Waste Tire Management in Nova Scotia by dfsdf224s

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									Waste Tire Management
    in Nova Scotia




    (PHOTOGRAPH BY EDWARD BURTYNSKY)
                         Dagmara Bojenko     B00490868
                              Yuxia Dong     B00489939
                             Julia Gabrini   B00450241
                          Amber Mitchell     B00372612
                            Matt Seaboyer    B00381149

                                       April 18th, 2008
 This Report was prepared by Graduate Students at the 
                             
School for Resource and Environmental Studies 
                                
                   (Dalhousie University) 
                                
                                
                                
                                
                                
                                
    in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the 
                                
    Master of Resource and Environmental 
                Management 
                             
          during the 2007/2008 academic year 
This Report was prepared by graduate students at the School for Resource and Environmental Studies,Dalhousie University, in partial fulfillment
       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


                                                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
     1. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE TIRE MANAGEMENT IN NOVA SCOTIA .................................................2
         1.1 HISTORY OF WASTE TIRE MANAGEMENT IN NOVA SCOTIA .................................................................................2
         1.2 TIRE COMPOSITION ..............................................................................................................................................4
         1.3 TIRE DISPOSAL ....................................................................................................................................................5
         1.4 TIRE RECYCLING .................................................................................................................................................6
     2. WORLD TRENDS ..................................................................................................................................................7

     3. LAW AND POLICY ...............................................................................................................................................8
         3.1 INTERNATIONAL LAW ..........................................................................................................................................8
         3.2 FEDERAL LAW AND POLICY .................................................................................................................................8
         3.3 PROVINCIAL LAW AND POLICY ............................................................................................................................9
     4. OVERVIEW OF PROPOSED ALTERNATIVES FOR WASTE TIRE MANAGEMENT IN NOVA
     SCOTIA......................................................................................................................................................................13
         4.1 TIRE RETREADING .............................................................................................................................................13
         4.2 DEVULCANIZATION............................................................................................................................................14
         4.3 RUBBER CRUMB ................................................................................................................................................16
            A. Process ..........................................................................................................................................................16
            B. Benefits of Rubber Crumb .............................................................................................................................17
            C. Disadvantages of Rubber Crumb ..................................................................................................................18
            D. Concluding Remarks Regarding Rubber Crumb...........................................................................................20
         4.4 TIRE DERIVED FUEL (TDF) ...............................................................................................................................21
            A. Process ..........................................................................................................................................................21
            B. Advantages of TDF ........................................................................................................................................22
            C. Disadvantages of TDF...................................................................................................................................23
            D. Concluding Remarks Regarding TDF ...........................................................................................................29
     5. RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................................................................30
         5.1 CONSERVATIVE RECOMMENDATION: TIRE DERIVED AGGREGATE (TDA).........................................................30
            A.    Process and Applications .........................................................................................................................30
            B. Benefits ..........................................................................................................................................................31
            C. Economic Feasibility .....................................................................................................................................33
            D. Potential Concerns/Considerations ..............................................................................................................35
            E. Concluding Remarks Regarding TDA ...........................................................................................................37
         5.2 INNOVATIVE RECOMMENDATION: THERMAL CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY ........................................................38
            A. MedNova Tech’s Proposal ...........................................................................................................................39
            B. Technology Information & Process...............................................................................................................40
            C. Benefits of Pyrolysis ......................................................................................................................................41
            D. Economic Feasibility.....................................................................................................................................44
            E. Potential Concerns/Considerations...............................................................................................................45
            F. Conclusion/Processes Needed to Successfully Implement Project ................................................................47
     6. INTERIM SOLUTION .........................................................................................................................................48

     7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................................................51

     8. OVERARCHING RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................................................................52

     9. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................................................56

     REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................................................................58

     APPENDICES............................................................................................................................................................65
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This Report was prepared by graduate students at the School for Resource and Environmental Studies,Dalhousie University, in partial fulfillment
       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



                       Waste Tire Management in Nova Scotia

               The purpose of this report was to analyze all available scrap tire management options for

     the province of Nova Scotia. Consideration of the biophysical, law and policy, and socio-

     political dimensions of the waste tire management issue guided the process of reviewing each

     alternative. The search for an optimal solution led to development of two recommendations.



     1. Introduction to Waste Tire Management in Nova Scotia

     1.1 History of Waste Tire Management in Nova Scotia

               Nova Scotians generate roughly between 900,000 and 1,100,000 tires annually. In the

     past, most of the used tires in the Province were collected and deposited into municipal landfills

     (LaPierre, Gibson, McMullen, & Langley, 2007). On April 1, 1996, used tires were banned from

     landfills and municipal incinerators under the authority of the Solid Waste-Resource

     Management Regulations. The Resource Recovery Fund Board (RRFB) has managed the used

     tire program in Nova Scotia since 1997 (LaPierre et. al, 2007).

               The used tire program has previously been carried out under three different contracts. It

     was originally operated from 1997 to 1999 in Cornwallis under the Tire Recycling Atlantic

     Canada Corporation (TRACC). Following that, Nova Tire Recyclers processed Nova Scotia’s

     used tires in 2000. Then from 2001 to 2006, Atlantic Recycled Rubber (ARR) took over the used

     tire processing contract from RRFB. For five years ARR operated a rubber crumb facility in

     Kemptown using cryogenic technology. Due to financial problems, however, the company was

     not successful in the final year of its contract (RRFB, 2008). ARR had received $2.50 per tire for

     processing tires to rubber crumb within their plant, but this fee was insufficient to cover all their

     costs in terms of collecting and processing. Hoping to continue the program, ARR requested an
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This Report was prepared by graduate students at the School for Resource and Environmental Studies,Dalhousie University, in partial fulfillment
       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     additional $1.50 per tire from the RRFB. The RRFB reviewed the request but decided against

     increasing the fees (LaPierre et. al, 2007, p.12).

               The RRFB issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) to seek new potential contractors. The

     bidding process involved participation from TRACC, Royal Mat in Quebec, Lafarge North

     America, and MedNova Tech International Ltd. After reviewing all applications, the RRFB

     deemed Lafarge North America to be the bidder that had submitted the most comprehensive

     proposal with the lowest bid. Lafarge’s plan was to use waste tires as an alternative fuel to

     replace a percentage of the coal combusted in its cement kiln in Brookfield, Nova Scotia

     (LaPierre et. al, 2007).

               Nova Scotia Environment and Labour (NSEL) contracted Dalhousie University to carry

     out an independent assessment to evaluate Larfarge’s proposal. Dalhousie University’s report to

     NSEL indicated that Larfarge’s proposal to use waste tires as Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) was a

     viable option. However, this plan generated much public opposition especially from local

     residents near the facility who were concerned about the environmental effects of burning of tires

     as a fuel source. The RRFB stated that the contract with Lafarge was valid only if Lafarge

     obtained the necessary environmental approvals from NSEL. However, Lafarge did not submit

     any application to NSEL (LaPierre et. al, 2007, p. 1).

               NSEL was going to renew the Solid Waste-Resource Management Strategy in order to

     achieve the sustainable goals of further reducing waste disposal in Nova Scotia. This resulted in

     a review of all waste tire management options. The Minister, Mark Parent, established an

     Advisory Committee to review the alternatives as comprehensively as possible in order to

     address the current waste tire management situation in Nova Scotia (LaPierre et. al, 2007). The

     Committee found TDF not to be the best option for Nova Scotia. Based on the report’s findings

     and the Province’s commitments under the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act,
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     the Minister decided that “tire derived fuel will not be used in Nova Scotia for the foreseeable

     future” (Government of Nova Scotia, 2007).

                Presently, there is no contract for collecting and processing used tires in Nova Scotia. The

     RRFB currently sends the entirety Province’s used tires to Quebec: 40% are sent to Royal Mat

     for recycling into valued-added products and the remaining 60% are forwarded to Lafarge’s St.

     Constant cement kiln to be co-combusted as a supplemental fuel. The cost of sending used tires

     to Quebec is currently higher than the cost that had previously been negotiated with Lafarge

     (LaPierre et. al, 2007, p. 13).


     1.2 Tire Composition

                The following chart shows the material composition of average 9.5 kilogram automobile

     tire.

                Figure 1: Material composition of average 9.5 kilogram automobile tire

                 Principal material composition                           Kilograms of products in average tire

              30 different kinds of synthetic rubber                                             2.2
                   Eight types of natural rubber                                                 1.8
                    Eight types of carbon black                                                  2.2
                        Steel cords for belts                                                    0.5
                        Polyester and nylon                                                      0.5
                          Steel bead wire                                                        0.5
             Different kinds of chemicals, waxes, oils,                                          1.4
                           pigments, etc.

                                          Composition Percentages
                        Carbon                                                                 85%
                      Ferric metal                                                           10-15%
                        Sulphur                                                             0.9-1.25%
     (Adapted from LaPierre et. al, 2007, p. 5)




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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


               The table below shows the trace metal concentrations in rubber tires.

                               Figure 2: Trace Metals Concentrations in Rubber Tires




     (Shalaby and Khan, 2005, p. 329)

               Please see Appendix 1 for an overview of the tire manufacturing process.



     1.3 Tire Disposal

               Since tires are not biodegradable (Brittney Recyclers, n.d.), whole waste tires are difficult

     to dispose of in landfills. In addition, used tires that are disposed of in landfills tend to collect gas

     and move upward in the landfill over time as other wastes shift around them (US patent, 2008).

               Tire dumps or improperly managed stockpiles of waste tires can present a serious threat

     to the environment. They pose the risk of catching fire, and once ignited they can burn for

     several days. The open burning of waste tires releases a variety of pollutants into the

     environment including particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen

     oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),

     dioxins and furans, hydrogen chloride, benzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals

     such as arsenic, cadmium, nickel, zinc, mercury, chromium, and vanadium (Reisman, 1997, p. 1).

               Emissions from open tire fires can be harmful enough to represent “significant acute and

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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     chronic health hazards” (Ibid, p. x). Many of these toxic compounds released by open tire

     burning are carcinogens. In fact, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that

     “the mutagenic emission factor for open tire burning is the greatest of any other combustion

     emission studied previously” (Ibid, p. 9). Melting tires can also generate significant amounts of

     liquids and solids containing dangerous chemicals that can pollute soil, surface water, and

     ground water (Ibid, p. ix).

               Furthermore, improperly disposed of tires provide ideal breeding grounds for disease-

     carrying mosquitoes and rodents. Tires retain water and their dark surfaces absorb sunlight, thus

     providing a warm and suitable environment for mosquitoes, which have the ability to transmit

     diseases to humans (Iowa DNR, 2008). Recently, “the tire pile concern became focused on

     mosquitoes breeding in tires and transmitting the West Nile virus. This often-deadly virus has

     spread across North America very rapidly and control efforts include removing breeding sites for

     mosquitoes” (Canadian Association of Tire Recycling Agencies, 2006).



     1.4 Tire Recycling

               Tire rubber is a thermoset material that is created when the physical and chemical

     structure of virgin rubber are altered by a process called vulcanization. During vulcanization,

     individual polymer molecules are linked to other polymer molecules by atomic bridges. This

     makes the bulk material harder, more durable, and more resistant to chemical attack (ISCID,

     n.d.). The reaction between the polyolefin and sulphur results in greatly increased elastic

     properties for the polyolefin which can be maintained over a comparatively wide temperature

     range (Revertex, n.d.).

               It is extremely difficult to separate the links between the rubber polymer’s molecules

     once it has been vulcanized. This means that vulcanized rubber cannot simply be re-melted and
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     recycled directly as raw material for new rubber products (Atlas Supply, n.d.).




     2. World Trends

               Globally, diversion of waste tires from landfills has increased in recent years. The rate of

     scrap tire recovery currently “surpasses the more-heralded recycling rate of glass, aluminum or

     paper” in the United States (Recycling Today, 2000). European Union trends show an increase in

     most waste tire material uses between 1992 and 2005, particularly for applications like

     construction and value-added products, where the increase over that time period was of 5% and

     10% respectively (See Appendix 2). The use of waste tires in civil engineering applications

     (consisting largely of Tire Derived Aggregate) increased dramatically in the United States, from

     approximately 3 million tires used in 1992 to 53 million tires used in 2005 (See Appendix 3).

     The use of Tire Derived Fuel has also increased significantly between 1990 and 2007, from a

     little over 20 million to 180 million tires used in various operations that combust waste tires for

     fuel (See Appendix 4).

