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					Louis Pasteur
         By
    Jamie Mignot
Friday, February 27, 2004
"Imagination should give wings
to our thoughts, but we always
  need decisive experimental
            proof.”
These are the famous words of Louis Pasteur who was
one of the greatest scientists of the nineteenth century.
Born in France in 1822, Louis Pasteur became
  a scientific giant, laying the foundation for
         several branches of science.
Pasteur is known as the father of microbiology
 and immunology; surprisingly, however, he
 began his career by studying the shapes of
              organic crystals.
 Pasteur worked with tartaric acid and racemic
acid whose crystals can be found in fermenting
wine. Although these were two different acids,
   the chemical composition of the two was
 identical, and Pasture was determined to find
            out how this was possible.
Upon intense inspection beneath his microscope,
  Pasteur examined both acids and noticed that
    although they were identical, their spatial
 arrangement was different. One was the mirror
image of the other. It was this discovery that led
        to the science of stereochemistry.
Pasteur’s next study allowed him to solve the
      puzzle of alcoholic fermentation.




  He concluded and was able to prove that
 living cells, the yeast, were responsible for
     forming alcohol from sugar, and that
  contaminating microorganisms turned the
               fermentations sour.
Upon this breakthrough, Pasteur then
  set out to find some of the specific
microorganisms responsible for normal
 and abnormal fermentations in such
  things as wine, beer, and vinegar.
Pasteur demonstrated that if
    these substances were
heated to a moderately high
     temperature for a few
  minutes, this would kill the
  living microorganisms and
thereby sterilize (pasteurize)
 the substances and prevent
       them from spoiling.
 Pasteur’s
discoveries
were still not
complete!!!
      MULTIPLE CHOICE
What two types of acids did Pasteur
base his study of organic crystals?

1.   Steric and Hydrofluoric acids
2.   Tartaric and Steric acids
3.   Tartaric and Racemic acids
4.   Racemic and Oleic acids
5.   Steric and Racemic acids
    During Pasteur’s time, there was great
 controversy over the theory of “spontaneous
generation”. Many people believed that things
 such as beetles, eels, maggots and microbes
arise spontaneously from decomposing matter.
   Spontaneous Generation

 Pasteur conducted a series of clever
   experiments that destroyed every
  argument supporting "spontaneous
   generation". It was through these
experiments that Pasteur proved that all
    life comes from preexisting life.
The previous achievements of Louis
  Pasteur were immense, however,
they do not compare to the greatest
 achievements of Pasteur's career
 which was the development of the
germ theory of disease and the use
    of vaccines to prevent these
             diseases.
      While working on the study of
  fermentation, Pasteur noticed that the
contamination of such things as wine and
beer was due to airborne yeast. Pasteur
 thought that maybe this is how certain
   microorganisms (diseases) could be
                 spread.
     Germ Theory of Disease
Pasteur observed several hospitals and
 noticed that infection was spread by
physicians and hospital attendants from
        sick to healthy patients.
          Germ Theory of Disease

      Because of this
      observation and
   remarkable finding, the
   germ theory of disease
     came about. Now
  sanitation, hygiene, and
cleanliness are much more
  important in our society!
GERM THEORY
 OF DISEASE
  Pasteur’s germ theory of disease
stated that most infectious diseases
   are caused by micro-organisms.
 It was time for Pasteur to apply his
    research on the germ theory of
               disease.
               ANTHRAX
Pasteur had a particular
  interest in the disease
 anthrax. Anthrax is an
 infectious disease that
affects cattle, sheep, and
 other livestock that can
 be transmitted to man.
   During this time,
      anthrax was
responsible for killing
 large populations of
sheep in France, and
 this was detrimental
   to the economy.
 Pasteur carefully studied anthrax and noticed
  that some cows developed the disease more
severely than others. So he decided to inject two
cows with a strong dose of the anthrax bacteria,
    fully expecting them to die. Did they die?
To Pasteur's amazement neither of the
cows developed the disease. Later, he
 found that both animals had already
        suffered from anthrax.


    Pasteur asked himself some
 questions. Could they be immune
  to it? Could they be protected in
  some other way? What do YOU
                think?
          ANTHRAX

  Pasteur supposed that if it were
 possible to give an animal a mild
 attack, this might be sufficient to
prevent the animal from getting the
          disease later on.
  Pasteur’s hypothesis was correct. He
eventually succeeded in producing a mild,
  weakened, harmless culture of anthrax
  bacteria. He then took this culture and
vaccinated hundreds of livestock, and they
    were then immune to the disease.



Click on the speaker to hear a sound clip about
              Pasteur’s discovery!
                RABIES
Pasteur is predominantly well-known for his
work with rabies also known as hydrophobia.
  Rabies is a highly contagious, infectious
  disease that attacks the central nervous
 system. This disease is commonly looked
  upon with horror. When you hear of the
   disease rabies, what do you think of?
                 RABIES
Many people have the misconception that those
who have rabies act like a wild dog, barking and
howling. Rabies enters the body through the bite
     of an infected animal or infected saliva.
               RABIES
 Pasteur experimented with the infected
   saliva of rabid dogs and came to the
 conclusion that it did indeed affect the
central nervous system. By studying the
 tissue of infected animals, Pasteur was
able to produce diluted form of the virus.
         Would this vaccine work?
   On July 6 1885, Pasteur
tested his new rabies vaccine
   on man for the first time.
 Joseph Meister was a young
 man who had been bitten by
  a rabid dog. Urged to treat
   him with his new method,
   Pasteur gave Meister the
rabies vaccine and saved his
              life.
 Rabies was the last
 achievement for the
astonishing scientist.
 Louis Pasteur could
be deemed one of the
 greatest benefactors
of humanity due to his
      numerous
    contributions.

Click here to see a short movie clip on how
         the flu vaccine is created
   True or False
 Louis Pasteur developed
several vaccines for many
   infectious diseases.

    True        False
Pasteur was responsible
  for some of the most
  important theoretical
 concepts and practical
 applications of modern
science that we see and
      still use today.
     Scavenger Hunt

• Click here to check out my
     web scavenger hunt!
     Acknowledgements

   • All clipart in this show is
    compliments of Microsoft.
• The movie and sound clip were
     compliments of altavista.
         • Information from
 www.louisville.edu/library/ekstrom/spe
        cial/pasteur/cohn.html

				
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