"Dictionary on Financial Accounting"
Chapter 1 Financial Accounting Fundamentals Created by D. Gilroy Heart Lake Secondary School 1 What is Accounting? According to Merriam-Webster’s dictionary accounting is … 1 : the system of recording and summarizing business and financial transactions and analyzing, verifying, and reporting the results; also : the principles and procedures of accounting 2 What is Accounting? Does accounting only apply in the business world? What day-to-day activities are related to accounting? Can you think of any games that would lend themselves to the world of accounting? 3 Five Main Activities? 1. Gathering financial information. 2. Preparing and collecting permanent records. 3. Rearranging, summarizing, and classifying financial information. 4 Five Main Activities? 4. Preparing information reports and summaries to: a. Help management reach decisions; b. Serve the needs of groups outside the business; and c. Measure the profitability of the business. 5. To establish controls to promote accuracy and honesty among employees. 5 Why Study Accounting? Accounting on the job. Great background knowledge for many careers Accounting in daily life. Balancing your bank book, filing your tax returns, preparing personal budgets, etc. Owning your own business. Accounting as a profession. CA, CMA, CGA 6 Types of Business 1. Service Business 2. Merchandising Business 3. Manufacturing or The focus of most of this Producing Business course. 4. Non-Profit Organizations 7 Forms of Business Ownership 1. Sole proprietorship. One owner. 2. Partnership. The focus of More than one owner. most of this course. 3. Corporations. Owned by shareholders. 8 The Accounting Cycle 1. Transactions occur 5. Work sheet 2. Transactions prepared recorded in journals 6. Formal financial 3. Journal entries statements posted to ledger prepared accounts 7. Ledger account 4. Trial balance and interim financial adjusted and closed statements 8. Post-closing trial prepared balance prepared 9 The Accounting Cycle 10 Roles in Accounting The Accounting Clerk vs. The Accountant 11 Roles in Accounting The Accounting Clerk Records transactions with necessary supporting documents Records accounting entries and balances ledgers Perform payroll calculations, prepares payroll cheques and related records Carry out all banking transactions. 12 Roles in Accounting The Accountant Develop systems to ensure that correct data is entered into accounting systems Ensure GAAP are met Interpret data produced by accounting systems Prepare reports based on output from systems Participate in decision making Supervise the work of accounting staff 13 Accounting Designations There are three recognized accounting designations in Canada 1. CA – Chartered Accountant www.cica.ca 2. CMA – Certified Management Accountant www.cma-canada.org 3. CGA – Certified General Accountant www.cga-canada.org 14 Class / Homework The following slides reflect Review Exercises … Page 11 Exercise 1 Page 12 Exercise 2 & 3 15 1. Identify which accounting term best matches the following statements. - Accounting cycle a) The professional accounting organization that - Auditing is well-known for distance education. - CGA Association b) The professional accounting organization that - Corporation emphasizes management accounting. - Financial statements c) The professional accounting organization that - CICA - Manufacturing publishes a handbook of Canadian accounting business rules and standards. - Merchandising business d) Formal accounting data, prepared at least - Non-profit once a year. business - Public e) An organization whose main aim is to provide accountants - Service a social benefit, usually at little or not cost to business the user. - Society of Management f) The recurring set of accounting procedures Accountants carried out during each fiscal period. - Sole proprietor 16 1. Identify which accounting term best matches the following statements. - Accounting g) A business that buys goods and resells them cycle - Auditing at a higher price for profit. - CGA h) The owner of a business who is in business Association - Corporation alone. - Financial i) A special form of business that is owned by a statements - CICA number of persons called shareholders. - Manufacturing j) Professional persons who offer their services business - Merchandising as accountants to the general public. business k) The examining and testing of the books, - Non-profit business records, and procedures of a business. - Public l) A business that sells a service to the public accountants - Service and does not make or sell a product. business m) A business that buys raw materials, converts - Society of Management them into a new product, and sells that product Accountants to earn a profit. - Sole proprietor 17 2. For each of following statements, fill in the blank with accountant, accounting or accounting clerk. a) The work of an __________ is clerical in nature. b) The work of an __________ is concerned with routine matters. c) An __________ ensures that the supporting documents are present and correct for every transaction. d) An __________ ensures that generally accepted accounting principles are followed. e) An __________ records the accounting entries in the books of accounts. f) An __________ makes the payroll calculations. 18 2. For each of following statements, fill in the blank with accountant, accounting or accounting clerk. g) An __________ prepares reports based on the data produced by the accounting system. h) An __________ carries out all the necessary banking transactions. i) An __________ participates in management meetings. j) A professional __________ has a high-level position. k) For centuries, all __________ was handwritten. l) Some small businesses still do their __________ by hand. 19 3. Multiple choice: 1. Which of the following statements does not fit the job title of an accounting clerk? a. Verifies source documents. b. Ensures that the ledger balances. c. Works neatly to guard against errors. d. Studies tax bulletins to keep up to date. 2. Which of the following statements does not fit the job title of an accounting clerk? a. Works out accounting entries. b. Together with the owner, compares this year’s and last year’s income statements. c. Records accounting entries in the books. d. Inquires about a suspected error made by the bank. 20 3. Multiple choice: 3. Which of the following statements does not fit the job title of an accountant? a. Is a professional person. b. Has a broad knowledge of accounting. c. Ensures the accuracy of the payroll deductions. d. Discusses the business’s “cash flow” with the owners. 4. Which of the following statements does not fit the job title of an accountant? a. Works out accounting entries. b. Together with the owner, compares this year’s and last year’s income statements. c. Records accounting entries in the books. d. Inquires about a suspected error made by the bank. 21 3. Multiple choice: 5. Which of the following does not fit the facts about computers? a. Ideal machine for use in an accounting environment. b. Handles large quantities of data. c. Produce better profit figures. d. Provide information for management very quickly. 4. Homework Assignment: Assignment: Log on to the various accounting association websites (www.cica.ca www.cma-canada.org www.cga-canada.org ) and investigate the “focus” of the various designations, the educational / work experience requirements and how to become an accountant. 22