               In Canada, waste tires are currently being used in various applications, which will be

     discussed in this report. In 2005, the majority of waste tires were processed into molded products

     (33%) as well as rubber crumb applications (24%), closely followed by shredded tires/ Tire

     Derived Aggregate (17%) and Tire Derived Fuel (13%) applications (See Appendix 5). Although

     European markets often differ from Canadian ones, it is interesting to note that over one third of

     Tire Derived Aggregate was used in lightweight engineering fill in 2005 (See Appendix 6).

               These trends support the notion that more effort is being geared toward managing waste

     tires not solely as waste, but as a resource, while simultaneously addressing the issue of

     revalorizing used materials instead of extracting virgin materials.


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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



     3. Law and Policy

               Several laws and policies are relevant to the issue of waste tire management in Nova

     Scotia and guided the development of the recommendations presented on page 30.


     3.1 International Law

               Canada has signed and ratified the international Basel Convention on the Control of

     Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1989). This international

     treaty protects developing countries from becoming a dumping ground for hazardous wastes

     from industrialized countries and encourages responsible waste management on an international

     level. It has implications for waste tire management in Canada because, under the Convention,

     waste tires shall not be exported to another country if they are destined for “operations which do

     not lead to the possibility of resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or

     alternative uses” (Basel Convention, 1989, Annex IV(A)). This means that Canada cannot export

     its waste tires to be landfilled in another country; it must either deal with its used tires

     domestically or export them to be managed in an environmentally sound manner. Additionally,

     “used tires exported for recycling may also fall under the [treaty] if they contain an Annex I

     hazardous constituent that exhibits an Annex III hazardous characteristic” (Center for

     International Environmental Law, 2006, p. 3).



     3.2 Federal Law and Policy

               Although waste tires exported for disposal abroad are considered “a controlled hazardous

     waste and [are] subject to the Basel Convention” (Ibid), within Canada the federal government

     considers used tires to be a non-hazardous waste that does not pose an environmental and human

     health problem unless it is improperly managed (Murray, 1996). There is no federal legislation

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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     relating specifically to waste tire management since, in The Constitution Act, 1867, solid waste

     management facilities would fall within the category of “local works and undertakings” (1867, s.

     92(10)) that are of a “merely local or private Nature in the Province” (Ibid, s. 92(16)) and are

     under provincial authority. Used tires are categorized as municipal solid waste (Murray, 1996),

     and their disposal therefore falls under provincial and municipal jurisdiction.

               Nonetheless, certain federal policies and guidelines that relate to the issue of used tire

     management have been developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment

     (CCME) in response to the devastating 1990 tire fire in Hagersville, Ontario. The CCME first

     addressed the issue of used tire management under its National Waste Management Strategy,

     which encouraged provinces to divert used tires from the waste stream as part of its proposed

     goal of 50% waste diversion by the year 2000. The CCME also released a Proposed Guideline

     for the Outdoor Storage of Used Tires in 1990, a document addressing Processing Technologies

     and Manufactured Products from Used Tires in 1991, and a study in 1994 which described

     potential models for Harmonized Economic Instruments for Used Tires (Murray, 1996).



     3.3 Provincial Law and Policy

               Among the goals stated in Nova Scotia’s Environment Act is the goal to maintain the

     principles of sustainable development through pollution prevention and waste reduction. The

     Province’s commitment to waste reduction is expressed through legislated solid waste diversion

     targets (1994-95, s. 93). The first diversion target stated in the Act is for 50% waste diversion to

     be attained by the year 2000. That goal was successfully achieved, earning Nova Scotia

     international recognition as a leader in solid waste management. The second target is for no more

     than 300 kg of waste to be disposed of in landfill per person per year by the year 2015. Currently

     around 450 kg of waste are landfilled annually per Nova Scotian, so meeting this target will
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     require a further reduction of 1/3 of the waste currently sent to landfills per capita over the next 7

     years (MacLellan, 2007, p. 2). This diversion goal must be kept in mind when considering

     different waste tire management alternatives. Accordingly, options which can be used to divert

     and dispose of whole tires at once, and thus avoid the landfilling of any tire components, should

     be prioritized. Another aspect of this Act which should direct the Province’s approach to scrap

     tire management is its stated commitment to “encourage the development and use of

     environmental technologies, innovations and industries” (Environment Act, 1994-95, s. 2(f)).

               Section 92 of the Environment Act specifies that a Solid-Waste Resource Management

     Strategy must be established for the Province. The Strategy outlines a policy for how Nova

     Scotia intends to meet the above-mentioned diversion goals. It considers solid waste to be a

     resource that “will be used to create new employment in Nova Scotia through the production of

     value-added goods” (Nova Scotia Environment, 1995). It also states that development and

     commercialization of innovative technologies and services should be encouraged and supported.

     Those aspects of the policy were kept in mind when formulating recommendations. Since

     “recognition of the principles of sustainable development and efforts to improve resource

     recovery and waste management practices, combined with the value of recovered materials, have

     generated opportunities for a number of innovative Nova Scotia firms” (Ibid), it is hoped that the

     Province will continue this trend when seeking solutions for the management of used tires. The

     strategy also elaborates on the role of the Resource Recovery Fund (which was originally

     established under section 98 of the Environment Act) and presents an Action Plan which outlines

     a schedule for the development of necessary policies and regulations, such as landfill bans.

               The Solid Waste-Resource Management (SWRM) Regulations were enacted in 1996

     pursuant to the Environment Act. These Regulations establish the Resource Recovery Fund

     Board (RRFB) as the body responsible for administering the Resource Recovery Fund. The
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     legislated purpose of the Fund is, among other things: “to fund municipal or regional waste

     diversion programs; to promote the development of value-added manufacturing in the Province;

     [and] to develop and implement industry stewardship programs” (SWRM Regulations, 1996, s.

     4(1)). When considering different waste tire management alternatives, priority should be given to

     those which are compatible with the RRFB’s mandate.

               The programs which are approved for financial assistance under these Regulations

     include: “municipal waste diversion programs, including source reduction, reuse [and] recycling

     [programs…]; municipal waste management education programs; [and] market development,

     manufacturing and processing of recycled materials” (Ibid, Schedule A). Efforts were made by

     the authors of this report to recommend solutions which correspond with these approved

     programs.

               The Environment Act gives the Minister authority to “designate materials the use of

     which is to be banned, reduced, composted or recycled” (1994-95, s. 100(1)). These designated

     materials may be subject to a prescribed surcharge for deposit in Resource Recovery Fund; and

     manufacturers, distributors and retailers may be required to “provide depots and other methods

     for collection and recovery of the designated material” (Ibid, s. 100(3)). Accordingly, under the

     Solid Waste-Resource Management Regulations, used tires are listed as a designated material

     that has been banned from Nova Scotian landfills and incinerators since 1996 (SWRM

     Regulations, 1996, Schedule B).

               A Used Tire Management Program is established in the Regulations such that “no tire

     retailer shall supply a new tire in the Province on or after January 2, 1997, unless that tire retailer

     has entered into an industry stewardship agreement” with the RRFB (s. 18A(6)(a)). The program

     applies to all car and truck tires (less than 24.5”), and tires from motorcycles, campers, and

     trailers; however, it does not apply to tires from off-highway vehicles, motorized wheelchairs,
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     farm equipment, or devices moved by human-power (e.g. bicycles) (SWRM Regulations, 1996, s.

     18A (1)).

               A one-time environmental fee is charged when a new tire is purchased in the Province.

     The fee is $3.00 per passenger tire or per light truck tire (17” or under), and $9.00 per tuck tire

     over 17” (and under 24.5”). Retailers must remit this surcharge to RRFB “to support the costs of

     collecting and processing the tires” (RRFB, n.d.). Retailers are also obligated to report to the

     RRFB on the number of tires sold and to accept used tires back from consumers (Environment

     Canada, 2007), thus ensuring a steady supply of tires for whichever firm is awarded the contract

     to process Nova Scotia’s tires. It should also be mentioned that fifty percent of the revenues

     generated from the program are allocated to municipalities to assist with their recycling and

     waste management programs. (LaPierre et. al, 2007, p. 12)

               When comparing different waste tire management alternatives, it is important to keep the

     Province’s 2006 Opportunities for Sustainable Prosperity Strategy in mind. In order to fit well

     within this policy, the Province’s approach to managing scrap tires must support the strategy’s

     five building blocks by balancing financial, natural, built, human, and social capital

     considerations         as    a    foundation         for    sustainable       competitiveness.          Since      “sustainable

     competitiveness embraces the concept of a ‘circular economy’ which moves in a cycle of growth

     and renewal through eliminating waste” (Nova Scotia Economic Development, 2006, p. 3), this

     policy suggests that used tires should be seen as a valuable recoverable resource, rather than

     being viewed as a problematic waste material. As such, they should be managed so as to actually

     contribute to economic development in the Province. The solutions recommended on pages 30-

     48 of this report can effectively increase productivity through innovation by “optimizing the use

     of resources, increasing capacity, and eliminating waste,” which is one of the elements of this

     strategy (Ibid, p. 17). (See Appendix 7)
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               The Province’s long-term objective, as stated in Environmental Goals and Sustainable

     Prosperity Act, is “to fully integrate environmental sustainability and economic prosperity and to

     this end to demonstrate international leadership by having one of the cleanest and most

     sustainable environments in the world by the year 2020” (2007, s. 4(1)). It is worth noting that

     this Act reiterates the waste diversion goal, originally stated in the Environment Act, for no more

     than 300 kg of waste to be landfilled per Nova Scotian per year by 2015 (Ibid, s. 4(2)(o)). The

     Act also expresses the Province’s commitment to several recurring themes which, when applied

     to the issue of waste tire management, make certain alternatives more attractive than others.

     Recurring themes throughout the Act include innovation and leadership, environmentally

     sustainable technologies, renewable and alternative energy, energy conservation and efficiency,

     and a long-term approach to planning and decision-making for economic prosperity and

     environmental sustainability. These recurring themes in the legislation should be kept in mind,

     not only because they reflect the Province’s long-term sustainability goals, but also because

     corresponding enforceable regulations may eventually be developed and have important

     implications for whichever waste tire alternative is implemented.




     4. Overview of Proposed Alternatives for Waste Tire Management in Nova

     Scotia



     4.1 Tire Retreading

               Undamaged used tires can be reused through a retreading process “whereby selected and

     inspected worn tires, called casings, receive a new tread” (International Tire & Rubber

     Association Foundation, Inc., 2001). In Nova Scotia, roughly 125,000 truck tires are retreaded

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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     each year, but the market for retreaded passenger tires is relatively small; a company in Pictou

     County, Nova Scotia and TRACC in New Brunswick are currently processing a small number of

     automobile tires for the off-shore retread market (LaPierre et. al, 2007).

               The tire retreading process begins with an initial inspection, after which the worn tread is

     removed from the tire casing by buffing and all casing injuries are repaired. The casing then

     undergoes a curing or vulcanization process which bonds new tread material to the prepared tire

     body. Then a final inspection is given to ensure tire safety (International Tire & Rubber

     Association Foundation, Inc., 2001).

               One of the benefits of retreading is that it extends tire life through re-use. Retreading tires

     conserves energy and natural resources that are consumed during new tire production, especially

     petroleum products. However, since tires can only be retreaded an average of three or four times,

     retreaded tires still require eventual disposal (Ibid).

               According to the report released by the Minister’s Advisory Committee, “the costs

     associated with the retreading of a tire, [and] it is not economically feasible to retread passenger

     vehicles tires” in Nova Scotia (LaPierre et. al, 2007, p. 22). Furthermore, since the market for

     retreaded tires is limited to truck tires, this option would not be appropriate for Nova Scotia in

     terms of processing all of the Province’s used tires.



     4.2 Devulcanization

               Devulcanization is a process in which “used rubber is returned to its raw state as a soft,

     tacky, plastic material” (LaPierre et. al, 2007, p. 9). The material resulting from devulcanization

     “can then be used in the production of a number of molded or die cut rubber materials, such as

     mats, tubs, and pails” (Ibid, p. 9). Devulcanization of rubber has been the subject of much

     research. However, “devulcanization of single rubbers has much more history than that of multi-
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     rubber mixtures such as waste tires” (CalRecovery, 2004, p.1). The process uses mechanical and

     thermal energy as well as chemicals to create cleavages in the monosulfidic, disulfidic, and

     polysulfidic crosslinks (carbon-sulfur or sulfur-sulfur bonds) of vulcanized rubber (Ibid, p.4).

     Other devulcanization technologies include those that employ chemical, ultrasonic, microwave,

     or biological (i.e. using microorganisms) processes to break atomic bonds.

