Joanna A Phipps BOptom
Carla Dinardo BOptom FVCO                                                                            Daniel Sun BOptom
Anthony G Dowling BScOptom FVCO                  Optometrists                                        Hue-Trung Truong BOptom
Belinda J Everett BScOptom FVCO                  Angeliki Arvanitis BOptom FVCO                      Leonidas D Vlahakis BScOptom FVCO
Erica L Fletcher MScOptom PhD                    Jennifer M Brown BOptom                             Quent D Wain BOptom
Timothy R Fricke MScOptom FAAO FVCO              Carla Dinardo BOptom FVCO                           Natalie A Watt BOptom
Sonja U Gaulke BScOptom FVCO                     Belinda J Everett BScOptom FVCO                     Matthew T Wells BOptom
Alex Gentle BScHons PhD Wales MCOptom            Sharon A Haymes GradDipSpecEd MOptom
                                                 PhD FVCO
Malcolm Gin BScOptom FVCO
                                                 Andrew M Kotsos BOptom
                                                                                                     Clinic Support Staff
Silvia A Goldenberg BScOptom FVCO                Ka-Yee Law BScOptom FVCO
Andrew K Harris BScOptom FVCO                                                                        Secretary to the Clinic Director
                                                 Charles Luu BOptom PGDipAdvClinOptom                Lee Yin Chong*
Ross W Harris BAppSc LOSc FVCO                   Christa Sipos-Öri MOptom
Sharon A Haymes GradDipSpecEd MOptom             Neville W Turner BScOptom FVCO                      Technical Officer
PhD FVCO                                         Shirley YY Wu BOptom                                Vacant
Suit May Ho BScOptom PhD FVCO                    Jenkin Yau BOptom
                                                                                                     Supervisor Reception Services
Edwin R Howell BScOptom MSc PhD FVCO             Yota Yoshimitsu* BOptom
                                                                                                     Linda D Dickinson
FACBO FCOVD                                      Clinical Residents
Michael Kalloniatis MScOptom PhD Houston FVCO                                                        Senior Receptionists
                                                 Kon CK Be BOptom
                                                                                                     Fulya Aldemir
Chris Katopodis BScOptom FVCO                    Jason C-H Chen BOptom
                                                                                                     Karen L Dowling
Ka-Yee Law BScOptom FVCO                         Benedetta Giuffrida BOptom
                                                                                                     Jackie Veljanovski
Richard G Lindsay MBA BScOptom FAAO FVCO         Sandra J Harris BOptom
Charles Luu BOptom PGDipAdvClinOptom             Masumi Kobayashi BOptom                             Receptionists
Neville A McBrien BScHons PhD Wales              Tamara L Pollard BOptom PGDip AdvClinOptom          Angela Fornaro*
                                                 Eva P-F Wong BOptom PGDip AdvClinOptom              E Kate Gregory*
MCOptom FAAO FBDO
                                                                                                     Carolyn F King*
Andrew B Metha BSc Monash BScOptom PhD           Consultant
                                                                                                     Danielle Mellili
Brendan A Myers BOptom FVCO                      Algis J Vingrys BScOptom PhD FAAO FVCO
                                                                                                     Jacqueline A McColl*
Sonia Pellizzer BScOptom FVCO                                                                        Zaneta Mladenovska*
Geoffrey P Sampson BScOptom                      Sessional Staff Optometrists                        Quyen MT Pham
Vicki L Shuley BOptom UNSW                       Senior Visiting Optometrists (Specialist Clinics)   Heidrun J Saheed*
John G Slack BScOptom FVCO                       Rodney J Baker BScOptom FVCO                        Typist
Kenneth W Thomas BScOptom FVCO                   Janice N Bastiaan BScOptom FVCO                     Sonia Rosso*
Annette L Tiu BScOptom FVCO                      Peter M Craven MSc BScOptom DipRehabStud
Neville W Turner BScOptom FVCO                   FVCO                                                Supervisor Dispensing Services
Glen A Vessey BScOptom FVCO                      Paris P Deliyannis BScHons BScOptom PhD FVCO        Margot A Nelson PhC
Jean M Walters BScOptom GradDipChildDevel FVCO   Edwin R Howell BScOptom MSc PhD FVCO FACBO          Technical Officers (Dispensary)
Craig A Woods BScHons PhD UMIST                  FCOVD                                               Brian W Long
                                                 Susan F Kalff BScOptom                              Robert D Meredith
MCOptom DCLP FAAO
                                                 Deborah A Lapthorne BScOptom FVCO
Algis J Vingrys BScOptom PhD FAAO FVCO                                                               Technical Assistants
                                                 Ian H McMahon BScOptom FVCO
                                                 Brendan A Myers BOptom FVCO                         Ricardo R D'Cruz
                                                 Markus N Ochsenbein BScOptom FVCO                   Alejandro Menuel*
                                                 Helen G Robbins BAHons BScOptom MHA LOSc            Ashley Ward-Smith
                                                 Anne R Russell BScOptom FVCO                        Optical Apprentices
                                                 Geoffrey P Sampson BScOptom                         Aiden J Deane
                                                 Gemma Walsh BOptom                                  Stephen J Trotman
                                                 Jean M Walters BScOptom FVCO




                                                                                                                                              7
M     E L B O U R N E                  O    P T O M E T R Y




People                                                 extensive and authoritative. He became
                                                       established as an authority in the field of                                    back, with research
                                                       colour vision and visual ergonomics. His                                       on the
Councillor Elected National
                                                       curriculum vitae cites over 70 published                                       neurochemistry of
OAA President
                                                       scientific papers and 25 published reports to                                  retinal
College Councillor Helen Robbins was elected
                                                       government and other organisations. He has                                     degeneration.
National President of the Optometrists
                                                       supervised ten Masters of Science degrees and
Association of Australia in 1999. Ms Robbins,                                                                                         Dr Fletcher won a
                                                       seven Doctorates of Philosophy.
who chairs the Membership Committee and is                                                                                            prestigious CJ
a member of the Professional Standards                 The Victorian College of Optometry and              Martin Fellowship awarded by the National
                                                       Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences         Health and Medical Research Council. This
Committee of the College will be a great asset
                                                                                                           fellowship took her to Germany where she
to the profession in her role as President.            will always be indebted to the vision, energy and
                                                                                                           worked in the Max-Planck Institute for Brain
Despite the increased demands on her time Ms           commitment willingly contributed by Barry Cole.
                                                                                                           Research for 3 years researching the
Robbins still committed a substantial amount                                                               localisation and function of glutamate and
                                                       In recognition of this contribution to the
                             of time to College                                                            GABA receptors and their clustering molecules
                                                       discipline of optometry Professor Cole was
                             affairs in 1999. In                                                           in the retina.
                                                       awarded an honorary Doctorate from
                             her role as chair of
                                                       Queensland University of Technology in 1999         Dr Fletcher will teach ocular anatomy now that
                             the Membership
                                                                                                                                       the Department has
                             committee she was                                                                                         taken responsibility
                                                       Long Serving Councillor
                             heavily involved in       Steps Down                                                                      for that subject in
                             shaping the                                                                                               the optometry
                                                       Dr Alan Johnston stepped down from his
                             recently adopted                                                                                          course. She will also
                                                       position on Council in August 1999 following
                             Code of Ethics and                                                                                        be involved in
                                                       his resignation as Associate Professor in the                                   teaching anterior
Practice Standards.
                                                       Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences                                     eye disease and
                                                       in July 1999. Dr Johnston served as a member                                    aspects of contact
Foundation Professor Retires
                                                       of the Council for twenty years until his                                       lens practice.
Barry Cole, Foundation Professor of the                resignation from Council in August 1999. As a
                                                                                                           Dr Andrew Metha brings an array of skills to
Department of Optometry at the University of           member of the academic staff of the                 the Department. He completed a BSc degree in
Melbourne officially retired from the University       Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences         mathematics and physics before he embarked
on March 31, 1999. Professor Cole retired as           in the University of Melbourne, Dr Johnston         on the optometry course. He completed his
College Director and stepped down as Head of           provided a valued academic viewpoint in             BScOptom in 1990 and then took on research
Department in December 1998.                           Council discussions and decisions. He loyally       toward a PhD degree working on motion
                                                       supported the College Director of that period,      perception and modelling the fundamental
In the year of his retirement from the
                                                       Barry Cole. He served diligently on the Board       limits of the achromatic and chromatic visual
University it is appropriate to note the
                                                                                                           mechanisms.
contribution he has made to the academic               of Continuing Education for 20 years from
discipline of Optometry. Below are excerpts            1979 to 1999. Council adopted a minute of           His first post-doctoral appointment was at
                                                       appreciation in recognition of Dr Johnston's        McGill University, Montreal where he
taken from a minute of appreciation adopted
                                                       long service to the College.                        continued his psychophysical studies of motion
by College Council.
                                                                                                           perception with Professor Kathy Mullen. From
Barry Cole began his academic career with the                                                              McGill he moved to the Centre for Visual
                                                       Two New Academic Staff
College in 1959, when he was appointed the                                                                 Science in the University of Rochester, New
                                                       The Department of Optometry and Vision              York, where he used adaptive optics
first full time lecturer, having earlier served as a
                                                       Sciences has made two new appointments to           technology to image and identify individual
part time clinical instructor. He quickly set
                                                       its academic staff. They are Dr Erica Fletcher      retinal receptors in the living eye. At Rochester
about enhancing the College's role in the
                                                       and Dr Andrew Metha. They were appointed            he also began major neuro-physiological
profession beyond that of teaching by creating
                                                                                                           studies of the visual cortex which he continued
an exciting environment in which there was a           after an international search and a highly
                                                                                                           on his return to Australia as a Research Fellow
strong emphasis on research. He became both            competitive selection process.
                                                                                                           in the Centre for Visual Science at the
catalyst and role model for several generations of     Dr Erica Fletcher obtained her BScOptom in          Australian National University in Canberra.
educators, researchers, clinicians and students.       1989. Her Master’s degree involved the study        Dr Metha’s teaching will be in the areas of
Professor Cole's own research career has been          of Pseudomonas infection of the cornea. Her         abnormal colour vision, physiological optics
                                                       PhD took her from the front of the eye to the       and vision science. He will also be involved in
                                                                                                           the clinical teaching of both 3rd year and 4th
9
               D    E P A R T M E N T          O F   O   P T O M E T R Y         A N D           V   I S I O N   S   C I E N C E S




                                                                    Education


                                                                  Full time academic staff and
                                                                  administrative officer of
                                                                  the Department of Optometry
                                                                  and Vision Sciences




Students of the Bachelor of Optometry Course


                                                                                                                                 9
                                                 Undergraduate Course
 Education                                       In 1999 the Department’s Bachelor of
                                                                                                      Australian full fee paying students were
                                                                                                      accepted into the BOptom course. Full fee
                                                 Optometry course was assessed by the                 paying students must have a minimum ENTER
 Bachelor of Optometry
                                                                                                      score of 96.
                                                 Optometry Council of Australia and New
 Thirty-seven students completed the degree of
 Bachelor of Optometry in 1999.                  Zealand. The course was given full                   There were 11 new overseas full fee paying
                                                 accreditation for the maximum period of eight        students admitted to the BOptom course
 David Antonios
                                                 years. The assessment team praised the high          in 1999. Five of the overseas students were
 Kon Kok C Be                                                                                         optometry diplomates from the Singapore
                                                 standard of teaching and the commitment of
 Sheridan A Brinsmead                            the teaching staff.                                  polytechnic who entered the degree
 Jason C-H Chen                                                                                       upgrade program.
                                                 In 1999 the Department introduced direct
 Salvatore Del Popolo
                                                 patient care of low vision patients for final year   Number of Students BOptom
 Daniel J Farrugia
                                                 students and clinical teaching at                                          1999        1998          1997
 Nuzula Fouz
                                                 Broadmeadows Community Health Centre. A              First Year              32          32           30
 Riki Gibson
                                                 new `Biochemistry and the Eye’ course was            Second Year             43          43           43
 Benedetta Giuffrida                                                                                  Third Year              42          39           31
                                                 introduced in the 2nd year of the course.
 Anna Goutkovitch                                                                                     Fourth Year             37          30           34
 Minh T Hoang
                                                 Postgraduate Diploma in
 Joanna S Hudnott                                Advanced Clinical Optometry
 Russell L W Hunter                                                                                   Number of EFTSU in the Department
                                                 The Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced
 Alexandra A Jaworski                                                                                                                   1999         1998
                                                 Clinical Optometry was introduced in 1997 to
                                                                                                      BOptom                            87.75      77.40
 Nilmini D John                                  provide an opportunity for formal study by           BSc                                6.38       5.30
 Alice Jung                                      optometrists who wished to extend their              PGDipAdvClinOptom                 13.00       9.30
 Danielle Keogh                                  knowledge and specialist clinical skills. The        MSc                                0.50       2.50
 Masumi Kobayashi                                course can be completed in one year full time        MOptom                             3.50       6.00
 Andrew M Kotsos                                 but has been designed to allow optometrists in       PhD                                7.50      13.00

 Khai Q Lam                                      practice to complete on a part time basis. Four
                                                                                                      EFTSU is equivalent full time student units and
 Mun S Lee                                       semester length subjects have to be completed        represents the number of students taught within the
 Jacqueline H Y Lui                              with the opportunity to choose subjects              Department, taking into account teaching provided
                                                 relating to specialist areas of Optometry.           by other departments of the University.
 Phillip Luu
 Stephanie L Ly                                  The first graduates completed the Postgraduate
 Kelly C McGuren                                 Diploma in Advanced Clinical Optometry at the
 Ha Nguyen                                       end of 1998. There were 44 candidates
 Hoang-Tu Nguyen                                 enrolled in the PGDipAdvClinOptom in 1999.
 Douglas G Niproski
                                                 The following optometrists completed the
 Anita Poon                                      postgraduate diploma in 1999:
 Emma J Riordon                                     Liza Deuel
 Daniel Sun                                         Charles Luu
 Khang Q Ta                                         Tamara L Pollard
 Mark L C Tsui                                      James S Wolffsohn
 Eugene Virtser                                     Eva P F Wong
 Matthew Wells
 Jenkin C K Yau                                  Demand for the Course
 Jene Yusupov                                    Demand for places in the BOptom course
                                                 remained very strong. The clearly-in-rank
                                                 ENTER score was 98.6, which is similar to 1998       Dr Michael Kalloniatis, Senior Lecturer, demonstrating
                                                 and the highest ENTER score in the Faculty           the new multimedia teaching module to first year
                                                 of Science.                                          Vision Science students.

