CONTENTS. Chapter I. Canada Prior to 1784—Settlement of Upper Canada in that Year—North America in 1750—Causes of Quarrel between the British and French Colonies. Chapter II. Disputes between British and French Settlers—Expeditions Planned in 1755— Braddock and Fort Duquesne—Sir William Johnson—Crown Point—Niagara— i756,War Declared—1757, French Successful at Osweeo and Fort William Henry —Fate of Col. Munro and his Force—1758, Louisburg — General Wolfe— Ticonderoga—Defeat of Abercrombie—Gallantry of the Highland Regiments- Capture of Forts Frontenac and Duquesne—1759, Ticonderoga, Niagara Taken— Attack on Quebec by General Wolfe—His Death—Capture of Quebec—Death of Montcalm—1760, Advance of General Amherst against Montreal—Surrender of Montreal—Treaty of Paris, 1763—Conspiracy of Pontiac. Chapter III. The Colonies after the Treaty of Paris—Conduct of the British Government Generous—1764, Beginning of a System of Oppression—Stamp Act, 1765—Views of the Colonists—Courts of Admiralty, 1769—1770, Port Dues Act Repealed— Duty on Tea—Opposition of the Colonists, 1774—Delegates meet in Philadelphia —1775, Oppressive Measures of the British Parliament Continued—Congress Peti tions for Redress of Grievances—Majority Against Independence—1776, Declara tion of Independence Carried by a Majority of One. Chapter IV. The Colonists and their Opponents—Effects of the Declaration of Independence —Persecution of the Loyalists—Committees of Inspection Appointed by Congress —Sabine's Biography of the Loyalists—They Abandon the United States. XH Contents. Chapter V. United Empire Loyalists-Allotments of Land—Slate of the Country-First Settlers in Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry-First Settlement in Cornwall in 1776-X0 Records of Services of the U. E. Loyalists—Scenes in which Some of them had been Actors—Highlanders—Extract from Kirby's Poem. Chapter VI. First Survey in Upper Canada—Settlement at Niagara—Survey in 178:5—Mc- NiflTs Survey-Map, 1786-The Townships-The Town Plot-Distribution of Land—June, 1784, Number of Settlers from Different Regiments-Log Houses- Task of Clearing Land—Progress in 40 Years—Hand Mills—Erection of .Mills- Windmills near Cornwall. Chapter VII. Settlement of the Town-Earliest Patent for Town Lot—For Land in Matilda- Appearance of the Town One Hundred Years Ago-Mention of it in Smith's Gazetteer under name of New Johnstown-Extracts from Smith's Gazetteer- Lancaster, Charlottenburg, Cornwall, Osnabruck, Long Sault Rapid-Lumber Trade—AVHliaimburgh—Matilda—Edwardsburg—Johnstown—Isle du Fort Levi— Oswegatchie-Places in the Old Eastern District Mentioned in the Gazetteer- Belliivs Maps, 1745-1755. Chapter VIII. Extent of Province of Quebec before 1791—District of Montreal included On tario until 1788-Lord Dorchester's Proclamation-District of Lunenburgh- Names of Townships-Commissions of the Peace—Magistrates' Courts-First Sitting of the Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace—Records of the Court—Upper and Lower Canada—Names of Districts Changed—Commission of the Peace, 1793—Names of Magistrates—Where Court of Quarter Sessions to be Held—Limits of the Eastern District Changed in 1798 and 1S16—Powers of the Court of Quarter Sessions. Chapter IX. Extracts from Records of the Court of General Quarter Sessions—First Sitting of the Court—Names of Magistrates and Jurors-Cases Tried—Banishment—Sabbath Desecration-Constables-Old Names-i4th Sept., 1790, Sentence Flogging- 9th April, 1792, First Court held at Cornwall-Curious Trial for Seditious Words —Courts of Requests-Marks for Hogs, Sheep and Cattle—Poundkeepers' Fees- Gaol and Court Houses to be built at Johnstown and Cornwall-Sealers of Weights and Measures—Gaolers