               Devulcanization can be energy intensive. Energy input is needed to produce rubber

     crumb (a feedstock for the process), as well as to operate the equipment involved in the actual

     devulcanization process. The cost of processing used tires, particularly modern radial tires with

     steel belts, into devulcanized rubber exceeds the cost of virgin rubber production (LaPierre et. al,

     2007, p. 9). The fact that “the price spread between the selling price of crumb rubber and the

     price of virgin rubber is substantially less than current estimates of devulcanization cost” is a

     critical barrier for developing and commercializing the process (CalRecovery, 2004, p. 59).

               In addition, the final product of devulcanization is a rubber that has different chemical

     properties than virgin rubber (i.e. “the renewed material is rigid, whereas virgin rubber is

     composed of long, flexible strands”) (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 9). In this sense, the devulcanized

     rubber is not suitable for the manufacture of new tires or certain other rubber products (Ibid, p. 9).

     Therefore, “the commercial market for devulcanized rubber is [at best] limited” (CalRecovery,

     2004, p.35).

               The devulcanization process emits a variety of air emissions that are categorized as six

     classes of pollutants: precursor organic compounds (POC), non-precursor organic compounds

     (NPOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter smaller than 10

     microns (PM10), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (Ibid). Other potential emissions from the

     devulcanization process include several chemical compounds and effluent water (Ibid). The cost

     of pollution control could increase the cost of this process by 10 to 30% (Ibid, p. 61).
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     4.3 Rubber Crumb


     A. Process
           Crumbing rubber involves reducing tires to a crumb size ranging between 30 and 40

     mesh. In addition, steel belts and fibres must be removed in order to reprocess the crumb into

     value-added products. The crumbing process can be achieved using various methods involving

     either mechanical grinding or cryogenic processing.

               The mechanical process includes reducing tires to chip and then granulating them, while

     simultaneously removing the loose steel and fibre. The last step of the process is to grind the

     rubber granules in order to produce fine crumbs (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 7). Mechanical grinding

     occurs at room temperature (R.W. Beck, 2005, p. 3-9).

               The cryogenic process involves freezing tire chips “in liquid nitrogen as they pass

     through a cryogenic tunnel” (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 7). This process occurs at a temperature of

     approximately minus 80 Fahrenheit (R.W. Beck, 2005, p. 3-9). Other materials can also be used

     to freeze the chips (Canadian Association of Tire Recycling Agencies, 2006, p. 13). After a

     cooling period, the chips are crushed, separating the rubber from the steel and fibre. Although

     this process is more energy intensive, it reduces the rubber to crumbs between “1/4 inch to 30

     mesh” size. The end product is a finer, smoother crumb with most particles measuring up to 20

     mesh (ibid).

               Once the rubber crumb has been produced, it can be reprocessed into various products,

     including molded and mixed products. Rubber crumb applications include the production of

     animal and industrial mats, playground and sports related tracks, roofing shingles and shakes,

     construction and transportation materials (like specialized gaskets), and crumb rubber asphalt

     (LaPierre et al, 2007, p.38). Each of these products requires additional and specific energy and

     water use, and in some cases the use addition of virgin rubber, plastic, or asphalt.
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     B. Benefits of Rubber Crumb

     (i) Biophysical

               Rubber crumb does not degrade over time and is thus extremely durable. Overall, the use

     of rubber crumb to produce value-added products displaces the need to use virgin rubber in the

     production of such products. It also reduces the need to use other raw materials that would

     otherwise be used to produce similar products (like shingles and traditional asphalt). Every

     application has slightly different biophysical advantages. For example, when rubber crumb (up to

     15%) is mixed with virgin rubber, mixing properties as well as mold release and cure times are

     improved (Reschner, 2006, p. 11). Shorter cure times directly improve the plant's efficiency,

     both in terms of yield and energy consumption (less time to produce the same amount of rubber)

     (ibid.). In playing surface applications, rubber crumb provides superior shock absorbency as well

     as easier maintenance (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 77). Animal mats provide very good thermal

     insulations, thus improving living conditions for livestock. An advantage of using rubber crumb

     as an additive to asphalt is that it is more durable and has “enhanced drainage characteristics and

     increased resistance to rutting and hydroplaning” (Ibid, p. 33). Roofing shingles are also very

     durable products, with warranting ranging between 50 and 60 years. They also have high

     abrasive resistance, are faster to install, and can be recycled back into shingles at the end of their

     life cycle (Ibid, p. 43).

               It is also important to keep in mind that these value-added products may result in

     pollution reductions since they replace the use of other materials like liquid asphalt, which is a

     petroleum material (Ibid, p. 55).




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     (ii) Socio-Political

               From a social perspective, a rubber crumb facility could benefit the Province in that it

     would provide employment as well as encourage the growth of the local economy. Value-added

     products could also help diversify the industry sector in the Province. There is very little, if any,

     public opposition to the production of rubber crumb both in Nova Scotia and in areas where such

     facilities are already in operation (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 46).

               The market for rubber crumb is quite high, especially in Canada. As was shown in the

     World Trends section on page 7, rubber crumb products as well as molded products in part

     deriving from crumb consists of a very large portion of the waste tire market in the country. The

     TRACC facility in New Brunswick, a producer of rubber crumb, claim that they can only meet

     0.5% of the demand for rubber crumb among their customers.




     (iii) Law and Policy

               The use of rubber crumb is considered to be the manufacturing of a value-added product

     from a waste material, which is in line with both the Opportunities for Sustainable Prosperity

     Strategy as well as the Nova Scotia Environmentally Responsible Procurement Policy.




     C. Disadvantages of Rubber Crumb

     (i) Biophysical

               Although there are many advantages to the use of rubber crumb in the production of

     various products, it is important to note that only approximately 60% of the material in a tire can

     be processed into crumb (LaPierre et al, 2007, p.13). The remaining 40% includes steel belts,

     steel beads, fluff, polyester fibre, and rubber particles. These components still need to be
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     disposed of and although some of them can be recycled, others cannot. In addition, not all

     recyclable components are actually recycled; some invariably finish their life-cycle in a landfill.

     Another problem with rubber crumb is that molded products (e.g. rubber molded with plastic)

     cannot be recycled back into rubber crumb, and thus become a waste issue at the end of their

     useful life.

               The process of crumbing rubber can be energy intensive depending on whether it is being

     done through mechanical grinding or cryogenic processing. In addition, most value-added

     products resulting from rubber crumb require subsequent manufacturing, thus increasing energy

     consumption. Appendix 8 shows both the variability of energy consumption in rubber crumb

     processing as well as comparing it to tire shred consumption. As seen, energy consumption

     increases as the particle size of rubber crumb decreases.

               In terms of chemical and toxic releases, there is some associated exposure to tire dust and

     chemicals, in particular for the processing plant workers, in particular benzothiazole, butylated

     hydroxyanisole, n-hexadecane, and 4- (t-octyl) phenol (Environment & Human Health Inc., 2007,

     p.8). There is also some concern with the leaching of metals like zinc, lead, and cadmium, as

     well as off-gassing from synthetic turf rubber crumb (ibid.). Another potential health impact of

     rubber crumb includes the proximity of children to playground surfaces (as children may eat the

     crumbs).




     (ii) Socio-Political

               Although rubber crumb demand is high among value-added product manufacturers, there

     are still some social barriers due to the lack of knowledge surrounding these substitute products.

     These products are often much more expensive (rubber shingles are two to three times the price

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     of asphalt shingles) and even though they are more durable that traditional products, consumers

     are often hesitant to purchase them (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 24). In addition, some consumers

     prefer more traditional products due to aesthetics as well as the perception that they are safer

     than rubber products (there is still a recurring misconception that rubber crumb products are of

     lesser quality) (URS, 2006, p. 6-2).

                The machinery required for the production of rubber crumb as well as its value-added

     products is quite specialized and expensive (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 80), thus decreasing the

     feasibility and appeal of establishing a rubber crumb facility in Nova Scotia. In comparison to

     applications like Tire Derived Aggregate, rubber crumb start up and operation costs are greater

     (Ibid.).




     (iii) Law and Policy

                Since the Province’s long-term objective, as stated in Environmental Goals and

     Sustainable Prosperity Act, is “to demonstrate international leadership by having one of the

     cleanest and most sustainable environments in the world by the year 2020” (2007, s. 4(1)),

     rubber crumb would not be the ideal solution for the processing of waste tires as it is not the

     most sustainable or cleanest option available for Nova Scotia.




     D. Concluding Remarks Regarding Rubber Crumb

                Rubber crumb offers many benefits, particularly socio-politically. However, ultimately it

     is not the optimal solution for Nova Scotia, considering recently developed legislation as well as

     certain biophysical concerns like waste generation and high energy consumption.


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     4.4 Tire Derived Fuel (TDF)


     A. Process

               Although the Minister ultimately decided against allowing TDF to be used in Nova

     Scotia for the foreseeable future, TDF is still considered in this report in order to reach an

     independent conclusion on the matter. The proposal to burn TDF in Lafarge’s Brookfield cement

     facility has been a salient issue in the Province and this report would be remiss not to address it.

               TDF generally refers to the burning of shredded tires as an alternative fuel in a

     combustion device; however, for the purpose of this report, TDF will also be used synonymously

     to refer to fuel from whole tires. TDF can be used to produce energy for industrial facilities such

     as pulp and paper mills, electric utilities, industrial/institutional boilers, and cement kilns. It is

     most commonly used in the cement industry; 41% of all TDF in the United States is combusted

     in cement kilns (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). TDF is typically used to

     supplement traditional fuels such as coal or wood, however it can also be burned in dedicated

     tire-to-energy facilities (Ibid). An independent assessment carried out by members of Dalhousie

     University’s Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science considered potential

     industrial applications of TDF in the Nova Scotia. The report concluded that TDF could

     potentially be used in cement kilns and in pulp and paper mills in the Province, but that it would

     not be feasible for use in electric power utilities (Pegg, Amyotte, Fels, Cumming, & Poushay,

     2007, pp. 5-9).




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     B. Advantages of TDF

     (i) Biophysical

             Some life cycle assessments (LCAs) have found TDF to be one of the most

     environmentally attractive forms of waste tire management when life-cycle material, energy and

     waste flows are taken into account (Pegg et al., 2007, p. 20). TDF’s life-cycle energy impacts are

     favorable and tires are well-suited for energy production since they have a higher heating value

     and lower moisture content than coal or wood waste (Gieré, LaFree, Carleton, & Tishmack, 2004,

     p. 480). This energy production offsets some of the energy consumed during the original tire

     manufacturing process. In terms of material flows, TDF can conserve natural resources by

     reducing fossil fuel consumption. In addition, when whole tires are used as fuel in cement kilns,

     the reinforcing steel wires provide supplemental iron for the cement, thereby reducing raw

     material needs. Moreover, “the ash resulting from [tire] combustion is beneficial to the cement-

     making process, as it is incorporated into the product material rather than discarded” (Gieré et al.,

     2004, p. 481). Finally, regarding waste flows, TDF can be used to effectively dispose of whole

     tires all at once, thus minimizing waste.



     (ii) Socio-Political

             Supplementing expensive fossil fuels with TDF can lower a facility’s operating costs as

     well as improve energy security. When TDF is used in cement kilns, incorporation of ingredients

     from the tires into the cement product also offers economic benefits.



     (iii) Law and Policy

             Supplementing coal with TDF may reduce certain emissions compared to combustion of

     coal alone. For example, studies suggest that emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and greenhouse
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     gases may be reduced when TDF is added to the fuel mix in cement kilns (Gieré et al., 2004;

     Pegg et al., 2007). These emissions reductions could help Canada meet obligations under certain

     international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate

     Change and certain protocols to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. It

     could also help industries in Nova Scotia comply with federal and provincial legislation (e.g. the

     impending Canada’s Clean Air Act; the emissions reduction targets put forth in section 4(2) of

     the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act; etc.).




     C. Disadvantages of TDF

     (i) Biophysical

               Although certain air emissions may decrease when tires are co-combusted with coal,

     others may actually increase. For example, there seems to be some consensus that supplementing

     coal with TDF tends to increase particulate, zinc and carbon monoxide emissions (Gieré et al.,

     2004; Pegg et al., 2007). Some data suggest that there may also be increases in emissions of

     other more toxic substances such as dioxins and furans, PAHs, and various heavy metals.


