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Newsletter Natural Horsemanship of Northern Nevada rabies


									    Natural Horsemanship of Northern Nevada

                                    February 2010 Newsletter
President: Dar Meredith, 775-972-1127
Vice President: Heather Manzo, 775-762-8555
Immediate Past President: Lydia Matischek, 775-972-5256
Treasurer & Activities Coordinator: Debra Young, 775-972-6886
Secretary: Debbie Tayler, 775-846-8918
Assistant Secretary: Louise Fernandes, 775-425-0778
Newsletter Editor: Rebekka Rhodes, 775-972-9025
Web Master: Jann Hehn, 775-852-7261
Membership Director: Nancy Horvath, 775-852-5930
Mail membership dues to NHANN, c/o Nancy Horvath, 10220 Pathfinder Way, Reno, NV 89508. $25.00
individual, $35.00 family annual dues
Librarian: Lisa Mae Woods, 775-762-7581

February Meeting Highlights:
  The general meeting was called to order at 6:20 p.m. with a welcome from the Club’s President, Dar
  Rebekka Rhodes made a motion to approve last month's meeting minutes. Debra Young seconded; the
    motion passed without opposition. The minutes are posted on the website and are attached to Dar
    Meredith's e-mail in a pdf file. Think about how to get people to read the newsletter.
  Lisa Mae Woods gave the Treasurer’s report as follows: The previous balance was $1,664.70. The current
    balance is $1,417.28. $512.42 was spent on the Christmas party. Income of $265.00 from memberships
    and one t-shirt sale.
  There were forty-four (44) paid members from 2009. The membership up to last night for 2010 is twenty-
    two (22). Nancy Horvath is expecting more forms and checks tonight; one membership was received by
    mail. The last e-mail from Dar Meredith had the Membership and Liability Waiver forms attached to it.
  Lending Library forms were distributed and Lisa Mae Woods explained how the library operates and
    encouraged members to utilize it. The library content is available on-line.

     Lisa Mae explained the credit card information is separated into two parts so the credit card number is
     NOT stored with the person's name and address for security purposes. The Club does NOT accept
     American Express.

       Lisa Mae said people bring in magazines they are done with. Please feel free to take and keep all of the
       magazines so she does not have to pack them around.

       If there is a particular item you wish to check out, you may notify Lisa Mae ahead of time and she will
       reserve the item for you.
       ClubT-shirts are available for $15.00.
      Trail riding essential kits containing a hoof pick, lip balm, leather repair and Club logo neckerchief are
       available for $10.00.
      First aid kits containing Betadine, an all-in-one tool similar to a Leatherman, Vetrap, gauze, wet wipes,
       Triple Antibiotic Ointment, facial tissues, bandages, and information for basic first aid for horses and
       horse wounds and treatment are available for sale for $25 for a limited time, while supplies last...
      Debra Young announced the potluck and trail ride at 10:30 a.m. on 4/17/10 at Washoe Lake. Forms
       with directions, trails and terrain information, trail etiquette, and potluck information were distributed.

       There will be a fun “formation riding” day in May. The formation riding calms horses down and gets
       them used to other horses. Debra Young will direct. The formation will start with two horses abreast
       and hopefully have four (4) horses abreast by the end of the day. The riding is usually done at a walk
       and jog. The formation riding gets riders and horses to pay attention and stay on track.

      Debra put together a survey to poll club interest in attending different activities. Please complete the
      form and return it to Debra.
   Old Business
    There is no Old Business.
       The Club needs a new Treasurer. Lisa Mae Woods's work load has increased to where she cannot
         perform the duties of both the Librarian and Treasurer. Rebekka Rhodes is acting as the Treasurer
         until a new Treasurer is found. Debra Young volunteered to be the Treasurer for 2010. Thanks

    The Club is working on an e-mail list to allow members to contact each other. The list is due out in
     April 2010.
    The 4-H is having a consignment tack sale at the Livestock Events Center Pavilion on Sunday, 2/21/10
     from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. The items are on consignment with the seller keeping 80% of the money earned
     and 20% being kept by the 4-H club. This is a good program to support and very easy.
     If you are interested, contact Linda Zimmerman at (775) 972-7241 or e-mail or Pat Ceccarelli at (775) 972-7203 or e-mail at
    There is a Karyn Shirley clinic on 3/7/10 from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.; $75/horse and $10/audit. Contact
     Kristen at (775) 265-7371 for more information.
    There is a Buck Brannaman clinic on 5/14/10 - 5/17/10. Contact Karyn Shirley at (775) 901-6999 for
     more information.
    The AERC Convention is at the Grand Sierra Resort Silver Ballroom on 2/19/10 and 2/20/10. This is
     the largest equine sale shop in the area.
    Dar Meredith asked everyone to introduce themselves and tell how many horses they own.