Salary—Jacob Farrand, Registrar—Treasurer's Accounts-Unlawful Toll—Ferry from Cornwall to St. Regis-Gaol and Court House in 1802 or 1803—Penoyer Road Opened from John Milross' late in 1806— Gaol in Bad Order in 1807—Prisoner Accused of Murder—1808, Road from Corn wall to St. Andrews. Contents. xiii Chapter x. Ferry at Chute au Blondeau—Bridge at Col. French's—Bridge over IJooples' Creek—Road to St. Andrews—iS 13, Court held in the Presbyterian Meeting House—Court House Occupied by Troops—Bridge at Major Anderson's—Grants for Streets in Cornwall—Courts of Request—Market, rules for—Boundaries of the Town—Gaol Limits—Lots 4 and 5 North Side Fifth Street Reserved for Gaol and Court House—Bridge at Wm. Woods'—Gaol and Court House Burned in Winler of 1826—Payment of Witnesses attending Court of General Quarter Sessions Carr Bridge—1827, Loan for Erection of New Gaol and Court House—Grant for Nine-mile Road Sth and 9th Concession of Lancaster—1830, Gaol Limits En larged—1831, Estimate of District Expenditure—Rate of Assessment—1832, Grant for Fire Engine—Two Prisoners Flogged—1833, New Court House Finished—Fire Company—1835, David Jones, Chairman—1836, Troops sent to Cornwall—Innkeepers, rules for—Expenses of the Execution of the Murderer of Albert French—Election Expenses—1837, Breaking Out of Rebellion—1839, Survey of Eastern Boundary of Cornwall and Roxboroiigh—1S41, District Council. Chapter XI. Town of Cornwall—List of Patents issued to end of 1810—Abstracts of Assess ment Rolls—Population of the Town—And Townships of Cornwall and Rox boroiigh—Abstract of Town Lots Assessed, 1815 to 1850—Property Assessed, 1850—Number of Names in McNiff's Map—Number Assessed in 1815—Town Plot—Fly Creek. Chapter XII. War of 1812—Court House and Gaol used as Barracks—Guard at Captain Joseph Anderson's Farm—Guard at Captain Alex. McDonald's—War in Western Canada—First Appearance of the American Army at Point Iroqiiois—Detachment Sent to Occupy Cornwall—Skirmish at Hooples Creek—Americans near Cornwall —Battle of Crysler Farm—Col. Pearson's Attack on Malone—Soldier Wounded at Hooples Creek—Curious Dream—British Sailors. Chapter XIII. The Town of Cornwall in 1824-25—English Church—District School House— Gaol and Court House—Buildings on Water Street—First Street—Second Street— Third and Fourth Streets—Pitt Street— Race Course—Town Incorporated, 1834— Returned a Member to Parliament—Cornwall Canal Begun. Chapter XIV. Mode of Life One Hundred Years Ago—Fuel Abundant—Primitive Fireplaces —Making Fire—Flint and Steel—Three Rivers Stoves—Wages and Price of Wood—The Light of Other Days—Dips—Dress—Spinning—Farmers—Few Agri cultural Implements—Amusements—Dancing—Music—Violin, Bagpipes, Piano— Potash Making—Lumber Business—Old Time Elections—1792-1796, Voting Boatmen—Newspapers—" Upper Canada Gazette"—Prices in 1823. xiv Contents. Chapter XV. Travelling—Grain taken to .Montreal on Rafts—Batteanx and Durham Boats Used on the River—Description of Them—Kingston Head of Boat Navigation Canals at Cascades, Cedars and Coteau—Dixon's Canals at Sheik's Island and Moulinette—Voyage down the River—Rafts—Crab Island—Travelling to Mont real by Batteau—Winter Vehicles—Summer Travelling—Letter of R. I. D. Gray, 1804—Lumber Waggons—Ox Carts—Gigs—First Steamboat, ] $09—Barnabas Dickinson, 1S12—First Line of Conveyances Between Montreal and Prescott Steamboats on Lake Ontario—Horse Boat at Cornwall—Neptune—Highlander Steamboats of the Old Time—Trip Between Cornwall and Montreal in Spring or Fall—In Summer—Author's Journey to York in 1833—Steamboat Iroquois Dolphin, Cornwall Canal, 1842—George Frederick—North Channel of Long Sault—Head of Boat Navigation—Lake Steamers in 1834—River Steamers. 