               As is explained in the United Nations Environment Programme’s (UNEP) technical

     guidelines report on the environmentally sound management of used tires, “Data on the emission

     [sic] during co-processing of tires in cement kilns are controversial. Proponents of TDF argue

     that, with correct techniques and equipment, the combustion of tires and other hazardous wastes

     is no different than coal combustion. However, the data available do not always support this

     argument” (UNEP, 2007, p. 33). For example, UNEP’s report cites a study conducted in

     California by Professor Seymour Schwartz in which four cement kilns co-firing up to 20% TDF

     with coal exhibited the following emissions:
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               (i) Dioxins and furans increased between 53% and 100% in 4 of 4 tests;
               (ii) PAHs increased between 296% and 2230% in 3 of 4 tests;
               (iii) Lead increased between 59% and 475% in 3 of 4 tests;
               (iv) Chromium increased 727% in one test, with much smaller decreases in others;
               (v) Only the emissions of nitrogen and the sulphur oxides showed better results. (Ibid)

     Several other studies have found a great deal of variation in emissions from TDF-burning

     facilities – both in day-to-day fluctuations and in unexpectedly large ranges of test results. Some

     examples of dramatically variable emissions data can be found in Appendix 9. These

     discrepancies call into question how confidently emissions from TDF can actually be predicted.


               Comparison of 2006 emissions data for Lafarge’s St. Constant facility (co-combusting

     TDF with conventional fuels such as coal and coke) with data for Lafarge’s Brookfield facility

     (combusting primarily coal), raises more questions and challenges current assumptions about

     TDF. Both facilities are similar in that they operate dry rotary kilns which produce clinker from

     limestone and other raw materials (Lafarge Canada Inc., 2003; Lafarge Canada Inc., 2004). The

     primary kilns have been running since the mid 1960s at both cement plants, with secondary kilns

     added to both locations in the mid-to-late 1970s (Ibid; Sullivan, Czechowski, Zwicke, & Ameson,

     2002). The production capacity for the St. Constant plant is roughly double that of the Brookfield

     plant (Lafarge Canada Inc., 2003; Lafarge Canada Inc., 2004), but other than that the main

     difference between the two facilities is the type of fuel that is used in the kilns. After taking

     account of the difference in production capacity, one would expect emissions from the two plants

     to be similar if proponents of TDF are correct that emissions are comparable to those of

     conventional fuels. However, calculations made based on data from the National Pollutant

     Release Inventory (Environment Canada, 2008), found that emissions from the St. Constant

     facility exhibited approximately 698% the level of dioxins and furans, 226% the amount of

     hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 372% the quantity of sulphur dioxide (SO2), 623% the release of

     carbon monoxide (CO), 348% the amount of total particulate matter, and 167% the quantity of
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     particulate matter # 10 microns (PM10) compared to emissions from the Brookfield facility. It is

     worth noting that emissions that the St. Constant facility also released 151% the amount of

     nitrogen oxides (NOx) into the air, which is particularly surprising since NOx is typically cited

     as one of the substances for which emissions are reduced when TDF is supplemented with

     conventional fuels. The only substance which was emitted in lower quantities by the St. Constant

     facility, according to the NPRI data, was mercury and its compounds, which were 30% lower. It

     is also worth noting that data was provided for emissions of several other pollutants1 from the St.

     Constant facility, but no comparable data was provided for the Brookfield facility because

     emissions of those particular substances from the Brookfield plant were not significant enough to

     surpass NPRI’s reporting threshold (Environment Canada, 2008). The underlying reasons for

     these unexpected results warrant further investigation in order to better understand the

     characteristics of TDF emissions.



     (ii) Socio-Political

               One socio-economic barrier to TDF is that there may be high capital costs involved with

     modifying fuel feeding equipment to accommodate TDF2, and it can be expensive to install and

     maintain necessary pollution control devices. Perhaps the most damaging disadvantage, however,

     is that TDF has been the subject of negative public perceptions because sources of uncertainty

     and controversy have fostered some sentiments of distrust towards TDF technology.



       1

      These substances are: lead, arsenic, cadmium, hydrochloric acid, dichloromethane, zinc and its compounds, nickel
     and its compounds, manganese and its compounds, total phosphorus, chromium and its compounds, copper and its
     compounds, vanadium, diethanolamine and its salts, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter # 2.5
     microns.
       2

      According to Chris Richards, Lafarge’s alternative fuels manager at its Brookfield facility, Lafarge planned to
     invest about $2.7 million in equipment to feed the tires into the kiln (The Canadian Press, 2007).
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               In addition to the uncertainty relating to examples of highly variable emissions data,

     some uncertainty also exists pertaining to the possible health effects of emissions from TDF-

     burning facilities. UNEP cites Professor Schwartz’s statement that

               […R]isk assessment[s] could be estimating only a small fraction of the total risk because
               of lack of knowledge of the causal mechanisms of the health effects […] Virtually
               nothing is known about the dose-response functions for important categories of health
               effects […] Also, virtually nothing is known about the health effects caused by
               combinations of toxic chemicals that are emitted when burning tires […] Without such
               scientific knowledge, and because some toxic pollutants increase from burning tires,
               there is no scientific basis […] to conclude that burning waste tires in cement kilns is safe.
               (UNEP, 2007, p. 33)

     Statements such as this unsurprisingly cause concern among some local residents and

     environmentalists.

               Another area of uncertainty is that of best practices for combustion of TDF. Although

     American Society for Testing and Materials (A.S.T.M.) standards exist for TDF from shredded

     tires, no such standards have yet been developed for TDF from whole tires (US Environmental

     Protection Agency, 2007b). Moreover, there is concern that whole tires may burn less efficiently

     and produce more toxic emissions than do shredded tires (Sorflaten, 2007). This fuels public

     anxiety that injecting whole tires mid-kiln at the Brookfield cement plant could have negative

     health and ecological impacts in the surrounding area.

               Another particular source of uneasiness voiced by some concerned citizens is the risk that

     malfunctions (e.g. kiln upsets) and non-optimal daily operations could lead to increased

     emissions that may not be recognized by sporadic monitoring (Citizens Against Burning of Tires,

     n.d.).

               Uncertainty and fears regarding the possible human health and environmental effects of

     using TDF have led to public outcries in several jurisdictions where TDF has been proposed. In

     Nova Scotia, for example, a group called Citizens Against Burning of Tires (CABOT), which is

     based in Brookfield and claims to represent the concerns of over 3000 Nova Scotian residents,
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     actively lobbied against the use of TDF in Lafarge’s Brookfield facility. Now that the Minister

     has decided against using TDF in the Province, CABOT still opposes the current situation of

     sending the Province’s tires to be used for TDF in Quebec. It accuses the RRFB of violating its

     mandate and using money generated through the environmental fee on new tires to “subsidize

     Lafarge’s fuel bill [and] pollute the environment” (Citizens Against Burning of Tires, n.d.). The

     campaign against TDF was not restricted to CABOT, however. Other stakeholders – including

     First Nations communities, residents’ associations, non-government organizations, the media,

     and members of the political opposition – also became involved in the campaign against TDF.




     (iii) Law and Policy

               With all of the above-mentioned uncertainty associated with TDF, allowing it to be used

     in the Province it would not fit well with Nova Scotia’s commitment to incorporate the

     precautionary principle into decision-making, which is expressed in the Environment Act (1994-

     95, s. 2(b)(ii)).

               Public opposition against TDF in other areas has gone so far as to lead to legal battles.

     For example, in Bath, Ontario, local residents and environmental groups have successfully

     applied to the Environmental Review Tribunal for permission to appeal certificates of approval

     which were granted to Lafarge by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in 2006 and which

     would allow Lafarge to burn TDF and other waste materials as fuel in their cement kiln. Among

     other things, the Tribunal based its decision on the grounds that issuing the approvals violated

     the MOE’s commitment to apply the precautionary principle in decision-making (Dawber v.

     Director, Ministry of the Environment, 2007). The appeal hearing has been postponed until

     September, 2008, so it is not yet clear what the outcome will be. If the concerned local and

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     environmental groups are successful in having the approval revoked, however, the decision could

     set precedent that influences how TDF cases are treated by courts in other jurisdictions. It could

     also serve as a rallying cry for other groups of concerned citizens and environmentalists who

     oppose the use of TDF in their communities.

               In the United States in 2007, the Sierra Club and other environmentalists took the

     Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) to the Federal Court of Appeals for the District of

     Columbia Circuit regarding the interpretation of the Clean Air Act. The Court agreed with the

     environmentalists that the E.P.A. violated the plain intent of the Clean Air Act by allowing

     industrial facilities that use TDF to be regulated under Section 112, which governs industrial

     boilers. Instead, the Court ruled that those facilities should come under Section 129 of the Act,

     which governs hazardous waste incinerators and calls for far more stringent controls. Proponents

     of TDF worry that this court case could destroy the TDF industry in the U.S (Moore, 2007).

     Although the results of this case do not have legally binding implications for Canada, it

     nonetheless serves as an important example of a legal victory by activists against TDF.

               It is important to note that environmental consultants commissioned by the RRFB expect

     that, even with increased releases of certain pollutants, air emissions would still comply with all

     current air quality standards if the proposal to co-combust TDF at Lafarge’s Brookfield facility

     had proceeded as planned (Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 2007). The confidence with which

     this can be predicted is debatable, given elements of uncertainty such as those discussed above.

     Nonetheless, increases in emissions should be seen as generally undesirable even if they fall

     within regulatory compliance limits. For example, any increase in emissions of dioxins and

     furans is problematic, even disregarding potential harm to human health and the environment,

     since Canada has signed and ratified the international Stockholm Convention on Persistent

     Organic Pollutants. In recognition of the toxic, persistent, and bio-accumulative nature of these
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     unintentionally released substances, the Convention requires parties to take measures for the

     reduction of emissions “with the goal of their continuing minimization and, where feasible,

     ultimate elimination” (Article 5). The long-term viability of TDF may therefore be diminished if

     more stringent emissions regulations are adopted under the Canadian Environmental Protection

     Act, 1999, the upcoming Canadian Clean Air Act, or other federal legislation in order to meet

     obligations under the Stockholm Convention (or for any other reason).


               Although TDF supports some of the Province’s long-term sustainability goals (such as

     those pertaining to energy conservation/efficiency and alternative energy), certain non-TDF

     alternatives seem to generally be more in line with these goals and with the five capitals upon

     which the Province’s Opportunities for Sustainable Prosperity Strategy is based (see page 12).



     D. Concluding Remarks Regarding TDF

               Upon consideration of all of the above factors involved in the issue, it can be concluded

     that the long-term viability TDF faces significant challenges. The advantages offered by TDF are

     insufficient to overcome the major barrier of a lack of social acceptance, especially with

     lingering elements of scientific uncertainty and potential legal implications complicating the

     issue. The authors of this report therefore agree with the Minister’s decision to reject TDF and

     seek an alternative waste tire management solution.




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     5. Recommendations

     5.1 Conservative Recommendation: Tire Derived Aggregate (TDA)

               Nova Scotia is well-positioned to embrace Tire Derived Aggregate (TDA) processing in

     the province as a sound and viable solution to its waste tire management problem. The use of and

     demand for TDA products is growing, and Nova Scotia could become a focal supply point for

     Tire Derived Aggregate in Atlantic Canada. Tire derived aggregate is considered a mature

     technology, and its production would allow the creation of value-added material and the

     development of a niche product. This is an excellent opportunity for Nova Scotia to capitalize on

     an established technology and secure markets for its products, which would result in economic,

     social and environmental benefits for the province and show leadership in a rising, accepted and

     viable practice.


     A. Process and Applications

               TDA is an engineered product made by shredding whole tires into 25 to 300-mm pieces

     using single or counter rotating shafts with knives affixed. Most machines are powered by

     electric motors and have a capacity of between two and six tonnes of shred per hour, depending

     on the size of the shred produced (Energy Manager Training, n.d., p. 8). Tire shredding can be

     considered a mature technology and machines are being offered by a number of well-established

     companies throughout Europe and North America (Ibid).

               Tire derived aggregate is used in various civil engineering applications and as lightweight

     engineering fill, including for embankments, erosion control, landslide stabilization, noise

     reduction, wall and bridge abutments, road insulation and landfill engineering applications. It is

     also used for drainage in domestic wastewater systems and as landscaping mulch (LaPierre et al.,

     2007, p. 30).