                                                 All Australian Universities may now offer full
                                                 fee paying places to Australian students for
                                                 any course except medicine. In 1999, five


11
Research                                         ** The students marked with asterisks were awarded
                                                 their higher degrees in early 1999 and were
                                                 previously recorded in the 1998 annual report.
                                                                                                              (Professor McBrien and Dr Cottriall)

                                                                                                              Kirstan Vessey The role of Acetylcholine and
Training                                                                                                      Glutamate in the control of ocular growth (Dr
                                                                                                              Cottriall and Professor McBrien)
                                                 Postgraduate students at
The Department of Optometry and Vision                                                                        Andrew Zele Temporal interactions between
                                                 December 31 1999                                             flickering and luminous pedestals (Associate
Sciences offers research training in optometry
                                                                                                              Professor Vingrys)
and vision science for the degrees of Bachelor   Doctor of Philosophy
of Science with Honours (Vision Science),        Shelly Ames The effects of viewing virtual
Master of Science, Master of Optometry and       stereoscopic television imagery on the visual
                                                                                                              Masters Theses
Doctor of Philosophy.                            system of observers (Professor McBrien)                      Christa Bara The mechanism of action of
                                                                                                              reverse geometry gas permeable contact lenses
                                                 Andrew Anderson Determination of the
Higher Degrees                                   mechanisms underlying the detection of
                                                                                                              in orthokeratology (Dr Bruce and Mr Lindsay)
Awarded 1999                                                                                                  Under Examination
                                                 flickering stimuli in the presence of luminance
                                                 pedestals (Associate Professor Vingrys)                      Yan-Mei Hao Assessment and management
Doctor of Philosophy
                                                                                                              of low vision – a Chinese near vision test chart
Andrew Jobling A biochemical study of            James Armitage The effect of dietary DHA
                                                                                                              and portable video system (Professor McBrien)
steroid cataract (Professor Augusteyn)           and anti-oxidants on retinal light damage
                                                 (Associate Professor Vingrys and Professor                   Under Examination
Carol Lakkis Contamination of hydrogel           Sinclair RMIT)                                               Karen Leung The effect of desktop virtual
contact lens disinfection systems (Professor                                                                  reality on the oculomotor system (Professor
                                                 Bang Viet Bui Correlating functional and
Fleizig, Berkeley and Dr Bruce)                  neurochemical changes following retinal                      McBrien and Dr Wolffsohn)

Harrison Weisinger The role of N-3               metabolic insult (Associate Professor Vingrys                Joanna Phipps Retinal function in cases of
                                                 and Dr Kalloniatis)
polyunsaturated fatty acids in the development                                                                treated and untreated soft drusen (Associate
of retinal function and ingestive behaviour      Sharon Haymes Vision impairment and activities               Professor Vingrys)
(Associate Professor Vingrys and Professor       of daily living (Dr Heyes) Under Examination
                                                                                                              Kannan Venkatachalam Visibility of road sign
Sinclair RMIT)                                   Michael Pianta Light and dark adaptation in                  materials under various luminants (Associate
                                                 human colour vision mechanisms (Dr                           Professor Smith) Under Examination
Masters Theses                                   Kalloniatis) Under Examination
                                                                                                              Yota Yoshimitsu Assessment, classification
**James Armitage Inheritance of                  Hue-Trung Truong Neuropharmacological                        and management of non-strabismic disorders
keratoconus (Dr Bruce)                           mechanisms in the regulation of ocular growth                of binocular vision (Professor McBrien
**Foong Chong Soon Recognition of signal                                                                      and Mr Fricke)

colours (Professor Cole)


                                                 Higher degree graduates: Dr Harrison Weisinger (2nd from left), Dr Andrew Jobling (3rd from left) and Dr Carol




                                                                                                                                                                  11
 V   I C T O R I A N                    C   O L L E G E       O F        O    P T O M E T R Y




 Continuing
 Education
 The Board of
 Continuing Education
 Mark BJ Letts - Chairman
 Adrian S Bruce
 Paul H Croucher
 Ian S Douglas
 Graham O Hill
 Richard G Lindsay
 Neville A McBrien
                                                       The Nathan Library’s new librarian Ms Carolyn White
 John G Slack
 Algis J Vingrys                                       the program. Speakers ranged in topics from                   symposium on refractive surgery held in 1997.
 Rodney J Baker - Manager                              general medicine to ophthalmology and
                                                                                                                     Clinical Grand Rounds on Saturday afternoons
                                                       clinical topics in optical dispensing, contact                with guest ophthalmologists were held on the
                                                       lenses and paediatrics. The program of No-                    topics of optic nerve and anterior eye.
 Gillian A Holley - Executive Officer
                                                       frills lectures following the technical meetings              Workshop programs continued in June and
 Margot Matthews - Secretary
                                                       was expanded, offering members the                            September. Three Factsheets were released
 The Continuing Education Board offers a               opportunity to achieve up to 16 category A                    with the monthly newsletter.

 program designed to promote learning and              points from Tuesday evening attendances.                      The Continuing Education office continues to
 clinical skills acquisition for members, as well as                                                                 offer support to other inter-professional
                                                       One day Courses on diabetes and lens
 providing information in a traditional didactic                                                                     educational initiatives of the organisation such
                                                       technology were held. The Diabetes Course
 teaching style. The College is unique as a CE                                                                       as the Aviation Medicine Course for GP’s,
                                                       involved multi-disciplinary teaching. The lens                optometry for the School Nursing Service, and
 provider in its program of technical meetings,
                                                       technology course was held in Adelaide in                     optometry for Aboriginal health workers.
 small group workshops and grand rounds.
                                                       conjunction with SOLA optical. This
 The Board also offers courses for the support staff   represented a new approach of education with                  Electronic Learning
 of members and programs aimed at promoting            an industry partner. A one-day joint                          We continue to develop the Melbourne
 optometry to other professional groups.               symposium on Vision in Children was held in                   Optometry Internet site and now have a
                                                       conjunction with the Royal Victorian Eye and                  dedicated Continuing Education page. There
 Tuesday night Technical Meetings were held in
                                                       Ear Hospital. This initiative will continue as a              are also links to cyber journals, data bases,
 the Amies Theatre and remain a key feature of                                                                       reference sources and related organisations.
                                                       biannual program, following the inaugural
                                                                                                                     You can gain direct access to the Library's
                                                                                                                     electronic catalogue from the internet.
 Continuing Education Provided 1999
 Category A Services                                                      Events                Registrations                  CE Hours                      (1998)

 Technical Meetings                                                            10                             948                   1422                      (1602)
 Workshops                                                                     13                             140                    490                       (528)
 Grand Rounds                                                                   2                              34                    119                        (59)
 One Day Courses                                                                2                              76                    532                       (791)
 Symposium with Ophthalmology                                                   1                              61                    305                         (-)
 No-frills Lectures                                                             3                             115                    172                       (196)

 Total                                                                         31                            1374                   3040                      (3177)

 CE for Support Staff                                                           1                              22

 Remote Learning Services                                         Registrations                         (1998)
 Audio-visual subscribers                                                    104                             (108)
 Audio Tapes Loaned                                                          662                             (756)
 Video Tapes Loaned                                                          685                             (799)


13
                                                                                               M   E L B O U R N E   O   P T O M E T R Y   C   L I N I C




MILDURA

                                                                                                      Clinical
                                                                          Networks
                                                                          Melbourne clinic
                                                                          Regional clinics
                                                                          Low Vision Clinics
                                                                                                      Services
                                                       ALBURY /WODONGA

                                                             SHEPPARTON

          HORSHAM                            BENDIGO




                                       BROADMEADOWS
                        BALLARAT                        DAREBIN
                                     ESSENDON            GUIDE DOGS
                            WESTERN HOSPITAL            KOOYONG
                                                             BERWICK
                                   GEELONG               KINGSTON    WARRAGUL
                                                        Mt ELIZA
              WARRNAMBOOL




                                                                                                                                                      13
The Melbourne                        Margot A Nelson
                                                                                                              40000          Specialist
                                                                                                                             Primary Care
                                     Supervisor Dispensing Services
Optometry                                                                                                     35000



                                     The Melbourne Optometry Clinic provides low                              30000

Clinic                               cost optometry care for people who have low




                                                                                      Provision of Services
                                                                                                              25000
                                     incomes and endeavours to reach out to the
Board of Management of               community to provide services to those that                              20000

the Clinic 1999                      are disadvantaged.
                                                                                                              15000
Ian F Gutteridge Chairman            It also provides specialist optometry care for
Mitchell D Anjou                     patients referred by optometrists, medical
                                                                                                              10000

Piers N Carozzi (from July 1999)     practitioners and other health care providers.                           5000
Anthony G Dowling (to June 1999)
                                     It provides resources for clinical training of
Graham O Hill                                                                                                    0
                                     undergraduate optometry students and offers                                      1989      1991    1993      1995     1997     1999
Neville A McBrien
                                     clinical residencies for recent graduates to                                                           Year
John L Pettit
                                     develop their clinical skills and expertise.
Trevor S Pritchard                                                                            patients in 1999, an increase of 4.5%
                                     Higher degree students have the opportunity
                                                                                              compared to the previous year and 0.2% less
Gillian A Holley Executive Officer   to work within the Clinic to maintain and
                                                                                              than 1997. The histogram shows the primary
                                     develop their clinical skills.
                                                                                              care services over the last 10 years.

Senior Staff 1999                    It provides community education and support
                                     and has a responsibility to provide leadership           Specialist Care
Mitchell D Anjou
                                     to the profession through innovation, research           The Clinic provides specialist optometry care
Clinic Director
                                     and the maintenance of the highest standards             through its contact lens, children’s, disability,
Craig A Woods                        of care.                                                 ocular disease and visual functions clinics.
Deputy Clinic Director
                                                                                              In conjunction with the Vision Australia
                                     Primary Care                                             Foundation (previously Association for the
Adrian S Bruce
                                     The Clinic provided primary care to 28,509               Blind), low vision services are provided through
Head Clinic Research

Anthea L Cochrane
                                                                                                                                               1% Special Investigation
Head Ocular Disease Services                                                                                                                   and Ocular Disease Clinics


Anthony G Dowling
                                     Contact Lens Clinic 3%                                                                                         1% Private Patients
Head Contact Lens Services

Timothy R Fricke
                                     Low Vision Clinics 12%
Head Paediatric Services

Annette L Tiu                        Disability Clinic 1%

Head Low Vision Services
                                     Children's Clinic 4%

Sonia Pellizzer                      Aboriginal Clinic
                                     Primary Care 1%
Manager Disability Services

Piers N Carozzi                      Community Health
                                     and Hospital Clinics
Jenny B Cooke                        Primary Care 19%

Silvia A Goldenberg
Suit May Ho
Regional Clinic Managers

Linda D Dickinson
                                                                                                                                                     58% Carlton Clinic
Supervisor Reception Services                                                                                                                            Primary Care
                                                                                 M        E L B O U R N E            O   P T O M E T R Y                C    L I N I C




a network of 13 low vision clinics in Victoria                   The Broadmeadows clinic is located in an                200 aboriginal patients in 1999.
including major metropolitan clinics at                          integrated care facility with co-located services
Kooyong and Essendon.                                                                                                    Serving Our Community
                                                                 including a large general medical clinic and an
                                                                                                                         The Clinic is committed to providing eye care
Ocular Disease Services were established in late                 outreach ophthalmology clinic of the Royal
                                                                                                                         to people who have difficulty accessing current
1998 and completed the first full year of                        Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. The clinic has
                                                                                                                         services and who are specially disadvantaged.
operation in 1999. Anthea Cochrane heads                         two consulting rooms and in the second half of
                                                                                                                         The low vision clinics provide integrated visual,
this clinical unit which operates three or four                  1999 the facility was used for clinical teaching
                                                                                                                         mobility and social rehabilitation to those who
clinics weekly, concentrating on the treatment                   of final year undergraduate optometry
                                                                                                                         have lost sight.
of acute presentations and the management                        students. This opportunity allows students
                                                                                                                         The clinic operating at the Victorian Aboriginal
of retinal disease, anterior eye disease and                     exposure to a different clinical setting, which
                                                                                                                         Health Service is a further example of this policy.
glaucoma. Over 400 patient services were                         enhances their clinical experience.
provided by Ocular Disease Services in 1999.                                                                             The Melbourne Optometry Clinic has networks
                                                                 The East Preston clinic opened a second                 with active referral pathways across 10
The specialist clinics provided care for 7,053                   consulting room in October 1999 and in 2000             agencies who support those with severe social
patients in 1999.                                                final year undergraduate optometry students             disadvantage.
The pie diagram shows the percentage of first                    will provide supervised clinical services at East       The Disability Services division of the Clinic
visits across all clinics of the Melbourne                       Preston. The East Preston facility is a more            provides a visiting service to those with severe
Optometry Clinic in 1999. Approximately                          traditional community health setting with a             disability who are unable to attend our
20% of all first visit services are provided in                  medical service and strong allied health team           established clinics. There is growing demand
the specialist clinics.                                          working closely with the local community.               for this service.

