Executive Summary, The Novikov Telegram, Washington, 27 September 1946 We have concluded a World War against the fascists with the help of our allies, the USA & England. Things have changed! 1. Foreign policy of USA is conducted in a situation that differs greatly from the one that existed at the Potsdam Conference in 1945. FDR had carried on a policy of cooperation with the USSR. However, the reactionary elements of monopoly capital were always in the background, searching for ways to destroy or weaken the USSR, to which it is actively hostile. The ascendance to power of Harry Truman, a politically unstable person with certain conservative tendencies, and the appointment of James Byrne as Secretary of State means a strengthening of the reactionary tendencies of the Democratic Party. Together with a group of old guard Republican legislators these groups put forward an actively interventionist “bi-partisan” policy whose aim is to encircle, intimidate, and eventually crush the USSR. 2. Reactionary elements in USA are pleased that that the War has resulted in the elimination of Japan & Germany as serious imperialistic competitors, economically & politically. England has been weakened as well, and is now more dependent on USA then ever before. 2. Their hope that the USSR would go this way, to weakness and dependence on the US, was foiled by the heroic defense of the Motherland by the Russian peoples. The USSR has emerged stronger than it was in the pre-war era. The USSR is the only power able to withstand and resist the imperialistic ambitions of the USA in expanding US influence in Europe, Africa, and Asia. 3. Obvious indications of US efforts to establish world dominance and encircle USSR: a. Increase in military budget- $13 billion (40% of total budget)- What need in peace time to maintain such large armed forces? b. Increase size of army c. Navy size maintained d. Laws moving army away from voluntarism to conscription. e. Commitment to establishing extensive system of naval & air bases in Atlantic & Pacific oceans (islands)- > 400 bases, stations, points of support to be created, many >10,000 km from US- projection of US power- indicator of offensive nature of strategic concepts f. Domination of China- 50,000 US troops in China- to become a US bridgehead- US 7th Fleet stationed at Tsingtao- Movement to dominate freedom loving peoples of Asia; ditto Japan g. Understanding with England to have a partial division of world. Though allies they also share the contradictions of imperialist capitalist powers and will probably come into eventual mutual conflict. h. American Fleet visits Black Sea in show of strength (USSR turf) i. America increases influence in Turkey, Greece, Palestine, & Trieste j. Numerous hostile comments by US government, political, & military figures concerning USSR- Calls for a “third war” (against USSR) & calls for launching strikes against the USSR America wants to attempt to create an atmosphere of war psychosis among the masses so that it can maintain its large military machine. This military machine is being maintained so as to pressure the USSR into making concessions. The USA’s intention is to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war, primarily against the USSR, The date for the war cannot be determined now by anyone. But the most bellicose circles of American imperialism are contemplating such a war. We MUST undermine, delay, & (if possible) stop the US aims through work in the US & abroad in other countries. The survival of Communism & freedom of democratic peoples are at stake! Executive Summary, The Keenan “Long Telegram,” Moscow, 22 February 1946 1A. The USSR’s View of the West- PREMISES: The USSR still lives in antagonistic “capitalist encirclement” view, in which there cannot be peaceful co-existence in the long run with the capitalist West. The capitalist world is beset by contradictions and internal conflicts. Greatest of these is between USA & Britain. Such conflicts are insoluble & will lead to war. Such wars are of two types- inter-capitalist wars between capitalist states and wars against the socialist world (including the USSR). Direct conflicts should be avoided by the USSR, as they would delay the progress of Russian socialism. Wars between capitalist states, though dangerous for the USSR, also hold great opportunities for the advancement of the socialist cause (especially if the USSR remains strong, monolithic, united behind its leadership). The USSR feels that it can use sympathetic elements in the West to help promote its cause, especially amongst radical left groups. However, socialist parties/moderate social democrats that favour the bourgeois staus quo are “false-friends” and potential rivals. The US Democratic Party is seen as a “false-friend” and agent of bourgeois-capitalist society. 1B. The USSR’s View of the West- DEDUCTIONS: Everything must be done to advance relative strength of the USSR internationally. This requires exploiting the potential and real differences/conflicts between capitalist powers, turning imperialist wars into opportunities for revolutionary upheavals. “Democratic-progressive” elements abroad are to be used to further these aims. Relentless battle must be waged against socialist/social-democratic leaders abroad. 