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     B. Benefits
     (i) Biophysical

               Tire derived aggregate uses all parts of the tire, resulting in no waste being produced

     (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 24), and can be used to dispose of a large number of tires (roughly 100

     tires are used per cubic metre of lightweight engineering fill) (Humphrey, 2008, p. 3). In North

     Yarmouth, Maine, 100,000 shredded tires were used to repair 400 feet of a two-lane highway. A

     highway embankment in Portland, Maine used 1.4 million tires while a leachate collection

     system in Delaware used 1 million. Similarly, a landslide repair project in Wyoming

     incorporated 650,000 tires (Ibid). As it is estimated that one kilometre of roadbed could utilize

     close to 200,000 tires (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 32), a year’s worth of Nova Scotia’s tires could

     potentially be used in a single 5km roadbed project. Although this would not be the most

     economically prudent use of the province’s tires, it illustrates TDA’s potential as a tire recycling

     option.

               Tire shreds also have favourable properties for civil engineering applications, such as low

     weight, low earth pressure, good thermal insulation and good drainage: TDA is one third the

     weight of sand and has one third the earth pressure, eight times the thermal insulation capacity

     and ten times the drainage capacity of soil. It is also permeable and compressible and reduces

     frost penetration significantly (Humphrey, 2008, p. 2), which is particularly useful in cold

     climates such as Nova Scotia’s.

               Tire shreds are inert in most environments (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 32), meaning that

     environmental impacts resulting from their use are absent or minimal. Potential effects on air,

     soil and water will be addressed in a later section. Tire shreds are also very durable and can

     generally be reused repeatedly (Ibid, p. 63). It is also sometimes possible to grind the used shreds

     into a smaller mesh size to be re-used to produce other recycled waste tire products (Ibid, p. 109).

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               The production of Tire Derived Aggregate has the same energy requirements as other

     aggregates (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 32), and uses less energy than other tire recycling options

     such as rubber crumb and moulded rubber products, as well as aggregate requiring blasting and

     crushing (Ibid, p. 35). Tire shredding consumes about 0.5 megajoules per passenger tire

     compared with the production of rubber granules, which consumes 40-50 megajoules per

     passenger tire, and cryogenically ground rubber, which consumes 100 megajoules per passenger

     tire (Pehlken & Essadiqi, 2005, p. 44) (See Appendix 8).



     (ii) Socio-Political

               There appears to be social support for Tire Derived Aggregate, with citizens’ groups such

     as Citizens Against the Burning of Tires endorsing the recycling of tires into value-added

     products as an alternative to Tire Derived Fuel. NGOs and environmental groups also approve

     the production and use of Tire Derived Aggregate. In addition, a TDA facility in Nova Scotia

     would provide employment opportunities within the province. TRACC, which processes 800,000

     tires a year in New Brunswick, employs 44 people in and around the town of Minto (LaPierre et

     al., 2007, p. 23). It would be expected that a shredding facility in Nova Scotia processing 1.1

     million tires a year would provide a similar number of jobs.



     (iii) Law and Policy

               The Minister’s Advisory Committee on Waste Tire Management recommended that

     Nova Scotia’s waste tires be shredded and used for TDA. Their report stated that, given the

     increasing demand for lightweight fill, “the Province should explore the possibility of focusing

     its efforts in developing a niche product for this sector” (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 47). The option

     is also in line with the province’s Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act. In
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.


     addition to creating employment opportunities and encouraging the development of innovative

     and environmentally sustainable technologies and industries in Nova Scotia, it would recycle a

     waste material and reduce the use of non-renewable resources. Tire derived aggregate would also

     contribute towards the attainment of both the RRFB’s and the Solid Waste Resource

     Management Strategy’s objectives by recovering materials from the waste stream and using them

     to develop value-added products in Nova Scotia. In addition, a TDA facility would likely meet

     all regulations under the Province’s Environment Act. Thus, the establishment of a TDA facility

     in Nova Scotia would be acceptable from both a political and legal perspective.




     C. Economic Feasibility
     (i) Markets

               TDA is the fastest growing use for scrap tires in the United States, using 60 million tires

     used per year. The use of civil engineering applications for waste tires has gone from 1 million

     tires in 1992 to 53 million tires in 2003. This trend is expected to continue as more states move

     towards the use of tires shreds as a substitute for natural aggregates (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 29).

     In Canada, the number of tires used for TDA sits at roughly 3.8 PTEs (Pehlken & Essadiqi, 2005,

     p.19). There is an increasing demand for lightweight fill to the need for civil engineering

     products. At this moment, such products are mostly imported from outside of Nova Scotia at

     high costs. There are currently no sources for lightweight fill to compete with tire shreds in the

     province; lightweight granular material and synthetic material such as Styrofoam is imported to

     be used as embankment fill, and this is done at an elevated cost. The production of TDA in Nova

     Scotia would not displace the use of any available materials within Atlantic Canada but would

     remove the need to import expensive lightweight aggregate and/or synthetic materials (LaPierre

     et al., 2007, p. 59). A premium is paid on embankment fill in the province, which could be
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     eliminated by establishing a Tire Derived Aggregate facility in Nova Scotia (Ibid, 2005, p. 31).

     It.In so doing, the province could potentially become the main supply point for lightweight

     engineering fill in Atlantic Canada.

               There are established markets for TDA in Canada, and there is increasing demand for it

     in Atlantic Canada. The New Brunswick Department of Transportation recently used 16,000

     tonnes of shred as lightweight fill in the construction of a bridge in St. Stephen’s, while TDA has

     been used in recent years to develop roadbeds in Nova Scotia. There is a also a considerable

     market for tire shreds to be used in domestic wastewater systems; there were 3,500 applications

     for septic systems in Nova Scotia in 2006, and the use of tire shreds was only impeded by the

     lack of a TDA processing facility in the province (LaPierre et al., 2007, p. 35).



     (ii) Costs

               Tire-derived aggregate is competitive with the costs of other types of aggregate. In an

     embankment project in Portland, Maine, requiring the use of lightweight fill, tire shreds were

     chosen over expanded polystyrene insulation boards and expanded shale because they were

     $300,000 cheaper than the other alternatives (Humphrey, 1999, p. 2). In an embankment project

     in California, 6,627 tonnes of tire shreds—or 662,000 PTE—were used at a cost of $7.48 per

     cubic yard. The placement cost of the shreds was $3.74 per cubic yard, while the purchase and

     delivery costs were $23.66 per cubic yard. The in-place cost for the shreds was $27 per cubic

     yard, in comparison with $50 per cubic yard for traditional lightweight aggregate. Overall, the

     cost savings to the California Department of Transportation was $230,000 compared to using

     traditional lightweight aggregate for the project (Humphrey, n.d., p. 5).




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               The processing costs for coarse shredding, or shredding to a size of 4 to 8 inches, ranges

     from 18 to 25 cents per tire (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991, p. 26).

     Given that Nova Scotia must produces 1.1 million waste tires a year, this translates to processing

     costs of between $198,000 and $275,000.

               These costs are not prohibitive, especially if some type of government investment or

     funding could be secured. One potential source could be the Atlantic Canada Opportunities

     Agency (ACOA), the federal government department responsible for building economic capacity

     in the Atlantic provinces. The agency provides funding and loans through various programs

     including its Business Development Program and Atlantic Innovation Fund. Having funded

     similar recycling initiatives in the past, it is possible that ACOA might provide some measure of

     financial assistance in establishing a TDA facility in Nova Scotia.

               In addition, the RRFB offers a Value-Added Manufacturing funding program to “provide

     financial assistance for locally-based businesses to develop value-added products from materials

     recovered from the waste stream” (RRFB, n.d., p. 1), which could be a potential source of

     funding for the establishment of a TDA facility in Nova Scotia.




     D. Potential Concerns/Considerations
     (i) Biophysical

               It has been suggested that the use of tire shred could impact groundwater quality.

     However, below the groundwater table, tire shreds have been found to have a negligible effect on

     the concentrations of metals with primary drinking water standards. For metals with secondary

     drinking water standards, elevated levels of manganese, iron and zinc have been detected, but

     their potential effects would only be aesthetic. Trace concentrations of organic compounds have

     been found, but these were well below allowable limits (Humphrey & Katz, 2001, p. 10).
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                    Above the groundwater table, there is no evidence that tire shreds increase the

          concentration of substances with primary drinking water standards such as barium,

          cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and selenium. While there is some evidence that tire

          shreds could increase the levels of iron and exceed secondary drinking water standards

          under certain conditions, the concentrations of other substances with secondary drinking

          water standards, such as aluminum, sulfate, chloride and zinc, have not been found to

          increase. Manganese has been found in concentrations exceeding secondary drinking

          water standards, but potential effects would once again only be aesthetic. Levels of

          organic compounds above the groundwater table were found to be negligible (Humphrey

          & Katz, 2000, p. 12).

                    There are also potential occupational health and safety concerns associated with

          the production of TDA, particularly in terms of rubber dust emissions resulting for the

          abrasion of rubber during shredding. This dust can be hazardous when inhaled, ingested

          or touched (Ahmed, Klundert & Lardinois, 1996, p. 91), and precautions should therefore

          be taken to protect workers from these potentially harmful effects.



          (ii) Socio-Political

                    In other jurisdictions throughout the continent, the use of tires has been socially

          accepted. While the use of Tire Derived Aggregate is increasing in Nova Scotia, there

          might be some initial resistance from the public, who could potential view civil

          engineering applications as a way of burying used tires (LaPierre et al., 2007, p.60).

          Education and information on the part of both government and industry could quickly

          and easily allay these misgivings.



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                    In addition, there could be a degree of reluctance on behalf of Nova Scotians to

          use tire chips in domestic sewage systems. Citizens are likely not well-informed about the

          application, and there might be a need to disseminate information in order to entice

          homeowners and contractors to use rubber shreds as a sustainable construction option.

          (Ibid, p.36).



          (iii) Law and Policy

                    There would be minimal legal concerns associated with the establishment of a

          TDA facility in Nova Scotia. As previously mentioned, the facility should meet all

          regulations under the Nova Scotia Environment Act and would be in concordance with

          the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act. It would nonetheless be

          important to take measures to ensure that emissions fell below guidelines and that

          occupational health and safety standards were met.




          E. Concluding Remarks Regarding TDA

                    There is a marked need for a tired derived aggregate facility in Nova Scotia.

          There are three possible options to establish this facility. A new facility could be built in

          the province, incentives could be provided to TRACC to encourage the company to

          expand its operations into Nova Scotia, or Tire Derived Aggregate operations could be

          integrated with one of the larger aggregate companies in the province. The next step is for

          more research to be undertaken to determine which of these options is the most viable at

          the present time.




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          5.2 Innovative Recommendation: Thermal Conversion Technology

                    The innovative recommendation that is being made, regarding how to manage

          Nova Scotia’s waste tire situation, is to use thermal conversion technology. In general,

          thermal conversion technology is a reclamation process that involves the thermal

          decomposition of organic material into various products. By using this technology, used

          tires can be decomposed into a number of potentially valuable materials such as carbon

          black, pyrolytic oil, steel and combustible gas (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 28). Thermal

          conversion technology was originally explored as a waste tire management solution,

          because it was one of the options posed on the Advisory Committee Report on Used-Tire

          Management. This waste tire management option was only ranked as the fifth best

          management solution in the report, mainly because it was out of the scope of the

          committee and they could not adequately assess the technical and economic feasibility of

          the project (Ibid, p. 10).

                    When thermal conversion technology was more thoroughly explored, it was

          discovered that this innovative technology could adequately satisfy all dimensions

          (law/policy, socio-political and biophysical) of the waste tire management situation in

          Nova Scotia. Thermal conversion is not being used to any significant degree currently in

          Canada, and therefore the RRFB may be more hesitant to try this technology. However

          this could be an excellent opportunity for Nova Scotia to demonstrate its leadership and

          innovation in solid waste management.




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          A. MedNova Tech’s Proposal

                    MedNova Tech International Ltd., which is a trading company based out of

          Halifax, informed the Minister’s advisory committee that their company would be willing

          to process all of the scrap tires in Nova Scotia, including all heavy and light industrial

          tires and smaller off-road tires. The company stated that they could accomplish this by

          developing a thermal conversion facility (LaPierre et al, 2007, pp. 27-28). MedNova

          Tech was proposing to develop the facility in the former tire recycling plant in

          Kemptown, which had been operated by Atlantic Rubber Recycling (Transcontinental

          Media, 2007). MedNova Tech declared that if they obtained at least 1 million tires a year,

          the project would be economically viable and claim to have markets established for all of

          the end products that would result from the recycling process (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 28).