                                                                 The clinic in the Western Hospital Footscray is
Regional Clinics
                                                                 limited by space allocation as it uses shared
The Clinic operates regional services in the
                                                                 rooms with an ophthalmology service. A
Melbourne metropolitan area through clinics in
                                                                 facility at the Sunshine campus of the hospital
the Darebin Community Health Service (East
                                                                 has been established and began operation in
Preston), Broadmeadows Health Service,
                                                                 early 2000.
Berwickwide Community Health Service
(Doveton-Hallam), Western Hospital (Footscray                    The clinic at the Victorian Aboriginal Health
campus) and Victorian Aboriginal Health                          Service has continued to successfully operate
Service in Fitzroy.                                              providing care two sessions per week to over


Attendances at the Melbourne Optometric Clinic 1999
                                                                 No. of                      No. subsequent              Total no. of                      No. Rx
                                                               first visits                       visits1             professional visits                dispensed

Primary Care                                            28,509       (27,286)              11,001    (9,284)         39,510     (36,570)           27,712      (24,475)

Specialist Services
Paediatric Services                                      1,465        (1,404)                 635      (520)          2,100      (1,924)
Contact Lens Services                                      597          (540)               4,037    (2,925)          4,634      (3,465)            1,715       (1,632)
Low Vision Services                                      4,372        (3,973)               2,773    (2,751)          7,145      (6,724)            1,842       (3,427)
Ocular Disease Services                                    126                                315                       441
Visual Functions Clinic                                    177           (345)                 59       (19)            236         (364)
Disability Services                                        316                                 33                       349

Total Specialist                                         7,053        (6,262)               7,852    (6,215)         14,905     (12,477)

Total Clinic                                            35,562       (33,548)              18,853   (15,499)         54,415     (49,047)           31,409     (29,534)

Figures in brackets are those for the previous year
1 Excludes visits for collection of glasses
2 Contact lens visits counted to include fitting, delivery and aftercare visits in 1999
3 Includes glasses prescribed in all clinics
4 Includes replacement lenses
5 Low vision aids only (not glasses)

                                                                                                                                                                            15
 M    E L B O U R N E                 O    P T O M E T R Y              C    L I N I C




                     Who Did We See?                 (1999 patients by eligibilty)
                                                                                                                     numerous practical classes. The Department
                                                                                                                     introduced important new undergraduate
 Health Care Card 13.9%                                                         0.1% Ward of the State, HMG,
                                                                                Private Referred and Dispensing      clinical teaching developments in 1999.
                                                                                                  1.6% Student       Clinical teaching at the Broadmeadows Health
                                                                                                0.8% UM Staff        Service and direct patient care experiences
                                                                                                                     were provided through the Vision Australia
                                                                                           1.2% Referral from
                                                                                                    Specialist       Foundation low vision clinic at Kooyong.

                                                                                           1.5% Private Patient      Senior Optometrists Anthea Cochrane, Adrian

                                                                                                    1.4% Dept        Bruce and Tim Fricke shared responsibility for
                                                                                                Veteran's Affairs
                                                                                                                     units of the Department of Optometry and

                                                                                             0.5% Eligible - CHC
                                                                                                                     Vision Sciences Post Graduate Diploma in
                                                                                                                     Advanced Clinical Optometry.
                                                                                             4.4% Eligible - LVC
                                                                                                                     Clinic staff provided over twenty lectures to
                                                                                                                     optometry audiences at a range of meetings
                                                                                                                     in 1999. The community education program of
                                                                                                  0.3% Refugee
                                                                                                                     the Clinic provided 23 presentations or training

 Pensioner
                                                                                                                     programs to groups throughout 1999. These
                                                                                              0.8% Eligible - CC
 Concession                                                                                                          ranged from talks to diabetes groups and in
 Card 72.9%
                                                                                              0.8% Non Eligible
                                                                                                                     community health centres to courses for
                                                                                                                     International Summer School students of the
 In 1999 over 700 people with special               The Clinic provides the venues for clinical                      University of Melbourne on eyes and visual
 disadvantage were provided with optometry          experience and instruction for third and fourth                  function. The Clinic is working with Victorian
 care by the Clinic. The Clinic in 2000 wishes to   year students of the University of Melbourne                     aboriginal communities to provide eye care
 develop these services further by involving        Optometry course. Clinic staff were involved in                  courses to aboriginal health workers throughout
 private practitioners in optometry care to         3,900 hours of clinical instruction in 1999                      Victoria. This program of instruction began in
 supported residential services.                    supplementing that given by academic staff of
                                                                                                                     1999 and will continue in 2000.
                                                    the Department of Optometry and Vision
 Staff                                              Sciences. Staff also gave 60 lectures to                         The Clinic has a strong program of staff training
 Dr Craig Woods took up appointment as              undergraduate students and taught in                             and development. All Staff Optometrists are
 Deputy Clinic Director in March.
                                                    Mr Bill Cutler, visiting teaching clinician in the contact lens clinic with final year Bachelor of Optometry students.
 Dr James Wolffsohn resigned in December to
 take up an academic position in the University
 of Aston in the UK.

 The Clinic welcomed three new clinical
 residents Sandra Harris, John Truong and
 Bonnie Tsang in 1999. The clinic provides a
 strong, expert collegiate support and diverse
 experience opportunities for all staff. In 1999
 over 30 full time optometrists and an
 additional 40 sessional optometrists, most of
 whom come from private practice, were
 employed by the clinic providing public
 optometry care.


 Education and Training
 An important mission of the Clinic is education
 and training.



17
                                                                    M      E L B O U R N E                   O     P T O M E T R Y                    C    L I N I C




                                                      completion of an important two year project
required to hold current CPR certificates and are
                                                      with Vision Australia Foundation to develop a
responsible for regular and selected attendance
                                                      quality of life assessment tool for use by
at continuing professional education.
                                                      practitioners working in the low vision clinics.
Four Clinic staff Charles Luu, Tamara Pollard,        The College through the clinic was successful
James Wolffsohn and Eva Wong completed                in obtaining a one year grant from the
the Post Graduate Diploma in Advanced                 Department of Human Services to develop
                                                      improved strategies for retinopathy screening
Clinical Optometry in 1999.
                                                      of patients with diabetes.

Clinical Residencies
                                                      Targets and Finances
New staff are preferentially appointed to
                                                      The Clinic is part of a not for profit
clinical resident positions by competitive
                                                      organisation and its mission includes the
selection. Residents undertake a three year
                                                      provision of low cost eyecare, so the financial
program which includes concurrent study in
                                                      management of activities must be scrutinised
the University’s Post Graduate Diploma in
                                                      closely and carefully.
Advanced Clinical Optometry and rotation
through specialist and regional clinics to ensure     The Clinic concluded the year with an
they develop a broad range of clinical skills.        operating deficit of $40,419 after accounting
Residents and staff are expected to develop           for depreciation of $367,727 and a provision
skills of public speaking and teaching,               for bad debts of $68,618. Capital expenditure
computer proficiency and the abilities to             on equipment was in excess of $148,000.
research and report on clinical matters. The
                                                      The College enters into a service agreement
residency programme started in 1998 and is
                                                      with the Victorian Government Department of
open to graduates of all the Australian and
                                                      Human Services annually regarding the
New Zealand optometry schools.
                                                      Victorian Eyecare Service, which includes
                                                      support for the Clinic. A new service
Clinic Development and Research
                                                      agreement for the years 1999 to 2001 was
Research and development activities in the
Clinic have been lead by Dr Adrian Bruce in           Clinical residents (from left) Eva Wong (year 3), Sandra Harris (year 2), Masumi Kobayashi (year 1), and Benedetta
1999. Professor McBrien and Dr Woods                  Giuffrida (year 1) with Tim Fricke (2nd from left) Senior Optometrist and coordinator of the residency programme
                                                      in 2000.
brought considerable new research experience
to the research group in 1999. The other
members of the research team included Dr
Wolffsohn and Mr Fricke. Key areas of research
are allied to the Clinic’s specialist service areas
of contact lenses, low vision and paediatric
services. Research grants totalling $112,845
were obtained in 1999.

Three post graduate students co-supervised by
Clinic staff submitted their theses and one
clinical Masters student project is in progress.

Four papers were published, four are in press
and three papers were submitted for
publication by Clinic staff. Fifteen
presentations were made at national and
international conferences including the
American Academy of Optometry meeting in
Seattle and Vision 99, a low vision meeting in
New York.

Clinic research highlights for the year include

                                                                                                                                                                           17
V   I C T O R I A N                 C    O L L E G E        O F                    O           P T O M E T R Y




The Victorian                                      In 1999 a practice accreditation scheme was
                                                   initiated for all current VES practices. By the
                                                                                                                                                                     scheme from January 1999 will be required to
                                                                                                                                                                     be accredited.

Eyecare Service                                    end of the year over 85% of practices had
                                                   applied to participate in the programme. All                                                                      VES Review and Complaints
The Victorian eyecare Servcie provides             new practices applying to enter the VES                                                                           Committee 1999
optometric care at nominal cost for persons        scheme from January 1999 will require to be                                                                       Graham O Hill
who hold a pensioner concession card or            accredited.                                                                                                       Chairman
health care card and live in country Victoria.                                                                                                                       Robert IF Holloway
                                                                                                                                                                     OAA Representative
The VES is available in 88 countrytowns and
                                                                                                                                                                     Geoffrey A Leunig
cities from Mildura to Orbost through a                      MILDURA
                                                                                                                                                                     VES practitioner Representative
network of 120 participating optometrists and
                                                                                                                                                                     Hector MacLean
20 ophthalmologists.                                                                                                                                                 Ophthalmologists' Representative

The cost to the patient is kept to a minimum                                                                                                                         Ian Shaw
                                                                                               SWAN HILL
                                                                                                                                                                    LEGEND
by bulk billing the primary consultation fee.
                                                                                 HOPETOUN
Patients make only a small contribution to the                                                                        KERANG

                                                                                                                                                     COBRAM
                                                                       RAINBOW
cost of glasses or contact lenses and the                              JEPARIT                                                            NUMURKAH YARRAWONGA
                                                                                                                               ECHUCA                                 WODONGA                 CORRYONG
                                                                              WARRACKNABEAL
balance is subsidised by a State Government                   NHILL                      DONALD
                                                                                                           CHARLTON                                  KYABRAM            WANGARATTA
                                                                                                                                                         SHEPPARTON                BEECHWORTH
                                                                      DIMBOOLA                                WEDDERBURN                                                   MYRTLEFORD
                                                                                  MINYIP
grant. The Victorian College of Optometry is                                    MURTOA                                                               MURCHISON
                                                                                                                                                                  BENALLA
                                                           GOROKE                                    ST ARNAUD
                                                                           HORSHAM                                                                          EUROA                   BRIGHT
                                                                                                                               BENDIGO
responsible for administering the service and                                                                                            HEATHCOTE
                                                                                                                MARYBOROUGH
                                                                                                             AVOCA       CASTLEMAINE
for quality assurance.                                 EDENHOPE                      STAWELL
                                                                                                                                  KYNETON
                                                                                            ARARAT
                                                                                                                                        GISBORNE
This service ran closely to targets in 1999. The                                                          BEAUFORT
                                                                                                                    BALLARAT
                                                                                                      SKIPTON
                                                                      HAMILTON                                   BACCHUS MARSH                                HEALESVILLE
wait time for VES benefits varied from 8 to 12                                                         LISMORE                                                YARRA JUNCTION
                                                                                                                                                                                                    BAIRNSDALE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ORBOST
                                                                                                                                                                                        MAFFRA LAKES ENTRANCE
weeks throughout the year. The high quality of                                                 MORTLAKE             GEELONG
                                                                                                                            CORIO
                                                                                                                                DRYSDALE
                                                                                                                                                      PAKENHAM DROUIN
                                                                                                                                                           CRANBOURNE    WARRAGUL         SALE
                                                                                                TERANG            BELMONT           MORNINGTON                         MOE
                                                                                                     CAMPERDOWN                          DROMANA                                TRARALGON
the service is a credit to the participating            PORTLAND                                           OCEAN GROVE
                                                                                                                                         ROSEBUD    SOMERVILLE LANG LANG
                                                                                                                                                HASTINGS                      MORWELL
                                                                                     WARRNAMBOOL COLAC ANGLESEA TORQUAY
                                                                                                                                                                   LEONGATHA
                                                                                             TIMBOON
practitioners.                                                                                                                                                     WONTHAGGI
                                                                                                                                                                          INVERLOCH
                                                                                                                                                                                      YARRAM




Utilisation of the Victorian Eyecare Service 1999
Region                                             Principal centres                                                                                                           No. claims                                  Claims per
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10,000 people

                                                                                                                                                                    1999                       1998                 1999           1998
Barwon-South Western                               Geelong, Bellarine Peninsula                                                                                    5,823                       5,835                 175            175
                                                   Warrnambool, Hamilton, Portland
Central Highland-Wimmera                           Ballarat, Ararat, Horsham, Stawell                                                                              4,037                       4,361                      226       244
Loddon Campaspe-Mallee                             Bendigo, Castlemaine, Maryborough                                                                               4,301                       4,575                      172       183
                                                   Kyneton, Kerang, Swan Hill, Mildura
Goulburn-North Eastern                             Shepparton, Benalla, Wangaratta                                                                                 5,016                       5,050                      202       204
Euroa, Wodonga, Cobram, Seymour
Gippsland                                          Morwell, Traralgon, Warragul, Maffra                                                                            4,677                       5,053                      225       243
                                                   Sale, Yarram, Bairnsdale, Orbost
Outer metropolitan regions
Bacchus Marsh                                                                                                                                                           234                     216                       189       175
Yarra Valley                                       Healesville, Lilydale                                                                                                  90                    138                        32        49
Cardinia                                           Bass, Wonthaggi, Phillip Island                                                                                 1,799                       1,743                      150       145
Western Port                                       Flinders, Mornington, Hastings                                                                                  1,683                       1,720                      167       171
Other                                                                                                                                                                     92                     86                        8
Total Services                                                                                                                                                   27,752                    28,777                         174       180
                                                                                              M     E L B O U R N E           O    P T O M E T R Y




