Employment and Incomes

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					Employment and Incomes
     EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                        1




                              Lucy Holborn

● Therewere12803000peopleemployedinSouthAfricainthefirstquarterof2010.
  Some 8 974 000 (70%) worked in the formal sector and 2 009 000 (16%) in the
  informalsector.Some650000(5%)peopleworkedintheagriculturalsector,while
  1 169 000(9%)wereemployedinprivatehouseholds.
● Ofthe4310000unemployedpeopleinSouthAfrica,some3704000(86%)were
  African.Indiansweretheonlyracialgroupamongwhomunemploymentdecreased
  between2009and2010.
● Theofficialunemploymentrateinthefirstquarterof2010was25%.Theunem-
  ploymentratewashighestamongAfricans(30%)andlowestamongIndians(5%).
● Whileunemploymentroseby126000from2009to2010andtheunemploymentrate
  rosefrom24%to25%inthesameperiod,thenumberofdiscouragedworkseekers—
  thosewhoarewillingandabletoworkbutwhohavegivenuplookingforjobs—rose
  from1215000to1839000.Thisrepresentsanincreaseof624000or51%inoneyear.
● According to the wide definition of unemployment which includes discouraged
  workseekers,thenumberofunemployedpeoplegrewfrom5806000in2001to
  6 149 000in2010,andtheunemploymentraterosefrom31.7%to32.4%.
● Thelabourmarketparticipationratedroppedfrom61%in2001to55%in2010.The
  labourabsorptionratefellfrom46%to41%.Thelabourmarketparticipationrateis
  theproportionoftheworking-agepopulationthatiseconomicallyactive(employed,
  orunemployedandactivelyseekingwork),whereasthelabourabsorptionrateisthe
  proportionoftheworking-agepopulationthatisactuallyemployed.
● TheGinico-efficient(ameasureofinequality)was0.62in1996and0.65in2009.In
  2009thepopulationgroupwiththelowestGinico-efficientwaswhitepeoplewitha
  measureof0.45.InequalitywashighestamongAfricans,withaco-efficientof0.60.
  AGiniratingof0wouldmeanthatallpeopleinacountryhadthesameincome,while
  aGiniof1wouldmeanthatonepersonhadalltheincome.
● Theprovincewiththehighestannualaveragepersonalincomein2009wasGauteng,
  atR55666.TheprovincewiththelowestannualaveragepersonalincomewasLimpopo,
  atR23210.AverageannualpersonalincomeinSouthAfricaasawholewasR32559.
● Whitepeoplehadapercapitapersonalincomethatwas11timeshigherthanAfricans
  andfivetimeshigherthanIndianandcolouredpeoplein1917.By2008whiteper
  capitaincomewaseighttimeshigherthanthatofAfricans,fivetimeshigherthanthat
  ofcolouredpeople,andtwotimeshigherthanthatofIndians.
● In2009therewere408988peoplelivingonlessthan$1adayinSouthAfrica.This
  equatedto0.8%ofthepopulation.In2009,some2907619peopleinSouthAfrica


South African Institute of Race Relations               South Africa Survey 2009/2010
      EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                              2