                    MedNova Tech indicated that they would be using Chinese thermal conversion

          technology and have obtained the necessary licenses and permits to export the equipment

          to Canada (Ibid, pp. 27-29). It is likely that MedNova Tech would be exporting some of

          the end products to China, primarily because they already have strong Asian contacts and

          are currently involved with exporting a number of products to the country (Importers.com,

          2007). The company has indicated that they would be willing to bring representatives

          from Nova Scotia to Shanghai and Taiwan to visit thermal conversion plants that are

          using the technology MedNova Tech has proposed using in Nova Scotia. It is also

          important to acknowledge that MedNova Tech has access to sufficient financial resources

          which will allow them to proceed with the project (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 29).




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          B. Technology Information & Process

                    The Chinese based company that MedNova Tech would be obtaining their

          thermal conversion technology from is Shanghai Greenman ECO Science and

          Technology Co. Ltd. This Chinese company is a leader in thermal conversion technology

          in the country, and has developed a number of techniques that makes the process more

          efficient and economically viable (Shanghai Greenman ECO Science and Technology Co.

          Ltd., n.d.). The thermal conversion technology they are promoting is known as pyrolysis

          and it is what MedNova Tech would be importing into Nova Scotia (LaPierre et al, 2007,

          p. 27).

                    The pyrolysis technology proposed by MedNova Tech would process whole tires,

          which means the steel wires would not have to be separated from the rubber prior to

          insertion into the system. This helps reduce energy consumption and will ultimately

          increase economic benefits (Shanghai Greenman ECO Science and Technology Co. Ltd.,

          n.d.). As for the system itself, there would be two pyrolysis production lines and a highly

          efficient, oxygen-free, gas recycling furnace. This means that gas generated from the

          pyrolytic processes would be reused within the furnace and the excess would be used as

          fuel to run the generators within the plant. The products that would be produced from

          pyrolyzing 10,000 MT (or approximately 1 million units) of used tires, as indicated by

          MedNova Tech, would be 4500 MT of petroleum and fuels such as diesel, 3500 MT of

          carbon black, 1000 MT of steel and 100 MT of combustible gas per year (LaPierre et al,

          2007, p. 28).




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          C. Benefits of Pyrolysis

          (i) Biophysical

                    Pyrolysis facilities are expected to have minimal air-pollution impacts because

          most of the gas generated in the pyrolysis process is burned as fuel. A report on scrap tire

          recycling in Canada, which was funded by the Enhanced Recycling Program of Action

          Plan 2000 on Climate Change, found there is actually a climate change benefit of

          pyrolysis due to the production of carbon black. Depending on the quality of carbon back

          produced, there can be a benefit of up to 1.2 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of input if it is used

          in place of virgin carbon black (Pehlken & Essadiqi, 2005, p. 46). It was also found by

          the European Tyre Recycling Association that every pyrolysis plant can reduce or

          conserve around 40,000 tonnes of CO2 by replacing current methods producing virgin

          carbon black, which is burning oil or gas feedstocks (CbpCarbon.com, 2007). MedNova

          Tech indicated that the facility would require very low energy input because it would be

          run by energy generated by the pyrolysis products. Therefore MedNova Tech stated that

          the facility would be energy neutral and that excess energy could be sold to the provincial

          grid (LaPierre et al., 2007, pp. 28-29). This is also beneficial because some of the cleaner

          energy obtained from tire pyrolysis could replace some of the coal generated energy in

          the province. Overall it has been found that scrap tire pyrolysis facilities generate

          minimal environmental impacts (CalRecovery, 1995; Williams, 2004); however this will

          be discussed in another section of the paper.




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          (ii) Socio-Political

                    Developing a pyrolysis facility to utilize all of the waste tires in Nova Scotia

          should be accepted by both politicians and citizens, due to the creation of employment

          and business opportunities. MedNova Tech indicated that the proposed pyrolysis facility

          would provide employment for 30 to 44 Nova Scotians. However, if tires were obtained

          from Newfoundland, Labrador and P.E.I., the facility could potentially employ between

          50 and 65 people. The valuable end-products generated from the tire pyrolysis facility,

          namely the steel, carbon black and fuel, could be sold to industrial users. For example,

          recycled carbon black can be used in industrial hoses, mats, roofing materials, printer ink

          and mouldings (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 9). Some of the light hydrocarbons produced such

          as benzene, toluene, xylene and limonene are quite valuable and therefore make pyrolysis

          an even more profitable recycling system (Juma, Korenova, Markos, Annus, &

          Jelemensky, 2006, p. 21). Nova Scotia’s economy would benefit from the sale of these

          goods, while simultaneously solving a waste management problem. Facilitating job

          creation and boosting the economy will ultimately gain public approval and therefore

          should gain political approval.



          (iii) Law and Policy

                    Using pyrolysis as a solution to waste tire management in Nova Scotia, would

          meet the objectives laid out in the Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperities

          strategy. For example, this strategy encourages creating employment opportunities and

          increasing exports to improve Nova Scotia’s economy. Developing a pyrolysis facility

          would create a reasonable number of jobs for Nova Scotians and the end-products



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          generated from pyrolyzing scrap tires would likely be exported to Asia. This would

          ultimately increase monetary flow into the province. This strategy also encourages the

          development of innovative and environmentally sustainable technologies and industries

          in Nova Scotia (Government of Nova Scotia, 2006). Therefore the creation of a pyrolysis

          facility could help to achieve these goals. Some European and Asian countries are

          allocating a reasonable amount of resources towards inventing new pyrolysis techniques.

          For example, a China-Japan International Academic symposium discussed some of the 20

          newly invented and patented pyrolysis technologies that are economically and

          environmentally favourable (Yongrong, Jizhong, & Guibin, 2000). Canada should be

          exploring these kinds of innovative recycling technologies if they want to be a global

          leader in waste management.

                     It is also important to acknowledge that Nova Scotia’s Environmental Goals and

          Sustainable Prosperity Act sets emission reduction targets for a variety of substances

          (2007, s. 4(2)). Because pyrolysis has minimal air-pollution impacts, especially when

          compared to other tire recycling processes such as rubber crumbing (LaPierre et al.,

          2006), it could help meet these environmental goals. Creating a pyrolysis facility would

          also help meet the RRFB’s and the Solid Waste Resource Management Strategy’s goal by

          recovering materials from the waste stream (i.e. tires) and using them to develop value-

          added products in Nova Scotia. It should also be acknowledged that companies may be

          eligible for funding through the RRFB, if the recycling technology proposed is unique to

          the province, and the end-products derived have export potential (RRFB., n.d.). Therefore,

          it is possible that MedNova Tech would be eligible for this funding. Lastly, it appears




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          that the tire recycling facility should meet all regulations under the Nova Scotia

          Environment Act.




          D. Economic Feasibility

                    To determine if the proposed scrap tire pyrolysis facility would be economically

          feasible, it is important to assess the potential start-up/operational costs of the facility,

          and the potential profits that could be gained. Innovative Ecology, which is the North

          American distributor of Jinan Eco-Energy, a pyrolysis company located in China,

          estimated the value of the end-products of scrap tire pyrolysis by averaging prices found

          over the internet. They found that on average, fuel generated from tire pyrolysis could be

          sold for $250/MT, carbon black for $500/MT and steel $80/MT (Innovative Ecology,

          2006). It is also important to mention that as the price of fossil fuels go up, the petroleum

          products derived from tire pyrolysis will likely become increasingly more valuable.

          When the average prices of the pyrolysis end-products were applied to the amount of

          materials MedNova Tech estimated they would produce, it appears they have the

          potential to generate close to $3 million per year.

                    There are significant start-up costs associated with establishing a scrap tire

          pyrolysis facility, which MedNova tech estimated to be around $3.5 million, excluding

          land and buildings (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 28). A report prepared for the California

          Integrated Waste Management Board, which analyzed the start-up and yearly operational

          costs of 14 different waste tire pyrolysis facilities, found on average that land and

          buildings cost $2 million (CalRecovery, 1995, p. 7-3). Therefore, it is likely that the total

          start-up cost for the pyrolysis facility, proposed by MedNova Tech, could be


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          approximately $5.5 million; however this could vary significantly. The total yearly

          operating cost of pyrolysis facilities was estimated to be in the vicinity of $2 million (Ibid,

          p. 7-5). Therefore it is possible that it would take a little over 5 years for the company to

          pay off the initial investment, but after that the company could potentially see close to $1

          million of profit each year. However, these estimates do not include the environmental

          waste tire fee that would also go to the company. Therefore the initial investment could

          be paid off in a shorter amount of time, and profits per year could potentially be higher. It

          is also important to note that scrap tire pyrolysis is a profitable industry in China, even

          though waste tire processing facilities have to buy the used tires as a resource and are not

          financially supported by the government (Shanghai Greenman ECO Science and

          Technology Co. Ltd., n.d.).




          E. Potential Concerns/Considerations

          (i) Biophysical

                    Environmentally, there are a few potential concerns that would need to be

          investigated. The Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center monitored Shanghai

          Greenman ECO Science and Technology Co. Ltd’s pyrolysis technology and determined

          the amount of emissions produced per year. The monitoring center found that 9.2MT of

          NO2, 2.07MT of furnace dust and 1.76MT of carbon black dust was emitted each year

          (Shanghai Greenman ECO Science and Technology Co. Ltd., n.d.). For North American

          scrap tire pyrolysis operations, it has been documented that small amounts of hazardous

          chemicals can be present in tire-derived pyrolytic oil, such as polycyclic aromatic

          hydrocarbons (PAHs), that can be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (CalRecovery, 1995, p.


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          8-2 & Williams, 2004, p. 70). However these hazardous chemicals are also found in

          petroleum derived fuels such as gas oil and light fuel oil (Williams, 2004, p. 70).

                    CalRecovery Inc. (1995) found that the primary sources of pollution from

          pyrolysis facilities in general, would likely be from fugitive emissions. For example,

          particulate matter can sometimes be emitted during handling and processing. Fugitive

          emissions can also be generated from equipment leaks, which can lead to some volatile

          organic compound emissions. However, overall it was concluded that the environmental

          impacts from scrap tire pyrolysis are not substantial (CalRecovery, 1995, p. 8-3).

          Williams (2004) also concluded that “…the pyrolysis of tyres is a viable technological

          and environmentally attractive process route for scrap tyres…”(Williams, 2004, p. 76).



          (ii) Socio-Political

                    Canadian reports have indicated that pyrolysis could be a good waste tire solution,

          but it is not feasible because markets for the end products have not been established in

          Canada (Pehlken & Essadiqi, 2005). This market uncertainty could inhibit politicians and

          other government officials from supporting or going ahead with a tire pyrolysis facility.

          There is currently a thermal conversion plant operating in Ajax, Ontario, however it is

          only a pilot operation (LaPierre et al, 2006, p. 9). Having said this, MedNova Tech has

          stated that they have secured markets for all of the pyrolysis end products (LaPierre et al.,

          2006, p. 29). In addition to this, the pyrolysis report for the California Integrated Waste

          Management Board found that if all products are sold at only 50% of the reported prices,

          an environmental waste tire fee of over $0.61/tire would be sufficient for the company to

          incur a net profit (CalRecovery, 1995, p. 8-5).



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          (iii) Law and Policy

                    There should be minimal potential legal concerns associated with a scrap

          pyrolysis facility. As was mentioned before, the facility should meet all the regulations

          under the Nova Scotia Environment Act. However, it would be important to take

          precautionary measures and frequently monitor emissions, especially when the facility is

          in its early operational stages, to ensure that air pollutants do not exceed the guidelines at

          any point. It is also important that the facility is constructed in such a way that it meets all

          regulations under Nova Scotia’s Building Code Act.




          F. Conclusion/Processes Needed to Successfully Implement Project

                    In general, the pyrolysis facility proposed by MedNova Tech should meet all

          Nova Scotia legislative requirements, create minimal environmental impacts, and should

          have significant benefits for the province’s citizens and the economy. However if this

          management solution is to be further investigated, it is important that there is adequate

          public participation in the project from the start. Because environmental impacts will

          vary with the technology used, it is also important that further research on the

          environmental impacts, specific to the pyrolysis technology Med Nova Tech would be

          using, is conducted so that any uncertainties can be fully explored. Other successful

          pyrolysis companies in China should be investigated as well; and therefore Nova Scotia

          should take up MedNova Tech’s offer to send some representatives to Shanghai and

          Taiwan to view the technology in operation. If the project was to be accepted, MedNova

          Tech would need to provide a comprehensive report on how they plan to implement the


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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          project and what risk management steps will be put into place to ensure environmental

          and social wellbeing. Overall, If these initial steps are taken, constructing a pyrolysis

          facility to utilize all of the scrap tires in Nova Scotia could prove to be an optimal

          solution to this waste management situation.



