Violence Against Girls and Education - ActionAid International by dfsiopmhy6

VIEWS: 65 PAGES: 55

									VIOLENCE AGAINST
GIRLS AND EDUCATION



              Thomas Bisika, B.Sc., MA., DSHM
                     Pierson Ntata, Ph.D
               Sidon Konyani, B.Soc.Sc., M.Sc.

             Centre for Social Research

Submitted to:
Actionaid, Malawi
Lilongwe
Malawi.




                     January, 2005




                             1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................... 2
ACCRONMYS …………………………………………………………………………...4
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT .................................................. 4
2.0 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................... 9
3.0 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................... 10
    3.1 Sample Design ........................................................................................................ 10
    3.2 Data Collection ....................................................................................................... 11
    3.4 Geographical coverage............................................................................................ 12
4. 0 GIRLS IN-SCHOOL AND OUT OF SCHOOL ....................................................... 12
5.0 PERCEPTIONS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS................................................ 13
6.0 REPORTS OF VIOLENCE RECEIVED IN SCHOOLS AND COMMUNITY....... 16
7.0 EXTENT OF VIOLENCE (TOUCHING OF PRIVATE PARTS WITHOUT
PERMISSION) ................................................................................................................. 17
    7.1 Perpetrators of violence (touching private parts).................................................... 18
    7.2 Reporting of acts of violence and actions taken. .................................................... 19
    7.3 Effect of violence on education .............................................................................. 21
8.0. EXPERIENCE OF VIOLENCE (BEING FORCED TO HAVE SEX AGAINST
ONE’S WILL). ................................................................................................................. 21
    8.1 Perpetrators of forcible sex ..................................................................................... 23
    8.2 Reporting and action takenn (forcible sex)............................................................. 24
    8.3 Effects of violence on health and education (forcible sex)..................................... 26
9.0 SELECTED INDICATIONS OF VIOLENCE........................................................... 27
    9.1 Fear ......................................................................................................................... 27
    9.2 Beating or teasing ................................................................................................... 28
    9.3 Peer relations........................................................................................................... 29
    9.4 Poor performance.................................................................................................... 30
    9.5 Someone taking away something............................................................................ 30
    9.6 Bullying................................................................................................................... 30
    9.7 Corporal punishment............................................................................................... 31
    9.8 Verbal abuse............................................................................................................ 32
    9.9 People saying negative things about you ................................................................ 33
    9.10 Exclusion............................................................................................................... 33
    9.11 Bodily harm .......................................................................................................... 34
10.0 PROVISION AND SUPPORT FOR EDUCATION................................................ 34
11.0 VIOLATION OF RIGHT TO PRIVACY ................................................................ 34
12.0 FORCED TO WORK ............................................................................................... 34
13.0 PERCEPTIONS OF FAIRNESS BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS ........................ 35
14.0 SOCIAL-CULTURAL FACTORS PROMOTING VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS
........................................................................................................................................... 35
15.0 FACTORS THAT PROMOTE VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS IN GENERAL:... 36
16.0 HOW VIOLENCE AFFECTS GIRLS’ PERFORMANCE AND ACCESS TO
EDUCATION (FOCUS GROUPS AND KEY INFORMANTS):................................... 37
17.0 THINGS TO BE DONE TO ENCOURAGE GIRLS TO ENROLL, REMAIN AND
DO WELL IN SCHOOL (FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS) ........................................ 39


                                                                      2
18.0 MEASURES FOR ADDRESSING VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS ...................... 40
19.0 INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE INVOLVED IN ADDRESSING VIOLENCE ........ 43
  19.1 Malawi human rights commission ........................................................................ 43
  19.2 Crecom and mesa.................................................................................................. 43
  19.3 Cilic....................................................................................................................... 44
  19.4 FAWEMA............................................................................................................. 44
  19.5 Kuunika youth club, youth alert and ministry of youth and youth voices............ 45
  19.6 UNICEF and UNESCO ........................................................................................ 45
  19.7 Victim Support Unit and Community Policing .................................................... 46
  19.8 Women voices....................................................................................................... 46
  19.9 Alufeyo performing arts and kwathu drama groups ............................................. 46
  19.10 NICE ................................................................................................................... 47
  19.11 AIDS TOTO and MACRO ................................................................................ 47
  19.12 Church, chiefs and Ministry of Education .......................................................... 47
  19.13 GTZ, CBO, Girl guide and gender activists ....................................................... 48
  19.14 Ministry of Gender, Eye of the Child, Tikondande care project, Cchisomo
  children club.................................................................................................................. 48
  19.15 Gender based institution, centre for alternative for victimized women and
  children, society or advancement of children ............................................................... 48
  19.16 Association of Christian Education in Malawi ................................................... 48
  19.17 INTER-AIDE...................................................................................................... 49
  19.18 Action aid, World Vision International, World Food Programme ..................... 49
  19.19 PLAN Malawi..................................................................................................... 49
20.0 THINGS GIRLS ENJOY AT SCHOOL AND AT HOME...................................... 50
21.0 KNOWLEDGE OF POLICIES FOR ADDRESSING VIOLENCE ........................ 51
22.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ......................................................................... 52
23.0 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 53




                                                                  3
ACCRONAMYS
AIDS…………………………Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
CBO………………... ……….Community Based Organizations
CIDA…………………………Canadian International Development Agency
CRC………………………….Convention on the Rights of the Child
CSCQBE……………………..Civil Society Coalition for Quality Basic Education
DFID…………..…..………....Department for International Development
FAWEMA……………………Forum for African Women Educationists in Malawi
FPE…………………………..Free Primary Education
FGD………………… ………Focus Group Discussions
GABLE………………………Girls Attainment of Basic Literacy in Education
GTZ…………………………..German Technical Assistance
HIV…………………………..Human Immunodeficiency Virus
MACRO…………………...…Malawi Counseling and Aids Resource Organization
NGO………………………….Non Governmental Organization
PTA…………………………..Parents Teachers Association
STD…………………………..Sexually Transmitted Diseases
TA……………………………Traditional Authority
TDC……………………….…Teacher Development Centre
UDF……………………….…United Democratic Front
UN……………………….…..United Nations
UNESCO……………….……United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural
                        Organization
Unicef…………………….… United Nations Children’s Fund
UPE………………………….Universal Primary Education




                                       4
1.0        INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
One of the UN Millennium Development Goals adopted by the Heads of State and
Government at the Millennium Summit is to ensure that children everywhere, boys and
girls alike, should be able to complete a full course of primary schooling by 2015. In
order to achieve this goal, there is need for a 100% net enrolment and completion rates
for school age children. All over sub-Saharan Africa, countries are striving to achieve this
goal and Malawi is no exception. While universal primary education (UPE) has been on
Malawi’s political agenda since the 1960s, it was only in 1994 that a full scale UPE was
declared through the introduction of free primary education (FPE) by the United
Democratic Front (UDF) government led by Dr. Bakili Muluzi. The rationale was that
school fees and the mandatory wearing of school uniforms by school children, among
other factors, were deterrents to access to education especially for those children from
poor families. The declaration of free primary education was considered critical to the
UDF’s overall policy of poverty alleviation.

While total enrolment in primary school was 1.9 million in 1993/4, this rose to 2.9
million during the 1994/95 school year thus signifying that school fees was one of the
major barriers to access to education in primary school. While there was a 1 million
increase in enrolment in primary school, there is need to emphasise that the boys’
enrolment grew at a faster rate compared to that of girls (see Kadzamira et al, 2004).

Although there was this increase in enrolment in the 1994/5 school year, this was also
countered by high drop out rates (see Tsoka et al, 20021). According to Kadzamira et al
(2004) approximately 70.0% of those pupils who entered primary school between 1990
and 2000 dropped out before reaching standard eight, implying that only 30% reached
standard 8. Drop-out rates have generally been higher for girls than boys thus fewer
proportion of girls complete primary school compared to boys. There have been a number
of attempts over the past decade to increase the participation of girls in school. For
example the GABLE programme which was aimed at increasing access and achievement
of girls in primary school and the adaptation of initiation ceremonies to the school
calendar as it was argued that attendance of these ceremonies during school terms was
one of the factors that affected performance and participation of girls in education.

Malawi is a signatory to a number of international conventions and recommendations
which protect the rights of the children, including the girl child - for example the 1991
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which provides for compulsory and
free primary education for all children regardless of gender. Malawi, as a signatory to
these international conventions, is bound to abide by the requirements of these
instruments, hence the need to address the causes of gender inequalities in accessing
education.

While external factors such as lack of physical infrastructure, overcrowded classrooms,
occurrence of hunger, parental resistance, poverty, early marriages, distance to schools

1
    Tsoka et al. 2002. Millenium Development Goal Progress Report for Malawi. CSR: Zomba.


                                                   5
among other factors may keep children especially girls out of school, there is also a lot of
evidence which suggests that violence or the threat of violence against girls within the
school environment or on the way to and from school constitutes one of the major
barriers to girls accessing primary education. It is widely acknowledged that getting
children into school is only one part of realizing the right to education. According to
Watt, P (May 2003), rights in education, as well as the right to education, are widely
violated. There is much anecdotal evidence that violence or the threat of violence against
female learners is one of the major problems in the education sector. Sexual harassment
and abuse, physical abuse, verbal abuse and flogging are some of the forms that this
violence takes. Human Rights Watch (1999, 2001) notes that too often school are sites of
some of the worst physical and sexual abuse perpetrated against girls and young women.
A recent publication by Panos International also illustrates the gravity of the problem,
albeit, only exposing the tip of the ice-berg.

According to The Newsletter “Gender Violence in Schools” Issue No. 4 dedicated to
Malawi, Gender violence in schools takes the following forms:
      Sexual harassment and abuse;
      Bullying, intimidation and threats;
      Verbal abuse, taunts and insults;
      Physical violence and assaults, including corporal punishment and other physical
      punishments;
      Emotional abuse (e.g. tempting someone into sexual relationship under false
      pretences such as promises of marriage);
      Psychological abuse (e.g. threatening to beat a pupil or to fail them in an exam)

The Newsletter also observes that girls are particularly at risk of violence and abuse
because women occupy a subordinate status in society and are expected to be obedient
and submissive which makes it difficult for them to resist or complain. Girls who make
allegations of sexual abuse by teachers and other men are often not believed and most of
the time teachers fail to take action against boys who use aggressive and intimidating
behaviour towards girls. These boys learn that masculine behaviour involves being
aggressive towards females. Finally girls are prone to violence and abuse because they
have fewer opportunities to earn casual income which pushes them to engage in selling
sex to obtain income for paying school fees.

