Directed Reading Worksheet, Holt Science and Technology, Life Science by alq12320

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									                             KCKPS Science Course Syllabus
(Note: This syllabus has been correlated to the current text Biology Principles and
Explorations, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2001. The material fulfills the national, state and
local standards.)

Overarching Course-level Essential Question:

      When do we know something in science? What is the evidence and how reliable is it?
      What makes something alive? When and why is the definition important?
      What is growth and ―natural‖ development in living things? What factors most influence
       healthy growth and development in living things?
      Why am I the way I am?
      How can individuals help solve world problems?
      What is wasteful and how do you know?

Course Description: This course is a laboratory-oriented course designed to introduce students
in grades ten through twelve to the diversity of living organisms, the scientific inquiry process
and important concepts surrounding living things. The course is organized into two parts,
principles and explorations. The principles covered are those of cell biology, genetics, evolution,
and ecology. The exploration part includes the kingdoms of life, plants, invertebrates,
vertebrates, and human biology.

Power Standards—State and Local Assessed Standards Addressed by this Course:


Standard 1 – Science as Inquiry
Formulate research questions, conduct experimental investigations, analyze data, use
appropriate technology, communicate results, defend conclusions, and propose further

_.1.1 Biology Research Benchmark:
Upon completion of Biology, all students will demonstrate the abilities necessary to do
scientific inquiry.
        _.1.1.1 Develop questions and formulate testable hypotheses based upon previous
        experience and knowledge. (Good hypotheses are predictions based on assumptions
        with conditions related to the developed question. For example; an ―If ___ then ___
        because ___‖ format is used.)
        _.1.1.3 Design an experimental procedure to test hypotheses and conduct scientific
        _.1.1.5 Analyze, summarize and communicate scientific findings using technology
        and mathematics. Use the SI system of measurement in the recording and
        interpretation of results.

Standard 2 – Physical Science
Analyze (quantitatively and qualitatively) the structures, properties, forms, and patterns in
matter and energy, predict changes and interactions, and evaluate theories and structures
using knowledge of chemistry and physics.

_.2.1          Students will understand the structures of the atom.
        2.1.3 Understand that the nucleus of an atom is composed of protons and
        neutrons, which determine the mass of the atom.
        2.1.4 Understand that the dense nucleus of an atom is in the center of an electron
        cloud and the electron cloud determines the size of the atom.

_ 2.2 The students will understand the states and properties of matter.
      2.2.2 Understand that elements are arranged according to increasing atomic
      number on the periodic table.
      2.2.4 Understand that chemical bonds result when electrons are transferred or
      shared between atoms.

Standard 3 – Life Science
Analyze the characteristics, structure, and processes of living systems (e.g., molecular,
cellular, organism, populations) and describe how living systems interact with each other
and their environment.

_.3.1           Students will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of
the cell.
        _.3.1.1 Understand that cells are composed of a variety of specialized structures that
        carry out specific functions.
        _.3.1.3 Understand that cells function and replicate as a result of information stored
        in DNA and RNA molecules.

_.3.2 Students will demonstrate an understanding of chromosomes, genes, and the
molecular basis of heredity.
      _.3.2.1 Understand hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the
      chromosomes of each cell. Each gene carries a single unit of information. An
      inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a
      single gene can influence more than one trait.
      _.3.2.2 Understand experiments have shown that all known living organisms contain
      DNA or RNA as their genetic material.
      _.3.2.3 Understand DNA (or RNA) provides the instructions that specify the
      characteristics of organisms.

_.3.3 Students will understand the major concepts of the theory of biological evolution.
      _.3.3.2 Understand that biologists use evolution theory to explain the earth’s present
      day biodiversity—the number, variety and variability of organisms.
      _.3.3.4 Analyze the sources and value of variation.

_.3.4 Students will understand the interdependence of organisms and their interaction
with the physical environment.
       _.3.4.2 Analyze how organisms cooperate and compete in ecosystems.