Research
Research Themes                                         Paediatric optometry research in the area of           Research Grants
The Department of Optometry and Vision                                                                         The Department and the College's Clinical
                                                        accommodation and vergence anomalies
                                                                                                               Research Unit maintained the strong
Sciences continues to develop its research              continued under the guidance of Mr Fricke              improvement in research funding performance
profile in its traditionally strong areas of clinical   with support from the Australasian College of          of 1998 by securing $613,207 of competitive
sciences and the biological foundations of                                                                     research income in 1999.
                                                        Behavioural Optometrists.
                                                                                                               The Department received a total of $500,362
ocular disease.
                                                        The National Vision Research Institute of              from competitive grant applications and a
The Department currently holds two National                                                                    further $112,845 was secured by the College's
                                                        Australia continues to pursue its research on
                                                                                                               Clinical research arm.
Health and Medical Research Council project             cataract and retinal dystrophies under the
grants to investigate retinal degeneration (Dr                                                                 Publications
                                                        guidance of its Director Professor Augusteyn           The Department and its associated
Kalloniatis) and pathological myopia (Professor         and Senior Research Fellow Dr Tymms.                   organisations published 30 papers and 42
McBrien). Both these grants support a full-time                                                                conference proceedings and refereed abstracts
postdoctoral research associate, which adds to          The Institute publishes its own annual report          in 1999. There were 12 papers in press at the
                                                        but its publications are also listed in this report.   end of 1999.
the research strength of the Department.
Work conducted on the mechanisms of
retinitis pigmentosa is also supported by Retina
Australia (formerly Retinitis Pigmentosa
Association). Dr Cottriall received support to
continue his studies on the
neuropharmacology of ocular growth.

Associate Professor Smith continues his
investigations into the optical modeling of the
eye, working with colleagues at QUT on
projects supported by the Australian Research
Council. Associate Professor Vingrys and
colleagues continue to develop new strategies
for improving visual field examination in
collaboration with Associate Professor Wood
of QUT and Medmont Pty Ltd.

The College and the Clinic research unit have
been successful in securing over $100K in
research grants in 1999. A consortium led by
the College was successful in obtaining a
major grant from the Department of Human
Services on diabetic retinopathy screening (Dr
Woods and colleagues). This project will run a
diabetic screening programme in Western
Melbourne based on developing a strong
community network with general practitioners.
The Clinic Research Unit continued its
collaborative work with the Vision Australia
Foundation on outcomes of low vision
rehabilitation (Dr Wolffsohn). While the unit
continues to advise and assist the contact lens
industry in various projects (Dr Bruce and
Dr Woods).


                                                                                                                                                           19
 Research Grants for 1999
 National Health and Medical Research Council                                                  N McBrien     $68,553
 Changes in extracellular matrix metabolism in the sclera of eyes developing axial myopia.

 National Health and Medical Research Council                                                M Kalloniatis   $64,576
 Neurochemistry of the normal and degenerating mouse retina.

 Australian Research Council (with QUT)                                                       D Atchison     $39,000
 Comparison of methods for determination of aberrations and image quality.                       G Smith
                                                                                                 N Strang

 Australian Research Council (with QUT)                                                       D Atchison     $34,000
 The influence of the Stiles-Crawford effect on spatial visual performance.                      G Smith
                                                                                                 N Strang

 Australian Research Council (with QUT and Medmont Pty Ltd)                                     A Vingrys    $49,098
 Early diagnosis of eye disease by perimetry.                                                     J Wood

 Commonwealth of Australia AUSAID grant (with University of Durban Westville)                  N McBrien     $64,105
 The development of a curriculum for ophthalmic nurses in rural South Africa

 Independent Television Commission (UK)                                                        N McBrien     $50,000
 The effect of stereoscopic virtual imagery on oculomotor responses.

 Monash University/Vic Roads                                                                     G Smith      $9,750
 Optics of driving mirrors.

 Multimedia Education Unit                                                                     N McBrien     $42,000
 Physiology of vision interactive teaching module                                            M Kalloniatis
                                                                                               C Cottriall
                                                                                                A Vingrys

 K.M. Brutton Bequest                                                                          C Cottriall    $9,900
 Neurological control of pathological eye growth.                                              N McBrien

 K.M. Brutton Bequest                                                                           J Wellard     $9,980
 Metabolic changes in the anoxic/hypoxic retina.                                             M Kalloniatis

 Equipment Grant                                                                               C Cottriall   $28,000
 Beta scintillation counter                                                                    N McBrien

 Australian Retinitis Pigmentosa Association (now called Retina Australia)                   M Kalloniatis   $25,000
 Metabolic pathways in rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa.                                   J Wellard

 Vision Australia Foundation                                                                 JS Wolffsohn    $12,500
 An audit of outcomes of low vision rehabilitation

 Department of Human Services (VCO, Diabetes Alliance, DOVS)                                    C Woods      $89,096
 Western Melbourne Diabetic Screening Project                                                    M Anjou
                                                                                               N McBrien

 Contact Lens Consultancy                                                                         A Bruce     $8,159

 Research Donations from Industry (VCO and Department)                                                        $9,490

21
                                                                                       M       E L B O U R N E          O    P T O M E T R Y




Publications                                       Gentle, A. and McBrien, N.A. (1999).                conditions. Visual Neuroscience. 16: 149-158.
                                                   Modulation of scleral DNA synthesis in
                                                                                                       Phipps, J.A., Guymer, R.H. and Vingrys, A.J.
Journal Articles                                   development of and recovery from
                                                                                                       (1999). Temporal sensitivity deficits in
                                                   induced axial myopia in the tree shrew.
Abedin, L., Lien, E.L., Vingrys, A.J and                                                               patients with high-risk drusen. Australian
                                                   Experimental Eye Research. 68: 155-163.
Sinclair, A.J. (1999). The effects of dietary                                                          and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology.
alpha-linolenic acid compared with                 Gutteridge, I.F. (1999). Diabetes mellitus: a       27: 265-267.
docosahexanoic acid on brain, retina, liver        brief history, epidemiology, definition and
                                                                                                       Tymms, M.J. (1999). Sorsby's fundus
and heart in the guinea-pig.                       classification. Clinical and Experimental
                                                                                                       dystrophy: what does TIMP3 tell us about
Lipids. 34: 475-482.                               Optometry. 82: 102-106.
                                                                                                       general mechanisms underlying macular
Augusteyn, R.C. (1999). A unique research          Jaworski, A., Wolffsohn, J.S. and Napper, G.A.      degeneration? Clinical and Experimental
institute. Clinical and Experimental               (1999). Aetiology and management of                 Optometry. 82: 124-129.
Optometry. 82: 109-110.                            choroidal folds. Clinical and Experimental          Vingrys, A.J. and Anderson, A.J. (1999).
Cockburn, D.M. (1999). Diabetic                    Optometry. 82: 169-176.                             Clinical testing of contrast thresholds using
retinopathy: classification, description and       Jobling, A.I. and Augusteyn, R.C (1999).            a commercial television monitor system.
optometric management. Clinical and                Steroid adduct formation with lens                  Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 81: 238-
Experimental Optometry. 82: 59-71.                 crystallins. Clinical and Experimental              244.

Cole, B.L. (1999). Optometry, public health        Optometry. 4: 130-136.                              Vingrys, A.J. and Pesudovs, K. (1999).
and diabetes. Clinical and Experimental            Kalloniatis, M. and Tomisich, G. (1999). Amino      Localised scotomata detected with
Optometry. 82: 40-42.                              acid neurochemistry of the vertebrate               temporal modulation perimetry in central
                                                   retina. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research.       serous chorioretinopathy. Australian and
Cole, B.L., Mitchell, D.E., Pettigrew, J.D.,
                                                   18: 811-866.                                        New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology. 27:
Hughes, A.A. and Augusteyn, R.C. Twenty -
                                                                                                       109-116.
five years of progress: reflections of the         Leung, KKY (1999) RGP fitting philosophies
NVRI directors 1973 to 1998. Clinical and          for Keratoconus. Clinical and Experimental          Vingrys, A.J. and Pianta, M.J. (1999). A new
Experimental Optometry 82: 137-155.                Optometry. 82: 230-235                              look at threshold estimation algorithms
                                                                                                       for automated static perimetry. Optometry
Collin, H.B. (1999). Editorial. Clinical and       Mahon, L.E., Vingrys, A.J. and Fleiszig, S.M.J.     and Vision Sciences. 76: 588-595.
Experimental Optometry. 81: 233.                   (1999). Evidence for non-selective colour
                                                   channel involvement in diabetic eyes                Weisinger, H.S., Vingrys, A.J., Bui, B.V. and
Collin, S.P. and Collin, H.B. (1999). The foveal
                                                   especially after laser treatment. Clinical and      Sinclair, A.J. (1999). Effects of dietary fatty
photoreceptor mosaic in the pipefish
                                                   Experimental Optometry. 81: 272-279.                acid deficiency and repletion in the guinea
Corythoichthys paxtoni (Syngnathidae,
                                                                                                       pig retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and
Teleostei). Histology and Histopathology.          McBrien, N.A. (1999). Guest Editorial:              Visual Science. 40: 327-338.
14: 369-382.                                       Optometry - an evidence based clinical
                                                                                                       Wolffsohn, J.S. and Cochrane, A.L. (1999).
Cottriall, C.L., McBrien, N.A., Annies, R. and     discipline. Clinical and Experimental
                                                                                                       The changing face of the visually impaired;
Leech, E.M. (1999). Prevention of form-            Optometry. 81: 234-235.
                                                                                                       the Kooyong low vision clinic's past,
deprivation myopia with pirenzepine: a
                                                   McBrien, N.A., Gentle, A. and Cottriall, C.L.       present and future. Optometry and Vision
study of drug delivery and distribution.
                                                   (1999). Optical correction of induced axial         Science. 76: 747-754.
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics.
                                                   myopia in the tree shrew: implications for
19: 327-335.                                                                                           Wolffsohn, J.S. and Cochrane, A.L. (1999).
                                                   emmetropization. Optometry and Vision
                                                                                                       Low vision perspectives on glaucoma.
Eyssens, D. and Augusteyn, R.C. (1999).            Sciences. 76: 419-427.
                                                                                                       Clinical and Experimental Optometry.
Cataract development in the GalKO
                                                   Napper, G.A. and Kalloniatis, M. (1999).            81: 280-289.
Mouse. Clinical and Experimental Optometry.
                                                   Neurochemical changes following
4: 119-123.                                                                                            Wolffsohn, J.S., Edgar, G.K., Stone, H.E.,
                                                   postmortem ischemia in the rat retina.
                                                                                                       Williams, M. and McBrien, N.A. (1999). Does
Fricke, T.R., Mantzioros, N. and Vingrys, A.J.     Visual Neuroscience. 16: 1169-1180.
                                                                                                       over accommodation occur when using
(1999). Management of patients with
                                                   Napper, G.A., Pianta, M.J. and Kalloniatis, M
narrow angles and acute angle-closure
                                                   (1999). Reduced glutamate uptake by
glaucoma. Clinical and Experimental
                                                   retinal glial cells under ischemic/hypoxic
Optometry. 81: 255-266.
 aircraft head-up displays? Aviation, Space        Kooyong low vision clinic - present, past        Modelling photopic dark adaptation.
 and Environmental Medicine. 70: 666-673.          and future. Proceedings of Vision '99            8th Scientific Meeting and 2nd Education
                                                   International Conference on Low Vision.          Meeting of Australian and New Zealand
 Conference Proceedings                                                                             Schools of Optometry.
                                                   Cochrane, A.L. and Wolffsohn, J.S. (1999).
 Anderson, A.J., Vingrys, A.J. and Woods, C.A.
                                                   A study of the Kooyong low vision clinic         Truong, H.T., Cottriall, C.L., Gentle, A. and
 (1999). Interactions between flicker
                                                   and auditing the outcome of low vision           McBrien, N.A. (1999). Metabolic changes in
 thresholds and DC offsets. 8th Scientific
                                                   rehabilitation. 8th Scientific Meeting and 2nd   the chick sclera following intravitreal
 Meeting and 2nd Education Meeting of                                                               injections of pirenzepine. 8th Scientific
                                                   Education Meeting of Australian and New
 Australian and New Zealand Schools                                                                 Meeting and 2nd Education Meeting of
                                                   Zealand Schools of Optometry.
 of Optometry.                                                                                      Australian and New Zealand Schools of
                                                   Collin, H.B. and Collin S.P. (1999).             Optometry.
 Anjou, M.D., Cochrane, A.L. and Napper, G.A..
                                                   The corneal surface of vertebrates.
 (1999). Clinical Residency Program at the                                                          Wolffsohn, J.S. and Cochrane, A.L. (1999).
                                                   8th Scientific Meeting and 2nd Education         Design of the LVQOL, a quality of life tool
 Melbourne Optometry Clinic. 8th Scientific
 Meeting and 2nd Education Meeting of              Meeting of Australian and New Zealand            specific to low vision rehabilitation.
 Australian and New Zealand Schools                Schools of Optometry.                            Proceedings of Vision '99 International