In Malawi, a study conducted by Semu and Kadzamira in 1995 observes that “there has
been an escalation of violence against women in the public places, institutions and
domestic arena”. The study cites violence against female students in schools at all levels
of the education system. The form of the violence changes as one goes up the education
hierarchy. In primary schools girls are subjected to bullying by boys in lower classes
which degenerates into sexual harassment in upper classes. In some cases this harassment
is condoned by the teachers who will at times give harsher punishment to girls as
compared to boys.

A research conducted by GABLE Social Mobilization Campaign observed that male
teachers harass girls by flirting, having affairs and impregnating them. In certain rural



                                             6
areas the study mentions that there were cases of male teachers sending girls to do
household work for them instead of attending classes and some girls have fallen pregnant
in the process2.

A study conducted in Malawi on violence against girls in schools and published in 2003
by Leach et al concludes that the three schools visited revealed high levels of bullying
and aggressive behaviour by boys, and excessive punishment by teachers which was
probably higher than Ghana but not necessarily higher than Zimbabwe. Teachers taking
advantage of girls to run personal errands for them, or to do chores around the school also
appeared to be commonplace. Two of the three schools visited had current cases of
teachers having an affair with girls and several girls getting pregnant. Among other things
this study provides disturbing evidence that gender violence is a major feature for many
adolescent pupils, especially girls. Fiona Leach, Vivian Fiscian, Esme Kadzamira, Eve
Lemani and Pamela Machakanja. 2003. An Investigative Study of the Abuse of Girls in
African Schools. DFID: Fuller-Davies Limited.

Another study conducted by Isabel Phiri (1995) revealed that even girls in tertiary
institutions experience some form of gender based violence. In this study that was
conducted by Isabel Phiri et al in 1995 at Chancellor College of the University of
Malawi, it was established that 67% of the respondents(a sample of female students-girls)
had experienced sexual harassment while 12% have been raped.

In the same study Phiri et al notes that in general, women and girls experience many
forms of gender based violence in their homes, work places, religious institutions, police
stations, prisons, hospitals, institutions of learning and even in entertainment places all
over the world. In the homes, it may take the form of battery, sexual abuse of female
children and workers, female genital mutilation, dowry related violence and marital rape.
In the general community, gender based violence exist in the form of sexual abuse, rape,
sexual harassment, trafficking of women and forced prostitution3. Forced marriages are
also not uncommon. A popular song in those days acknowledged this in a song titled
“Mwana wanga ukwatiwe tizidya nsomba” (my daughter, get married so that we can eat
fish). This may force girls to drop out of school.

In Malawi there is no specific policy that addresses gender based violence in schools,
however, the current policy and investment framework for the education sector addresses
the issues of equity in both basic and secondary education. Under basic education equity
article a(4) under policies states that “The Ministry of Education, Science and
Technology shall put in place appropriate measures to enhance the participation of girls
in basic education” and further states under strategies that “The Ministry of Education,
Science and Technology will continue to develop gender sensitive materials, sensitization
of teachers to gender issues and through gender-sensitive approaches to teacher

2
  GABLE Social Mobilization Campaign Activities: A Review of Research and Evaluation Plan. Draft
Report.
3
  Phiri I, L Semu, F Nankhuni and N. Madise. 1995. Violence against Women in
  Educational Institutions : The Case of Sexual Harrassment and Rape on Chancellor
 College Campus. RPC : Zomba.


                                                 7
education”. In the secondary education sectors The Ministry of Education, Science and
Technology will adopt appropriate affirmative action to increase the number of girls
accessing secondary education. All these policies only address issues of increasing the
number of girls in the basic and secondary education but do not specifically address
gender based violence in the education sector4.

In as far as Gender Based Violence is concerned, justice delivery structures exist and
these include courts, district commissioners, police, chiefs, churches and “ankhoswe”
(marriage counselors).

In recognition of the existence of various forms of gender based violence in the country,
the Government of Malawi with support from the Danish Government has developed a
Strategic Plan for Eliminating Gender Based Violence covering the period 2002 – 2005.

Very little attention has actually been paid to examining these barriers within the school
that discourage girls in school from continuing their studies and achieving their potential.
While looking at girls in school, there is also need to examine girls who are not at school
(but are supposed to be at school) in order to understand the contextual factors that
explain why they are not at school.

This study which has been commissioned by ActionAid, UNICEF and other coalition
partners and seeks to determine the extent to which violence acts as a barrier to girls
accessing primary school education. The study will further determine the different types
of violence that exist in primary schools, perpetrators and victims (including their age,
class, etc) of these different forms of violence, where the violence takes place and why,
the social and cultural context in which violence takes place and the existing mechanisms
that perpetuate the occurrence of violence against girls in school environs. The concept of
violence in this study will be examined from both a cultural as well as a human rights
perspective and participants in this study will be requested to explain how the different
forms of violence against girls can best be addressed.

The study further recognises that there are a number of institutions in Malawi that are
addressing violence and similar issues against girls in school, therefore these institutions
including their weaknesses and strengths, will be identified. The aim behind these
consultation with institutions will be to identify the different actors that ActionAid can
partner with in this fight against violence in schools in order to create an atmosphere
which will be conducive to learning for both girls and boys.

This study which was commissioned by ActionAid, CSCQBE and UNICEF sought to
determine the extent to which violence acts as a barrier to girls accessing primary school
education. The study further determines the different types of violence that exist in
primary schools, perpetrators and victims (including their age, class, etc) of these
different forms of violence, where the violence takes place and why, the social and
cultural context in which violence takes place and the existing mechanisms that
4
 The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. 2001. Education Sector: Policy and
Investment Framework (PIF).


                                             8
perpetuate the occurrence of violence against girls in school environs. The concept of
violence in this study will be examined from both a cultural as well as a human rights
perspective and participants in this study were requested to explain how the different
forms of violence against girls can best be addressed.

The study further recognises that there are a number of institutions in Malawi that are
addressing violence and similar issues against girls in school, therefore these institutions
including their weaknesses and strengths, will be identified. The aim behind these
consultations with institutions will be to identify the different actors that ActionAid can
partner with in this fight against violence in schools in order to create an atmosphere
which will be conducive to learning for both girls and boys.



2.0 OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this study was to collect information that will help partners to
understand the nature and extent of violence against girls in education ,which would in
turn, assist in addressing the problem of violence against girls and education under the
following specific objectives:

       a) To determine the prevalence of the problem of violence against girls in
          education and who is affected; ages, class, geographic location, identity, etc.

       b) To understand the forms that this violence takes; physical, psychological,
          sexual, etc as well as the perpetrators of such violence;

       c) To identify the spaces where the violence takes place; within the schools, or
          on the way to and/or from schools and where the victims report such violence
          including the action taken against perpetrators,

       d) To analyse and understand the contextual factors under-lying the violence;
          social, cultural, religion, conflict, etc

       e) To map out strategies being undertaken by various institutions to address the
          problem, their strengths and weaknesses and make recommendations on how
          best to address violence against girls in the education sector.




                                             9
3.0 METHODOLOGY

The overall methodology involved both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The
primary data collection was preceded by a desk study to review existing literature on girl
violence in the education sector. This included:

   •   Previous report/research on violence against girls and education
   •   Relevant reports from government, NGOs, media and UN agencies
   •   Review of Violence against girls records in schools, human rights organizations
       and police.
   •   Research documents from Centre for Education Research and Training and
       Malawi Institute of Education as well as Ministries of Gender, Youth and
       Education.

In addition to the desk study, key informant interviews were conducted with teachers,
headmasters, school committees or PTAs and NGO staff working in the field of gender
and education including District education managers. These interviews combined with
review of records in schools have enabled us compile data on progression in school for
the past 8 years.


3.1 Sample Design
The research was carried out on sample basis considering that, under a well designed
sample, the results obtained can be very close to those that would have been obtained had
a census been conducted. Currently there are a total of 27 administrative districts in the
country. One of the districts is an island on Lake Malawi in the northern region and has a
population of 8,074 persons. The northern region has 6 administrative districts, the
central region has 9 districts whilst the southern region has 12 districts. Each district is
divided into Traditional Authorities (TAs) and for census purposes each Traditional
Authority is divided into enumeration areas. These comprised the frame that was utilised
for the selection of sample areas that were utilised in this research. Before selection, the
districts were stratified by region and three districts were purposively selected from each
respective region.

The unit of enumeration within the sampled districts for which the research was
interested in was the primary school girl child (ages 6-19 years). However, there is no list
available that gives information about names and location of families/households let
alone children. For this reason, two more sampling selection stages were introduced. The
first sampling stage comprised the selection of enumeration areas within the sampled
administrative districts. These enumeration areas were selected with probability
proportional to size where the size measure was the total number of households in
respective enumeration areas in the frame as recorded in the 1998-population census. The
second sampling stage involved the selection of households within the sampled
enumeration areas adopting systematic sampling procedures.



                                            10
An overall sample of 500 households was covered in this research in each region giving a
national sample of 1,500 households. A total of 25 households were sampled in each one
of the selected enumeration areas. Hence, 20 enumeration areas were selected per region.
The 20 enumeration areas were allocated to the three districts in a given region in
proportion to the sample districts’ population of the primary school going age population
of children as registered in the 1998 population census.


3.2 Data Collection
The data collected in this research was done utilizing both quantitative as well as
qualitative methods of data collection.

Quantitative
The quantitative data collection aspect was done utilizing a well designed structured
questionnaire that covered the objectives outlined in Section 2 above. This questionnaire
were administered to one randomly sampled school going girl (age 6-19) found in each
one of the 1500 households sampled in this research. This questionnaire was designed in
such a way that it had provision for recording whether the girl was in school or out-of-
school.


Qualitative
Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were the main tool to be utilized for the collection of
qualitative data in this study. One FGD was carried out in each selected enumeration
area. The groups involved in FGD within each sampled district varied depending on the
information learnt from FGDs in the initial district. The initial one was a discussion with
a group of girls, whilst the other FGDs within the district were with girls, parents, boys or
discussion with elders which included community leaders. This information
supplemented the quantitative data findings.

Field logistics
Three mobile teams, each comprising one supervisor and four enumerators were utilized
in the data collection exercise. On arrival at a selected enumeration area, the whole team,
led by the supervisor, identified its boundaries and selected the households systematically
on the ground. Three of the enumerators in the team administered the quantitative
questionnaires whilst the forth enumerator and the supervisor arranged and carried out the
relevant FGD. During the FGD, the supervisor was the discussant whilst the enumerator
took notes.




                                             11
3.4 Geographical coverage
The survey covered all the three regions. The three districts sampled in each region were
namely, Karonga, Rumphi and Mzimba (including Mzuzu urban) in the northern region;
Kasungu, Mchinji and Lilongwe (including Lilongwe urban) in the central region; and
Machinga, Chikwawa and Blantrye (including Blantyre Urban) in the southern region.
The actual sample of respondents covered were 1496, consisting of 497 (33.2%) northern
region, 495 (33.1%) central region and 504 (33.7%) southern region. In total the survey
actually covered 56 sampled enumeration areas.