1S53— Steamer Rapid—Miss Powers Journal, 1789—The Duke de la Rochfoucults Lian- court's Travels, 1795—-Steam Navigation on the St. Lawrence and the Atlantic. Chapter XVI. Town Assessments—Incorporation, 1S34—First Election of Members of Board of Police—Rules and Regulations—Hay Scales—Sidewalks—Market—Fire Com pany—Market—Value of Lots—Bridge over Canal—Revenue in 1842—Wharf- Mill Privileges on Canal—Last Board of Police, 1846—First Councillors, 1847— Immigration—Outbreak of Fever—Asiatic Cholera, 1849—New Act of Incorpora tion, 1850—County Officers, 1852™Macadamized Road—Asiatic Cholera, 1854— Grand Trunk Railway, 1854-55-56—Survey of Part of the Town, 1854—New Municipal Act, 1859—Visit of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, i860—Town Hall, 1862—Drill Shed, 1863—Fenian Excitement, 1866—Woollen Factory, 1867.— Bonus to Factories—Police Magistrate—Fire in 1874—Town Hall, 18S2—New Survey—New Market—Town Debt, 1883—Fatal Fire at Town Hall, 18S6— Revenue and Expenditure, 188S—Taxes Levied from 1864 to 1882—Valuation of Property, 1884-1886-1888—Population—List of Presidents. Mayors, Clerks and Treasurers, &c.—Mode of Assessing up to 1850. Chapter XVII. First Improvements in Inland Navigation—Lachine Canal—Welland—Corn wall—Beauharnois—System of Canals Proposed by Robert Gourlay—S. Clowes' Survey in 1826—Statute of 1833—Names of Commissioners—Contractors—Work begun at Cornwall—Work at Long Sault—Behaviour of the Labourers—Murder of Stuart—Town Applies for a Bridge—Engineers' Reports—Riotous Labourers at the Long Sault—Murder of Albert French—Troops sent to Cornwall—Financial Difficulties—Block House—Barracks at Court House—Work on Canal Completed —Mischievous Trick—Break in Canal—Beauharnois—First Boat Through Cornwall Canal—Bridge at Cornwall—Dimensions of Canals. Chapter XVIII. Postal Arrangements—Mails in i784-i8oo-i8i2-i83O-i856--Letters Carried by Private Hand—Fate of Two of Them—Rates of Postage Before 1850—Rate on Contents. Xv English Letters—Single and Double Kates—Carrying Letters by Private Indi viduals Forbidden—Copy of an Old Order—Steamboats Hot ween Montreal and Quebec—Notice in "Kingston Chronicle "—Changing the Mail—Reduction of Postage to Three Cents—Post Offices in 1S01 and 1802, 1816, 1821, 1827, 1S38, 1888. Chapter XIX. Corps Formed for the King's Service—Dr. CannifPs List—Mr. Howe's List- Sir William Johnson—Sir John Johnson—The King's Royal Regiment of New- York—1776—Officers—Major Gray—The Messrs. Jessup—Letters Respecting the Regiment—General" Burgoyne's Expedition—Capitulation—Expedition to the Mo hawk, 1777—1780—3rd of July, 1780, Raising of 2nd Battalion Ordered—The Regiment to be placed on the Establishment—Old Orderly Book—Stations .where the Regiment was Quartered—Another Old Orderly Book—Completion of 2nd Battalion—Extracts from Orderly Book, 1779—Alarm Posts—King's Birthday New Uniform—Curious Order, 1780—Expedition, May, 1780—Adjutant's Memo randum Book—Names of Officers of 1st Battalion, 1783 ; of 2nd Battalion, 1782— Promotions in 1st Battalion—Promotion of Sir John Johnson—Preparations for Disbanding—Uniform. Chapter XX. Royal Highland Emigrants, 1775-1783—Lieut.-Colonel—Difficulty in Convey ing Recruits to their Destination—Battle in Carolina— 1st Battalion at Quebec in 1776 —Arnold's Attempt to Take Quebec—Assault Attempted by Montgomery—Defeat of Arnold by Colonel McLean—Good Conduct of the Regiment—2nd Battalion— Battle at Eutaw Springs—1778, the Regiment was placed on the Establishment and Numbered the 84th—Uniform—Disbanded—Grants of Land—Extracts from Haldimand Papers—Edward Jessup's Corps—When Raised—Officers—Ebenezer Jessup's—Drummond.'s or McAlpine\s—Peters'—Leake's Corps—Butler's Corps— When Raised—Officers—Cherry