          6. Interim Solution

                    As was mentioned previously, waste tires in Nova Scotia are currently being sent

          to Quebec for final disposal. 40% of these tires are processed by Royal Mat, a company

          based in Beauceville, which produces rubber products like industrial and animal mats

          (Royal Mat, 2007). These are rubber crumb value-added products (LaPierre et al, 2007,

          p.13). The remaining 60% of the province’s tires are sent to a facility in Saint-Constant

          and are used to produce Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) for Lafarge Canada.

                    There are two main problems with this situation. Firstly, transportation related

          emissions, as well as costs, must be considered when reviewing alternatives for the

          processing of waste tires. Thus, processing waste tires closer to, or within, Nova Scotia is

          more desirable than sending them away as it decreases both emissions and costs directly

          incurred solely from transporting tires to their processing location. Lafarge Canada and

          Royal Mat are located a long distance from Nova Scotia; 1257km and 1082km from

          Halifax, respectively. These refer to driving distances, as waste tires are currently being

          trucked to their processing destinations (Desautels, 2008). As Appendix 10 shows, the

          energy from transport for the distance to either facility in Quebec does not exceed the

          energy recoverable from scrap tires. However, if this transportation related energy was

          decreased, more energy could be recovered from scrap tires. As fuel costs rise (see


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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          Appendix 11), the cost-effectiveness of transporting waste tires greater distances

          decreases. Although companies like Lafarge Canada are often responsible for

          transportation costs (as opposed to the RRFB having to fund it), increased fuel prices still

          affect the benefits for such companies to continue processing Nova Scotian waste tires.

                     Secondly, sending Nova Scotian waste tires to a facility that produces Tire

          Derived Fuel is concerning, considering that the Government of Nova Scotia decided not

          to pursue the use of TDF in the province (NS Environment and Labour, 2008). Part of the

          reason for this decision was that TDF was not entirely compatible with the Province’s

          newly developed Opportunities for Sustainable Prosperity Strategy. This strategy is

          based on ensuring that Nova Scotia continues to thrive in terms of sustainable

          competitiveness, a term that deals with more than economic prosperity, “encompassing

          [our] health, [our] education, [our] environment, and [our] social standards” (Nova Scotia

          Economic Development, 2006, p. 13). As it pertains to waste tire management, any

          management strategy chosen must be in line with the five capitals outlined in the strategy

          (human, built, natural, social, and financial), in order to be truly sustainable in the long-

          term. Essentially, due to public opposition in Nova Scotia, the proposal to use TDF was

          not in line with the social capital section of the strategy.

                    Ultimately, sending Nova Scotia’s waste tires to a difference province in order to

          be combusted for fuel, when it was decided that these tires could not undergo the same

          treatment within Nova Scotia, is ethically questionable. Although the province of Quebec

          and the Lafarge Canada facility may be happy to receive these waste tires, the issue arises

          in the Government of Nova Scotia’s lack of consistency in terms of decision-making. It




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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          should not be acceptable for these emissions to be generated somewhere else if it was

          decided not to be acceptable for them to be generated in Nova Scotia.

                    Due to the above-mentioned issues, it is recommended that sending Nova Scotia’s

          waste tires for processing to Quebec be ceased as soon as possible. Even though it may

          be categorized as an interim solution, it does not seem like the best option for Nova

          Scotia. While a scrap tire facility is being established in Nova Scotia, a better interim

          solution would be to send the waste tires to the TRACC facility in Minto, New

          Brunswick. Although this interim solution still requires transportation, the driving

          distance between Halifax and Minto is 384 km, saving between 0.083 kg and 0.21 kg of

          CO2 emissions for each one-way trip (depending on the types of trucks used in transport)

          (Appendix 12). In addition to the decreased transportation related emissions, the

          government of Nova Scotia would no longer be portraying a negative imagine, in terms

          of decision-making consistency. Although a portion of the waste tires processed at the

          TRACC facility will be made into rubber crumb, this product is more socio-politically in

          line with Nova Scotia’s long term sustainability goals than the current situation

          (supporting the use of TDF outside of the province). The TRACC facility has expressed

          interest in processing Nova Scotia’s waste tires as they currently only provide 0.5% of

          the demand for their rubber crumb products (LaPierre et al, 2007, p. 42).

                    It is important to keep in mind that this is an intermediate solution. Part of the

          long-term recommendations outlined previously in the report (Tire Derived Aggregate

          and pyrolysis), is that a scrap tire recycling facility be established in Nova Scotia. Thus,

          although sending waste tires to the TRACC facility is more beneficial than sending them




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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          to Quebec, it is not the desired long term solution for the processing of waste tires in

          Nova Scotia.



          7. Research and Development

                    It is important to understand that current technologies are evolving continuously.

          Both industry and scientific sectors are focusing on improving existing machinery and

          processing techniques to make waste tire management alternatives more appealing. This

          is the case for both recommendations set forth in this report as well as other emerging

          technologies like devulcanization. To exemplify this ever growing body of knowledge,

          only a handful of devulcanization techniques are currently in operation worldwide, most

          are small scale. Although there is a lack of test data and adequate interpretation for new

          systems, much effort is focusing on this process (CalRecovery, 2004, pp. 65-66).

                    Other interesting research areas include tire design. An example of such

          developments is that of the Super Nanopower Rubber designed by Yokohama Rubber

          Company, based in Japan. Components of this rubber include orange oil and natural

          rubber. This apparently creates a more flexible rubber that reduces friction, thus

          improving both fuel efficiency and tire life (Santos Ballon, 2008). Although other tire

          manufacturers like Goodyear and Michelin have already released similar low rolling

          resistance tires, these tires do not incorporate fruit oils, a substance that is completely

          environmentally benign.

                    When researching new scrap tire recycling technologies, it is important to note

          that industrial symbiotic relationships can be used to save energy consumption. For

          example, a typical LNG facility produces LNG when “when natural gas is cooled to a


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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          temperature of approximately minus 162ΕC at atmospheric pressure” (NS Department of

          Energy, 2005). This excess of cold energy is usually wasted. As explained in a previous

          section, the cryogenic process of producing rubber crumb also requires very low

          temperature to operate. Thus, waste tires could be in part recycled using the “free” energy

          supplied by the LNG processing (R. Cote, personal communication, April 8, 2008).

          Although this report does not recommend the use of rubber crumb for the Province, it is

          crucial to keep unorthodox ideas in mind.



          8. Overarching Recommendations

                    Independently of which recommendation is finally chosen for the processing of

          waste tires in Nova Scotia, several important overarching recommendations should be

          implemented in order to increase the long term success of the waste tire management

          program. These recommendations are important, because they bridge potential gaps

          between the technical feasibility of the recommendations and both social acceptance, and

          law and policy approvals. In addition, these recommendations increase Nova Scotia’s

          commitment to technical innovation and research into sustainable waste management and

          industry practices.

                    Firstly, public participation is crucial to the success of any new waste tire

          management approach. As was seen in the case of Tire Derived Fuel, it is very difficult to

          implement an alternative that faces social opposition. There are several underlying

          reasons for social opposition, namely the fear of a new technology and the lack of

          knowledge surrounding the topic. Whatever the reason for opposition, the inclusion of the

          individuals and communities that will be directly affected by the chosen alternative (for


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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          example, if the facility is to be built in close proximity) is primordial. Although section

          23(1)(a) of the Nova Scotia Environmental Assessment Regulations requires that the

          public be consulted before a decision is rendered concerned a proposed project involving

          environmental risks, an additional public consultation step is recommended here. The

          public should be included in the process from the very beginning of the discussion about

          the alternatives at hand. The public should be informed and consulted before a decision is

          made as to which recommendation will be pursued, thus avoiding opposition in later

          stages of the project (Shepherd & Bowler, 1997, p. 735). Additionally, the public should

          be involved during the facility’s planning phase by means of providing suggestions and

          voicing concerns. Once the facility is in operation, it is also important to maintain public

          participation to some extent. This could take the form of a citizen’s advisory committee

          or council that is informed of the facility’s progress and day to day operations (Lynn &

          Busenberg, 1995, p. 160).

                    Secondly, educating consumers is crucial to any waste tire management program.

          Education in this case plays a role in diminishing opposition toward the alternative

          chosen for waste tire management. If consumers and citizens have more knowledge about

          waste tires, the importance of dealing with the issue, and the possible alternatives for

          management, there will be less fear-related opposition. A study carried out by the

          California Integrated Waste Management Board found that consumers generally had

          “incomplete and/or incorrect information about […] tire recycling, and tire disposal”

          (2003, p. 49). Some effort has been concentrated on proper tire maintenance awareness,

          for example through the Federal Be Tire Smart Campaign, which seeks to encourage

          consumers to maintain their tires with the goal of extending tire life as well as reducing



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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          fuel consumption. However, additional awareness campaigns, focussing specifically on

          waste tires and their management, would be beneficial. These kinds of campaigns can

          increase consumer buy-in, both in terms of the waste tire management alternative chosen

          for the province as well as for any value-added products that are produced from waste

          tires. The New Brunswick Tire Stewardship Program includes a basic awareness

          campaign for citizens through their website (NB Tire Stewardship Board, 2008). Nova

          Scotia’s RRFB, whose mandate includes to “develop education and awareness programs”

          (RRFB, 2008), could be responsible for establishing a similar awareness program. In

          addition to information accessible through the RRFB’s website, providing more

          comprehensive information to tire retailers about waste tires would allow the information

          to reach more consumers. Approximately 50% of tire customers inquire about tire

          disposal and recycling practices (California Integrated Waste Management Board, 2003,

          p. 120).

                    Thirdly, although rubber and tire life cycle considerations were outside the scope

          of this project, providing incentives to tire manufacturing companies for the continued

          development of new tire designs and the encouragement of more sustainable rubber

          harvesting practices is very important. Although rubber continues to be in high demand

          for various products, a shift toward more sustainable practices, in terms of both the

          environment and social equity, is imperative. As seen in the Research and Development

          section, there are several new tire design developments in progress, some of which may

          affect the waste tire management industry. These incentives could include investment

          into such research areas and funding toward local initiatives as the RRFB does have a




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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          Research and Development Program for initiatives that support the Solid Waste-Resource

          Management Strategy in Nova Scotia (RRFB, 2008).

                    When attempting to manage waste as a resource, the question of generating more

          waste or consuming a large amount of energy arises. The Government of Nova Scotia

          expressed a desire to move in the direction of zero emission and waste generation as well

          as no net energy use in its Opportunities for Sustainable Prosperity Strategy (Nova

          Scotia Economic Development, 2006). Therefore, the combination of various

          environmentally friendly technologies, such as the use of renewable energy in the

          operation of a waste tire processing facility would be a beneficial initiative. Not only is

          the use of renewable energy like solar and wind power environmentally friendly, but it

          also displays a commitment to sustainability and to the use of innovative technologies.

          Another suggestion would be to implement various green building technologies into any

          new facility handling waste tires. Ideally, such a facility could undergo a green building

          certification process, such as the LEED Canada certification (Canada Green Building

          Council, 2008). This could help create publicity for the Province's waste tire management

          program, thus working toward establishing Nova Scotia as a leader in waste management

          practices.

                    In terms of law and policy, the waste tire management alternatives would be

          greatly enhanced by their inclusion into developing as well as established policies, like

          the Canada-wide Principles for Extended Producer Responsibility recommended by the

          Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. This policy focuses on the concept

          that “producer’s responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of a

          product’s life cycle” (Environment Canada, 2007, p. 1). This is quite important in terms



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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          of virgin tire manufacturing as well as the production of value-added products that may

          still need to be disposed of after their useful life. A main tenet of this policy is the attempt

          to “design for the environment”, where the design of a product is examined in order to

          attempt to “minimize its environmental footprint” (Ibid.). Another policy that would

          enhance the desirability and effectiveness of any alternative chosen is Nova Scotia's

          Environmentally Responsible Procurement Policy. This policy aims to promote the

          demand for environmentally friendly goods and services, which are “considered to have a

          reduced negative effect on the environment over their full life cycle when compared with

          competing products or services”, including the use of raw materials, waste generation,

          energy consumption, and harmful emissions releases (Environmentally Responsible

          Procurement Policy, 2005, p. 1). Finally, it is crucial that any value-added tires products

          be specified under the landfill ban on tires, because otherwise these products could end

          up in a landfill at the end of their useful life, thereby rendering the waste tire management

          program highly ineffective.