4. 0 GIRLS IN-SCHOOL AND OUT OF SCHOOL
Out of the total sample, 85.2% were attending school while the remaining 14.6% were
not in school. There were no marked regional differences with regard to school
attendance.

In focus group discussions participants gave some reasons why some girls were not in
school.

Reasons why some girls are not in school (focus group discussions)

•   Lack of self confidence, they think they cannot do better in class
•   Early marriages, some are forced by parents to enjoy benefits and some do choose
    thinking that they will find all their needs.
•   Forced labour by parents to receive wages
•   Lack of encouragement from parents, teachers and friends, who force them to drop
    out from school
•   Some feel shy to continue with education due to age and after delivery
•   Early pregnancies and rape by boys and teachers
•   Lack of parental and guardian care and support
•   Poverty
•   Ignorance of girls
•   Disagreements between parents and teachers
•   Laziness of girls and lack of interest in education
•   Because of cultural and traditional practices
•   Always want good things, resulting in prostitution



                                              12
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

The results of the survey showed that 90.2 % of the sampled pupils were aged between
11 and 18 years with the remaining minority aged 18 years or older. Up to 94.1% have
never been married while some 5% were married or cohabiting. The large majority
(92.8%) do not have children while about 5% have at least a child.

Only 1.6% claimed that they took alcohol, compared to about 5% who had tasted alcohol
at least once. Only 0.7% claimed to have ever smoked.


5.0 PERCEPTIONS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS
Things that constitute violence at home and at school

The study tried to find out perceptions of what constitutes violence against girls at home
and at school from the point of view of the girls themselves and from the key informants.

In focus group discussions the girls gave the following as constituting violence:

Things that constitute violence against girls at home (focus groups):

•   Heavy workload and overworking girls
•   Beating and withholding food to girls and chasing them away if they have done
    something wrong.
•   Forcing girls to marry and to have sex and relationships with men and boys
•   Not allowing girls to go to school and not giving them time to study.
•   Discrimination by parents.
•   Telling girls to play parents i.e. look for necessities
•   Verbally abusing girls
•   Raping and impregnating girls
•   Lack of support and parental care
•   Not allowing girls to play and chat with friends




                                              13
Things that constitute violence against girls at school:

•   Giving girls corporal punishments like digging pits, uprooting tree trunks, molding
    bricks during class time
•   Teasing, bullying and beating girls by boys and teachers
•   Forcing girls to have relationships and sex with boys and teachers
•   Verbally abusing girls
•   Sexually harassing girls i.e. touching their breasts and other private parts.
•   Raping and impregnating girls
•   Discrimination by teachers.
•   Sending girls home if late coming to school
•   Suspending and expelling girls without warnings because of refusing to do hard
    punishments.
•   Not giving girls chance to voice out their views.

Responses from key informants were quite similar to those obtained from the girls in
focus group interviews. Key informant responses are presented below.

Things that constitute violence against girls at school (Key Informants):

    •   Forcing girls to have relationships with boys and teachers such actions are
        sometimes encouraged by referring to traditional sayings such as: “mbuzi imadya
        pomwe aimangilira” (a goat grazes around where it has been tied)

    •   Beating, teasing and bullying girls by fellow students of senior classes and
        teachers

    •   Verbally abusing girls because of poverty, age, or after delivery and failing them
        in class by saying some of these things: “Lero ndiye mwayeserako” (At least you
        have tried today); Your breasts are too big, (ntchembere)”

    •   Forcing girls to take subjects that they don’t like

    •   Sexually harassing girls i.e. touching girls breasts, private parts and buttocks by
        teachers and boys
    •   Giving girls corporal punishments i.e. cutting down trees and digging pits
    •   Lack of support from teachers and role models



                                              14
   •   Not giving girls a chance to participate in different activities
   •   Gender bias against girls (always giving boys first priorities)
   •   Raping and impregnating girls by teachers and boys
   •   Taking girls as inferior to boys
   •   Laziness of teachers
   •   Poor dressing by girls
   •   Sending girls back home if late to school
   •   Lack of learning facilities
   •   Taking away girls’ property
   •   Overworking girls i.e. sweeping and mopping at school
   •   Hating girls because of smartness by female teachers


Things that constitute violence at home:


   •   Lack of parental care and support
   •   Forcing girls to work in farms
   •   Heavy workload given to girls
   •   Forcing girls to marry so as to enjoy the benefits i.e lobola
   •   Giving girls corporal punishments if they refuse to work
   •   Not giving girls food
   •   Letting girls play parental roles like looking for food, soap, clothes
   •   Not sending girls to school and forcing them to withdraw from school
   •   Lack of encouragement from the community by saying “olo ulimbikire sukulu
       ikupindulira chiani” (what will you benefit from education?)
   •   Overworking girls with household chores
   •   Not giving girls a chance to voice out their views
   •   Discrimination by parents or guardians
   •   Forcing girls to have sex with their fathers to get rich, or chiefs during ceremonies
       and rich men to be healed form HIV and AIDS
   •   Letting girls sell products like mandasi (doughnuts)during late hours



                                             15
   •   Taking girls to initiation ceremonies during school sessions
   •   Raping girls
   •   Poverty
   •   Verbally abusing girls


6.0 REPORTS OF VIOLENCE RECEIVED IN SCHOOLS
AND COMMUNITY

In many schools teachers and head teachers had actually received reports from the girls of
the many forms of violence they experienced both at home and school. The key
informants had received the following reports:

Reports received and forms of violence (Key Informants).
Key informants were head teachers, parents, parents and teachers' association members,
chiefs, police officers, political party representatives and school committee members.



   •   Girls sexually abused by male teachers and boys
   •   Forced relationships with teachers
   •   Forced to get married by parents and teachers
   •   Verbally abused by teachers and fellow students
   •   Physically attacked by boys in their villages
   •   Beaten, bullied and teased by boys and teachers
   •   Telling girls to sell products during class time
   •   Stripped if late to school by teachers
   •   Corporal punishments by teachers i.e. digging pit latrines, head bricks for 15
       minutes
   •   Grabbing girls’ property by relatives and boys
   •   Treating maids badly
   •   Stopping girls from schooling
   •   Suspended because of refusing to have sex with teachers
   •   Forced labour
   •   Exchange girls for debts (kupimbira)


                                            16
   •   Teachers not teaching
   •   Girls sent to work in teachers’ fields
   •   Raped and impregnated by parents, teachers and boys and other men
   •   Not giving girls food to eat after hard work

Cleary, both girls and key informants were aware of the many actions that constitute
violence against girls both in school and at home. The quantitative survey looked at the
extent to which some of these actions (but by no means all) were happening.



7.0 EXTENT OF VIOLENCE (TOUCHING OF PRIVATE
PARTS WITHOUT PERMISSION)

Table 1. Proportion of respondents reported touched private parts without
permission

                                     N           %
       Yes                           748         50.1
       No                            745         49.9
       TOTAL                         1493        100.0


Exactly half of the sampled pupils stated that someone had ever touched their private
parts without permission.

In one focus group interview in the southern region, a girl reported that a boy had
touched her breasts without permission. She went to report to the teacher who, instead of
helping her, also touched her breasts.

Table 2.      Place where violence occurred (touching private parts without
permission)

       PLACE                               N                %
       At home                             229              34.9
       On the way to or from school        69               10.5
       At school                           320              48.7
       At a religious function             7                1.1
       On the way to market, town, church,
       collect firewood etc                32               4.9
       TOTAL                               657              100.0




                                            17
There were slight regional differences with the north having the least proportion of those
who had their private parts touched without permission ( 42.1%) followed by the south
(50.5%). The central region had the highest proportion at 57.9%.


Table 3.        Frequency of occurrence of violence

                            Frequency             N      %
                            Very rarely           445    60.0
                            Sometimes             212    28.6
                            Very often            85     11.5
                            TOTAL                 742    100.0


Out of the national sample proportion, the majority (60%) said that such incidences
happed very rarely. Another 28.6% said it happened ‘sometimes’ while 11.5% said that
they happened very often. More than 60% of the incidents had taken place between June
and November 2004 (the Survey took place in November). This trend was generally true
at regional level as well. This appears to suggest that respondents only reported the most
recent incidences, probably because those were the ones they could remember. If this is
true, then it may well be that incidences happened more often than the figures indicate.
Another noteworthy fact is that although generally low, the proportion that said such
incidents happened very often is almost double for the southern region (15.5%) compared
to the northern region (8.7%) with the central region in between the two at 10.2%.

The large majority of the incidents (reported by 46.8% of the respondents) stated that
such incidents actually occurred at school. This fact is consistent with the other finding
(below) that the majority of the culprits are fellow pupils. Another 33.3 % reported that
such incidents happened at home while for 10.1% they happened on the way to or from
school.


7.1 Perpetrators of violence (touching private parts)

Table 4. Perpetrators of violence

                                                  N              %
              Another student                     328            51.6
              Teacher                             24             3.8
              Friend                              102            16.0
              Vendor                              15             2.4
              Unknown person (s)                  102            16.0
              Boyfriend                           16             2.5

The major perpetrators of these incidents of violence were fellow pupils. They committed
about 51.6% of all incidents Another major category was ‘friends’ which accounted for


                                             18
16.0% of all incidents committed. If we combine ‘friends’ and ‘fellow pupils’ then this
category accounts for 67.6% of all acts of violence relating to touching girls’ private parts
without permission. Another 16% of the respondents stated that the perpetrators of
violence of this nature were persons unknown to them while another 3.5% and 3.1%
mentioned local villagers and relatives (uncle, cousin, brother in law etc) respectively.
Similar proportions (about 2.5%) mentioned boyfriends and vendors. Teachers were
mentioned by 3.8% of the respondents. The only notable difference regionally appears to
be the proportion that mentioned ‘unknown persons’ as perpetrators of violence. This
proportion was slightly higher for the central region (17.3%) compared to 10% in the
south and 11.6% in the north.


7.2    Reporting of acts of violence and actions taken.

Table 5.       Whether violence reported

                            N                %
              Yes           349              47.7
              No            382              52.3
              TOTAL         731              100.0


Slightly less than half of the respondents (47.7%) said that they reported such incidents,
leaving a slight majority of 52.3% who did not report. There were no notable regional
differences. Therefore, it is apparent that many acts of violence go unreported.

Table 6.       Where violence was reported

                                    N              %
              Friend                26             7.5
              Teacher               123            35.7
              Relatives             40             11.6
              Headmaster            24             7.0
              Parents               121            35.1


The majority of those who reported acts of violence reported them to teachers and parents
(35.7% and 35.1% respectively). Another 11.6% reported incidents of violence to their
relatives such as sisters, uncles, grandmothers brothers etc. About 8% of the respondents
reported such incidents to their friends. Out of the total national sample, only two
respondents reported such cases to the Police. There were slight differences across the
regions with regard to where the incidents were reported. Perhaps the notable one is that a
substantially higher proportion (66.7%) reported incidents to teachers in the northern
region compared to the central region (30.4%) and the southern region (42.5%). A lot
more respondents in the northern region (33.3%) reported incidents to their friends
compared to the central region (8.0%) and the southern region (3.5%).