 of Optometry.                                                                                      Conference on Low Vision.
                                                   Haymes, S.A., Johnston, A.W. and Heyes, A.D.
                                                   (1999). The relationship between clinical        Woods, C.A. (1999). The Development of
 Anjou, M.D. and Napper, G.A. (1999). Clinical
                                                   measures of vision impairment and                the Fellowship Diploma for the British
 experiences for undergraduate optometry
                                                                                                    College of Optometry. 8th Scientific Meeting
 students - diversity, quantity and quality.       performance of activities of daily living.
                                                                                                    and 2nd Education Meeting of Australian and
 8th Scientific Meeting and 2nd Education          Proceedings of Vision '99 International
                                                                                                    New Zealand Schools of Optometry.
 Meeting of Australian and New Zealand             Conference on Low Vision.
 Schools of Optometry.                                                                              Zele, A.J., Zalevski, A., Hughes, P.K. and
                                                   Haymes, S.A., Johnston, A.W. and Heyes, A.D.     Vingrys, A.J. (1999). Vision through light
 Armitage, J.A., Bui, B.V. and Vingrys, A.J.       (1999). A new instrument for assessing ADL       amplifying night vision goggles.
 (1999). Chromatic isolation of rod                performance in people with vision                8th Scientific Meeting and 2nd Education
 receptoral components in the rat                  impairment. Occupational Therapy Australia       Meeting of Australian and New Zealand
 electroretinogram. 8th Scientific Meeting         20th National Conference.                        Schools of Optometry.
 and 2nd Education Meeting of Australian and
                                                   Lakkis, C. and Fleiszig, S.M.J. (1999).
 New Zealand Schools of Optometry.                                                                  Publications in Press
                                                   Adaptation of pseudomonas aeruginosa to
                                                                                                    Brainard, D.H., Roorda, A., Yamauchi, Y.,
 Bruce, A.S. (1999). Research report: The          hydrogel contact lens disinfection.
                                                                                                    Calderone, J.B., Metha, A.B., Neitz, M., Neitz,
 mechanism of action of reverse geometry
                                                   8th Scientific Meeting and 2nd Education         J., Williams, D.R. and Jacobs, G. H.
 lenses in orthokeratology. Orthokeratology
                                                   Meeting of Australian and New Zealand            Functional consequences of the relative
 Society of Australia Meeting.
                                                   Schools of Optometry.                            numbers of L and M cones. Journal of the
 Bruce, A.S., Bara, C. and Mountford, J. (1999).                                                    Optical Society of America.
                                                   Phillips, J. and McBrien, N.A. (1999).
 A method for controlling the refractive                                                            Bruce, A.S. and Brennan, N.A. A Guide to
                                                   Increased scleral creep in chick and tree
 change in orthokeratology. 8th Scientific                                                          Clinical Contact Lens Management.
                                                   shrew eyes with induced myopia.
 Meeting and 2nd Education Meeting of                                                               CIBA Vision.
                                                   8th Scientific Meeting and 2nd Education
 Australian and New Zealand Schools of
                                                   Meeting of Australian and New Zealand            Bruce, A.S. and Little, S.A. Soft lens design,
 Optometry.
                                                   Schools of Optometry.                            fitting and physiological response.
 Bui, B.V., Armitage, J.A. and Vingrys, A.J.                                                        In: Homs, M. (ed). Manual of Contact Lens
                                                   Phipps, J.A., Wellard, J.W. and Vingrys, A.J.    Fitting and Prescribing: Revised Edition.
 (1999). Comparison of electroretinograms
                                                   (1999). Serial losses of vision with central
 derived using discharge and shutter                                                                Fletcher E.L., Hack, I., Brandstätter, J.H. and
 derived stimuli. 8th Scientific Meeting and       serous retinopathy. 8th Scientific Meeting
                                                                                                    Wässle H. Synaptic localization of NMDA
 2nd Education Meeting of Australian and New       and 2nd Education Meeting of Australian and
                                                                                                    receptor subunits in the rat retina.
 Zealand Schools of Optometry.                     New Zealand Schools of Optometry.                Journal of Comparative Neurology.

 Cochrane, A.L. and Wolffsohn, J.S. (1999).        Pianta, M.J. and Kalloniatis, M. (1999).         Fletcher, E.F. Alterations in neurochemistry


23
during retinal degeneration.                      transmissibility values of hydrogel lenses.        (1999). Proteoglycan synthesis in the
Microscopy Research and Techniques.               Optometry and Vision Science. Supp 168.            separate layers of the chick sclera during
                                                                                                     the development of and recovery from
Hom, M. and Bruce, A.S. The RGP CD-ROM.           Bruce, A.S., Sipos-Ori, C. and Mountford, J        axial myopia, utilising an in vivo labeling
In: Homs, M. (ed). Manual of Contact Lens         (1999). Controlling the refractive change in       paradigm. 40 (4): Investigative
Fitting and Prescribing: Revised Edition.         orthokeratology. Optometry and Vision              Ophthalmology and Visual Science
                                                  Science. Supp 111.                                 S452, #2383.
Lindsay, R.G., Bruce, A.S. and Gutteridge, I.F.
Keratoconus associated with continual eye         Bui, B.V. and Vingrys, A.J. (1999). Postnatal      McKendrick, A.M., Vingrys, A.J., Badcock, D.R
rubbing due to punctal agenesis. Cornea.          development of postreceptoral responses            and Heywood, J.T. (1999). The possibility of
                                                  in pigmented and albino guinea pigs                precortical involvement of visual
McKendrick, A.M., Badcock, D.R., Vingrys, A.J.    (Cavia Porcellus). Investigative                   dysfunction in migraine. 40 (4): Investigative
and Heywood, J. Background modulation             Ophthalmology and Visual Science 40 (4): S22,
                                                                                                     Ophthalmology and Visual Science
methods as tests of vision. Journal of the        #115.
                                                                                                     S736, #3894.
Optical Society of America.
                                                  Bui, B.V. and Vingrys, A.J. (1999). Postnatal
                                                                                                     Phipps, J.A., Guymer, R.H. and Vingrys, A.J.
McKendrick, A.M., Vingrys, A.J., Badcock, D.R.    development of receptoral responses in
                                                  pigmented and albino guinea pigs (Cavia            (1999). Functional visual loss in subjects
and Heywood, J. Visual field losses in
                                                  Porcellus). Proceedings of the Australian          with high-risk drusen. The Australasian
subjects with migraine headache.
                                                  Neuroscience Society. 10: 120, Poster 1-40.        Ophthalmic and Visual Science Meeting.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual
Science.                                          Cottriall, C. L., Annies, R., Brew, J and          Phipps, J.A., Guymer, R.H. and Vingrys, A.J.
                                                  McBrien, N.A. (1999). Pirenzepine reduces
                                                                                                     (1999). Functional visual outcomes one
Phillips, J. R., Khalaj, M. and McBrien, N.A.     retinal acetylcholine and dopamine levels
                                                                                                     month post-laser treatment of high- risk
Induced myopia associated with increased          in the chick. Proceedings of the Australian
                                                                                                     drusen. The Australasian Ophthalmic and
scleral creep. Investigative Ophthalmology        Neuroscience Society. 10: 89, Oral 19-6.
                                                                                                     Visual Science Meeting.
and Visual Science.                               Demirel, S., Vingrys, A.J., Anderson, A and
                                                  Johnson, C.A. (1999). Spatiotemporal               Truong, H.T., Cottriall, C.L., Gentle, A. and
Sankeralli, M.J., Metha, A.B., Chen, J.C. and
                                                  properties of the frequency doubling               McBrien, N.A. (1999). Metabolic changes in
Mullen, K.T. Evidence of mild blue-yellow
                                                  effect. 40 (4): Investigative Ophthalmology        the chick sclera following intravitreal
colour vision deficits immediately
                                                  and Visual Science S42, #224.                      injections of pirenzepine. The Australasian
following fluorescein angiography.
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics.              Jobling, A.I. and Augusteyn, R.C. (1999). Is       Ophthalmic and Visual Science Meeting.
                                                  there a steroid receptor in the lens?
Soon, F and Cole, B.L. Did the CIE get it                                                            Turner, N.W. and Bruce, A.S. (1999). A case of
                                                  The Australasian Ophthalmic and Visual
right? A critical test of the CIE Color           Science Meeting.                                   hyperbaric induced myopia and cataract.

domains for signal lights. Color Research                                                            Optometry and Vision Science. Supp 88.
                                                  Kalloniatis, M., Napper, G.A., Pianta, M.J and
and Application.                                  Tomisich, G. (1999). Mapping ischemia/             Tymms, M.J., Fang, Z.P. and Jobling, A.I.
                                                  anoxia glutamatergic activation with a             (1999). Regulation of TIMP3 in retinal
Vingrys, A. J. and Bui, B.V. Growth of
                                                  channel permeable organic cation                   pigmented epithelial cells. The Australasian
receptoral electroretinogram components
                                                  (agmatine). Proceedings of the Australian
in pigmented and albino guinea pigs.                                                                 Ophthalmic and Visual Science Meeting.
                                                  Neuroscience Society. 10: 27, Oral 2-2.
Documenta Ophthalmologica.                                                                           Vingrys, A.J. and Bui, B.V. (1999). Postnatal
                                                  Lakkis, C. and Fleiszig, S.M.J. (1999).
                                                  Adaptation of pseudomonas aeruginosa to            development of postreceptoral ERG
Refereed Abstracts                                contact lens disinfection. 40 (4): Investigative   function in albino and pigmented guinea
Anderson, A.J. and Vingrys, A.J. (1999). Effect   Ophthalmology and Visual Science                   pigs (Cavia Porcellus). 40 (4): Investigative
of stimulus duration in flicker perimetry.        S906, #4779.                                       Ophthalmology and Visual Science S22, #116.
The Australasian Ophthalmic and Visual            Maroudas, P. and Augusteyn, R.C. (1999).           Vingrys, A.J., Bui, B.V. and Pianta, M.J. (1999).
Science Meeting.                                  Testing for PRA in the Australian
                                                                                                     Comparison of electroretinogram
                                                  population of Irish Setters.
Bruce, A.S. and Brennan, N.A. (1999).                                                                receptoral (PIII) models. Proceedings of the
                                                  The Australasian Ophthalmic and Visual
Warmer corneas swell more during closed           Science Meeting.                                   Australian Neuroscience Society. 10: 88,
eye contact lens wear. Optometry and Vision                                                          Oral 19-4.
                                                  McBrien, N.A., Gentle, A. and Truong, H.T.
Science. Supp 238.
                                                                                                     Zele, A.J. and Vingrys, A.J. (1999). Flicker
Bruce, A.S., Brennan, N.A. and Ho, S.M.                                                              sensitivity is explained by probability
(1999). Dehydration rates and water                                                                  summation between on- and off-
                                                                                                     mechanisms. The Australasian Ophthalmic
                                                                                                     and Visual Science Meeting.
                                                                                                                                                     23
R   E S E A R C H                R    E P O R T S




The Developing                                        The effect of ischemia on
                                                      retinal function                                                              DIM

Retina                                                Mr Bui, Dr Kalloniatis and
                                                      Associate Professor Vingrys
Associate Professor Algis Vingrys
                                                      Bang Bui is considering the effect of altered
Dr Michael Kalloniatis
                                                      retinal metabolism and ischemia on retinal
Mr James Armitage                                     function and neurochemistry as part of his
Mr Bang Bui                                           doctoral studies. He is working under the joint
Mr Harrison Weisinger                                 supervision of Dr Michael Kalloniatis and A/
                                                                                                                                 BRIGHT
                                                      Prof Algis Vingrys. He has isolated the
Collaborators:
Professor Andrew Sinclair                             receptoral response using the electro-

RMIT University, Food Sciences Department             retinogram (ERG) in conjunction with a

Assoicate Professor Sandra Rees                       neurochemical agent (L-AP4), which blocks

University of Melbourne                               neurotransmission between photoreceptors
                                                      and ON-bipolar cells. The figure shows the
Dr Richard Weisinger
Howard Florey Institute of Experimental               effect of L-AP4 on the ERG at various

Physiology and Medicine                               intensities (log Cd-s/m2) and times after
                                                      administration of the drug. Note the positive
Fatty acids and retinal development
                                                      going post-receptoral b-wave is nearly gone by
Mr Weisinger, Mr Armitage and Associate
Professor Vingrys.                                    60 minutes (middle panel) and completely

Harrison Weisinger has completed his studies          abolished by 120 minutes (lower panel) post

into the dietary effects of Omega-3 fatty acids       injection. Pre-injection data is shown to the left

on visual development and salt and water              with the scale indicating 50 ms and 100 µV.
homeostasis. His work has shown that salt and
                                                      Associate Professor Vingry’s group has also
water balance can be adversely affected in
                                                      been collaborating with Associate Professor
animals deprived Omega-3 fatty acids early in
                                                      Rees’ laboratory from the Department of
life. This implies that their blood pressure may be
                                                      Anatomy and Cell Biology on an animal model
abnormal. Harrison Weisinger submitted his
                                                      of intra-uterine growth restriction.
thesis early in 1999, has been awarded the
                                                      Understanding the changes in these animals is
degree of Doctor of Philosophy and succeeded in
achieving an NH&MRC post-doctoral fellowship.         fundamental to furthering our knowledge of
                                                      how maternal factors might influence human
James Armitage is undertaking doctoral studies                                                             The effect that a post-receptoral blocking drug (L-
                                                      foetal development. Associate Professor Rees         AP4) has on the electro-retinogram (ERG) at various
in the Department and is part of a
                                                      and her team have found significant post-natal       light intensities (dim top, bright bottom) and times
collaborative project which includes the Food                                                              after administration (brown panel: pre-treated
                                                      losses of inner retinal layers in these animals
Science Department of RMIT University and the                                                              control; green panel: 60 mins after injection; blue
                                                      and have collaborated with Associate Professor       panel: 120 mins after injection). The positive going
Neurobiology Group of the Howard Florey
                                                                                                           post-receptoral b-wave (~100 ms) is nearly abolished
Institute. He will evaluate the effect of Omega-3     Vingrys and his laboratory to assay their visual
                                                                                                           by 60 minutes (mid panel) and completely abolished
fatty acid deprivation on the mammalian neural        function. Both the anatomy and physiology            by 120 minutes (lower panel) after injection. Scale
system. In particular, James will focus on the        show consistent outcomes.
effects that dietary deprivation have on fluid
homeostasis and blood pressure. He intends to
interpret these findings in terms of receptor
based anomalies in the brain or eicosanoid
malfunction. The retina will be used as a
model for receptoral function.
                                                                                                      R   E S E A R C H                 R   E P O R T S