Upcoming Events:
NHANN March Meeting:
The March meeting is scheduled for March 11, 2010 at the Round Table Pizza located in the Reno Town
Mall, 4007 South Virginia Street. The board meeting begins at 5:15pm, with the general members’
meeting following at 6pm.

4H Tack Sale: Sunday, February 21st, from 9AM to 3PM at the Livestock Events Center Pavilion. See above in
the announcement section for more information.

AERC (endurance riders conference) Convention: Friday and Saturday February 19 and 20, at the Grand
Sierra Resort Hotel and Casino.

NHANN does not promote any of the clinicians listed above. The above information is provided for your information
and convenience only.

February Presentation Highlights: Dr. Chrysann Collatos, DVM.

Dr. Collatos has been a veterinarian since 1988 and owns High Desert Veterinary Service. She may be
contacted at (775) 969-3495 (office) and (775) 742-2823 (emergency). Her website address is and she has a blog at Please check out her
blog--it is fabulous!

Dr. Collatos attended University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine where she received her
Veterinary Degree with Honors in 1988. She then went on to complete a large animal internship, residency, and
Post Doctoral degree at the University of Georgia. Dr. Collatos was awarded Diplomate status in the American
College of Veterinary Internal Medicine in 1993 and her PhD from the University of Georgia in 1994.

Dr. Collatos spoke on numerous topics such as deworming, sand colic, and vaccinations.

Dr. Collatos began her presentation by displaying a saddle pad produced by Sierra Nevada Alpacas. Per Dr.
Collatos, the alpaca pad is like wool times 150 and works well. She said Jeannette rides a lot and her saddle pad
still looks wonderful and the pads have good shock absorption. You can contact David and Jeannette Miller at
(775) 969-3871 or view their products at

How many horses contracted West Nile in Northern Nevada? None! A couple of years ago, there was between
200 to 300 reported cases. The mortality rate is about 40%. Those horses had not been vaccinated. West Nile
came into Nevada in the late 90's. The virus is carried by birds along their migratory path. It is transmitted by
mosquitoes to birds, back to mosquitoes, then to horses. The horse has to be susceptible to get the virus; it
depends on the body's own immune system and the virulence of the disease. An example would be if someone
stabbed you with a really sharp knife about 8" long or you get stabbed with a pencil. (You could heal on your
own from a pencil stab, but not from the long knife.) It also depends on how many organisms hit you at one
time. If the bird was sick with many things and the mosquito bites the bird and then bites the horse, the
exposure is greater.

How concentrated the disease is in the area is important. The number one factor is that the disease is new and
there is no immunity. Once exposed to the disease, the body recognizes it and creates an antibody. Once the
body recognizes a disease, the body never forgets it. What varies from disease to disease is how strong the
antibodies are and how long the disease lasts. Disease strains change similar to a person changing their hair
color from red to blond. The antibodies do not recognize blond because they are used to red.

Who is getting H1N1? It attacks mostly college age people. It has something to do with particular virulence of
the disease.

By the time West Nile got to Nevada, the vaccine was already available and horses were vaccinated. Should we
keep vaccinating horses for West Nile? Yes!!
Decisions to vaccinate or not vaccinate for some diseases have to do with exposure. If your horse is not
exposed to horses moving around and is not moving around, some vaccinations may be skipped. However, if
the horse is on the show circuit, get it vaccinated for diseases it could be exposed to.

West Nile is important because the mosquitoes carry the virus. The mode of transmission is not animal to
animal. When a horse gets sick, it has a 40% chance of dying. The end result could be death, not just sickness.

There is a rumor that West Nile vaccine will cause horses to abort, develop infertility, and cause birth defects.
Dr. Collatos said the rumor is not true. Fort Dodge did a study on vaccinated mares and unvaccinated mares
and believes there is no connection. You can call the drug company and request information.

Anthrax lives in the soil. Ranchers vaccinate for the disease for a couple of years, and there are no outbreaks
for a period of time. The ranchers want to save money, so they quit vaccinating for anthrax and several years
down the road, there is an outbreak of anthrax again.

Eastern Encephalitis is rare in Nevada and California, but in Florida and the Southeast there is a big resurgence.
Diseases do not just go away.

Dr. Collatos likes the Intervet products because they are DNA based vaccines. Fort Dodge is a traditional

If you do not know if a horse has been vaccinated, should you vaccinate the horse? Yes. The horse needs
annual vaccinations to keep the antibodies strong.