                                             19
Recalling that 52.3% of all respondents did not report incidents relating to touching of
private parts without permission, we note that the single majority of them (20.5%) failed
to do so because they did not know that such incidents were offences. Another 17.6% did
not report because they were shy while 15.5% said that they were threatened not to
reveal. Related to this, another 11. 45 just said that they did not report because they were
scared or afraid. If we combine the two proportions which relate failure to report
incidents of violence to fear ( i.e.27%), then it is apparent that fear is the single most
important factor accounting for the failure to report incidents of violence with regard to
touching of someone’s private parts without permission. Other proportions worth noting
are 7.2% who said they did not report because they ‘did not feel like reporting’, and 3.7%
who said that they did not feel that the incident was worth reporting. Some respondents
did not report incidents because they thought the other party was just being playful.


Table 7.       Whether any action was taken against violence

                                   N             %
              Yes                  273           67.2
              No                   133           32.8
              TOTAL                406           100.0


For those who reported the incidents, 67.2% said that some action was taken after they
had reported. However, no action was taken for the remaining 32.8%. The actions most
frequently taken were ‘punishing the culprit’ (mentioned by about 44.2%), although it
must also be said that the survey did not inquire what type of punishments were given,
and warning them (mentioned by24.3. %). Other forms of action included calling the
boys parents for discussions (5.6%), disciplining the culprits (4.1%) and shouting at them
(3.4%). Only 1.1% mentioned that the culprits were counseled and 2.2% that they were
suspended.

Table 8:       Whether Satisfied with action taken against violence

                                   N             %
              Yes                  218           58.0
              No                   158           42.0
              TOTAL                376           100.0

For those who said that some action was taken after reporting incidents of violence, just
slightly over half (58%) stated that they were satisfied with the action that was taken.
The remaining 42% stated that they were not satisfied with the action. Thus clearly, a
significant proportion of the respondents seem to feel that acts of violence are not treated
with the seriousness they deserve. However, the majority of respondents (44%) did not
seem to be clear on what type of action would have been appropriate. Nevertheless, about




                                            20
27% mentioned that they had expected the culprits to be punished (implying that they had
not).

7.3    Effect of violence on education
Table 9.       How violence has affected education

              PLACE                                  N             %
              I stopped going to school              22            3.2
              I feel bored                           31            4.5
              They are classmates so she
              fails to concentrate in class          31           4.5
              She is psychologically affected       144           20.7
              Not affected in any way               426           61.2


In general, the majority of the respondents (61.2%) stated that the incidents they had
experienced (having their private parts touched by someone without permission) had not
affected their education in any way. However, that still leaves the other 38.8% (45% for
the southern region) who stated that their education had been affected in some way: the
single majority of this group (20.7%) stated that they felt psychologically affected, 4.5%
said they fail to concentrate in class since the culprits were in the same class as
themselves, while another 4.5% stated that they felt sustained anger. About 3.2% (N=22)
said they stopped going to school as a result of the incidents.



8.0. EXPERIENCE OF VIOLENCE (BEING FORCED TO
HAVE SEX AGAINST ONE’S WILL).
Table 10.      Proportion experiencing attempts at forcible sex

                                                 N            %
              Yes                                509          34.4
              No                                 971          65.6
              TOTAL                              1480         100.0



Out of the national sample, some 34.4% of the respondents had ever faced some attempts
to force them to have sex against their will. The figures were highest in the central region
(43.9%) followed by the southern region (30.9%) and lowest in the northern region
(28.5%). Out of the national sample such attempts actually materialized in 176.% of the
cases (facing these attempts). Thus the attempts at forcible sex failed in 82.4% the cases.




                                            21
There were some notable differences across the three regions. The highest proportion of
respondents who faced attempts at forcible sex was in the central region (43.9%),
followed by the south (330.9%) and the lowest being the north (28.5%). However, when
it comes to whether the attempts actually materialized, the proportion reporting this was
highest in the north (33.3%) followed by the south (13%). The central region had the
lowest proportion (10%).

In focus group discussions girls in the northern region reported an incident where two
girls were impregnated by a teacher and a boy. When this happened the girls got no
assistance what so ever either from the teacher, the head teacher or from the boys parents.
In another incident, three girls were raped. One of the girls was raped by a teacher and
she got pregnant as a result. She left school and the teacher provided no support to her.
Yet another incident involved a teacher who proposed to a girl but she refused. The
teacher started mocking the girl that she was too old and she should stop going to and get
married. Thereafter she was told not to enter his classes again.

In the southern region girls reported am incident in which a teacher raped a girl in his
office. The girl got pregnant and was nursing a baby at the time of the survey. She
reported this case to the police and the teacher was arrested and sent to prison. Another
girl who was raped by a teacher reported to the head teacher but nothing happened.


Table 11. Place where forcible sex occurred

              PLACE                               N            %
              At home                             307          60.9
              On the way to or from school        60           11.9
              At school                           90           17.9
              At a religious function             16           3.2
              To/from           places(market,
              friends, river, maize mill) etc     20           4.0


The majority of all cases of forcible sex happened at home (mentioned by 60.9% of the
responds). Another 17.9% said that the incidents took place at school. About 12% said
they happened on the way to or from school, while 4% said on the way to or from the
some places within the village (market, to see a friend, the maize mill, the river, etc). For
3.2 of the respondents, these incidents of forcible sex happened at religious functions.
According to 65.7% of the respondents such incidents happened very rarely. However,
22.9% said ‘sometimes’, while 11.4% said they happened very often. The proportions for
the different regions were almost exactly those of the national average. More than half of
the incidents reported had taken place within the last five months. More than half of the
incidents reported had taken place within the last five months.

There appears to be some notable differences across the three regions with regard to
where incidents of forcible sex happened. While in all the three regions at least half of the
cases were reported to have taken place at home, we note that the proportion reporting


                                             22
that the incidents happened on the way to or from school is more than double in the north
(22%) compared to both the central (7.4%) and the southern region (10.1%). The 6.1%
reporting ‘religious functions’ as the place where such incidents occurred in the north is
also slightly higher than those of the central and southern region (2.8% and2.0%
respectively). Thus in general it can be said that incidents of forcible sex are happening
more outside the home environment in the northern region compared to the other two
regions.


8.1 Perpetrators of forcible sex
Table 12. Perpetrators of Forcible sex

                                                       N              %
      Another student                                  156            31.1
      Teacher                                          27             5.4
      Friend                                           94             18.7
      Some villagers                                   101            20.1
      Relative (Uncle, cousin, brother in law)         27             5.4
      Unknown person                                   42             8.4


As with the case of the other form of violence discussed above, fellow pupils were
reported to be the major perpetrators of forcible sex (31.1.%) ‘Friends’ accounted for
18.7% of all responses. Thus added together, ‘fellow pupils’ and ‘friends’ account for
49.8% of all responses. For 8.4%, the acts were committed by persons unknown to them.
Teachers as perpetrators of forcible sex accounted for 5.4%. A similar proportion
mentioned relatives (i.e. uncles, cousins, brother in law etc).

Looking at the three regions we can note the following differences. The proportion
reporting that the perpetrators of forcible sex were either fellow pupils or friends was
highest in the northern region (80.8%) followed by the southern region (61.6%) and the
central region (30.3%). Therefore it can be said in general that pupils in the central region
face more attempts at forcible sex from quarters other than fellow pupils and their
friends. Thus, 34.9% of the respondents in the central region (compared to 16.6% in the
south and less than 10% in the north, reported that they faced such attempts from local
villagers. The central region’s proportion for those who faced attempts at forcible sex
from their relatives was also notably higher compared to the other two regions. (10%,
compared to 2.6% in the south and.. in the north). However, the proportion that
mentioned ‘teachers’ as perpetrators of these incidents though generally low in all the
three regions was higher in the northern region (8.2%) compared to the other regions
(5.1% central region and 2.6% southern region).




                                             23
8.2 Reporting and action takenn (forcible sex).
Table 13. Whether violence (forcible sex) was reported.

                                 N              %
                  Yes            253            50.0
                  No             253            50.0
                  TOTAL          506            100.0


Exactly 50% of the respondents reported incidents of forcible sex while another 50% did
not report. This means that slightly more respondents reported incidents of forcible sex
compared to incidents relating to the touching of private parts without permission.
However, we note that the proportion of those not reporting incidents of violence is very
high in both cases. In the northern region, up to 56.1% of the respondents did not report
the incidents.

Unlike in the case of unauthorized touching of one’s private parts where the majority
reported incidents to parents and teachers (35.7% and 35.1% respectively). Incidents of
forcible sex were mainly reported to parents (43.2%) and relatives (24.3%). Only 13.6%
reported such incidents to teachers. The proportion reporting to friends (9.1%) was close
to that of the other form of violence. Out of the total national sample, only 2.1% of the
respondents reported such cases to the Police.


Table 14.     Why violence (forcible sex) was not reported

                                                    N             %
              Did not know where to report          6            2.4
              Shy                                   35           14.3
              She thought it was useless            59           24.1
              Was afraid                            76           31.0
              Was scared                            26           10.6
              Forgot to report                      3            1.2


For the 50% who did not report incidents of forcible sex, 41.6% failed to do so because
they were afraid, 24.1% because they felt it wouldn’t make a difference even if they
reported, and 14.3% because they were shy. Only 2.4% failed to report the incidents
because they did not know where to report.

As mentioned before fear appears to be a major reason why incidents of violence are not
reported. In a focus group discussion in the central region the girls agreed with what one
of them had said that “a lot of girls do experience violence personally but they don’t
report because parents or head teachers take no any action. Some head teachers even
threaten the pupils to be expelled if they report any form of violence at school”.



                                           24
Table 15.      Whether action was taken against violence (forcible sex)

                                                N            %
              Yes                               214          76.2
              No                                67           23.8
              TOTAL                             281          100.0


We recall that only half of the respondents reported the incidents of violence. For that
half who reported the incidents, 76.2% stated that some action was taken after they had
reported. Therefore, about 24% stated that no action was taken after they had reported. In
the central region, only 13.9% reported that no action was taken compared to 29.3% and
31.5% in the northern and southern region respectively.

The main forms of punishment for culprits of forcible sex appeared to be punishment
(reported by 23.4%), warning them (21.1%) and disciplining them (12.9%). Only 3.8%
reported that the boys were arrested, and 2.9% that the culprits were expelled from
school. Results from the key informant interviews shed more light on forms of action that
are taken against perpetrators of violence against girls.