Models of
Visual Function
Associate Professor Algis Vingrys
Dr Michael Kalloniatis

Mr Andrew Anderson
Mr Michael Pianta
Ms Joanna Phipps
Mr Andrew Zele

Collaborators:
Associate Professor Joanne Wood,
Queensland University of Technology
Dr Robyn Guymer
University of Melbourne

Flicker perception and visual
field examination
Mr Anderson, Mr Zele and Associate
Professor Vingrys                                  greatest losses in glare recovery. Laser               modelled with two components: an initial fast

Andrew Anderson's work is being funded by a        treatment of the soft-drusen did not affect            component and a second slow component.

collaborative Australian Research Council SPIRT    visual function but was associated with a              Initial desensitization followed Weber's law as

grant with Associate Professor Joanne Wood         regression in the number and size of the drusen.       a function of pre-adaptation level, whereas the
of Queensland University of Technology. He                                                                exponential decay time did not vary. A key
                                                   Associate Professor Vingrys was invited to
has been unravelling the nature of the                                                                    finding is that the equivalent background
                                                   submit a paper to the Glaucoma issue of
mechanisms that mediate detection of a                                                                    relationship was similar in form for different
                                                   Optometry and Vision Science on the topic of
chopped flickering stimulus typical of those                                                              conditions where background wavelength and
                                                   staircasing methods in modern perimetry. Along
used by the Medmont perimeter. His work is                                                                intensity were varied. The early (fast) component
                                                   with Michael Pianta he developed the logic
critical for the better understanding of the                                                              is likely to be due to the direct action of the
                                                   underlying the new fast thresholding algorithms
mechanisms that are being identified by the                                                               cone-equivalent of inactivated rhodopsin on the
                                                   such as SITA and suggested a modified
Medmont perimeter using flickering targets.                                                               G protein cascade and/or the reverse reaction of
                                                   probability density function for reliable and
Andrew Zele is working on a related project                                                               the cone-equivalent of inactivated rhodopsin to
                                                   efficient thresholding in clinical practice.
but studying the fast adaptational responses in                                                           rhodopsin. The later (slow) component may be
these stimuli by replicating the classic work of   Characterisation of dark adaptation                    due to the direct action of cone opsin on the G
Crawford (1947) using a stimulus onset             in cone pathways                                       protein cascade. This two stage model now
asynchrony paradigm.                               Mr Pianta and Dr Kalloniatis                           allows us to directly test hypotheses relating to
                                                   Changes in light or dark adaptation is a               the site of changes secondary to diseases such as
Psychophysical assessment of vision
                                                   common complaint of patients suffering from            retinitis pigmentosa.
in ocular disease
                                                   ocular disease. In order to understand the
Ms Phipps, Dr Guymer and Associate
                                                   changes in dark adaptation, a model of cone
Professor Vingrys
                                                   dark adaptation was developed using the
Joanna Phipps has completed the research
                                                   equivalent background concept. The
component of her Master’s thesis, which
                                                   underlying theory of the model relies on a
considered the visual function of patients with
                                                   series of assumptions that link psychophysically
laser treated and untreated soft-drusen. This
                                                   determined detection thresholds to cone
project was performed in conjunction with Dr
                                                   phototransduction (linking propositions).
Robyn Guymer at the Royal Victorian Eye and
                                                   Correction of thresholds for pigment depletion
Ear Hospital. Ms Phipps found that soft drusen
                                                   is an important aspect of the model.
subjects had losses in spatio-temporal
sensitivity and colour sensitivity, but with the   The equivalent background in the longer-
                                                   wavelength cone pathways can be accurately

                                                                                                                                                              25
R   E S E A R C H               R   E P O R T S




Ocular                                                                                                            Proposed mechanism of scleral thinning
                                                                                                                  in myopia. Biochemical events in the sclera

Development                                                                                                       are influenced by changes in visual
                                                                                                                  information at the retina, resulting in a loss
                                                                                                                  of tissue in the scleral extracellular matrix
and the                                                                                                           and changes in its material properties. As a
                                                                                                                  result the sclera thins and the eye elongates.

Genesis of
Myopia
Professor Neville A McBrien
Dr Charles Cottriall

Dr Alex Gentle
Mr Hue-Trung Truong
Ms Kirstan Vessey
Mr Frank Anastasopoulos                             Our laboratory has shown that the production          enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-2 are
Although approximately 30% of the                   of certain structural components of the sclera,       elevated in eyes developing myopia and are in
population in Australia develop myopia, little is   including proteoglycans, is reduced in eyes           the process of completing work that relates
known about the underlying processes which          developing myopia and that this process can           this change to gene expression of both the
govern eye growth and myopia development.           be controlled by altering the clarity of the          matrix metalloproteinases and their natural
In a significant minority of myopes, who            image falling on the retina. Recent data from         tissue inhibitors. Previous studies have shown
develop high degrees of axial myopia, the           the laboratory suggests that the largest              that the potent mitogen and inhibitor of
pathological changes to the retina and sclera       changes in scleral proteoglycan synthesis occur       collagen synthesis, fibroblast growth factor-2,
ultimately lead to permanent loss of vision and     prior to alterations in axial length of the eye,      can inhibit the development of myopia when
are a major cause of blindness. The work of         implying that retinally-controlled scleral            delivered to the eye. We have recently
the myopia lab is aimed at furthering our           remodelling facilitates the change in eye-size.       completed work investigating gene and
understanding of the development of                 We are continuing to investigate the role of          protein expression of fibroblast growth factor-
refractive errors and abnormal eye growth.          visual information in scleral remodelling to          2, in order to determine whether it is also a
Our aim is to develop approaches that will          help us understand why myopia development             natural endogenous controller of
prevent the pathological consequences of high       occurs most rapidly in the school years.              myopia development.
myopia. A number of different research              Molecular mechanisms of                               Our work suggests that exogenous fibroblast
directions are currently being employed to          myopia development                                    growth factor-2 exercises its inhibitory effect
study this major problem.                           Dr Gentle, Mr Truong and Professor McBrien            on myopia development through a mechanism
Visual control of scleral metabolism                The development of high degrees of myopia             that is parallel to the ocular growth pathway.
in eyes developing myopia                           can result in irreversible damage to the delicate     We hope that current work will provide us
Dr Gentle and Professor McBrien                     structures inside the eye, namely the retina          with potential targets for therapeutic
It has long been known that an association          and choroid. Highly myopic eyes display               intervention in the sclera, with the ultimate
exists between prolonged periods of near work       marked thinning of the outer coat of the eye,         goal being the prevention of excessive
and the development of myopia, but previous         the sclera, and the damage to the retina and          enlargement of the eye and the limiting of
investigations of the relationship between the      choroid is thought to be a result of this scleral     damage in the retina, choroid and sclera of
near focusing system and the development of         thinning and distension.                              highly myopic eyes.
myopia have been equivocal in their findings.       Previous work from our laboratory has                 Neuropharmacological control
Data from studies in experimental models of         demonstrated that scleral thinning is                 of myopia
myopia development, however, suggest that           associated with alterations in the architecture       Dr Cottriall, Mr Truong, Ms Vessey and
the physical stresses induced in the eye            of scleral collagen fibrils and loss of scleral dry   Professor McBrien
through use of the focusing system are not          weight. Over the past year, we have                   Regulation of ocular growth has been shown
directly implicated in myopia development and       concentrated on investigating the collagen-           to occur locally within the eye and this
that the clarity of the visual image on the         degrading enzymes and signalling factors that         mechanism is known to involve a number of
retina plays a more important role in myopic        may underlie these changes to the sclera and          retinal neurotransmitters. Muscarinic receptor
eye growth.                                         its collagens. We know that active levels of the      antagonists, such as atropine, have been
                                                                                                                         R   E S E A R C H                R   E P O R T S




                              Open Control Eye                                  Pirenzepine Treated Eye
                                                                                                                             in visual processing in the Psychology
                                                                                                                             Department of the University of NSW.
 Amount of Neurotransmitter




                               Choline                                               Choline
  in Retinal Sample (pmole)




                                                                                                                             Studies of normal and diseased retina
                                                                                                                             During normal retinal development, cells die
                                                                                                                             through a natural process called apoptosis.
                                              ACh                                                    ACh                     Such a cellular death is typically not significant
                                                                                                                             because the high number of cells produced
                                                                                                                             during normal development allows function to
                                                                                                                             continue throughout life. However, when a
                                                                                                                             genetic defect influences cellular function and
                                                                                                                             causes a change in neurochemicals or energy
                                Time (mins)                                              Time (mins)                         demands, accelerated cell death can lead to
                                                                                                                             overall dysfunction. In animal models of RP,
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) can detect changes in the steady-state level of retinal                        such as the RCS rat, cell death through
acetylcholine levels following a single intravitreal injection of pirenzepine. Acetylcholine levels remain reduced for       apoptosis has been established by 25 days
over 9 hours following treatment.
                                                                                                                             after birth. The difficulty with this late age at

                                                                 Neurochemistry                                              which cell death occurs, is that it has been
                                                                                                                             established that metabolic and neurochemical

                                                                 of the Normal                                               changes are present from birth in the RCS rat.

                                                                                                                             The question of the time of onset of
                                                                 and                                                         photoreceptor death was addressed using a
                                                                                                                             marker called agmatine. Agmatine is a
                                                                 Degenerating                                                molecule that can enter ionic channels in
                                                                                                                             normal cells. Changes in ion channel
                                                                 Retina                                                      permeability allows us to indirectly assess
                                                                                                                             cellular function by observing the entry of the
                                                                 Dr Michael Kalloniatis                                      marker as a function of age and retinal
                                                                                                                             degeneration. We have established that the
                                                                 Dr John Wellard
                                                                                                                             pattern of photoreceptor labelling in the
                                                                 Ms Rhonda Dorman
                                                                                                                             normal and RCS retina begins about 11 days
                                                                 Mr Guido Tomisich
                                                                                                                             after birth. Although photoreceptors are
                                                                 Ms Elisa Hill
                                                                                                                             present from day 7-8, our results indicate that
                                                                 Mr Michael Pianta                                           they do not become functional until
                                                                 Collaborators:                                              approximately day 11. By 14 days after birth
                                                                 Dr Robert Marc                                              there is a significant increase in the labelling of
                                                                 University of Utah                                          photoreceptors in the RCS rat retina. We can
                                                                                                                             now draw two key conclusions: First, there is
                                                                 Dr Ronald Harwerth
                                                                                                                             an orderly and precise metabolic and
                                                                 University of Houston
                                                                                                                             functional development involving
                                                                 Associate Professor Seong-Seng Tan                          photoreceptors and other retinal neurons
                                                                 Howard Florey Institute                                     beginning approximately at post natal day 11.
                                                                 Dr Perry Bartlett                                           Second, the RCS rat retina contains defective
                                                                 Walter and Elisa Hall Institute                             photoreceptors from at least post-natal day 16,
                                                                                                                             well before apoptosis shows photoreceptor
                                                                 The Retinal Networks Laboratory is conducting               degeneration and before anatomic changes
                                                                 studies to better understand retinal metabolic              occur. We have extended this analysis to
                                                                 and neurochemical function in normal animals,               another model of retinal disease (rd mouse)
                                                                 and animal models of retinal disease (Retinitis             and find agmatine labelling at a very early
                                                                 Pigmentosa - RP). We have also applied these                stage, again before photoreceptor anatomical
                                                                 techniques to other parts of the nervous                    changes have been noted.
                                                                 system (collaborative work with A/Professor
                                                                                                                             Energy requirements in the retina and brain are
                                                                 Tan and Dr Bartlett) and modelled recovery of
                                                                                                                             primarily met by metabolism of glucose, a
                                                                 the dark adaptation function for difference
                                                                                                                             simple sugar. Our work has focussed on the
                                                                 functional visual streams (luminance versus
                                                                                                                             metabolic compartmentalization hypothesis
                                                                 chromatic channels) with Michael Pianta.
                                                                                                                             where it is proposed that glucose breakdown
                                                                 Michael Pianta becomes the third PhD from
                                                                                                                             is initiated in retinal glial cells (Müller cells)
                                                                 the laboratory and is pursuing further research
R   E S E A R C H   R   E P O R T S




                                                                                                                                   H: Heart

                                                                                                                                   M: Muscle

                                                                                                                                   B: Brain

                                                                                                                                   L: Liver




                                      Scatterplots showing correlation patterns of glutamate versus aspartate (A), glutamate versus glutamine (C) and
                                      glutamate versus GABA (E) in a population of cells found in area 6. The right hand panel shows the corresponding
                                      amino acids as red/green images for glutamate versus aspartate (B), glutamate versus glutamine (D) and glutamate
                                      versus GABA (F). The diagonal in A, C, E represents cells with equal PV intensities for co-registered amino acids.
                                                                                                            R         E S E A R C H                 R    E P O R T S