Vaccinate yearly for Tetanus because horses move around and Tetanus is fatal to horses. The tetanus vaccine is
a safe vaccine and Tetanus has strong antibodies.

If you wonder whether to vaccinate for a particular disease, you can run titers for antibodies such as Influenza,
Tetanus, and Strangles. However, interpretation is difficult and titers can vary.

The Influenza and Rhinopnuemonitis are the most common vaccines for reaction. Most horses that contract
Influenza or Rhinopneumonitis get sick and recover.

Inhalant vaccine causes immunity where the immunity is needed. Inhalant vaccines do not usually cause a

There are nonspecific immune stimulants such as Zilexa, herbal products, etc.

Why do horses get vaccinated yearly when people get some vaccinations once and never need to be vaccinated
for that disease again? On the equine side, the antibody titers have a relatively short life. Eastern and Western
Encephalitis, Rabies, and Tetanus are long lived. We probably vaccinate yearly here because it is easy to keep
records. It would probably be okay to vaccinate every two years for Tetanus.

Are there any studies to vaccinate horses less than currently is being done like in dogs? Dr. Wilson at UC Davis
is studying it.

West Nile, Tetanus, and Eastern and Western Encephalitis are fatal diseases. Dr. Collatos is aware of two
horses that died of Eastern Encephalitis.

There are certain situations where Strangles vaccinations should be given. A Strangles titer can be run. If you
do not know if a horse has had Strangles, definitely do a titer test. Dr. Collatos would tend not to vaccinate.
You should know what the horse's titers are before vaccinating for Strangles. There are common complications
resulting from the Strangles vaccine. Ten percent (10%) of horses die from Strangles. In a group of one
hundred (100) horses, ten (10) will have complications from the vaccination, and ten (10) may die.

If there is a case of Strangles, the barn is quarantined because Strangles is very contagious. Quarantine and
isolation are imperative. How protective is the vaccine against disease? The intranasal vaccine has a lower
complication rate, but there are still complications. A person may be able to show the barn the horse's titer in
lieu of a Strangles vaccination.

Strangles is common in this area.

In what situations would you recommend a Strangles vaccination? Endurance horses have to share water so
they should be vaccinated. If you are moving a horse to a barn where there has been a Strangles outbreak in the
last year or two or if breeding horses, the horses should be vaccinated.

Complications occur because something happens when the vaccine hits the horse's body. Antibodies develop
and deposit in the skin, gut, and kidneys. The reaction is most common in horses previously vaccinated or who
have previously contracted Strangles because Strangles causes a very strong and long lasting immunity and it
already has Strangles in its' immune system.

The intranasal vaccine is a live vaccine. It is not as virulent as Strep. If you have vaccine on your hand and
give another horse an intramuscular vaccination, the horse can get an abscess at the injection site from the
vaccine that was on your hand.

Dr. Collatos believes the vaccine is causing horses to get sick and stay sick longer; there is nothing to prove this
except her experience.

What about vaccinating horses for rabies? They should be vaccinated if a horse lives in an area where rabies
exists. Rabies is not a common disease in California and Nevada. If rabies is a possibility, then vaccinate.
Rabies is an effective vaccine and very safe. Rabies is not species specific. It occurs in different geographic
areas and different hosts, i.e. bats, raccoons, skunks, etc. all carry rabies. Rabies is fatal if contracted.

What about laminitis induced by vaccines? Dr. Collatos does not believe vaccines induce laminitis. She thinks
the horse has something going on already in its body, and the vaccine tipped the balance.

Laminitis is an inflammation in the hoof. The laminae are vascular. The laminae are attached like a tongue and
groove floor. Blood supply to the horse's foot comes down the back of the leg all the way around the foot to get
to the coffin bone. If anything happens to mess up the blood supply or cause swelling, the front of the foot is
affected first. Lack of blood, combined with the flexor tendon pulling, causes the coffin bone to rotate and go
through bottom of foot. Anything that affects the metabolic system can cause laminitis.

Rebekka Rhodes has a couple of horses who get laminitis every year after being vaccinated. She has done away
with the Influenza, Rhinopneumonitis, and Strangles vaccinations. She has been separating them and
staggering the vaccinations. Dr. Collatos believes if a horse has had laminitis, the vaccinations will tip the
balance. In a horse that has had laminitis in the past, or in a horse that is at risk for laminitis, she does not

One leg on a mare got inflamed and the owner believed it was due to Pigeon Fever caused by pigeons. Dr.
Collatos said they are unrelated. Pigeon Fever has been connected to outbreaks of large numbers of flies.
Pigeon Fever is common in the Minden/Gardnerville and Reno areas.