Actions taken against perpetrators by Key Informants.

   •   Teachers talk to parents against grabbing girls’ property, treating maids badly,
       and stopping girls from schooling
   •   One head teacher did research and talked to parents, called for a meeting with
       school committee on rape, pregnancies and suspension because of refusing to
       sleep with teachers and cultivating in teachers fields
   •   Took teachers, men and boys to court and charged them to pay a fine; talked to
       girls’ parents because of impregnating girls and on rape
   •   Counseled parents and teachers on forced marriages and relatives
   •   Punished boys who beat girls and discussed with teachers
   •   Disciplined teachers on sexual harassment and relationships
   •   Encourage girls to report on sexual harassment and relationships
   •   Provide food to girls
   •   Work hand in hand with CIDA, disseminating messages to traditional leaders and
       community according to what the laws say on “kupimbira” and lack of support
   •   However, there were no actions taken to some cases like forced labour because
       people do not know what to do and most cases are done by teachers


Table 16.      Whether satisfied with action against violence (forcible sex)

                                                N            %
              Yes                               182          58.5
              No                                129          41.5
              TOTAL                             311          100.0


                                           25
Out of those who stated that some action had been taken, slightly more than half (58.5%)
said they were satisfied with the action while 41.5% said they were not satisfied. The
actions that respondents expected ranged from wanting the matter to be taken to court,
the perpetrators to be arrested, the love affair to end, and for the culprits to be fined. A lot
more respondents in the northern region (61.1%) were left unsatisfied with the action that
was taken after reporting incidents of attempts at forcible sex compared to the other two
regions (39% south and 30% central).

For the national sample, equal proportions said that they were satisfied with the action
that was taken whether the form of violence was touching of private parts without
permission or attempts at forcible sex. However, there were regional differences. For
example in the northern region, although a high proportion of the respondents mentioned
that some action was taken after reporting the incidents of forcible sex, 61.1% reported
that they were not satisfied with the action that was taken. This is a much higher
proportion when compared with the 43.3% who said they were satisfied with the action in
the case of touching of private parts as a form of violence. For the other two regions, the
opposite is true: The proportions who stated that they were satisfied with the action that
was taken with regard to forcible sex were higher compared to ‘touching of private parts’
as a form of violence.

8.3 Effects of violence on health and education (forcible sex)
Table 17.       Effects of violence on health

                                                   N             %
               STD                                 8             29.6
               Felt risk of HIV/AIDS               11            40.7
               Other                               8             29.6

Generally, respondents did not go for a medical check up after forcible sex (91.8%). Only
8.2% went for a medical check up after the incidents. The large majority of the
respondents who experienced forcible sex as a form of violence stated that their health
had been affected in some way (82.6%). Out of this proportion, 40.7% felt the risk of
catching the HIV/AIDS while another 29% felt the risk or caught STDs. For the national
sample, about 8% of all those who experienced forcible sex got pregnant. This proportion
was highest in the northern region (12%) followed by the central region (6.3%) and the
southern region (5.3%).


Table 18.       Whether education affected (forcible sex)

                                                   N             %
               Yes                                               60.4

               No                                                39.6
               TOTAL                                             100.0


                                              26
A large majority (60.4%) felt that the incidents had not really affected their education or
that the incidents had helped them to become more responsible, while another group had
simply never been to school. However, this means that 40% felt that the incidents had
affected their education in some way. Thus, we note from table 19. below that 15% stated
that their performance had gone down while 7.0% were psychologically affected and
7.5% said that they had stopped going to school altogether. Other respondents in various
smaller proportions stated that they did not feel comfortable at school (2.4%), and still
lived in fear (3.1%)


Table 19.      Effects of violence on education

                                                  N            %
              Performance gone down                            15.0
              Psychologically affected                         7.0
              Stopped going to school                          7.5
              Felt uncomfortable at school                     2.4
              Still lived in fear                              3.1



Figures on girls who were forced to have sex can also be related to figures on girls who
were offered money or gifts in exchange for sex. The proportion of girls who faced
attempts at forcible sex was 34.4%. Those who were offered money or gifts in exchange
for sex were 28.7%. And again, fellow pupils and friends are the major perpetrators of
this practice (mentioned by 39.3% and 17.2% respectively or 56.5% added together)
However, the proportion that mentioned teachers rose to 15.8% (compared to 5.4% for
forcible sex) when it comes to the issue of offering money and gifts in exchange for sex.
About 11% mentioned local men in the village as offering them money and gifts in
exchange for sex, 6.1% mentioned strangers and another 3.2% mentioned relatives.

Half of the respondents at least knew a girl in their school that was raped.




9.0 SELECTED INDICATIONS OF VIOLENCE
9.1 Fear
Respondents were asked to state if they had experienced any of a set of emotions or
actions that might be related to or indicative of incidents of violence, and to state whether
they had experienced this at school or at home. The results are discussed below.

Slightly more than half of the respondents (57%) had experienced fear at home. An
almost similar proportion (59.4%) had experienced fear at school.



                                             27
Table 20.      Experience of fear by region

                                            North            Centre           South
              Home                          77.0             57               37.7
              School                        70.8             64.8             42.8




Regional differences were notable in this regard. In the northern region about 77% of the
respondents (compared to 57% central and 37.7% southern region) had experienced fear
at home. The proportion experiencing fear at school in the northern region, though
slightly lower than that experiencing fear at home, is nevertheless higher compared to the
other two regions (64.8% central and 42.8% south).

From the figures above we note the following main trend: the proportions of respondents
experiencing fear both at home and at school are highest in the northern region followed
by the central region. They are the lowest in the southern region. The proportions
experiencing fear at home and at school in the northern region are much higher compared
to the other two regions. The north in the only region where the proportion experiencing
fear at home is higher than that experiencing it at school. In general, however,
proportions experiencing fear are high in all the three regions.


9.2 Beating or teasing
Beating or teasing appears to be experienced slightly less at home (46%%) than at school
(56.8%%). It should be noted, however, that both figures are high.


Table 21.      Beating and Teasing by Region

                                            North            Centre           South
              Home                          49.8             54.9             33.6
              School                        70.4             62.3             38.1




Beating and teasing at home is highest in the central region (54.9%) followed by the
north (49.8% and the south (33.6%). At school, bating at teasing is highest in the northern
region (70.4%) followed by the central region (62.3%) and the southern region (38.1%).
Beating and teasing thus appears less common in the south both at home and at school.

In focus group discussions in the central region, participants gave several example of
beating and teasing. One example involved a girl who was beaten by a boy at school.


                                            28
She reported the matter to the headmaster and the boy was suspended for 2 weeks. The
girls, however, said that the head teacher does not act when the case involves a teacher. It
appeared to the girls that the head teachers become afraid that they might not be in good
terms with the teachers if they punish them. (It is also possible that they might not want
to tarnish the reputation of the school-researchers comment). Another case involved girls
were told to harvest maize in teachers’ fields and transport bricks on their heads to
teachers’ residences. The girls reported this case of to the teachers. Instead of helping
them they told the boys to tease them more and to call them “Zinyama” (animals)

In the northern region stories told by girls in focus group discussions were more serious
and even macabre. Participants indicated that many girls were being raped, sexually
harassed and beaten by boys. What is horrific in the northern region stories in that quite a
few of them involve murders. In one focus group the girls knew of a girl who was killed
in a maize field during rainy season. It was reported that stories of girls being killed
during the rainy season were on the increase. In another focus group, participant told a
story of four girls who were killed by boys on their way to school on different
occasions. Another incident involved a girl who was attacked by a fellow student who
tore her clothes and books because she was a hard worker


9.3 Peer relations.
For the national sample, 46.8% of the respondents have ever experienced poor peer
relations at home while a comparable 44.8% experienced this problem at school.


Table 22.      Poor peer relations region

                                            North             Centre           South
              Home                          91.1              25.9             23.6
              School                        89.1              26.1             19.2




Figures on those who have experienced poor peer relations are much higher in the
northern region compared to the other two regions. In the northern region, 91.1%
(compared to 25.9% central region and 23.6% southern region) have experienced this
problem at home. At school, 89.1% in the northern region experienced poor peer relations
at school compared to 26.1% in the central region and 19.2% in the southern region.
According to these figures poor peer relations appears to be a much more serious problem
in northern region school and homes compared to the other two regions.




                                            29
9.4 Poor performance
Poor performance is experienced more at school (60.9%.) than at home (12.8%).

Table 23.      Poor performance by region

                                           North            Centre           South
              Home                         24.6             12.1             3.4
              School                       87.3             43.1             52.3




The proportion of respondents reporting poor performance at home was highest in the
northern region (24.6%), followed by the central region (12.1%0 and the southern region
(3.4%). The northern region also had the highest proportion (87.3%) reporting poor
performance at school followed by the southern region (52.3%) and the central region
(43.1%).

Nationally, about 43% and 45% respectively of the respondents had experienced lack of
interest in anything at home and at school. Figures for the southern region are below the
national averages (28.9% and 30.6% at home and at school respectively), as are figures
fort he central region (38.9% and 37.2% at home and at school respectively). In the
northern region, proportions reporting that they felt lack of interest in anything are way
above the national averages (61.2% at home and 66.7% at school).

9.5 Someone taking away something
The experience of having someone take away something from the respondents appears to
be less common at home (reported by 21%) compared to the school environment
(52.7%). There were slight differences regionally with regard to the school environment
(56.5% central, 52.1% north and 49.5% south). However, with regard to the home
environment, the proportion for the northern region (29.2%) was a bit higher than those
of the central region (18.2%) and the southern region (15.3%).

9.6 Bullying
The trend observed above is also true with regard to bullying, a slightly lower proportion
experienced it at home (35.6%) compared to those who experienced it at school (43.9%).
Regional differences with regard to bullying at home, though a bit higher for the central
region compared to the other two regions, are small (39.6% central, 34.2% north and
33.1% south). However, with regard to the school environment, we note that bullying
was reported by only 26.6% of the respondents in the southern region where as it was
reported by close to two times that figure in the central and northern regions (51.6% and
53.8% respectively). More than half the respondents in the central and northern region
reported being bullied at school.


                                           30
9.7 Corporal punishment
As with the case of bullying, a higher proportion experienced corporal punishment at
school (53.6%) compared to those who experienced it at home (23.4%). This trend holds
for the three regions as well.

Table 24      Corporal punishment by region

                                            North             Centre            South
              Home                          41.0              13.0              16.1
              School                        67.3              60.3              33.3




However, as can be seen from the table above, figures on corporal punishment both at
home and school are highest in the northern region compared to the other two regions. At
home, only 13% and 16.1% respectively reported experiencing corporal punishment in
the central and southern regions. The corresponding figure for the northern region was
41%. At school, 67.3% in the northern region reported corporal punishment compared to
60.3% in the central region and only 33.3% in the southern region.