_.3.5 Students will develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living
      _.3.5.1 Know that ecosystems have energy flowing through them and that continual
      energy inputs are necessary to maintain living systems.
      _.3.5.2 Understand the sun is the primary source of energy for life through the
      process of photosynthesis.
      _.3.5.3 Understand food molecules contain energy. This energy is made available by
      cellular respiration.

_.3.7 Students will demonstrate an understanding of structure, function, and diversity of
       _.3.7.3 Understand the basic biology, diversity, ecology, and human relationships of
       _.3.7.4 Understand the basic biology, diversity, anatomy, ecology and medical effects
       of major animal groups.

Content Outline:

I)         Principles
      A)   Principles of Cell Biology
           1) Biology and You
           2) Cell Structure
           3) Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
           4) Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction
      B)   Principles of Genetics
           1) Mendel and Heredity
           2) DNA: The Genetic Material
      C)   Principles of Evolution
           1) The Theory of Evolution
      D)   Principles of Ecology
           1) Populations
           2) Ecosystems
           3) Biological Communities
II)        Explorations
      A)   Exploring Plants

      1) Introduction to Plants
   B) Exploring Invertebrates
      1) Introduction to Animals
   C) Exploring Human Biology
      1) The Body’s Defenses (supporting chapter)
      2) Nervous System (supporting chapter)

Suggested Local Assessment Prompts:
All Prompts Listed at:

Acid Rain (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the biology of acid rain.

Beef Fat (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the fat content of beef

Crickets (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the behavior of crickets.

Enzyme Reactions (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the rate of
reaction of enzymes.

Hydroponics (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the growth of plants
in hydroponics.

Mice Maze (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the behavior of mice
in mazes.

Heart Rate (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the variables affecting
heart rate

Air Quality (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the quality of air
during different seasons.

.Other Ideas for Local Assessment Prompts:

Population Simulation – Investigate variables affecting populations through a simulated game with
predator – prey role playing.

Outbreak! – Investigate the variables related to the spread of disease through a simulation.

Pill Bugs – Investigate the behavior of pill bugs. (AKA Sowbugs or rolly pollys)

Reaction – Investigate the reaction time of humans and the variables which affect reaction time.

Photosynthesis – Investigate the variables which affect the rate of photosynthesis using Elodea

Yeast Growth – Investigate the variables which affect the growth of yeast in test tubes.

Unit one—Principles of Cell Biology

Unit-level Essential Question: What are the basic principles of cell organization and cell
Chapter-1 Essential Questions:
       How do you know if something is ―living‖?
       Why is learning biology important to you?
       How do biologist study living organisms?

Measurable Unit Objectives:
Chapter 1 Biology and you

   Relate the seven properties of life to a living organism.
   Describe seven themes that can help you organize what you learn about biology.
   Identify the tiny structures that make up all living organisms.
   Differentiate between reproduction and heredity and between metabolism and homeostasis.
   Describe the stages common to scientific investigation.
   Distinguish between forming a hypothesis and making a prediction
   Differentiate a control group from an experimental group and an independent variable from a
    dependent variable.
   Define the word theory as used by a scientist.

Concepts                       Resources                      Standards Addressed
Seven themes that unify the    Biology Principles and         1:1.7.2
Science of Biology.            Exploration; Holt, Rinehart,
--Cellular structure and       and Winston. Ch. 1.1, 1.2
function.                      Active reading technique:
--Reproduction                 Brainstorming, p. 5,
--Metabolism                   Reading organizer, p.12
--Homeostasis                  Directed reading
--Heredity                     worksheet.(1-1,1-2)
--Evolution                    Active Reading Guide (1-
--Interdependence              1,1-2)
                               Audio CD                       _ 6.2.1
                               One-Stop Planner CD            _6.2.3
                                keyword HXO Chapter 1
                                keyword HX010
                                keyword HX015

Scientific process (Inquiry)   Ch. 1.3                        1:1.7.1
--Question/problem             Active Reading Guide (1-3)     1:1.7.2
--Hypothesis                   Directed Reading worksheet     1:1.7.3
--Literature review            (1-3)                          _ .3.7.1
--Experimental design          Experimental Design pg. 24     _ 3.7.12
--Data                              _ 7.1.1
--Analysis                      Keyword: HX025

Chapter 3 –Cell Structure

Essential Questions: What is the relationship between structures and functions of a cell.
 How do we know what cells look like?
 How do cell types differ from one another?
 How do the parts of a cell work together?