Optical Science                                    coloured road signs.                                             was simulated using Monte Carlo techniques.
                                                                                                                    This process uses a very large number of
                                                   The effect of intraocular
and the Eye                                        scatter on vision
                                                                                                                    photons randomly scattered within the
                                                                                                                    scattering medium. The fatter green curve in
                                                   Scatter occurs in all eyes, even healthy eyes.
Associate Professor George Smith                                                                                    the figure is multiple scattering by particles of
                                                   Even low levels of scatter can cause glare
                                                                                                                    1 wavelength in size with a mean number of 4
Kannan Venkatachalam                               problems and seriously reduce vision. While a
                                                                                                                    scattering per photon.
                                                   number of clinical tests have been developed
Collaborators
                                                   over the years to measure glare sensitivity, we                  Enhancing vision with optical aids
Professor Leon Garner
                                                   do not as yet have a clear understanding of                      During 1999 the laboratory, in collaboration
University of Auckland
                                                   how scatter arises. We have just started                         with the Defence Science and Technology
Dr Michael Cox                                     researching the physics of scatter and have                      Office, and Monash University respectively
University of Bradford                                                                                              investigated night vision goggles and curved
                                                   constructed a simple model that allows us to
Associate Professor David Atchison                 investigate the effect of particle size and                      rear mirrors for motor vehicles. Also, a new
Queensland University of Technology                multiple scattering within the eye. The figure                   type of optical lens, which aims to compensate
                                                   below shows the single particle scattering of a                  for oblique astigmatism and field curvature of
Modeling the refractive index
                                                   range of sizes (diameters = 0.02, 0.2 and 1.0                    the human eye, was investigated. Results
of the crystalline lens
                                                   wavelengths of light). For the small particle                    indicate that this is a possibility and that such a
During 1999, research was concentrated on
                                                   sizes, backwards and forwards scattering is                      lens would be a strip varifocal design.
the structure of the human lens. Specifically,
                                                   about the same. However, as the size of the
the effect of surface asphericity and the effect
                                                   scattering particle increases, our model shows
of the gradient refractive index of the lens on
                                                   that scattering increases in the forward                         Angular scattering of light by particles of different
aberrations was investigated. The long term
                                                   direction, at the expense of back scattering.                    sizes (0.02 (blue); 0.2 (red) and 1.0 (green)
goal is to determine the refractive index                                                                           wavelengths. The light is coming from the left, so the
                                                   When a cataract of the human lens develops,
distribution in the living eye using clinical                                                                       direction of 0∞ is the forward direction. There are
                                                   multiple scattering of light occurs. This effect                 two green curves. The narrower curve (as well as the
measurements. Many parameters are needed
                                                                                                                    red and blue) is for single particle scattering, but the
to fully describe the refractive index of the
crystalline lens. We have investigated various                                                        270.0 °
models to find the minimum number of                                                                            4
                                                                           240.0 °                                                      300.0 °
parameters required. Results indicate that,                                                                     3.5
assuming the lens can be modelled as an
                                                                                                                3
ellipsoid with iso-indical contours that are
concentric with the outer surface, only two                                                                     2.5
                                                          210.0 °                                                                                           330.0 °
parameters are required to model a young lens                                                                   2

and probably three for an older lens.                                                                           1.5

Visibility when driving using a new                                                                             1
type of car headlamps
                                                                                                                0.5
As part of his Master of Science studies
                                                    180.0 °                                                 0                                                         0.0 °
Kannan Venkatachalam investigated the
quality of a new type of car headlamp, the                                                            0.5

high intensity discharge lamp. Whereas                                                                  1
conventional car headlamps use tungsten
                                                                                                      1.5
bulbs, the high intensity discharge lamp works
                                                                                                        2
on a different principle. A current is passed                                                                                                               30.0 °
                                                          150.0 °
through a gas and the excited gas is                                                                  2.5

luminescent. It was found that, although the                                                            3
new car headlamp has a spectral output that is
                                                                                                      3.5
considerably different to the conventional
                                                                           120.0 °                                                       60.0 °
                                                                                                        4
headlamp, this does not affect the visibility of
                                                                                                        90.0 °
R   E S E A R C H                  R   E P O R T S




                                                           3.5

Clinical                                                   3


Sciences                                                   2.5

                                                           2

                                                           1.5
Ocular Responses to
                                                           1
Virtual Imagery
                                                           0.5
Professor McBrien, Dr Wolffsohn,                           0
Ms Ames and Ms Leung                                                           5           10          15           20          25           30           35            40
                                                           -0.5

Virtual imagery is used to simulate real                   -1

environments. The aim is to deceive the user’s             -1.5                                              Time (seconds)
senses into believing that they can interact with
                                                       An example of the recording of accommodative and convergence responses. The stereoscopic display showed a
the virtual environment as they could in the real      virtual image moving in and out relative to the screen at regular intervals.
world. The main sensory input in virtual
environments is vision, which can be                                                                                while accommodation was reduced when
                                                       physical changes to the oculomotor system
supplemented by other senses such as sound and                                                                      viewing the virtual display compared to real
                                                       when viewing head mounted stereoscopic
tactile stimuli. Although this technology is popular                                                                world imagery.
                                                       virtual image displays.
as a form of entertainment, it is being utilised
                                                       Shelly Ames and James Wolffsohn have been                    On line measures of vergence and
more and more in industry for manufacture,
                                                       investigating this area. Symptoms and                        accommodation while viewing dynamic
design and training. The helmet mounted display
                                                                                                                    desktop virtual images were also investigated.
(HMD) is a popular form of virtual reality display     oculomotor changes were measured before,
                                                                                                                    It was found that both convergence and
due to its immersive properties.                       during and after viewing either stereoscopic
                                                                                                                    accommodation responses changed
                                                       virtual imagery in a HMD or the same footage
There are a substantial number of reports on                                                                        consistently, according to the disparity
                                                       on 2D high definition television. It was found
both the ocular and general body symptoms                                                                           presented in the display (see Figure). Our aim is
                                                       that both ocular and general body symptoms
                                                                                                                    to detail the dynamic responses of the
experienced when viewing virtual imagery
                                                       were greater in the HMD stereoscopic virtual                 oculomotor system when viewing desktop
environments. Stereoscopic imagery is
                                                       image viewing situation compared to                          virtual imagery to provide additional
increasingly used in virtual environments to
                                                       conventional television viewing. In particular               explanations of the symptoms related to virtual
enhance the immersion. This creates a conflict
                                                       focussing difficulties and nausea were                       reality viewing.
between the convergence system which
                                                       significantly greater. Oculomotor changes to
responds to the changing depth and the
                                                       the visual system were also greater. An
accommodation system which views the
                                                                                                                    Low Vision Rehabilitation
                                                       important finding was the significant
imagery on screens at fixed distances. It is this                                                                   Ms Haymes, Dr Johnston, Dr Heyes
                                                       relationship found between oculomotor
conflict which is considered to cause many of
                                                       changes to the eyes and symptoms experienced.                Vision loss can have a profound impact on a
the ocular symptoms reported.
                                                                                                                    person’s daily life. Support is offered in low
                                                       Desktop virtual reality
The principle focus of the work in our                                                                              vision rehabilitation programs that aim to assist
                                                       Currently the most accessible and widely
laboratory is to examine the oculomotor                                                                             people to manage their vision disability and
                                                       available form of virtual image display is via
responses during desktop and helmet mounted                                                                         maintain an independent lifestyle. An important
                                                       desktop computers. This form of display is
                                                                                                                    step in being able to provide such a service is to
display (HMD) viewing of stereoscopic imagery.         used in many leisure applications, such as
                                                                                                                    measure the difficulties the person may be
                                                       computer games as well as educational
Ocular changes when viewing                                                                                         experiencing as a result of their vision loss.
                                                       environments. Consequently children are a
stereoscopic virtual imagery
                                                       large group of users. Karen Leung has been                   Ms Haymes PhD research involved the
A major focus of work in the virtual imagery
                                                       investigating the effectiveness of these desktop             development of an objective, standardised test
laboratory in 1999 was to investigate the
                                                       virtual displays in driving the vergence and                 that directly measures vision-related disability
                                                                  accommodation systems of the human                in the low vision population: the Melbourne
                                                                  eye.                                              Low Vision Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
                                                                                                                    Index. The test involves having patients
                                                                  Accommodative and convergence
                                                                                                                    perform activities of daily living, such as
                                                                  responses were compared for viewing
                                                                                                                    reading newsprint, telling the time, recognising
                                                                  real images and virtual images. Results
                                                                                                                    faces, and answering questions on basic
                                                                  indicated that convergence responses
                                                                                                                    activities of daily living such as eating,
                                                                  are driven effectively by virtual images
                                                                                                           R   E S E A R C H              R   E P O R T S




shopping and mobility. It also takes into               coded signs. This shows that redundant                  The Clinic Research Unit (CRU) conducts
account the patient’s perspective by having             colour coding of road signs and signals                 projects that will improve clinic practice and
them rate the importance of these activities in         contributes to their conspicuity, and that
                                                                                                                patient care, foster publications and
their own life.                                         persons with abnormal colour vision are less
                                                                                                                presentations and promote clinical optometry.
                                                        likely to notice them.
The Melbourne Low Vision ADL Index was
tested on almost 200 people with low vision                                                                     The Western Melbourne Retinopathy
                                                        The other experiment measured the search
and found to be valid and more reliable than                                                                    Screening Project
                                                        time to find a uniquely shaped coded target             Dr Woods, Ms Symington, Mr Anjou and
the few similar measures that have been
developed to assess cataract patients. Also, it         imbedded in a random array of variously                 Professor McBrien
was sensitive to improvements in activities of          shaped background distractors. The complexity           The Victorian College of Optometry has been
daily living following a rehabilitation program,
                                                        of the background was varied by altering the            awarded a 12 month grant for 1999-2000 to
which involved the prescription of magnifiers,
                                                                                                                investigate the effectiveness of a community
optical aids, lighting aids, mobility aids,             number of distractors and varying the number
adaptive devices, welfare support and peer                                                                      based diabetic retinopathy-screening program
                                                        of colours used for the individual distractors.
support. In addition to developing the test, the                                                                involving optometrists, GPs and
relationship between traditional vision tests,          The subjects had either normal or abnormal
                                                                                                                Ophthalmologists. A consortium led by the
such as letter chart distance visual acuity, and        colour vision. Search was powerfully assisted by
                                                                                                                College incorporated the Diabetes Alliance
the new Melbourne Low Vision ADL Index was
                                                        unique redundant colour coding and subjects
investigated. The test that predicted disability                                                                Group (incorporating five Melbourne Divisions
the best was near word acuity, followed by              with abnormal colour vision performed                   of General Practice and the Royal Melbourne
contrast sensitivity. Moreover, the Melbourne           significantly less well for certain colours.            Hospital), the Department of Optometry and
Low Vision ADL Index was a better indicator of
                                                                                                                Vision Sciences (University of Melbourne) and
disability than any combination of traditional          Clinic Research
vision tests.                                                                                                   the Optometrists Association Australia
It is hoped that this work will be used to plan         Dr Adrian Bruce                                         (Victorian Division). The aims are to improve
better programs for people with low vision and                                                                  community based diabetic screening by using
thus, improve their overall quality of life.            Dr Craig Woods
                                                                                                                local general practitioners and optometrists,
                                                        Mr Tim Fricke
Colour Vision Research                                                                                          improving communication between all health

                                                        Dr James Wolffsohn                                      professionals involved in diabetic care and
Professor Cole, Ms Maddocks, Ms O'Brien and
Dr Sharpe (Department of Mathematics)                                                                           strengthening local awareness of diabetes. A

Two experiments on the role of colour in                Ms Anthea Cochrane                                      need to increase the access of diabetic
determining the conspicuity of objects have                                                                     retinopathy screening to a broader range of
                                                        Ms Carla Dinardo
been completed. One measured the                                                                                people than currently have access has
conspicuity of road traffic control devices using       Mrs Belinda Everett                                     previously been highlighted. It is hoped this
photographic displays of road scenes for                                                                        alternate route for the screening of retinopathy
                                                        Mr Andrew Jaworski
colour vision normal and deuteranopic
                                                                                                                will improve the management and early
subjects. Deutanopes detected significantly             Mr Richard Lindsay                                      detection of diabetic retinopathy.
fewer road traffic control devices than did
colour vision normals, except for blue colour-          Dr Genevieve Napper


                                                        Ms Christa Bara

                                                        Ms Carol Lakkis

                                                        Mr Yota Yoshimitsu


                                                        Collaborators
                                                        Dr Milton Hom
                                                        Private Practice Los Angeles

                                                        Dr John Siderov
                                                                                                                The Western region of Melbourne (highlighted in
                                                        Department of Vision Sciences,
Attention conspicuity of nine classes of road signs                                                             green), where collaborative research is being
and signals for colour vision normal (black bars) and   University of Aston                                     conducted to improve the management of patients
deuteranopic (green bars) subjects.                                                                             with diabetic retinopathy.