From focus group discussions the followings stories of corporal punishment were
obtained.

Southern Region

   •   A certain girl came late to school; another did not understand what the teacher
       said. Both were told to take 25 trips of sand in a wheel bar.
   •   Another girl was late to school. She was told to mop the toilets and thereafter
       beaten. Another one was told to cut down grass where people urinated
   •   Another one was told to uproot a tree trunk by a teacher
   •   A teacher beat a girl until her hands were swollen that she was unable to write
   •   A girl refused to have a relationship with a teacher. The teacher always sent her
       out of his class
   •   A girl was beaten heavily by a teacher because of making noise in class
   •   A girl was told by the teacher to dig a deep pit that reached up to her waist
       because she had failed to attend the education day.
   •   One girl reported late to school. The teacher told the girl to dig out an anthill. She
       reported to the headmaster who told the teacher to apologize to the girl.
   •   A girl was severely beaten on the head by a teacher. She started bleeding and
       reported to the head teacher who commanded him to take her to the hospital.



                                            31
Central Region

   •   A girl was late for classes and the teacher told her not to attend classes. In
       addition to that she was told to remove dig out an anthill. This happened twice.
       Another one was whipped and told to mop the toilets.


   •   Some girls were told to dig a pit latrines because they were late from home. They
       reported to parents afterwards who went to school to find out what happened.
       Finally, they did not do anything.


Northern Region

   •   A certain girl did corporal punishment the whole day and failed to attend classes
       just because she was late from break. While the another one was punished
       because she attended the funeral of their neighbour. She reported to parents who
       discussed the issue with the head teacher.


   •   A teacher hated a girl up to a point of tearing her clothes
   •   A teacher punished a girl because she did not hear that he was being called by him
   •   A certain girl was late from break. The teacher beat her to a point that her hands
       were swollen. She could not write. He came again and told her to dig a pit
       because of she had not written a class exercise.
   •   Some girls are sent back home by teachers because their clothes are torn.


9.8 Verbal abuse
Verbal abuse appears to be common both at school (reported by 53.2%) and at home
(58.8%). Worryingly, this problem appears slightly more common in the home than at
school. The trend is true for the southern and central regions where as in the northern
region, almost equal proportions experienced verbal abuse at home and at school.




                                            32
Table 25 Verbal abuse by region

                                            North            Centre           South
              Home                          60.0             65.5             51.2
              School                        61.2             49.2             49.3




At home the highest proportion on verbal abuse was in the central region (65.5%)
followed by the northern region (60% and the southern region (51.2%). At school, the
north had the highest proportion (61.2%). Proportion for the central and southern regions
were similar (49.2% and 49.3% respectively). We should note that figures for verbal
abuse are high in all the three regions both at home and at school.

A case of verbal abuse reported in a focus group discussion in the southern region:

“A certain girl went to a teacher for help. There she was verbally abused saying that she
is dull and she should stop wasting the teacher’s time”.


9.9 People saying negative things about you
For the national sample, this trend is for verbal abuse is also true with regard to the
experience by the respondents of other people saying negative things about them. More
respondents (close to 57%) experienced this problem at home compared to 47.2% who
experienced it school. In all the three regions, higher proportions experienced this
problem at home than at school. Figures for the northern region, with regard to both the
home and the school environment, were again the highest among the three regions on
this issue..

9.10 Exclusion
As with the trends observed above, slightly higher proportions of the respondents
(39.1%) experienced exclusion at home than at school (34.5%). This trend is also true for
all the three regions. However, as with the other forms of violence discussed in the
sections above figures for the northern region are generally more than twice as high as
those of the other two regions. Thus with regard to the home environment, 57.9% in the
northern region reported experiencing exclusion compared to 34.7% in the central region
and 24.9% in the southern region. At school, 57.5% in the northern region experienced
exclusion compared to 23.5% in the central region and 22.5% in the southern region.




                                           33
9.     11 Bodily harm
The national average for experiences of bodily harm, though worth noting, appears to be
comparatively lower both at home (reported by 16.4%) and at school (16.8%). In the
central region, bodily harm was reported by 11% both at home and at school. In the
southern region, 12.6% reported it at home and only 8.9% reported it at school. The
northern region figure which shot above the national averages and were at least twice as
high as that of the other regions were, again, the highest. At home, 25.6% of the northern
region respondents experienced bodily harm, while 30.3% experiencing this problem at
school.



10.0 PROVISION AND SUPPORT FOR EDUCATION
For the national sample, the large majority of the respondents reported that they got
everything they needed for their education from their parents (76.1%). An almost similar
proportion (74.9%) reported getting all the things and support they needed from teachers
at school. Figures on provision and support for education both from parents and teachers
were highest in the northern region. In the northern region, 82.3% of the respondents
reported getting from their parents everything they needed for their education (compared
to 76.3% in the central region and 69.7% in the southern region. With regard to getting
all the needed support from teachers, 83.1% of the northern region respondents said they
do compared to 73.3% in the southern region and 68.2% in the central region.



11.0 VIOLATION OF RIGHT TO PRIVACY
Almost 34% of the respondents have ever been forced to reveal private information or
show their letters to another person. The figure is higher for the northern region (45.6%)
than the other two regions (27.9% and 27.6% in the central and southern regions
respectively).



12.0 FORCED TO WORK
Fifty nine per cent have ever been forced to work even when they did not feel like
working. A slightly higher proportion reported this problem in the northern region (66%)
compared to the central region (56%) and the southern region (54.4%).




                                           34
13.0 PERCEPTIONS OF FAIRNESS BETWEEN BOYS AND
GIRLS
Whether it is with regard to the school or the home environment the large majority of the
respondents sometimes feel that girls suffer more than boys (76.8%% and 78.1%
respectively). Figures for the northern region are, again, slightly higher than those of the
other two regions on this issue.




14.0 SOCIAL-CULTURAL FACTORS PROMOTING
VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS
Key informants reported many factors that were seen to promote violence against girls.
The social-cultural factors are presented below by different regions.

In the northern region the following socio-cultural factors were reported


   •   Kachasu brewing and drinking which influences bad behaviour on drunkards;
   •   Location of school i.e. trading centres, which makes girls to get attracted to
       money from vendors;
   •   Traditional dances where girls are sexually harassed i.e. vimbuza, pwerera and
       mganda;
   •   Poor dressing (short and tight shirts by girls);
   •   Advertisements of condoms.
   •   Lobola and chokolo where girls are forced to marry;
   •   Traditional dances i.e. pwerera, chintali, mitungu, mganda and kamchoma where
       girls are told to have sex with men;
   •   Keeping girls at home not sending them to school;
   •   Polygamy, beer drinking and brewing;
   •   Leaving women alone to take care of children;
   •   For girls who start menstruation for the first time are told not to go to school for a
       week;
   •   Iniciation ceremonies.
   •   Watching TV and video shows/films like blue movies;
   •   Social gatherings;
   •   Church choir and trips to other churches;


In the Central Region social-cultural factors promoting violence against girls included the
following:




                                            35
   •   Exchanging girls for debts (kupimbira).
   •   Initiation ceremonies where girls are told things not of their age
   •   ‘Chokolo’ or ‘kulowa kufa’ Fisi’ or ‘kuchotsa fumbi’ where girls are given men to
       have sex with them
   •   Initiation ceremonies where girls are told how to handle men sexually
   •   Traditional dances like Nyau, where girls are told to clap hands and are easily
       raped because they say “ndi zirombo”
   •   Not giving girls a chance to speak where there are elders i.e. gatherings and
       whenever a girl has done something wrong, they say “ndi wa mwano” (she is
       rude, if she tries to say something)
   •   Forcing girls to marry at an early stage
   •   Mentality to say girls cannot do better than boys
   •   Fights between parents
   •   Distance between mothers and girls

In the Southern Region, social-cultural factors included the following:

   •   Initiation ceremonies i.e. “kuchotsa fumbi” where girls are given men or boys to
       have sex with which can result in contracting HIV and AIDS or STDs
   •   Forcing girls into marriage
   •   Using girls as sex workers
   •   Not allowing girls to go to school after first menstruation period for a week
   •   Chieftainship
   •   Believing that girl are not supposed to be educated
   •   Selling products at the market and “kuitanira malonda”
   •   Video shows where they practice what they have seen
   •   Church choirs where they practice immoral behaviour
   •   Perception on the roles for women (they educate and tell girls to get married to a
       well-to-do man)
   •   Drug and alcohol abuse
   •   Religious beliefs i.e. Mboni za Yehova limits girls’ participation and Muslims are
       not allowed to mix with boys.



15.0 FACTORS THAT PROMOTE VIOLENCE AGAINST
GIRLS IN GENERAL:

In addition to the social-cultural factors, there were other general factors which key
informants viewed as promoting violence against girls. Such factors included the
following:

   •   Discrimination/favourism
   •   Attitude of the community saying that girls cannot do better than boys


                                            36
   •   Lack of civic education on effects of violence, human rights and laws
   •   Girls’ way of dressing
   •   Lack of learning facilities i.e. infrastructure and furniture
   •   Girls’ choosing to chat with handsome teachers. This influences teachers to
       propose them
   •   Kachasu brewing and drinking which influences bad behaviour on drunkards
   •   Location of schools i.e. trading centers where girls are abused
   •   Drug and alcohol abuse
   •   Shortage of teachers and learning materials
   •   Long distances traveled by girls
   •   Poverty
   •   Lack of encouragement, parental care and support and role models
   •   Misunderstanding of the word “democracy”
   •   Ignorance on issues of gender
   •   No implementation of punishments to violators
   •   Low salaries paid to teachers, poor training and availability of few teachers
   •   No coordination between teachers, the community and NGOs
   •   Advertisements of condoms
   •   Copying of foreign culture
   •   Taking too much time to respond to problems of girls
   •   Jealousy for girls by female teachers
   •   Gender inequality and non-existence of legal policy




16.0 HOW VIOLENCE AFFECTS GIRLS’ PERFORMANCE
AND ACCESS TO EDUCATION (FOCUS GROUPS AND
KEY INFORMANTS):
As the figures in the quantitative survey have shown, violence affects the education of
quite a high proportion of girls. In focus group discussions, girls revealed some of the
ways (in addition to those discussed in the quantitative survey) in which violence affects
their performance and access to education:

   •   Thinking of what happened makes them to lose concentration in class.
   •   Absenteeism due to forced labour
   •   Too much work given to girls makes them to dose in class and always tired and
       no time for study
   •   Lose self confidence due to verbal abuse and tease
   •   Miss classes because of corporal punishments


                                           37
   •   Less participation due to discrimination
   •   Get pregnancies, HIV and AIDS, STDs and drop out from school due to rape and
       forced marriages.
   •   No concentration in class due to lack of food.
   •   Poor performance due to lack of parental care and support
   •   Drop out of school due to threats by boys and teachers

Responses from key informants were quite similar to those given by the girls.

