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									Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                            May 2005


       Background Research Paper produced for the South Africa
       Environment Outlook report on behalf of the Department of
                 Environmental Affairs and Tourism

                                     Text and Research By:
                                    Hazel Fiehn and Jarrod Ball
                                     Jarrod Ball & Associates

                                           Peer Review By:
                                              Peter Novella
                                   Institute for Waste Management

                                             May 2005

  This specialist study was commissioned by SRK Consulting (SRK) on behalf of the
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) as part of the National State
     of the Environment Reporting Programme. The material has been used in the
compilation of the South Africa Environment Outlook report. The views it contains are
    not necessarily the views of DEAT or SRK. The DEAT and SRK do not accept
   responsibility in respect of any information or advice given in relation to or as a
                       consequence of anything contained herein.

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                         May 2005


This section on the state of waste management in South Africa outlines current waste
management practices, quantifies and qualifies waste generation, collection, treatment disposal
and minimisation and specifies what problems are currently being experienced with waste
management and what is being introduced to address these.

Over the last decade waste management has been prioritised within environmental management
as well as within the various governmental departments regulating these functions. Globally,
waste has also become a prominent issue as highlighted by discussions held at the World
Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002. The Summit promotes
development which takes into account strategies which are socially, environmentally and
economically sustainable. During this last ten year period, the focus on service delivery has
been emphasised together with local economic development programmes and poverty
alleviation projects. Local municipalities have also become more accountable to their
communities, ensuring that they have an integrated waste management plan in place to
adequately provide an equitable service to all. With the increase in economic development
came an increase in commercial, industrial, hazardous, mining, power generation waste and
radioactive waste, all which have to be regulated and managed under the National
Environmental Management Act (NEMA), the Environment Conservation Act (ECA), the
National Water Act (NWA) and the MPRDA. Within both the public and the private sector,
waste needs to be managed according to the following principles - accountability; affordability;
cradle to grave management; polluter pays; equity; sustainable development; integration; open
information; subsidiarity; waste avoidance and minimisation; co-operative governance; and
environmental protection and justice.

Key issues which face South Africa include the lack of available or current waste information
from all sectors, illegal dumping and illegal dump sites, salvaging at waste disposal facilities,
use of unpermitted landfills by municipalities, limited environmentally accepted landfill
airspace, large portions of the population not receiving a weekly or adequate waste collection
service, recycling not generally undertaken or encouraged by municipalities, waste minimisation
which is almost exclusively industry driven, government departments’ lack of waste databases,
lack of regulation and enforcement of legislation and limited waste related legislation.

The potential effect of waste on the environment and human settlement

When not properly managed, waste has a varied number of direct and indirect impacts on the
environment, which is spurred on by the lack of planning, poor service delivery, inadequate
waste site operation, human indifference, lack of environmental consciousness by industry and
by limited enforcement of statutory regulations. The affect of waste on the environment is
primarily negative with few social and environmental benefits, which can be derived from the
waste stream. These include:

Negative impacts
•  Waste can affect ecosystems and could change biomes (if species are eradicated).
•  Streams situated close to a site can be contaminated from leachate1 generated by the landfill.
•  Ground water (borehole water) can also become contaminated if leachate percolates into the
•  Emissions and releases of contaminants into the air from landfills, incineration, illegal
   burning of waste and releases of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) such as dioxins and furans

          A dark aqueous solution with a pollution potential which is generated when water percolates
        through waste.

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                          May 2005

      which could be harmful to health, while CH4 and CO2 increases emissions of greenhouse
•     Waste is malodorous and can become a nuisance factor and a health hazard.
•     Sterilisation of land occurs when large volumes of waste are disposed on the land. The final
      landuse is then limited to open spaces, recreational areas and the like.
•     Pathogens, diseases and viruses found in waste can pose a health risk.
•     Safety risks are found in hazardous waste or health care waste if an individual comes into
      contact with these and is exposed to these wastes.