Measurable Unit Objectives:
Chapter 3 Cell Structure
 Describe how scientists measure the length of objects.
 Relate magnification and resolution in the use of microscopes.
 Analyze how light microscopes function.
 List the three parts of the cell theory.

   Compare the structure of prokaryotic cells with that of eukaryotic cells.
   Describe the structure of cell membranes.
   Describe the role of the nucleus in cell activities.
   Analyze the role of internal membranes in protein production.
   Summarize the importance of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells.
   Identify three structures in plant cells that are absent from animal cells.

       Concepts                         Resources                         Standards
Microscopes                     Ch. 3.1
Metric System                   Active Reading, Technique:
Other microscopes               Anticipation Guide, p.49
                                Active Reading Guide (3-1)
                                Directed Reading (3-1)
                                 keyword HX052

Cell Theory                     Ch. 3.2
Prokaryotic cells               Active Reading, Technique:      _3.7.5
Eukaryotic cells                Reading Organizers p.58
Cell membrane                   Active Reading Guide (3-2)
                                Directed Reading (3-2)
                                  keyword HX056
                                Math lab: Calculating
                                surface area and volume,
                                Lab A3—Modeling Cells:
                                Surface area to volume.
                                Lab C1—Using a
                                Lab E1—Cell size.
                                --7 Eukaryotic Cell
                                --9 Structure of Lipid
                                --5A Surface-Area-to
                                Volume Ratio.

Cell Organelles                 Ch. 3.3                         _ 3.7.5
--nucleus                       Active Reading Guide (3-3)      _ 3.7.7
--mitochondria                  Directed Reading Guide (3-      _ 3.7.8
--lysosomes                     3)

--plant cells                 Overheads:
--animal cells                --7 Eukaryotic cell           1:1.7.1
                              --120 Plant Cell Structure    1:1.7.2
                                keyword HX062               1:1.7.4
                              Lab: Studying animal cells    1:1.7.5
                              and plant cells. p.70         _ .3.7.1
                                                            _ 3.7.12
                                                            _ 7.1.1

Chapter 5 – Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Essential Question: How is energy harvested and used by cells to power metabolism?
 Where do you get the energy your body’s cells need to function?
 How do plants make their own food?
 How do plants use the energy in food?

Measurable Unit Objectives:
 Summarize how glucose is broken down in the first stage of cellular respiration.
 Describe how ATP is made in the second stage of cellular respiration.
 Identify the role of fermentation in the second stage of cellular respiration.
 Evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration.
 Summarize how energy is captured from sunlight in the first stage of photosynthesis.
 Analyze the function of electron transport chains in the second stage of photosynthesis.
 Relate the Calvin cycle to carbon dioxide fixation in the third stage of photosynthesis.
 Identify three environmental factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.
 Summarize how glucose is broken down in the first stage of cellular respiration.
 Describe how ATP is made in the second stage of cellular respiration.
 Indentify the role of fermentation in the second stage of cellular respiration.
 Evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration.