    werelivingonlessthan$2aday,5.9%ofthepopulation.Boththenumbersandthe
    proportionsofpeoplelivingonlessthan$1adayandlessthan$2adayhavebeen
    decliningsince2002.
●   Aneconomist,MrMikeSchüssler,warnedthatincreasedgovernmentemployment
    andwageofferswerehamperingthecreationofjobsintheprivatesector.Wagesinthe
    privatesectorincreasedby19%inrealtermsbetween2006and2010,whereaspublic
    sector wages rose by 23% in the same period. The SouthAfrican Reserve Bank
    publisheddatawhichshowedthatthepublicsectorwagebillhadbeenincreasingby
    anaverageof6.5%aboveinflationeveryyearforthepasteightyears,risingtoatotal
    of R322bn in 2009–10. In addition, since 2006 employment in the private sector
    decreasedby2.9%whereasemploymentinthepublicsectorincreasedby13.6%
    [Business Report 2July2010;Business Day 2July,20August2010].
●   MrSchüssleralsosaidthatSouthAfrica’sadultemploymentratewasthelowestin
    Africa,withanemploymentratioofadultsof41%comparedwith,forexample,83%
    inUganda,80%inRwanda,and78%inTanzaniaandMalawi[Business Report 2July
    2010].
●   Theministeroffinance,MrPravinGordhan,announcedplanstointroduceawage
    subsidytolowerthecosttoemployersofhiringyoungpeoplewithoutworkexperience.
    Hesaidthattheplanaimedtoraisethenumberofschool-leaversemployedby500000
    by 2013. The Congress of SouthAfrican Trade Unions (Cosatu) objected to the
    proposal,arguingthatitwouldthreatenjobsecurityandthewageratesofworkers.
    TheDemocraticAlliance(DA)criticisedtheNationalTreasury’sfailuretoadhereto
    itsdeadlineforadiscussiondocumentonthepolicytobetabledbytheendofMarch
    2010. The leader of the DA, Ms Helen Zille, described it as a ‘tragedy’ that the
    proposed wage subsidy had been still-born because of disagreements within the
    tripartitealliance.Thepolicyhadbeendiscussedaslongagoas1998inadocument
    preparedbytheDepartmentofLabouraheadofa‘jobssummit’thatyear[Business
    Day 24June1998,14September2010;Business Report 18February2010;The Star
    12July2010].
●   Theministeroftradeandindustry,MrRobDavies,launchedagovernmentindustrial
    policyactionplan,claimingitwouldcreate2.5millionjobsby2020[The Times
    19 February2010].
●   TheInternationalMonetaryFund(IMF)saidthatSouthAfricaneededtoachievea
    growthrateof6%beforetherewouldbelarge-scalejobcreation.Attheopeningofthe
    ANC’snationalgeneralcouncilmeetinginSeptember2010inDurban,MrGordhan
    saidthatSouthAfricawouldneedagrowthrateof6.5%iftherewasanyhopeof
    achieving the government’s target of halving unemployment by 2014 [The Times
    21 September2010;Business Day 22September2010].
●   TheBureauofMarketResearch(BMR)attheUniversityofSouthAfrica(Unisa)
    publishedresearchonpersonalincomepatternsandprofilesfor2009whichshowed
    thatpersonalincomesfellby1.2%inrealterms.Thereportshowedthatjust4%ofthe
    populationearnalmost40%oftotalpersonalincome,whileurbandwellersearned
    86.9%ofallincome[Business Report 25February2010].



South African Institute of Race Relations                   South Africa Survey 2009/2010
       EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                                                  3



EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES
THE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES PICTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
            South African employment and incomes at a glance . . . . . . . . . 9
THE OVERALL EMPLOYMENT PICTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
  Labour market trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
            Labour market trends, 2001 and 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
            Labour market trends, 2009–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
  Labour market participation and absorption rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
            Labour market participation rate, 2001–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
            Labour market participation rate by race and sex, 2010 . . . . . 12
            Labour force participation and unemployment rates,
              selected countries, 1990 and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            13
            Labour force absorption rate, 2001–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              14
  Economically active population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     14
            Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        14
            Economically active population by race, 2001–10. . . . . . . . . . .                                     15
            Economically active population by race and sex, 2010. . . . . . .                                        15
EMPLOYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   16
         Overall employment by economic sector and industry,
          2001, 2009, and 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                 Overall employment by economic sector and industry,
                   2001, 2009, and 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              16
                 Change in overall employment by economic sector and
                   industry, 2001–10 and 2009–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       17
         Employment by industry, sex, and race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       18
                 Employment by industry and sex, 2001 and 2010 . . . . . . . . . .                                   18
                 Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2009–10. . . . . . . . . . .                                 19
         Employment by occupation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               24
                 Employment by occupation, 2001 and 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               24
                 Proportion of employment by occupation, 2001 and 2010 . . .                                         24
                 Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2010
                   (actual numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          25
                 Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2010
                   (proportions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       26
                 Employment equity employment by occupation, race, and
                   sex, 2009 (proportions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               27
                 Employment equity top management employment by race,
                   sex, and industry, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               28
                 Employment in management by race and sex, 2000–08. . . . . .                                        29
                 Breakdown of top management by race and sex, 2008 . . . . . .                                       29
                 Proportion of black employees in the workforce at different
                   levels of seniority, 1994–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  30
         Employment in the public sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  32
           The public service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        32
           State employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       32
                 Total number of state employees, 1999–2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               32

South African Institute of Race Relations                               South Africa Survey 2009/2010
       EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                                                      4