Valley—Rank of Officers in Provincial Corps— Provisional Articles of Peace—1783, Orders for Disbanding 84th and Other Corps —Correspondence as to Surveys and Settlement—Forces in Canada in 1782. Chapter XXI. Original Settlers in . Glengarry—Township of Kenyon—Settlers in 1803— Revd. Alex. McDonell—Williamstown—Lancaster—First Stone House in District— Indian Land—Anecdote, " Spogan Dubh"—John McDongall—Officers of the Northwest Company—Discoverer of Thompson River—The Revd. John Mc Donald—Murdoch McPherson—Number of the Clansmen in 1852—Prince Char lie's Sword—McKenzie—Ferguson—List of Officers of the Glengarry Fencibles, 1798; of the Glengarry Light Infantry, 1813—County of Stormont—Highlander* —Germans—Link's Mill—Names of Some Old Settlers—Township of Osnabruck Lutheran Clergymen—County of Dundas—Settlers Principally Germans—Lutheran Churches—First Members of Parliament—Names of Some of the Old Inhabitants —Henry Merkley—Samuel Anderson—List of Pensioners, 1812—Simon Fraser. xvi Contents. Chapter XXII. Progress of the District—Assessments, Revenue and Expenditure, 1793 to 1795., 1796, '97, '98—Aggregate of Assessments, 1815, 1825, 1835, 1845—Finances Con trolled by the Magistrates—District Council—Township and County Council—List, of Wardens. Clerks and Treasurers. Chapter XXIII. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The Revd. John Bethune Formed a Congregation in Montreal—Came to- Williamstown, 1787—Churches Built by him at Williamstown, Cornwall, Lancaster and Summerstown—Church at Cornwall—Ministers who Succeeded Mr. Bethune—New Church begun in 1823, finished 1826—Bell put up in. 1830—First Ordination of Elders—First Celebration of the Lord's Supper at St. John's—Names of Elders—Trustees—Building of Manse—Names of Deacons— Purchase of Site for New Church—Removal of Old St. John's—Laying of Corner Stone of New St. John's—Account of Old St. John's—List of Subscribers to the Building Fund of the Church in 1826—Burial Ground—Changes in Old St. John's —Disruption in 1843—Formation of New Congregation—Knox Church—Names of Ministers—Union in 1875—Old Usages—Musical Instrument—The Lord's. Supper—Opening of New St. John's—Oldest Tombstone. Chapter XXIV. CHURCH OF ENGLAND. First Clergyman in Upper Canada—The Revd. John Stuart—Cornwall a Mission Station—Money Subscribed in 1800 for Building a Church—Meeting in 1805— List of Subscribers—January, 1806—Parsonage, 1813—Burial Ground Used in Common until 1831—Alterations and Improvements in Old Church—1868, Pre parations to Build New Church—Consecrated, 1884—Peal of Bells, 1885—The Revd. John Strachan, 1803—Clergymen who Succeeded Him—Old Tombs in the Graveyard. Chapter XXV. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. Cornwall in the Parish of St. Andrews until 1834—Old Church in 1829—New Church begun in 1856—Parsonage—School Houses—Convent—Names of Priests^ —Old Church at St. Andrews—The Revd. Roderick McDonell—Journey from St. Regis to St. Andrews—Priests at St. Andrews. Chapter XXVI. THE METHODIST CHURCH. From 1794 to 1808 Cornwall was part of the Oswegatchie Circuit—Separate Circuit in 1824—Separate Charge in 1861—Names of Ministers—First Church. Built in 1861—Second about 1876. THE BAPTIST CHURCH. Resident Minister in 1883—Church Built in 1884. Contents. xvii Chapter XXVII. HIGH SCHOOLS. First Grammar School in Cornwall—Established by the Revd. John Strachan, 1803—Statute of 1807—Names of Mr. Strachan's Successors—The Rcvd. Dr. Urquhart—Presentation of Testimonials to Archdeacon Strachan and the Revd. H. Urquhart—The Old School House—The New—Legend of the Italian—Lists of Scholars of the Revd. J. Strachan and the Revd. H. Urquhart—High Schools Established at Williamstown, Alexandria, Morrisburg