Digestion Systems Worksheet Biology 100C 1. What are the four main stages of food processing? 2. In digestion, macromolecules are ______________________________________________. 3. Polysaccharides are digested into ________________________________. 4. Fats are digested to ____________________________________. 5. Proteins are digested to _________________________________. 6. Nucleic acids are digested to _____________________________. 7. The enzymatic process for digestion is termed ___________________________________. 8. There is a mechanical component to digestion. Why is it preferable to break food items into smaller pieces? 9. Food digestion occurs within compartments. What cytoplasmic compartment is involved in Intracellular Digestion? 10. What cytoplasmic organelle fuses with the structure identified in #9? 11.What is Extracellular Digestion? 12. What is the difference between a Gastrovascular Cavity and a Complete Digestive Tract? 13. Name the main segments of the human digestive tract. Oral Cavity 14. What is Mucin? 15. What enzyme is released into the oral cavity? 16. What is the substrate for this enzyme? 17. What are the main products from the action of this enzyme? Esophagus 18. What is the function of the Esophagus? 19. What type of muscle contraction moves the food through the Esophagus? Stomach 20. What are the functions of the Stomach? 21. What substances are present in Gastric Juice? 22. What are the functions of the acid in Gastric Juice? 23. What is Pepsin? 24. What is the substrate for Pepsin and what are the products of its action? 25. Why doesn’t Pepsin destroy the cells of the stomach? 26. What is the Pyloric Sphincter and what does it do? Small Intestine 27. The first part of the small intestine, the duodenum, receives secretions via ducts from two other glands/organs. Name thee structures. 28. What substances come from the Pancreas? 29. What substances come from the Liver? 30. What enzymes are involved in the digestion of carbohydrates? 31. What enzymes are involved in the digestion of proteins? 32. What enzyme is involved in the digestion of fats? 33. What is emulsification and why is it important? 34. What structures increase surface area for absorption of nutrients? 35. Which substances are absorbed into the villus capillary system? 36. Which substance is absorbed into the villus lacteal system? Large Intestine 37. What are the main functions of the Large Intestine? Herbivorous Animals 38. How is a horse or a rabbit able to digest cellulose from the diet? What special adaptation is there for the horse or rabbit digestive tract? 39. How is a cow able to digest cellulose from the diet? What special adaptations are there for the cow digestive tract?
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