              State employees as a proportion of total employment,
                 1999–2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             32
              Number of state employees by sex, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                   33
              Number of state employees by race, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  33
              Breakdown of state employees by race and sex, 2010 . . . . . . .                                           33
              Number of employees in national departments and agencies
                 by race, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             34
       State-owned enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     35
              Number and proportion of employees in state-owned
                 enterprises by race and sex, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           35
       Government employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        35
              Number of government employees by level of government,
                 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        35
    Characteristics of the employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          36
              Employment by age group, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              36
              Employment by highest level of education, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . .                                       36
    Segments of the working population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               37
       Non-agricultural, non-domestic formal sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                        37
              Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and
                 public sector employment, 2008 and 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     37
              Formal sector (non-agricultural) employment by industry,
                 2004–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           37
       Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         38
              Employment in agriculture by type of employment,
                 2001–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           38
              Number of paid workers in the formal agricultural sector
                 by province, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 38
       Expanded Public Works Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                   39
              Number and average length of work opportunities created
                 by the EPWP, 2004/05–2010/11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              39
       Informal sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             39
              Informal sector employment (non-agricultural) by industry,
                 2004–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           39
    Productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       40
              Change in total employment, real remuneration per worker,
                 and labour productivity in the non-agricultural, non-
                 domestic sector, 1994–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          40
UNEMPLOYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           41
    Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   41
              Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                        41
              Number of unemployed (official definition), 1994–2010 . . . . .                                            43
              Number of unemployed (wide definition), 1994–2010 . . . . . . .                                            43
              Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2010 (official and
                 wide definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              44
              Unemployment rate (official definition), 1994–2010 . . . . . . . .                                         45
              Unemployment rate (wide definition), 1994–2010 . . . . . . . . . .                                         45


South African Institute of Race Relations                                  South Africa Survey 2009/2010
       EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                                                      5



                 Unemployment by industry and occupation, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . 46
         Characteristics of the unemployed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
                 Categories of unemployed people, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
                 Unemployment by age group, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
                 Unemployment rate by age group, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
                        Unemployment     numbers and rate by age, race, and sex,
                         2010 . . . . . . .
                                         .......................................                                         48
                        Unemployment     by highest level of education, 2010 . . . . . . . . .                           49
                        Unemployment     by length of time, 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    49
                        Unemployment     by current marital status, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . .                         49
    International comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      50
              Unemployment rates, selected countries, 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . .                                      50
UNDERUTILISATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION OF LABOUR . . . . . .                                                             51
    Not economically active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  51
              Persons not economically active, 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               51
    Underutilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           52
              Underutilisation of labour, 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          52
    Underemployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                52
              Time-related underemployment by industry, 2010 . . . . . . . . .                                           52
              Time-related underemployment by occupation, 2010 . . . . . . .                                             53
    Discouraged workseekers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      53
              Total number of discouraged workseekers, 1994–2007
                 (old definition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             54
              Defining the discouraged (new definition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 55
              Total number of discouraged workseekers, 2001–2010
                 (new definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              55
              Discouraged workseekers by race, 2001–10
                 (new definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              56
              Discouraged workseekers by race and sex, 2009–10
                 (new definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              56
    Non-market activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                57
              Non-market activities, 2009–10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          57
PROVINCIAL LABOUR MARKET DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    57
    Overall data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       57
              Economically active population by province, 2010 . . . . . . . . . .                                       57
    Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   58
              Labour market trends by province, 2009–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    58
    Employment by industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     60
              Employment by industry and province, 2009–10 . . . . . . . . . . .                                         60
    Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      64
              Number of paid workers in formal agricultural sector
                 by province, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 64
    Formal and informal sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        64
              Formal and informal sector employment by province,
                 2003 and 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                64
    Unemployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             65


South African Institute of Race Relations                                  South Africa Survey 2009/2010
       EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                                                     6