and Iroquois—Extracts from Report for 1888. Chapter XXVIII. PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Statute of 1816—How Schools were Managed under it—The Old School House—School House Built in 1834—Teachers in 1S43—Salaries—School House Built in 1854—Teachers' Salaries in 1861, 1865, 1884—School House Built in 1884—List of Teachers from 1850—Schools and School Houses of the Old Times —Subjects Taught—Books and Appliances—The Old Teachers—Arithmetical Puzzle—Old Soldiers and Sailors—Old Time Discipline—Trustees, Extracts from Reports for 1888. Chapter XXIX. First Elections, 1792—Lists of Members for the Counties of Stormont, Dun- das and Glengarry and the Town of Cornwall—First Members for Grenville, Pres- cott and Russell, 1812—Election Address, 1796. Chapter XXX. Cornwall as a Garrison—Route of Troops from Montreal to Kingston, !829—1836, Company of 15th Reeiment—Volunteers to Cotcau <lu Lac, 1857— Militia Regiments in Town, 1837-1838—Regiments Sent to Lower Canada Same Years—L. Grant and the Field Piece—Capt. Crawford's Company—Invasion at Prescott and the Windmill, 1838—Troops sent to Prescott—Attack on the Rebels —Arrival of the 2nd Stormont—Troops Waiting for Heavy Guns—Arrival of the 83rd Regiment and the Artillery—Defeat and Surrender of the Rebels—Arms and Flag Captured—List of Persons Proscribed—British Loss in Killed and Wounded —Invasion from Detroit—Summary Punishmerft—Disposal of Prisoners—Von Schutlz—Seizure of a Steamer at Beauharnois—D. E. Mclntyre and Others Prisoners—Regular Troops and Militia Sent to the Rescue—Skirmish at the Vil lage—Garrison of Cornwall and Lancaster, 1838-1839—5th Incorporated—4th In corporated—Officers sent from England—Town Major of Cornwall—Volunteer Troops and Companies, 1854-55-62—Fenian Excitement, 1866-1868-1870—North west Rebellion, 1885—Lists of Militia, &c, &c. Chapter XXXI. Improvements in the Town after 1833-34—Fire in 1841—Lease to D. Mc- Donell—New Buildings on St. John's Church Property—1871, Commercial Block —Fire in 1876—Stormont Block—Buildings West of Pitt Street—Fire in 1884— xviii Contotts. New Buildings—Bank, 1882-83—American Hotel—Post Office, 1885—County Buildings—D. B. McLennan's Building—Rossmore Hotel—New St. John's English Church built at East End—Roman Catholic Church begun there—R. R. McLennan's Buildings—Ontario Bank—New Buildings West Side of Pitt Street Gas and Water Works—Sidewalks—Sewers—Fires—Storm in 1846. Chapter XXXII. MILLS AND FACTORIES AT CORNWALL. 1845—J. Harvey—Andrew Elliott—A. E. Cadwell—Privilege Granted to the Hon. Philip Vankoughnet Bought by Wm. Mattice—Wm. Mack's Mill Messrs. Flack & Vanarsdale—Cornwall Manufacturing Company—Their Factory Burned in 1870—Rebuilt in 1871—Stormont Cotton Manufacturing Company, 1870— Factory Burned in 1874—Rebuilt in 1879—Canada Cotton Manufacturing Company, 1S72—Toronto Paper Company, 1881—Smaller Factories. Chapter XXXIII. Prehistoric Relic—Ice Shoves and State of the River in Winter—Floods, 1829-1860-1887. Chapter XXXIV. Law—Criminal and Civil, 1774-1792—Trial by Jury—Cases under ^10.0.0 Courts of Requests for Claims up to Forty Shillings—Costs—Jurisdiction Increased to ^5.0.0—Right of Sett-off—Statute of 1833—Increase of Jurisdiction to ^"io.o.o —Commissioners Appointed—Statute of 1841—Appointment of Judges of the District Courts—Six Division Courts in the Three Counties—Clerks Paid by Sal ary—Subsequent Acts—Judges—Courts of Requests in the Eastern District—Com missioners and Clerks—Clerks at Cornwall from 1833—Clerks, 1889—Other Courts Established —-'Probate — Surrogate — King's Bench—Appeal — District Judges, Non-Professional and Professional—Judges and Clerks of District Courts, 1818—1794, Sixteen