How violence affects girls’ performance and access to education: (Key Informants)

   •   Girls fail to concentrate and lose interest in class because of lack of food,
       relationships with boys and male teachers and sexual harassment
   •   Affected girls are always dozing in class and always tired due to heavy workload
   •   Drop out of school due to forced marriages, forced labour, overwork and lack of
       support; pregnancies and rape, HIV/AIDS
   •   Low attendance due to lack of clothes and relatives grabbing girls’ property
   •   Low participation and loss of self confidence due to discrimination and verbal
       abuse
   •   No time for study because of being overworked
   •   Changes school if beaten by boys
   •   Affected psychologically by feeling inferior because of lack of decision making
       power
   •   Low enrollment due to lack of encouragement from parents and due to poverty
   •   Always want spoon-feeding because of the way they were brought up
   •   Doing punishments when lessons are in progress, which make them to miss
       classes.
   •   Being teased by fellow classmates when they fail in class hence minimizing
       contributions.
   •   Thinking about problems they face at home leads to low concentration
   •   Verbal abuse by parents, friends and guardians which make them feel inferior and
       results in lack of self-confidence.

In addition to these forms of violence, girls in focused group discussions also highlighted
some of the things that affect their performance in school. Such things included the
following: relationships with boys and teachers which sometimes leads them to be
thinking about their boy fiends and lovers during lessons; lack of assertiveness and
shyness causes girls to fail to contribute in class because they are afraid that they might
make mistakes and they will be laughed at; shortage of teachers, laziness of teachers and


                                             38
poor teaching standards; peer pressure; laziness and too much playfulness of girls; lack of
adequate parental care, support and poverty result in school dropout; too much money
given to girls, which makes them not to concentrate on their studies; lack of
encouragements from teachers and parents; noise made in class; telling girls to sell
products instead of studying; not taking advices of parents and teachers seriously;
wasting time admiring other people’s property; not giving girls time to study; lack of
interest in education.



17.0 THINGS TO BE DONE TO ENCOURAGE GIRLS TO
ENROLL, REMAIN AND DO WELL IN SCHOOL (FOCUS
GROUP DISCUSSIONS)
Girls gave several suggestions as to what should be done to encourage girls to remain and
do well in school. These included:

   •   Parents should force girls to go to school
   •   Telling girls the goodness of school and encourage them to work hard.
   •   Bring role models to girls.
   •   Provide them with all necessary materials for their education i.e. fees, uniform,
       books and pencils.
   •   Parents should take actions whenever the girls are having relationship with
       teachers.
   •   Teachers should be gender sensitive.
   •   Discourage forced marriages, relationships for girls
   •   Encourage girls to go back to school after delivery
   •   Awards should be given to hard working and bright girls
   •   Sensitize girls education on TV and radios stations



Some of the things girls said parents should do to encourage them:
   •   Telling girls the goodness of school frequently
   •   Give total support to girls education
   •   Parents should not be in fore front forcing girls to marry and have sex with men.
   •   Bring role models to girls



                                               39
Some of the things teachers should do to encourage girls (girls focus groups):
   •   Tell girls the goodness of education and encourage them by giving awards to
       them.
   •   Provide them with quality education
   •   Should be gender sensitive
   •   Teachers should help girls in areas they don’t do well
   •   No corporal punishments should be given to girls
   •   Teachers should not underrate, discriminate girls
   •   Teachers should not say negative things about girls
   •   Bring role models to girls
   •   Stop proposing, impregnating and raping girls
   •   Teachers should give a chance to girls to voice out their views
   •   Extra lessons should be organized for girls.



18.0 MEASURES FOR ADDRESSING VIOLENCE
AGAINST GIRLS
This study revealed that measures to address violence against girls in schools and within
communities are quite limited in nature. Key informants gave the following as some of
the measures put in place to address violence:

   •   Some schools and their committees agreed to propose to government to dismiss
       any fellow student or teacher who impregnates girls. But such proposals had not
       actually been effected.
   •   Asking parents, guardians and responsible people to look after the abandoned
       girls and orphans
   •   Involving people who take actions on any act of violence
   •   Giving civic education on importance of education and rights of girls to the
       community and awareness campaigns
   •   Try to be gender sensitive




                                           40
   •   Enforcing laws against teachers who propose girls (but as the study has shown
       this is rarely done).
   •   Encourage parents to send girls to school and pay fees for them
   •   Sending back visitors of girls who are not properly identified in boarding schools
   •   Counsel girls to dress properly
   •   Supervise girls properly and frequently
   •   Compulsory studies to students
   •   Surprise visits to schools by school committee members
   •   Transfer teachers if found misbehaving
   •   Teach students the Christian way of living
   •   Bring role models to girls and introducing clubs
   •   Construct hostels and library for girls

In addition to the existing measures, Key Informants suggested new measures that should
be put in place to address violence as follows:


   •   Government should provide support to all girls who are in need
   •   NGOs should sensitize people on effects of violence, gender equality; conduct
       civic education and awareness campaigns
   •   Help teachers to teach through interclass teaching
   •   Community should be active and report on school issues
   •   Government should monitor the culture to be initiated and create opportunities for
       I.G.A for people to generate income
   •   Stop culturally offensive video shows
   •   Encourage religions which promotes equality
   •   Provide role models and female teachers to girls
   •   Introducing clubs
   •   Tell parents to treat children equally
   •   Sending parents out of villages if not encouraging girls on education
   •   Implementing laws to protect girls and encourage them to work hard



                                             41
   •   Punishing violators
   •   Government should put in place strong policies on dressing and beer drinking
   •   Institute community policing
   •   Construction of hostels and libraries
   •   Increase number of teachers


Girls in focus group discussion gave the following suggestions:


   •   If teachers are wrong and the head teachers are reluctant to help them, they should
       report to the school committee.
   •   All violators should be punished, disciplined and expelled to learn a lesson.
   •   Human rights organizations should conduct awareness campaigns to address
       violence issues.
   •   No corporate punishments should be given to girls.
   •   Discipline should be maintained in schools.
   •   Teachers should be gender sensitive
   •   Girls should be encouraged to report any form of violence
   •   Teachers should stop proposing girls
   •   Boys should stop proposing girls
   •   Introducing policies that prohibit violence against girls in schools
   •   There should be follow ups by the government in schools on issues of violence
   •   Teachers should encourage girls on the goodness of education
   •   Rules should be enforced.


At home:
   •   Parents should tell their daughters good cultural practices, counsel them educate
       them using role models.
   •   Report any form of violence to necessary people who can really take action.
   •   Parents should be confronted if they are the ones in the fore front of perpetrating
       violence



                                             42
   •   Parents should be open to their daughters to talk about violence which they do
       meet or likely to meet and how to handle the situations.
   •   Parents should not force girls to marry and over work them.
   •   Form committees to address violence
   •   Policies should be set to address violence
   •   Church elders, police should play a big role in teaching people about violence
   •   There should be no discrimination and their should be support by parents to girls


The study collected information from key informants regarding institutions that are
involved in addressing the issue of violence against girls. The information concentrated
on what those institutions do, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of their
programmes. This information is presented blow.



19.0 INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE INVOLVED IN
ADDRESSING VIOLENCE

19.1 Malawi human rights commission
Strategies
    • Awareness campaigns and civic education
    • Use radios
    • Investigates and refer cases to the police, lawyers and the DPP

Weakness
  • Just talk without implementing and telling people what to do

Strength
    • They do not take sides (attacks everyone)


19.2 Crecom and mesa
Strategy
    • Use radios
    • Civic education and awareness campaigns
    • Workshops for teachers, parents and school committees and PTA
    • Use posters



                                           43
   •   Pay fees for girls
   •   Provide incentives
   •   Encourage girls to go to school

Weaknesses
  • No follow-up after workshops
  • Concentrate too much on school committees, parents and PTA than teachers
  • Not all villages are targeted
  • Not all girls are assisted
  • Procedures on how they select girls are not known
  • Only delivers but do not involve their personnel to practice
  • Do not reach remote areas and not available to people
  • Take too long to implement punishments

Strengths
    • Most people are aware of human rights
    • A lot of girls are being educated because of the fees paid
    • Teachers are assisted to have good relationships with girls and parents
    • They do implementation
    • Help government officials on accountability (advocacy)
    • Work on cluster level


19.3 Cilic
Strategy
    • Awareness campaigns from place to place sensitizing pupils about the dangers of
       violence and the community as well

Weaknesses
  • They have stopped going to new places enrolled to sensitize them
  • Lack of funds

Strengths
    • People are now able to differentiate their rights and limits
    • They cover a lot of places sensitizing people on issues of violence
    • They do take action


19.4 FAWEMA
Strategies
    • Awareness campaign
    • It is a mother groups to help girls according to their needs



                                            44
   •   Reach out to children who dropped out of school and form clubs for technical
       skills to keep them busy
   •   Encourage girls to go to school

Strengths
    • Enrollment of girls in schools has increased
    • Assist school committees
    • Teach girls to form clubs

Weaknesses
  • It is a new organization and not much has been observed

19.5 Kuunika youth club, youth alert and ministry of youth and youth
voices
Strategies
    • Use radios
    • Posters
    • Fund raising e.g. modeling
    • Awareness campaigns
    • Provide bicycles for easy communication
    • Assist girls with fees

Weaknesses
  • Only few benefit and programmes are broadcast at night instead of school time
  • Encourage use of condoms which promotes fornication and immoral behaviour
  • Girls who are young do not know what they promote (reach out to a specific age
     group only)
  • Provide bicycles to one side
  • Do not take girls to places of interest

Strengths
    • Youths are able to communicate in their own language
    • Some resource persons are role models
    • Reasonably wide dissemination on issues of violence


19.6    UNICEF and UNESCO
Strategies
    • Encouraging girls to go to school
    • Broadcasting on radio and posters
    • Pay school fees for girls
    • Conduct workshops and provide life skills to children



                                          45
   •   Help them in decision-making and problem solving

Weaknesses
  • Do not involve parents
  • Trainings are too short that not enough skills are acquired
  • Do not utilize funds properly

Strengths
    • Pay schools fees for girls
    • They do implementation


19.7 Victim Support Unit and Community Policing
Strategies
    • Civic education and awareness campaigns
    • Use radio programmes

Weaknesses
  • Problems in monitoring and lack of adequate funding
  • Lack of enough strategies to overcome the resistance of the community to change

Strength
    • Go out to community


19.8 Women voices
Strategies
    • Conduct meetings and discuss with victims and perpetrators
    • Use radio programmes, posters, drama

Strengths
    • Encourage victims
    • Disseminating issues on violence

Weaknesses
  • Take too long to implement punishments
  • Do not reach remote areas


19.9 Alufeyo performing arts and kwathu drama groups
Strategies
    • Public awareness


                                          46
   •   Act on stage

Weakness

   •   People do not take drama seriously


19.10 NICE
Strategies
    • Use of drama groups and form clubs
    • Public awareness campaigns

Strengths
    • Members are involved in workshops
    • Good strategies

Weaknesses
  • Problems to monitor
  • No major impact


19.11 AIDS TOTO and MACRO
Strategy

   •   Radio programmes

Weakness
  • Some topics are not necessary for primary school pupils

Strength
    • Present strong issues


19.12 Church, chiefs and Ministry of Education
Strategies
    • Public address
    • Preaching
    • Use TDC

Strength
    • Strategies are effective



                                            47
19.13 GTZ, CBO, Girl guide and gender activists
Strategy
    • Awareness campaigns

Weaknesses
  • Financial capacity
  • Implementation is difficult

Strengths
    • Some resource persons are role models
    • People are made aware of violence


19.14 Ministry of Gender, Eye of the Child, Tikondande care project,
Cchisomo children club
Strategies
    • They all protect, recognize and respect the rights of children by conducting
        awareness campaigns, providing books and T-shirts, sensitization and girl
        empowerment

Weaknesses

   •   Lack of funds or support from government;
   •   Resistance of the community to change.