Concept                     Resources                    Standards Addressed
Energy from autotrophs      Ch. 5.1                      1:1.7.2
to heterotrophs             Active Reading, Technique:   1:1.7.3
Photosynthesis and          K-W-L, p 93                  1:1.7.4
cellular respiration        Active Reading Guide (5-1)   1:1.7.5
ATP                         Directed Reading (5-1)       _ .3.7.1
                            Overhead                     _ 3.7.12
                             13 Energy flow through an   _ 7.1.1
                            Lab C7 Measuring the         I.        _.3.7.8
                            release of energy from
                            Tutor CD
                            Audio CD

Three stages of             Ch. 5.2
photosynthesis              Active Reading Guide (5-2)
Pigments absorb energy      Directed Reading (5-2)
Electron transport chains   Reading Strategies K-W-L     _.3.7.8
Making of organic           worksheet
compounds by the Calvin     Overhead
cycle                        11A Light energy to
Variables that effect       chemical energy
photosynthesis               12 Photosynthesis
                             17 Mitochondria
                             18 Photosystems and
                             electron transport
                              19 Calvin cycle
                            Quick lab, p. 101
                             keyword HX099, HX103        _.3.7.11
                            Tutor CD                     _.3.7.12
                            Videodiscs                   _.3.7.14
                            Audio CD

Two stages of cellular      Ch. 5.3
respiration                 Active Reading, Technique:
Krebs cycle                 Anticipation guide, p. 105
Aerobic respiration         Active Reading Guide (5-3)
Glycolysis                  Directed Reading (5-3)
Fermentation                Overhead
                             16 Cellular respiration
                             20 Photosynthesis—
                            cellular respiration cycle
                             21 Glycolysis

                                 22 Krebs cycle
                                 23 Two pathways of
                               Lab A5 Interpreting labels
                               Lab D9 Intro to
                                keyword HX106, HX109,
                               HX109, HX115
                               Tutor CD
                               Audio CD
                               Interactive Exploration CD

Chapter 6 – Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction

Essential Question: How does the cell cycle work?
 Where do cells get the information they need to function?
 Are cancer and the cell cycle associated?
 How is information passed to new cells that are about to divide?

Measurable Unit Objectives:

   Relate binary fission to cell division prokaryotes.
   Differentiate between a gene, a DNA molecule, a chromosome and a chromatid.
   Compare haploid and diploid cells.
   Differentiate between homologous chromosomes, autosomes, and sex chromosomes.
   Predict how changes in chromosome number or structure can affect development.
   Identify the major events that characterize each of the five phases of the cell cycle.
   Describe how the cell cycle is controlled in eukaryotic cells.
   Differentiate between normal cells and cancer cells.
   Describe the structure and function of the spindle during mitosis.
   Summarize the four stages of mitosis.
   Differentiate cytokinesis in animal and plant cells.

       Concept                         Resources                        Standard Addressed
Cell division                  Ch. 6.1                        _.3.7.7
Binary fission                 Active Reading, Technique:     _.3.7.8
Chromosome formation           Anticipation Guide, p. 117
Diploid                        Active Reading Guide (6-1)
Haploid                        Directed Reading (6-1)
Sex determination              Reading Strategies,

Karyotypes                Compare/Contrast matrix
                           Chromosome and DNA
                           Quick lab, p. 124
                            keyword HX120
                          Tutor CD
                          Audio CD

Eukaryotic cell cycle     Ch. 6.2, 6.3
Mitosis and cytokinesis   Active Reading Guide (6-2,
                          Directed Reading (6-2, 6-3)
                          Reading Strategies,
                          Recognizing cycles, Series-
                          of-events chain
                            24 Mitosis
                          Math lab, p. 129
                          Quick lab, p. 132
                          Experimental Design, p.       1:1.7.2
                          136-137                       1:1.7.3
                          Lab B5 Mitosis                1:1.7.4
                           keyword HX127, HX137         _ .3.7.1
                          CNN Video Split Liver         _ 3.7.12
                          Donor                         _ 7.1.1
                          Tutor CD
                          Audio CD

Unit 2 Principles of Genetics

Unit-level Essential Question: What are genes and how do they function?

Chapter 8 Essential Question:
 How are 8 million different gene combinations posssible from one cell that divides?
 Why are some offspring identical to their parents, while others are not?