There are no longer any areas where horses are not desensitized to the worm medicine. For instance, if you did
fifty (50) sit ups, you would be in a lot of pain. Eventually, you would not be painful after doing the sit ups for
awhile. The more horses are exposed to dewormer, the more resistance is developed. It is really important that
horses be on a deworming program. Horses are dying from parasitism in Florida. What can I do to minimize
resistance? Run fecal tests and make sure the laboratory is looking for eggs. There are stages in a parasite's life
when eggs are not going to show up. There are encysted parasites in the horse's wall of the gut. At some point,
they turn loose into the horse's system. The average backyard horse, in a stable environment, who has at least
one-half (1/2) acre to move around on, should have a fecal egg count run four (4) times a year. If fecals are all
negative, give the horse (five (5) days of) Panacure Power Pack. The dewormer will get into the wall of the gut
and kill the encysted eggs. If you are not going to do fecals four (4) times a year, deworm every three (3)
months minimum. Dr. Collatos urges horse owners to get fecal examinations on their horses. If fecals comes
back positive, deworm the horse. In forty-eight (48) to seventy-two (72) hours, run another fecal test. If there
are still parasites, then the dewormer is not effective.

There is no scientific evidence that feeding horses diatomaceous earth works to prevent worms. In Europe, they
are feeding horses a fungus which seems to work.

For horses 900-1000 pounds, give the whole tube of dewormer. The only exception is miniature horses and old
horses. Be careful when using Quest. The safe-dosing limitations are stricter with this de-wormer.

The infestation occurs when the horse defecates, the parasites climb on the blade of grass, and then the horse
eats the parasite. Heat and dryness are the best killers of parasites. Dr. Collatos is not a big fan of taking
manure out of the horse's pen. Once the manure is dry, it mixes back in the decomposed granite to improve the
soil. What if the horse is not exposed to parasites because the manure is picked up daily? Dr. Collatos
responded it only takes being exposed once, kind of like skipping the pill for a day. (She did comment that
more horses die from sand colic than parasites.)

What about spraying the ground to kill the parasites? Treating the ground is not a strategy because the worms
live in the horses. When the horses poop, they infect the ground again.

There is concern about psyllium not doing a good enough job in eliminating sand colic. It is difficult to tell
when a horse has sand in its system. Most horses that have sand have been exposed for a long time. You can
sometimes hear a sound similar to waves washing up on a beach when listening to the horse's gut if they have
sand. Poor weight gain and intermittent diarrhea are signs of sand. Do not feed horses off of the ground or in
feeders where they can pull the hay out and throw it on the ground. Do not under feed the horse. Put feed in an
area in a corner, out of the wind, on a 4 x 8 mat or feed out of a tractor tire bolted to a rubber mat. Try to feed
inside if possible. Dr. Collatos feeds way more than the recommended amount of psyllium. Equus products
seem to be the most palatable. She feeds one (1) pound per day, per horse, for five (5) days each month. If you
feed it more often, the microbes in the gut break down the fiber in the psyllium so it becomes ineffective.

Noble Panels produce great corner feeders which do a good job of keeping the hay off the ground. You can
look at them on the internet at
To check for sand, take a plastic bag, put some manure in it and fill with water. The sand will settle out in the
bottom. If you do not see sand, it does not mean the horse does not have sand, it just means the horse is not
passing the sand.

One of the Club members has a horse prone to sand colic so she has started feeding him one (1) cup daily of
ground up flax seed. Dr. Collatos does not believe the flax seed is causing the horse to pass the sand, but maybe
it has changed the horse's nutritional balance so he may be eating less sand.

   A motion was made to adjourn the meeting at 8:08 p.m.

Member Share: The share portion of the meeting did not occur.

Horse Friendly Products:

Timberline Saddle Company: Custom Saddles: Western, Dressage, English, Trail and Endurance models; 60-
90 day delivery for custom orders. Custom saddle pads, girths and cinches, bridles and accessories available.
Tacky-Tack Saddle Pads – extreme comfort and non-slip security; washable and breathable. Turtle Snaps-
quick release ties. Skidmore’s brand Leather Care products. Contact Mark Rhodes, 775-972-9025 or e-mail

Equischwinger: Hand-made bamboo training sticks by Ray Henderson. These lightweight training sticks and
whips are the answer for sore wrists and tired arms! These gorgeous, hand-made sticks are light but strong and
can be customized to your specifications. Call Ray at 775-297-6092 or visit his website at

Natural hoof care by Debbie Tayler: Correct trimming for balance and performance with an emphasis on
treating the whole horse. Contact Debbie at (775) 846-8918 to schedule an appointment.

Classified ads are free to members and may advertise businesses, wanted items or sale items. Send an e-mail to l8luez


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