2. Analysis of above premises: Clearly, these premises are FALSE. USSR leadership does not have an objective analysis beyond Russia’s borders, and arises from inner Russian necessities that existed before the recent war. The Kremlin’s neurotic view of world affairs is based on traditional & instinctive Russian sense of insecurity. Invaded countless times in the past, constantly in the shadow of technologically, economically, & politically superior West through history (c.f. Peter the Great). Russian rule- fragile, archaic, & artificial. Always feared Western contact & penetration. Marxism finds a home in a place that is psychologically ready for a view that stresses economic conflict and impossibility of peaceful economic & political solutions (Unlike the USA where capitalism works and in which there is no sign of Marxist class warfare). Marxism is the only intellectual justification for countless acts of cruelty committed by Soviet leadership. End result: The external world is seen as evil, hostile, & menacing; it is an outward projection of Russia’s internal weaknesses, which can only be guarded by strength in external relationships. This thinking justifies current increases in Russian military & police power of Russian state. This need for external strength and projection also plays into Russian urge to expand itself at the expense of its neighbours- an historically rooted reality centuries old. Conceptions of defense & offense are inextricably confused. Marxism feeds into this, & makes these conceptions more dangerous and insidious. Soviet leadership believes these views; especially as it is unclear if there is anything that we could call truthful & unbiased information available to the leadership- filtered as it is through Marxist glasses. 3. Soviet policy works both officially & covertly to achieve the goals outlined above in 1B above. a. Internal policy devoted to increasing strength & prestige of USSR- Increasing military development; intensive military-industrialization; displays to impress outsiders; continued secretiveness b. Whenever timely & promising, efforts will be made to further the “official” limits of Soviet power- through requests for bases with “friendly” powers. c. Soviets will participate in international organizations where opportunity to extend Soviet power- UN seen not as mechanism for stable & permanent world society, but as avenue to pursue aims outlined above. d. Soviet attitudes to “backward” or colonial areas will be directed to weakening Western influence & replacing it with their own (Mideast, Africa, Latin America, & Asia). e. Russia will energetically develop official ties with countries they sense strong possibilities of opposition to Western centers of power (Germany, Argentina, Mideast). f. International economic issues- Russia will aim for autarchy for itself and adjacent Soviet dominated areas (central Europe). It will pay lip service to international economic cooperation. g. It will also pay lip service to cultural collaboration- restricted to arid channels of closely shepherded official visits- to insulate the Russian people from “the infection of Western culture.” h. Russian external relations will stress prestige & status of USSR, punctilious attention to protocol. 4A. Internal Russian Position- Subterranean Aspects-Tools: Communist leadership will rely on inner central core of Communist parties in other countries directed & coordinated by Moscow to further Soviet aims. Soviets aim to penetrate sympathetic organizations in West- Labour Unions, religious organizations, women’s groups, youth groups, etc. Foreign governments will help Soviet aims (Bulgarian, Yugoslav, Chinese Communists, etc.). International organizations (International labour organizations). 4B. Internal Russian Position- Subterranean Aspects-Aims: To use whatever means necessarily, “unofficially,” to further the aims of the Russian leadership to protect and extend its power in the world. This includes: a. Undermine political & strategic potential of Western nations. Disrupt self-confidence, increase social, political, & economic unrest. Civil unrest. b. Use violence, “unofficially,” to weaken Western influences in colonies: “no holds barred.” Encourage independence, then install Soviet backed puppet regimes c. Remove individual governments that stand in the way of Soviet objectives d. Work, in foreign countries, to destroy all forms of individual independence- discourage/liquidate businessmen, artists, estate owners, farmers, artisans, clergy, & popular political figures e. Set major Western powers against each other. Fan suspicions; discredit all those working for international unity f. All Soviet efforts on “unofficial” international plane will be negative & destructive in character 5A. US Policy Deductions- Practical Considerations: How does USA cope with a political force fanatically committed to belief that no permanent accommodation with West is possible, and that Soviet security requires the international authority of USA to be broken? It has tremendous energies, human and natural resources to draw on. It has a well developed international apparatus to project its power in Western society. It is also appears to be divorced from reality. We need to be CAREFUL & plan. Thus: a. USSR not adventurous. It is SENSITIVE to the logic of force. It easily withdraws when strong resistance is met. b. USR is still weak compared with West as a whole- cohesion, unity, firmness, & vigour needed c. Unclear how USSR will deal with transfer of power to Stalin’s successor. Russian people are not committed to leadership d. Since Russian propaganda negative, we can combat it easily with any constructive program 5B: US Policy Deductions- Practical Considerations- PRESCRIPTIONS: So, CALMLY & “with good heart”, we can do the following, in dealing with Russia: a. Rationally recognize & study what it is we are dealing with and not be emotionally provoked by our subject. b. Educate the public to realities of Russian situation. An enlightened US public will be less rabidly anti-Soviet, with further education c. Sustain US society. Communism can only gain a foothold in a diseased political climate d. Put forward a more positive & constructive plan of what the world can look like. Set out guidance rather than responsibilities for other nations. Commit resources to achieving this in other parts of the world. Show the world’s people that we will not abandon the world political arena to the Russians and that we stand ready to protect the world’s nations, in concert with others, from the threat of Russian oppression. e. USA needs the courage & self-confidence to stick to its conception of a “just society.” We must NOT become like the enemy we struggle with.