Measurable Unit Objectives:
II.   Chapter 8
 Indentify the investigator whose studies formed the basis of modern genetics.
 List four characteristics that make the garden pea a good subject for genetic study.
 Summarize the three major steps of Gregor Mendels’s garden-pea experiments.
 Relate the ratios that Mendel observed in his crosses.
 Describe the four major hypotheses Mendel developed.
 Relate Mendel’s work to the terms homozygous, heterozygous, genotype and phenotype.
 Compare Mendel’s two laws of heredity.
 Predict the results of monohybrid genetic crosses by using Punnett squares.
 Apply a test cross to determine the genotype of an organism with a dominant phenotype.
 Predict the results of monhybrid genetic crosses by using probabilities.
 Analyze a simple pedigree.
 Identify five factors that influence patterns of heredity.
 Describe how mutations can cause genetic disorders.
 List two genetic disorders, and describe their causes and symptoms.
 Evaluate the benefits of genetic counseling.

        Concept                        Resources                      Standard Addressed
Mendel and heredity             Active Reading Technique:    _3.2.7
--origin of genetics            K-W-L p. 159,
                                --Active Reading Guide (8-
                                --Directed Reading (8-1)
                                Overhead—25 Mendel’s
--Mendel’s theory               Experimental Design

                                Active Reading Worksheet
                                Directed Reading
                                Worksheet (8-2)
--Studying heredity             Overhead 29—Crossing
                                homozygous pea plants,
                                30—Crossing heterozygous
                                pea plants.

                                Active Reading Guide (8-3)

                            Directed Reading Guide (8-
--Patterns of heredity      )
                            Overhead 31—Monohybrid
                            crosses, 32—Dihybrid

                            Active Reading Technique
                            – K-W-L p.180
                            --Active Reading Guide (8-
                            --Directed Reading Guide
                            Overhead 38—Tracking
                            Inherited Traits (Family
                            30A—Important genetic
                            disorders) keyword—
                            HX179, (genetic
                            counseling) keyword—
                            HX180, (cystic fibrosis)

DNA: The Genetic            Active Reading Technique:
Material                    K-W-L p. 187, Paired
--Identifying the genetic   reading, p. 189              -3.2.1,3.2.2,3.2.3
material                    --Active reading guide (9-1)
                            --Directed reading guide (9-
                            --K-W-L worksheet
                            Active Reading Guide (9-2)
--Structure of DNA          Directed Reading Guide (9- _3.2.2,3.2.3
--Replication of DNA        Active Reading Technique: 3.2.2,3.2.3
                            K-W-L, p. 198
                            Active Reading Guide (9-3)
                            Directed Reading Guide (9-
                            Video—Bill Nye-DNA,
                            Ramsey-Double Helix

                                                                              13 (DNA
replication) keyword—
HX198, (DNA) keyword—

Unit 3 Principles of Evolution

Unit-level Essential Question:

Chapter 13 Essential Question:

Measurable Unit Objectives:
Chapter 13

   .

       Concept                           Resources                      Standard Addressed
       A. Principles of          Active Reading Technique:
       Evolution                 reader response logs, p. 275;
The Theory of Evolution          paired summarizing, p. 281
--Natural selection              Active Reading Guide (13-1)     3.3.1,3.3.2,3.3.3
                                 Directed Reading Guide (13-
                                 Overhead 44, 52
                                 Active Reading Guide (13-2)
--Evidence of evolution          Directed Reading Guide (13-     3.3.4,3.3.5
                                 Overhead 49,50, 44A
--Examples of evolution          Active Reading Guide (13-3)
                                 Directed Reading Guide (13-     3.3.4,3.3.5

Unit 4 Principles of Ecology

Unit-level Essential Question:

Chapter 16 Essential Question:
Measurable Unit Objectives:

Chapter 16
       Concept                        Resources                      Standard Addressed
       B. Principles of       Active Reading Technique:      3.4.2,3.4.3,6.2.1
       Ecology                anticipation guide, p. 339;
Populations                   reading organizer, p. 344
--How populations grow        Active Reading Guide (16-1)
                              Directed Reading Guide (16-
                              Reading strategies,
                              compare/contrast matrix