                                                                                                                                                                  31
R   E S E A R C H                 R    E P O R T S




Clinical practice                                     Systemic hypertension and the                       utilising Bakers equation were inaccurate. This
                                                      retinal vasculature                                 study was conducted in collaboration with
Numerous clinically-based projects have been
                                                      Dr Wolffsohn, Dr Napper                             Eurolens Research, United Kingdom.
pursued and published during the year (see
                                                      There are few links between general                 Amblyopia therapy
publication list). These projects have served to
                                                      practitioners and eye-care practitioners            Mr Fricke
improve clinic practice and patient care as well
                                                      regarding patients with systemic hypertension.
as broadening clinic staff experience. The                                                                Amblyopia (lazy eye) is a common cause of
                                                      This study examined the ability of patients to
clinically-based topics researched in this area                                                           reduced vision which is treatable in the early
                                                      accurately report relevant medical history to
have been as diverse as conjunctival                                                                      stages of life. There are various treatment
                                                      their eye-care practitioner. The links between
intraepithelial neoplasia, low vision assessment,                                                         methods which work on some but not all
                                                      eye-care professionals and general practitioners
pupillary measurement, Salzmann's nodular                                                                 children. Research has continued on the
                                                      was also investigated. Retinal blood vessel
degeneration, choroidal folds, keratoconus,                                                               various types of translucent patches and how
                                                      features were described for 100 subjects by
orthokeratology, clinical contact lens                                                                    these compare with opaque patching, atropine
                                                      eye care practitioners using a standardised
management and rigid lens fitting. This work                                                              penalisation and refractive penalisation. This
                                                      scale and a photograph taken through their
will improve clinical practice and patient                                                                project was supported by the Australasian
                                                      dilated pupil, prior to any knowledge of the
management. Also, it provides an opportunity                                                              College of Behavioural Optometrists.
                                                      patient’s blood pressure. Blood pressure was
for clinical staff optometrists to further develop
                                                      then measured and a self-reported history of
their research skills.
                                                      general health and current medication was
Measuring the outcome of a low                        compared with the records of their general
vision assessment                                     practitioner. Two-thirds of general practitioners
Dr Wolffsohn, Ms Cochrane                             responded to the survey regarding their
                                                      patient. Patients ability to give their complete
In a joint research initiative between Vision
                                                      medical history was found to be poor, as was
Australia Foundation and the Victorian College
                                                      their ability to recall what medication they had
of Optometry, a simple low vision "quality of
                                                      been prescribed.
life" tool (the LVQOL) has been designed and
tested to measure the effectiveness of                Measuring non-spherical
rehabilitation services. This year, the results       optical surfaces                                    The contrast sensitivity functions of non-amblyopic
indicate a 17% improvement in the quality of          Dr Woods                                            eyes through Bangerter Foils demonstrate similarities
                                                                                                          to the contrast losses seen in amblyopia. This match
life of people with low vision after they had         A number of multifocal contact lens designs
                                                                                                          suggests a possible role for Bangerter Foils in
received rehabilitation in a multi-disciplinary low   incorporate aspheric shapes of known p-values       penalisation treatment for amblyopia.
vision clinic. Continuing research includes how       on the front and back surface of contact            Accommodation convergence control
the improvement in the outcomes of the LVQOL          lenses. Frequently the radius of curvature          Mr Yoshimitsu, Mr Fricke
varies with different rehabilitation methods.         quoted by the manufacture is a nominal              and Professor McBrien
                                                      reference, making verification of these lenses      Accommodation (focussing) and vergence (eye
The benefits of yellow lenses to
                                                      difficult. This study assessed whether clinical     coordination) disorders can cause children to
those with low vision
                                                      equipment can verify these complex surfaces         have sore eyes, headaches, blurred vision, lack
Dr Wolffsohn, Ms Dinardo
                                                      for a range of concave surfaces of known            of concentration and lowered reading
Although many studies have shown a                    curvatures (7.30 mm to 8.10 mm) and known           efficiency. Classification systems and treatment
subjective preference for yellow lenses, there        p-values (p = 0.0 to p = 1.0). The results using    of these disorders are not widely agreed. There
has been little success in determining the            the videokeratoscope demonstrated that it was       is particular debate surrounding the use of
clinical nature of this benefit. Following on         able to describe the p-value for the surface to     multifocal lenses for these disorders. The aim
from research conducted on young normal               a high degree of accuracy (± 0.15 [2SD]) but        of this project is to improve the diagnosis,
subjects last year, contrast sensitivity, colour      did demonstrate bias, according to discrepancy      classification and management of
vision and visual acuity were measured in a           analysis (mean difference = 0.048 ± 0.02 [2SE]).    accommodation and vergence disorders. This
group of 15 subjects with age-related macular         The degree of accuracy for the measurement          has involved design of a symptom survey,
degeneration. The results indicate that               of the radius of curvature of the concave           specific for primary school children with
objective improvement in visual function with         surface was also very high (± 0.014), without       accommodation vergence disorders and their
the use of coloured lenses in this population         any demonstration of bias (mean difference =        parents. Data collection from a broad school
appears to be slight, although marked                 -0.07, ± 0.022). However, the results for the       population and children with diagnosed
subjective preferences were noted.                    measurement of the p-value for the radiuscope       disorders is ongoing.
                                                                                        M     E L B O U R N E           O     P T O M E T R Y




International                                     Professor McBrien, Dr Bruce and Mr Turner            Nurse training in South Africa
                                                  attended the annual meeting of the American          The ratio of optometrists to population in
The globalisation of education continues to       Academy of Optometry, in Seattle, in                 South Africa is about one third of that in
make enormous strides forward. The University     December where several presentations were            developed nations.
of Melbourne is a major force and founding        made. Professor McBrien also represented the
                                                                                                       The cost of training additional optometrists and
member of Universitas 21 which consists of a      Optometry Council of Australia and New
                                                                                                       ophthalmologists to give practitioner to population
group of leading international Universities who   Zealand at a meeting of a World Council of
                                                                                                       ratios the same as in the developed countries, and
have formed an alliance to foster exchange of     Optometry committee on education standards           then deploying them in remote disadvantaged
ideas and develop new global strategies for       held in Seattle.                                     areas, would be prohibitive. Training of nurses to
education in the new millennium.
                                                  The international conference on low vision,          provide basic primary eye care in District
International Students                            Vision ’99, was held in New York, in July. Both      Community Health Centres and clinics is a more
                                                                                                       practical and affordable alternative.
In 1999 the Department had a total of 17          the Clinic and Department were well
international students in its Bachelor of         represented. Associate Professor Johnston, Ms        The Department has an AUSAID grant to work
Optometry course. The largest representation      Cochrane, Dr Wolffsohn and Ms Haymes each            with the Department of Optometry in the
came from Singapore with six optometry            made a presentation.                                 University of Durban-Westville to develop a
diplomates from the Singapore Polytechnic                                                              curriculum to train nurses to deliver eye care in
                                                  Professor Cole attended the 24th quadrennial
conducting studies on the Degree upgrade                                                               remote regions of South Africa.
                                                  session of the CIE meeting in Warsaw, Poland
programme. The first of the Singapore             in June. Professor Cole chaired the committee        Planning and the development of a curriculum
students graduated at the end of 1999. The        on colour vision standards. Professor Collins        began in 1998 with a visit to Melbourne from
Department also had undergraduate students        was an invited lecturer at the optometry school      the South African school. In late 1999, Mr Rod
from China, Malaysia, Fiji, Taiwan, France,       in Auckland later in the year.                       Baker, Senior Teaching Fellow in the
Botswana, Canada and the USA. The                                                                      Department, and Mr Bang Bui, a PhD student,
international students add a diversity to the     International Visitors                               travelled to South Africa to continue the work.
student group which enriches the experience for   Several international visitors made presentations:   They gave a four day course in Mmabatho,
the home students.                                                                                     capital of the North-West Province (formerly
                                                  Professor Jay Enoch, former Dean of the
                                                                                                       Bophutaswana). Attending the course were
International Exchange                            School of Optometry at the University of
                                                                                                       nurse trainers and ophthalmic nurses
The Department and in particular the clinical     California, Berkeley spent a few days in the
                                                                                                       employed by the Health Department. Most of
school of the Department continues to develop     Department in 1999. Professor Enoch
                                                                                                       those attending will be the trainers once the
exchange programmes for final year                presented a seminar on his world leading
                                                                                                       course is fully developed.
Optometry students. In 1999 we hosted six         research on the Stiles Crawford effect.
                                                                                                       Emphasis is placed on those eye conditions
students from the Illinois College of Optometry   Dr R Srinivasan a research fellow of the             suitable for treatment by the primary health
for one of their clinical rotations. A record     Neuroscience Institute La Jolla, USA presented       care worker and improving referral strategies.
number of 17 Melbourne optometry students         a seminar on colour vision processing.
elected to go on overseas externships in 1999.                                                         Over the next 6 months the South African
Students visited clinical sites in Nepal,         Dr Michael Cox of the Department of                  Health Department will monitor the
Zimbabwe, China, Israel, Sri Lanka and several    Optometry, University of Bradford, UK visited        implementation of the Primary Eyecare for
in the USA.                                       the Department to discuss research issues with       Nurses course throughout the province. If it is
                                                  academic staff.                                      found to be effective, a proposal will be put to
Inernational Meetings                                                                                  the South African Health Department for the
                                                  International Research                               program to be implemented nationally.
International meetings promote dialogue and
                                                  Collaboration
are essential for research staff to meet with
others in their field of expertise.               Associate Professor Vingrys is collaborating on
                                                  a research project with Professor Chris Johnson
Professor McBrien and Dr Alex Gentle
                                                  from Devers Eye Institute, Oregon. He is also
presented work on their myopia research at
                                                  collaborating with Professor Heikki Kallio from
the Association for Research in Vision and
                                                  University of Turku, Finland.
Ophthalmology meeting in Florida, in May. The
meeting was also attended by Associate            Professor McBrien continues to conduct
Professor Vingrys and Mr Bui. Associate           collaborative research with the Independent
Professor Vingrys was involved in four poster     Television Commission based in the UK. This
presentations and Mr Bui made his first poster    research involves investigating the eye’s
presentation at an international meeting.         response to virtual image displays.
Report to                                          practice. Council is confident that the new        the World Council of Optometry as chair of
                                                   Codes will assist members in practice as we        the committee on standards and a member of
Members                                            enter the new millennium.                          the Governing Body in 1999.


Council Meetings                                   Councillors                                        Finance
Council met on six occasions during 1999.          The terms of office of Mr Both, Dr Johnston,       The income of the College rose to $7.316
Four meetings were the main quarterly              Mr Letts, Mr Pettit and Dr Smith as Councillors    million ($6.758 million in 1998) of which
meetings at which the principal business of        ended in 1999. All Councillors were eligible for   $6.75 million was applied to direct costs of
Council is transacted. The other meetings were     re-election. Dr Johnston, Mr Letts, Mr Pettit      operation. The operating surplus from College
for the special purpose of adopting the            and Dr Smith were re-elected unopposed at          operations (excluding NVRI) was $34,618. Due
audited financial statements of 1998 and the       the 1999 AGM.                                      to a planned drawing down of research
adoption of a budget for 2000.
                                                   Mr Both decided not to seek re-election due to     reserves the NVRI recorded a deficit of

                                                   personal commitments. Council recorded its         $128,765. After accounting for interest,
Strategic Planning
                                                   appreciation of Mr Both's contributions to         sundry income and after allowance of
Council continues to monitor progress in
                                                   Council and in particular his willingness to       $608,841 for depreciation the net deficit for
relation to the strategic plan for the period
                                                   travel the long distances from Horsham to          all operating divisions was $62,867.
1997-2002. At every main Council meeting
progress was assessed with respect to the          attend meetings of Council and the Board of        Depreciation increased in 1999 to $608,841
plan. To date progress on almost all aspects of    Continuing Education, of which he was a            from $493,983 in 1998. This was due
the plan is on or ahead of schedule.               member during his term on Council.                 predominantly to an increase in the value of
                                                                                                      the building and land which was revalued in
                                                   Mr Trevor Pritchard was elected a Councillor to
Infrastructure                                                                                        1999 after completion of Stage 5. The
                                                   fill the vacancy left by Mr Both's retirement.
For the first time in many years 1999 was a                                                           increased provision for debt exposure for clinic
                                                   Mr Pritchard practices in Geelong and so his
quiet year on the building front after the                                                            services of $68,618 is a change in accounting
                                                   election to Council ensures that the views of
completion of Stage 5, which realized the                                                             procedures in 1999 to more closely reflect this
                                                   country members will still be represented. Mr
1985 Master Plan. But 15 years is a long time                                                         aspect of operations. There was also the
                                                   Pritchard has been a member of Clinic Board
and already it is evident that more space is                                                          introduction of occupancy charges for the
                                                   since 1995.
required if Melbourne Optometry is to                                                                 community health centres in 1999.
continue to thrive. After investigating the        Dr Johnston resigned from Council in
                                                                                                      The core operations of the College remain on
feasibility of constructing a Stage 6, plans and   September for personal reasons. A minute of
                                                                                                      a sound financial footing. The strategy in 1999
costing were obtained. In 1999 College             appreciation was adopted by Council in
                                                                                                      was to build up financial reserves again after
Council approved plans to be put forward to        recognition of his 20 years of service as a
                                                                                                      the completion of the stage 5 building
Melbourne City Council for planning approval.
                                                   Councillor of the College. Mr John Slack was
                                                                                                      programme. The College's current assets rose
The plans are currently with the City Council
                                                   appointed to Council in November to fill the       to $1.547 million in 1999 from $1.110 million
awaiting a decision.
                                                   vacancy left by Dr Johnston's resignation until    in 1998, due mainly to an increase in
                                                   the next AGM.                                      investments to $927,660. Total capital and
Code of Ethics and
Practice Standards                                                                                    reserves of the College rose to $10.870 million
                                                   Councillor Activities                              compared with $10.537 million in 1998. Net
A new code of Ethics and Code of Practice
                                                   Councillors of the College were active in          financial assets increased to $748,351 in 1999
Standards was adopted by Council at its
                                                   several broader areas of the Profession in         from $350,861 in 1998.
November meeting. There was substantial
consultation with members and amendments           1999. As reported elsewhere Helen Robbins

made before the final version was adopted by       was elected National President of the

Council. All members were posted a bound           Optometrists Association of Australia. Dr
version of the Codes in April 2000. The codes      Damien Smith continued his involvement in
reflect the College's vision for the profession
while taking account of the changed
environment within which we work and

								
To top