          9. Conclusion

                    Several waste tire management alternatives were reviewed throughout this report,

          and ultimately two were recommended as optimal solutions for Nova Scotia. Among the

          two recommendations set forth, they each offer unique benefits and neither option is

          necessarily better than the other. Ultimately, the decision to choose one over the other

          depends on Nova Scotia's long term goals. Tire Derived Aggregate is referred to as a

          conservative recommendation, because the manufacturing of value-added goods from

          recovered products has already been established in Canada and markets have been


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          secured. pyrolysis, on the other hand, would be a more innovative approach as it has not

          really been explored in Canada and would provide Nova Scotia with a leading-edge in

          sustainable technologies, especially within Atlantic Canada.

                    In terms of a process that would aid the government in choosing an appropriate

          option for Nova Scotia, it is recommended that a strategic planning committee be

          established, which would work closely with the RRFB. The first step of the process is to

          carry out additional research, particularly concerning pyrolysis, in order to gain more

          knowledge about potential environmental impacts. Secondly, the public will then be both

          informed and included in the decision-making process. Once the public has expressed an

          overall satisfaction with an option, the committee will put out a request for bids from

          industry, thereby providing a both fair and comprehensive mechanism for choosing a

          company to administer the waste tire management program. Once both the committee

          and the RRFB have decided on a successful bidder, the facility planning process will

          begin.

                    This report has reviewed the waste tire management issue in Nova Scotia and it is

          clear that a decision must be made to discontinue current processing practices and

          establish a waste tire industry locally. This industry would provide enhanced social

          stability (by encouraging employment) and environmental sustainability, as well as

          economic well-being. These achievements would bring Nova Scotia closer to its current

          long term goal, which, as outlined in its Opportunities for Sustainable Prosperity

          Strategy, is to be “the best place in Canada to live, work, do business, and raise families”

          (Nova Scotia Economic Development, 2006, p. 12).




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          Pehlken, A., & Essadiqi, E.. (2005). Scrap tire recycling in Canada. CANMET Materials
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               http://www.recycle.nrcan.gc.ca/Scrap%20Tire%20Recycling%20-
                 %20Pehlken%20Final.pdf

          Pegg, M. J., Amyotte, P. R., Fels, M., Cumming, C. R. R., & Poushay, J. C. (2007). As
               assessment of the use of tires as an alternative fuel. Halifax, Nova Scotia:
               Dalhousie University.

          Recycling Today. (2000). Scrap-tire recycling rates rising above other materials.
                 Retrieved February 5, 2008, from
                 http://www.recyclingtoday.com/news/news.asp?ID=400

          Reisman, J.I. (1997). Air emissions from scrap tire combustion. Springfield, Virginia: US
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               http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/dir1/tire_eng.pdf

          Reschner, K. (2006). Scrap tire recycling: A summary of prevalent disposal and recycling
                methods. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from
                http://www.energymanagertraining.com/tyre/pdf/ScrapTireRecycling.pdf

          Resource Recovery Fund Board Inc. (n.d.) Value-added manufacturing approved
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          Revertex (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. (n.d.). Vulcanization. Retrieved April 14, 2008, from
               http://www.bouncing-balls.com/chemistry_tech_conservation/vulcanization.htm

          Royal Mat. (2007). Homepage. Retrieved January 15, 2008, from
               http://royalmat.com/navig/english.html

          RRFB (Resource Recovery Fund Board). (n.d.). Used tire management program.
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              http://www.rrfb.com/pages/programs/used_tire_qanda.cfm




                                                               - 62 of 73 -
This Report was prepared by graduate students at the School for Resource and Environmental Studies,Dalhousie University, in partial fulfillment
       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          Rubber Manufacture Association. (2006). Scrap tire markets in the United States.
              Retrieved March 2, 2008, from
              https://www.rma.org/publications/scrap_tires/index.cfm?PublicationID=11453

          R.W. Beck and Associates. (2005). Final report : analysis of New York scrap tire
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               http://www.nylovesbiz.com/pdf/polution_prevention_recycle/tirereport06.pdf

          Santos Ballon, M.(2008). Yokohama rolls on orange oil. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from
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          Shalaby. A., & Khan. R. A. (2005). Design of unsurfaced roads constructed with large-
               size shredded rubber tires: A case study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling,
               44(4), 318-332.

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                Canadian portland cement industry: Plant information summaryPortland Cement
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              Revised technical guidelines on environmentally sound management of used tyres.
              Geneva: United Nations.

          United States Patent 7341646. (2008). Low energy method of pyrolysis of hydrocarbon
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               http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/7341646-description.html



                                                               - 63 of 73 -
This Report was prepared by graduate students at the School for Resource and Environmental Studies,Dalhousie University, in partial fulfillment
       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1991), Markets for scrap tires.
               Retrieved March 24, 2008 from http://www.epa.gov/garbage/tires/tires.pdf

          United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007a). Tire derived fuel. Retrieved
               March 18, 2008, from http://www.epa.gov/garbage/tires/tdf.htm

          United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007b). Tire-derived fuel frequent
               questions. Retrieved April 3, 2008, 2008, from
               http://www.epa.gov/garbage/tires/faq-tdf.htm

          URS. (2006). Technology and market development for tyre derived products. Prepared
               for the Australia Department of Environment and Conservation in conjunction with
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               http://www.zerowastewa.com.au/documents/tech_mark_tyre_derived_products.pdf

           Williams, P., T. (2004). Pyrolysis; an environmentally attractive recycling route for used
                tyres. Used/Post-Consumer Tyres. Retrieved from:
                http://books.google.ca/books?id=Gsw65JuzGwoC&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=was
                te+tyre+technologies&source=web&ots=IXKs9qBaPc&sig=fBBYV0XIo5WiTi9-
                d4yi_cAJmqs&hl=en#PPP1,M1

          Yongrong, Y., Jizhong, C. and Guibin, Z. (2000). Technical advance on the pyrolysis of
              used tires in China. China-Japan International Academic Symposium
              Environmental Problem in Chinese Iron-Steelmaking and Effective Technology
              Transfer. Retrieved from: http://www.cir.tohoku.ac.jp/omura-
              p/omuraCDM/symp_jc/10yang.pdf




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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.




          Appendices

          Appendix 1: Tire Manufacture




          (Maxxis, 2008)

                  The tire production process begins with a rubber compound mixing operation and
          fabric and steel cord manufacture which are shown in section 1 and 2. The banbury mixer
          combines rubber, oils, carbon black, pigments, and other additives into a batch of black
          material with the consistency of gum. Steel and fabric cords are used to reinforce the
          rubber compound and provide strength to the tire (Maxxis, 2008). The three sections in
          the middle of the chart are the most important parts of the tire manufacturing process.
          The rubber compound is pressed on and into fabric cords, steel belts, inner liner, and
          bead(s) for calendaring. Tire components, such as tread and sidewall, are prepared by
          forcing the uncured rubber compound through an extruder to shape the tire tread and
          sidewall profiles (Maxxis, 2008).
                  Once that is accomplished, all the tire resulting parts are transferred to a highly
          robotized machine in section 6 to build the uncured tire. In the tire curing process, a
          series of chemical processes occur under high temperatures and a high pressure operation.




                                                               - 65 of 73 -
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          Subsequently, the cured tire will be inspected to ensure tire quality in terms of both
          performance and safety (Maxxis, 2008).


          Appendix 2: European Union Rubber Material Uses 1992-2005




            (The European Tyre Recycling Association, 2008)



          Appendix 3: Civil Engineering Use in the United States from 1992-2005




          (USEPA, 2007)


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          Appendix 4: USA TDF Market Trends 1990-2007




          (RMA, 2006)



          Appendix 5: Canadian Scrap Tire Use Trends 2005




          (Canadian Association of Tire Recycling Agencies, 2006)



                                                               - 67 of 73 -
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          Appendix 6: European Union Use of Shreds and Chips 2005




          (The European Tyre Recycling Association, 2008)



          Appendix 7: Opportunities for Sustainable Prosperity Strategy




          (Nova Scotia Economic Development, 2006, p. 3)



                                                               - 68 of 73 -
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          Appendix 8: Crumb Rubber Energy Consumption




          (Pehlken & Essadiqi, 2005)


          Appendix 9: Highly Variable Emissions from TDF

          The table below contains dioxin and furan emissions data that has been compiled from
          tests at various facilities co-firing 4-30% TDF. The results vary considerably, ranging
          from a decrease of 83% to an increase of 4,140%

                         Data From                            TDF Content                   Dioxins/Furans Emissions (compared to
                                                            (% TDF compared                       emissions from 100% coal)
                                                              to 100% coal)
                 4 California Cement Kilns                        <20%                        Increased between 53% and 100%
                 5 Canadian Cement Kilns                                                    Increased 37% and 247% in two tests;
                                                                                           Decreased 54% and 55% in two other tests
               Victorville, CA Cement Kiln                        24.6%                           Dioxins increased 139-184%
                                                                                                    Furans increased 129%
               Cupertino, CA Cement Kiln                                                                Increased 30%
               Davenport, CA Cement Kiln                            30%                 Dioxins increased 398% and 1,425% in two tests
                                                                                         Furans increased 58% and 2,230% in two tests
               Davenport, CA Cement Kiln                            20%                                    Increased 25%
             Lucerne Valley, CA Cement Kiln                         20%                    Dioxins and some dibenzofurans increased
                 Chester, PA Paper Mill                            4-8%                                  Increased 4,140%
             U Iowa, Iowa City, IA Industrial                       4%                                    Decreased 44%
                         Boiler
             U Iowa, Iowa City, IA Industrial                       8%                                     Decreased 83%
                         Boiler

          (Energy Justice Network, n.d.)




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                  The graphs below show widely fluctuating particulate emissions data from the
          Padeswood cement kiln in Flintshire, North Wales. The data is from an emissions
          monitoring organization, called Emission-Watch, which takes continuous readings of
          particulates in the air around the facility every 15 seconds. Emission-Watch then
          averages the readings for every 15 minute period and plots them onto graphs which show
          emissions trends for the week. The horizontal solid line indicates the mean 24-hour
          regulatory limit in that jurisdiction, which is 50 µg/m3. Although the regulatory limit
          denoted in the graphs is different from the regulatory limit in Nova Scotia 3 , the graphs
          are nonetheless useful to demonstrate the magnitude of particulate emissions recorded
          from the Padeswood facility, since the scale of the graphs varies so widely around the 50
          µg/m3 marker. The three graphs included in this Appendix show emissions trends for the
          same week, but from three different monitors placed strategically around the kiln
          (Emission-Watch, 2008).




          3
           According to Schedule A of the Air Quality Regulations made pursuant to section 112 of the Environment
          Act, maximum permissible ground level concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) are a 120 µg/m3
          average over a 24 hour period or a 70 µg/m3 average (geometric mean) per annum.


                                                               - 70 of 73 -
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          (Emission-Watch, 2008)




                                                               - 71 of 73 -
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.



          Appendix 10: Maximum transport distance before the energy from transport

          exceeds the energy recoverable from scrap tires


            Transport mode                                                     Distance in km

            Light commercial                                                                         5,400
            Rigid truck                                                                              7,714
            Articulated truck                                                                      19,286
            Rail                                                                                   54,000
            Sea                                                                                    90,000

          (Pehlken & Essadiqi, 2005)



          Appendix 11: 2002-2008 Average Retail Price Chart in Nova Scotia and Crude Oil

          Prices




           (NovaScotiaGasPrices.com, 2008)


          Appendix 14: Calculations for Emissions Savings

          As per table in Appendix 3:
          0.873 tonne km * 0.240 CO2/tonne km = 0.20952 kg CO2
          0.873 tonne km * 0.095 CO2/tonne km = 0.082935 kg CO2

          (NovaScotiaGasPrices.com, 2008)




                                                               - 72 of 73 -
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       of the requirements for the Master of Resource and Environmental Management Program during the 2008/2009 academic year.




          Appendix 12: Calculations for Emissions Savings



            Transport mode                            MJ/tonne km Kg CO2/tonne
             Light commercial                                               5.0                               0.350
             Rigid truck                                                    3.5                               0.240
             Articulated truck                                              1.4                               0.095
             Rail                                                           0.5                               0.035
             Sea                                                            0.3                               0.022
          (Pehlken & Essadiqi, 2005)

          0.873 tonne km * 0.240 CO2/tonne km = 0.20952 kg CO2
          0.873 tonne km * 0.095 CO2/tonne km = 0.082935 kg CO2




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