               Unemployment numbers by province, 2005, 2009, and
                  2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
               Unemployment rate by province, 2005, 2009, and 2010 . . . . . 65
               Unemployment rate by province, 2005, 2009, and 2010
                  (official definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
               Unemployment rate by province, 2005, 2009, and 2010
                  (wide definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
MUNICIPAL LABOUR MARKET DATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
     Labour market status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
               Labour market status by race, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
INCOME AND EXPENDITURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
  Wage trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
               Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
                  industries, 2009–10 (current prices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
               Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
                  industries, 2009–10 (constant prices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
               Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
                  employment in the public and private sectors,
                  2000–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
               Number of paid employees in agriculture and average
                  monthly earnings by province, 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
  Incomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     Income levels and categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
        Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
               Number of households by income category and province,
                  2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
               Proportion of households by income category and province,
                  2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
        Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
               Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2009 (numbers) . . . . . 71
               Adults by race and income group, 2009 (numbers) . . . . . . . . . 71
               Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2009 (proportions) . . . 72
               Adults by income group and province, 2009 (numbers) . . . . . 72
               Adults by income group and province, 2009 (proportions) . . . 73
               Adults by income group and highest level of education,
                  2009 (numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
               Adults by income group and highest level of education,
                  2009 (proportions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
               Number and proportion of affluent individuals by race, age,
                  and province, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
     Income sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
               Households’ sources of income by race, 2009. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
               Number and proportion of small-scale non-metro households
                  with access to land by main source of income, 2006 . . . . . . 75
     Income inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
               Gini co-efficient by race and location, 1993, 2000, and
                  2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76


South African Institute of Race Relations                                  South Africa Survey 2009/2010
     EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                                                      7



              Gini co-efficient by race, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           77
              Gini co-efficient by province and race, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               77
     Income trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       78
        Very long-term income trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         78
              Annual per capita personal income by race, 1917–2008 . . . . .                                           78
              Annual per capita personal income by race as a proportion
                of white levels, 1917–2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      79
              Ratio of white per capita personal income to that of
                other races, 1917–2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     79
        Long-term income trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    79
              Real personal disposable income per head by race, 1960
                and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           79
              Personal disposable income share by race, 1960 and 2007 . . .                                            80
              Real personal disposable income per head by race,
                1960–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            81
              Personal disposable income by race, 1960 and 2007 . . . . . . . .                                        82
              African and white annual per capita disposable income,
                1960, 1996, and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   82
        Medium-term income trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        83
           Aggregate income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                83
              Annual total disposable income by race, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . .                                        83
              Annual total disposable income by race, 1999 and 2009. . . . .                                           83
           Household income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  84
              Annual average household income by race, 1996–2008. . . . . .                                            84
              Annual average household income by race, 1998 and 2008 . .                                               84
              Annual average household income by province, 1996–2008 . . .                                             85
           Personal income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               85
              Personal annual income per head by province, 1996–2009 . . .                                             85
              Annual per capita income by race, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    86
              Annual per capita income by race, 1999 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . .                                      86
   Expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   87
              Household expenditure categories by race, 2008–09 . . . . . . . .                                        87
              Household expenditure categories by race and sex, 2009 . . . .                                           87
              Household expenditure categories by sex, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    88
              Expenditure by race and main expenditure group
                (proportions), 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                88
   Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     89
              Distribution of final household consumption by main
                expenditure group, 1949–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           89
              Final household consumption expenditure, 2009. . . . . . . . . . .                                       89
              Final consumption expenditure by households, 1959 and
                2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       90
              Proportion of final consumption expenditure by households,
                2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       91
              Average annual household consumption expenditure
                by province, 2005/06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   91


South African Institute of Race Relations                                South Africa Survey 2009/2010
       EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE                                                                                          8



    Credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
                    Levels of indebtedness by province, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
                    Sources of credit, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
    Living Standards Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
               Living standards measures by age, race, income, and
                  province, 2009. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
               LSMs, change over time, 2001–09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
POVERTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
    National trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
               Poverty measures by race and sex, 1993, 2000, and 2008 . . . . 96
               Number and proportion of people living on less than $1
                  a day, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
               Number of people living on less than $1 a day, 1996–2009 . . 97
               Number and proportion of people living on less than $2
                  a day, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
               Number of people living on less than $2 a day, 1996–2009 . . . 98
               Number of people living in relative poverty by race,
                  1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
               Proportion of people living in relative poverty by race,
                  1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
               Proportion of people living in relative poverty,
                  1999 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
    Provincial trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
               Number of people living on less than $1 a day by province,
                  1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
               Proportion of people living on less than $1 a day
                  by province, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
               Number of people living on less than $2 a day
                  by province, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
               Proportion of people living on less than $2 per day
                  by province, 1996–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
               Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and
                  race, 2009 (actual numbers). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
               Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and
                  race, 2009 (proportions). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
    Municipal poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
               Poverty rate by district municipality, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103




South African Institute of Race Relations                                    South Africa Survey 2009/2010

				
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