--How populations evolve      Active Reading Guide (16-2)    6.2.2,6.2.3,3.3.3,3.3.4
                              Directed Reading Guide (16-
                              Reading strategies – spider

 Ch 17                        Active Reading Technique:
Ecosystems                    anticipation guide, p. 359     3.5.1—3.5.8
--What is an ecosystem?       Active Reading Guide (17-1)
                              Directed Reading Guide (17-
                              Reading Strategies, one-
                              minute quick write
                              Overhead 70, 80, 82, 82
--Energy flow in ecosystems   keyword—HX361                  3.5.1--3..5.8
                              Active Reading Guide (17-2)
                              Directed Reading Guide (17-
--Ecosystem cycle material    Overhead 67, 69, 77, 85        3.5.1—3.5.8

                              Active Reading Technique:
                              paired reading, p. 372
                              Active Reading Guide (17-3)
                              Directed Reading Guide (17-
                              Overhead 71, 72, 73


Unit 5 Biological Communities

Unit-level Essential Question:

Chapter 18 Essential Question:

Measurable Unit Objectives:
Chapter 18
 Indentify the investigator whose studies formed the basis of modern genetics.

       Concept                           Resources                      Standard Addressed
   Biological Communities        Active Reading Technique:      3.4.2,3.4.3,3.5.5,3.6.1
   --how organisms interact      brainstorming, p. 381
   in                            Active Reading Guide (18-1)
                                 Directed Reading Guide (18-

                                 Active Reading Technique:
   --how competition shapes      paired summarizing, p. 389  3.4.2,3.4.3,3.5.5,3.6.1
   communities                   Active Reading Guide (18-2)
                                 Directed Reading Guide (18-
                                 Overhead 86, 87
                                 (extinction) keyword—HX389

                                 Active Reading Guide (18-3)
          -major biological      Directed Reading Guide (18-
          communities            3)                             3.4.2,3.4.3,3.5.5,3.6.1
                                 keyword—HX392, (estuaries)
          -                      keyword—HX397,
                                 (adaptation) keyword—

Unit 6 Exploring Plants

Unit-level Essential Question:

Chapter 24 Essential Question:

Measurable Unit Objectives:
Chapter 24
 .

       Concept                           Resources                       Standard Addressed
       C. Explorations           Active Reading Technique:
Exploring Plants                 reading organizer, p. 519
Introduction to plants           Active reading guide (24-1)
 --Adaptation of plants          Directed reading guide (24-1)
                                 Chlorophyll A & B lab           3.7.3,3.3.2,3.3.3
                                 Plant growth,
                                 Osmosis lab—
                                  (resources HS science)
                                 Overhead 121, 113A, 114A
--Kinds of plants                                                3.7.3
                                 Active Reading Guide (24-2)
                                 Directed Reading Guide (24-
--Plants in our lives            Overhead 115A, 133
                                 Active Reading Technique:
                                 anticipation guide, p. 535;
                                 reading organizer p. 539
                                 Active Reading Guide (24-3)
                                 Directed Reading Guide (24-
                                 Overhead 112, 113, 114,

Unit 7 Exploring Invertebrates

Unit-level Essential Question:

Chapter 28.1 Essential Question:

Measurable Unit Objectives:
Chapter 28.1
 .

       Concept                           Resources                        Standard Addressed
Exploring Invertebrates          Active Reading Technique:        3.7.4
Introduction to Animals          reading organizer, p. 611, 614
--Animals –Features and body     Active Reading Guide (28-1)
plans                            Directed Reading Guide (28-
                                 Overhead 134, 135, 137A
                                 digestion lab
                                 dicotomous keys—computer
--Animal body system                                              3.7.4
                                 Active Reading Guide (28-2)
                                 Directed Reading Guide (28-
Exploring Human Biology

                                 Video -- Incredible Human
                                 Body –
                                 Aids Lab—contact Harman


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