Strengths
    • Go out to the community;
    • Do focus mainly on girls, children and women.


19.15 Gender based institution, centre for alternative for victimized
women and children, society or advancement of children
Strategies
    • Provide shelter for victims
    • Investigate on what happened and pass on to police

Strengths and weaknesses are not known


19.16 Association of Christian Education in Malawi
Strategy


                                         48
   •   Teach girls things concerning their life and Christian behaviour

Strengths
    • Makes follow-ups;
    • Provide manuals for information.

Weaknesses
  • Bibles are not provided;
  • Manuals not enough.


19.17 INTER-AIDE
Strategies
    • Teach girls practically and theoretically about their health;
    • Awareness campaigns in forms of drama, songs and poems

Strengths
    • Awards are given to best performers
    • Practical and theory given at the same time

Weakness

Not all girls are involved


19.18 Action aid, World Vision International, World Food Programme
Strategies
    • Provide food to children by bringing Likuni Phala;
    • Encourage girls to go to school and work hard.


19.19 PLAN Malawi
Strategies
    • Guide on where to report;
    • Introduction of clubs.
Strengths
    • Take one teacher from each school;
    • Provide incentives for active clubs

Weaknesses
  • Discriminate schools;
  • Big gap between one workshop to another


                                            49
   •   Access to them is difficult



20.0 THINGS GIRLS ENJOY AT SCHOOL AND AT HOME
It is important to pay attention to the things that girls say they enjoy doing both at home
and at school. Efforts to encourage these activities might help the girls to live a more
wholesome life which could have a positive impact on their education. In Focus group
discussions girls listed the things they enjoy doing as follows:

Things they enjoy at school
   •   Playing netball, football, volleyball, Phada and Jingo
   •   Variety shows
   •   Disco
   •   Participating in clubs like AIDS TOTO, Drama, debate, Human Rights and
       Wildlife activities
   •   Singing i.e. choir
   •   Eating food they take from home during break time
   •   Dancing Traditional dances at break time.
   •   School trips and educational visits
   •   Chatting with friends
   •   Learning new things, doing experiments, physical education and manual work
   •   Reading, writing notes, studying (Science and English)
   •   Making new friends
   •   Speaking English




Things girls enjoy at home:


   •   Watching T.V. during their free times and listening to radios
   •   Playing games like bawo, ndado, fulaye, fillaball netball, football, Phada and
       jingo and chatting with friends


                                             50
   •   Traditional dances like chitelera and chintali
   •   Helping their mothers with household chores i.e. sweeping, cooking, fetching
       firewood and water cleaning dishes, pounding maize.
   •   Writing homework and revising what they have learnt at school
   •   Reading books borrowed from Library
   •   Taking care of children
   •   Attending initiation ceremonies and festivals
   •   Eating
   •   Gossiping
   •   Listening to stories from grandparents
   •   Treatment received from parents
   •   Encouragement from parents
   •   Farming
   •   Going to church and choir festivals



21.0 KNOWLEDGE OF POLICIES FOR ADDRESSING
VIOLENCE
In general there was very little knowledge of policies or any legal framework for
addressing the issue of violence against girls and education. When asked about whether
they knew of such policies such policies, key informants gave the following answers,
most of which did not specifically mention any specific policy or legal document:

   •   Each and every child has the right to education and dressing
   •   Girls should go back to school after delivery
   •   Social distance between girls and male teachers should be wider
   •   Rape is prohibited together with child labour
   •   Violators should be punished, dismissed, disciplined if they impregnate girls
   •   There should be gender equality
   •   Girls have the right to be heard
   •   Children have the right to be taken care of
   •   Constitution of Malawi section number 22 and 23 talks about marriage and
       family. Girls should not marry at the age of 15 and below




                                             51
22.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

This study confirms widespread perceptions that there are a lot of incidents of violence
against girls happening in the country. The study is unique in that it is the first of its kind
to document the extent of the problem countrywide. While the degree of occurrence of
incidents of violence against girls is generally high, the study has revealed some
important trends and patterns. Not withstanding the possibility that figures on teachers
may be lower because of the fear of respondents in mentioning them during the research
process, of major significance is the fact that the major perpetrators of forms of physical
violence are fellow pupils and friends of the victims. Another important fact revealed by
this study is that forms of violence against girls are generally as common in the school
environment as they are in the home environment, with some forms of violence actually
being more common in the latter than in the former.

In general only about half of all incidents of physical violence are reported. This figure is
likely to be much higher for the other non-physical forms of violence such as verbal
abuse. The major reason for failure to report incidents of violence is fear of the
perpetrators, especially since girls cannot guarantee that either the perpetrators will be
punished to the level where they will be deterred from offending again, or that they will
be protected from further attempts of violence. While some action is usually taken against
the perpetrators of violence, this is not so in all cases, and even where the action has been
taken, large proportions of girls do not satisfied with such action. Consequently, many
girls are frustrated. There are, however, other reasons worth noting why incidents of
violence are not reported. These include ignorance that certain incidents constitute
violence, shyness and feelings that reporting would not change anything. There appears
to be no strong legal framework within which the various incidents that constitute
violence against girls can be addressed and enforced.

Violence has detrimental health consequences on significant proportions of girls. Getting
pregnant is just one consequence but there are also various impacts on their mental health
including fear of the exposure to the risk of HIV/AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted
diseases. The study has also revealed that may girls experience both at school and at
home, general fear, exclusion, poor peer relations and so on.

Violence against girls takes place within the context of social relationships. Thus, the
study reveals that there are many socio-cultural issues that promote violence against girls.
This study only highlighted some of such issues but more in-depth studies might be
required to detail the contexts within which such socio-cultural issues take place and the
ways in which they could begin to be addressed.

Key informants and the girls in focus group discussions made many suggestions,
documented in this study which could also form a starting point in addressing issues of
violence. What are required are follow up activities to this study which should include the
meeting of stakeholders with an interest in the issue of violence against girls to chart the
way forward.


                                              52
23.0    REFERENCES

Hyde K and T Bisika. 1995: Gender Issues in Community Participation. CSR : Zomba.
Fiona Leach, Vivian Fiscian, Esme Kadzamira, Eve Lemani and Pamela Machakanja.
2003. An Investigative Study of the Abuse of Girls in African Schools. DFID: Fuller-
Davies Limited.

Kadzamira,E., Nthara, K., Kholowa, F. 2004. Financing Primary Education for All: Malawi. IDS,
University of Sussex.

Bisika T and S Konyani. 2003. Rapid Assessment Survey for Cannabis Consumption. Centre
for Social Research : Zomba.

National Statistical Office. 1998. Malawi Population Census. Government Press : Zomba.

National Statistical Office. 2000. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey.

Malek A, and T Bisika. 2001. Food Assistance to HIV/AIDS Infected and Affected Households
Programme Appraisal. WFP : Lilongwe.

Ministry of Gender and Community Services. 2003. COSHAP Baseline TORs. Lilongwe.

Malawi Human Rights Commission. 2001. Eliminating Gender Based Violence in Malawi,
2002-2005 Strategic Plan. Network Against Gender Based Violence. City Printing and
Publishing : Lilongwe.

ARISE. 2002. The Newsletter for Network Against Gender Based Violence, January-March
2002.

Chirwa, W C, D Kaunda, J Kaphuka, E Chanza, C Nyirenda, E Zulu-Joaquim. 1999. Violence
and Social Injustice Against Women in the Workplace. Danish Centre for Human Rights :
Lilongwe.

WLSA. 2000. Unveiling The Unspeakable Domestic Violence in Malawi. Gestetner : Limber

White, S. D. NyaKaunda-Kamanga, T Kachika, A Lchaweza and F Gomile Chidyaonga. 2002.
Dispossessing the Widow, Gender Based Violence in Malawi CLAIM : Blantyre.

Phiri I, L Semu, F Nankhuni and N. Madise. 1995. Violence against Women in Educational
Institutions : The Case of Sexual Harrassment and Rape on Chancellor College Campus. RPC :
Zomba.

WLSA. 2003. Discussing the Prevention of Domestic Violence Legislation in Malawi : Multi-
Sectoral Perspectives. WLSA, Limbe. in White, S et al. ed.

WLSA. 2000. In Search of Justice : Women and the Administration of Justice in Malawi. Dzuka
: Blantyre.

UNIFEM. 2002. Domestic Violence in Malawi : An Evaluation of KAP on Wife Battery in Five
Selected Districts. Women’s Voice : Blantyre.



                                             53
Policy Project. 2002. Policy Issues in FP and Finance, Setting Priorities in RH : Lessons
Learned. Futures Group International, Policy Project : Washington, DC.

Measure Evaluation. 2003. Avoiding Unwanted Pregnancy and STIs : A Rural Malawi District
Study.

Women’s Voice. 2002. An Assessment of Domestic Violence in Mchinji District.
Ministry of Gender, Youth AND COMMUNITY SERVICES. UNDATED.
BASELINE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MEN, CULTURE AND HIV/AIDS (MCHAP)
PROJECT

Government of Malawi/UNFPA. 2003. Project Document for Community Based SRH
and Gender Education Programme. MOGCS: Lilongwe.

TWEA S. 2002. Final Evaluation of UNAIDS/UNFPA/WHO Joint Project on Men,
Culture and HIV/AIDS (MCHAP). (DRAFT)

Ministry of Gender Youth and Community Services. 2001. Socio-Cultural and
Operational Research Study Report. (DRAFT). MoGYCS.




                                           54

								
To top