Gentlemen Authorized to Practice as Solicitors—Law Society —Members of, in 1797—Judges, etc., 1792 to 1829—District Courts, Successive Acts Concerning—Arrest for Debt—Indigent Debtors—Allowance to—Limits— Glengarry Man—Discharge of Debtors—Old Declaration—Extravagant Charges— Old Forms and Bills of Costs. Chapter XXXV. Lists of the Public Officers of the Eastern District and the United Counties from 1793 to 1889—Judges of the District Court—Judges of the Surrogate Court- Sheriffs—Clerks of the Peace—Clerk of the District and County Courts—Registrars of the Surrogate Court—Deputy Clerks of the Crown—Masters in Chancery— Registrars of Deeds—Treasurers—Barristers and Attornies, 1797 to 1847—Public Officers in the Johnstown District, 1802. Chapter XXXVI. John Baker—The Last of those who had been Born in Slavery in Canada—■ His Mother Born in 1759—Captain Gray and his Family Come to Canada—Settle Contents. xix at Gray's Creek—Dorine Married to a German—Col. Gray's Son, R. I. D. Gray, takes John Baker and his Brother Simon to York—Letter from R. I. D. Gray to his Cousin—John Baker's Narrative of his Life—Loss of the Speedy and Death of Mr. Gray—John Enlists and goes to New Brunswick—Was at Waterloo—Got a Pen sion—Account of the Loss of the Speedy—Mr. Gray's Will—John came back to Cornwall—The First Payment of his Pension—His Age. Chapter XXXVII. Short Account of the War of 1812—List of the Actions Fought during the War—Close of the War—Medals Issued in 1847—Names of those who Received them—Pensions Granted to the Surviving Soldiers in 1875—Their Ages at that time. Chapter XXXVIII. Odds and Ends—Extracts from Old Newspapers, containing Matters Curious and Interesting—Letter from Sir William Johnson, February 20, 1755—Extracts from Upper Canada Gazette, 1818—Meeting at Cornwall—War Losses—Circuits, iSig—1819—Article about Gas—Extracts from Montreal Herald, 1820—Curious Literary Gossip—Death of a Soldier who had Fought under Wolfe—Execution of a Man for Treason, 1821—Strength of the British Army—Slave Trade—Kingston Chronicle, 1821—Manufactures—Execution of Four Men at Cornwall—Masonic Anecdote—1822, Meetings For and Against Union with Lower Canada—Canadian Spectator, 1823—Death of the First Hindoo Convert to the Protestant Faith— Execution of Pirates at Kingston, Jamaica—Highland Society at Martintown— Perkins' Steam Gun, 1824—Upper Canada Gazette—Steam Navigation Between Ireland and Nova Scotia—Colonial.Advocate—Circulation of Papers in 1824— Corner Stone of the Church of Notre Dame, Montreal, Laid—North Wing of the House of Assembly, York, Burned—Opposition to Railroads in England—Arrival of the Columbus Timber Ship at Black wall from Quebec—Statutes of Upper Canada in 1824—1830, Death of Sir Johnjohnston—Temperance Society at King ston—1832. Sale of Old Men of War at Kingston--1830, Courts of Pacification— 1833, Cornwall Observer—Caledonia Springs--Cutler's Quarry—Cornwall Canal— Proposal in Ogdensburg Paper for a Rival Canal—Proposed Line of Steamboats from New York to Liverpool—Railway from Montreal to Province Line—1834, The Patriot—Proposal to Stock the Lakes with Sea Fish—Castle of St. Louis at Quebec Burned—Name Toronto Substituted for York—Houses of Parliament, London, Burned—First Bazaar at Cornwall—Proposal to Hold District Courts and Sessions Alternately in Glengarry and Stormont—1835, Cornwall Observer— Petition for the Annexation of the Island of Montreal and of the Peninsula East of Eastern District to Upper Canada—Lachlan McKinnon—1850, County Council met at Williamsburg and Williamstown—1852, Petition from Glengarry for an Act Similar to the Maine Liquor Law—1853, Cornwall Freeholder—Descendants of Flora McDonald—1889, Copy of an Old Account.