    Box 1: Waste definitions and classification
    The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) Minimum Requirements and
    the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) has formalised the definition and
    classification of waste to improve on the management and the control thereof:
    General waste means waste that does not pose an immediate threat to man or the
    environment, i.e. household waste, builders' rubble, garden waste, and certain dry in-
    dustrial and business waste. It may, however, with decomposition, infiltration and
    percolation, produce leachate, which is unacceptable (DWAF 1998a).
    Hazardous waste means waste which is associated with the chemical reactivity or
    toxic, explosive, corrosive or other characteristics which cause, or are likely to cause,
    danger to health or the environment, whether alone or in contact with other waste
    (DWAF 1998a). DWAF have classified hazardous wastes into 9 different classes.
    Health Care Risk Waste (Medical waste) means all hazardous waste generated at
    health care facilities including, but not limited to, hospitals, clinics, laboratories,
    medical research institutions, dental and medical practitioners and veterinarians, and
    includes infectious, pathological, chemical (including discarded chemicals and
    pharmaceuticals), sharps and radioactive waste (GDACEL 2004).
    Mining waste or “residue stockpile” as referred to in the Minerals and Petroleum
    Resources Development Act (MPRD) means any debris, discard, tailings, slimes,
    screening, slurry, waste rock, foundry sand, beneficiation plant waste, ash or any
    other product derived from or incidental to a mining operation and which is stockpiled
    or accumulated for potential re-use, or which is disposed of, by the holder of a mining
    right, mining permit or production right (RSA 2002).
    Power generation waste means ash produced by or resulting from activities at an
    undertaking for the generation of electricity under the provisions of the Electricity
    Act, 1987 (DEAT 1990).
    Radioactive waste means any radioactive material (substance consisting of, or
    containing, any radioactive nuclide), whether natural or artificial destined to be
    disposed of as waste material (RSA 1999).

•     The decaying of waste attracts vermin and harbours vectors.
•     The disposal of waste both formally and informally changes the natural topography of land.
•     Litter and illegal dumping is aesthetically unpleasant and leads to urban decay.
•     Decline in property prices can result in areas close to landfills.
•     Waste placed in low lying areas could block or impede the flow of water which could result
      in flooding.
•     Diversion of natural water courses could result from planned or unplanned waste disposal.

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                       May 2005

    Box 2: The impact of a landfill on surrounding communities
    – A case study in Rustenburg
    Landfill sites are currently an important aspect for
    implementation of the cradle to grave approach of waste
    management. However if not sited, engineered and operated
    correctly, as is often the case in South Africa, negative impacts
    can be numerous and enduring. Nevertheless, improved
    operation can have a marked decrease in environmental impacts
    as evidenced at the Townlands landfill in Rustenburg. Over the
    last five years, planners have allowed formal residential
    development and low cost housing, closer and closer to the
    landfill with little regard for the landfill buffer zone. Because
    of previous poor operations at the site, prior to May 2004, when
    a specialist landfill contractor was appointed, dust, smoke and
    the fumes from burning waste and tyres by the informal
    salvager population was affecting the adjacent residents. The
    informal salvagers compromised the standard of the operation
    and wind blown litter, odour and an increase in the fly
    population were noticeable effects. Furthermore, the informal
    salvagers were exposed to various health and safety risks posed
    by both general waste as well as health care waste and
    condemned food stuffs, as the site did not have access control
    in place. Although the site’s aesthetics, odour and operation
    have subsequently improved substantially with the contractor
    on site, and the salvaging activity is in the process of being
    formalised, the continued development of residential structures
    adjacent to the toe of the landfill, presents other potential
    dangers and hazards such as the migration and threat related to
    landfill gas and potential stability problems of the landfill.

Positive impacts
•   Job creation initiatives have resulted from the reclamation, recycling and reuse of waste,
    which has increased income in the poorer sector of the population.
•   Waste can be used as a resource such as fuel (tyres and other wastes are used in the cement
    kilns), or as input raw material such as molasses in feedstock.
•   Recycling reduces the use of virgin material and leads to saving resources thereby adhering
    to the principles of sustainable development.

What is the state of waste in South Africa?

Because waste management is composed of various components and activities, which provide
for different types of information, each component of waste management (generation, service
delivery, recycling, treatment and disposal) is discussed separately below, together with specific
information related to the different waste types.


With the increase in the standard of living comes the provision of energy, improved health and
hygiene, provision of housing, recreation, employment and improved urban design. An
important outcome of this improvement within society is the generation of more waste. The
waste profile for waste generated in 1997 (Figure 1.1) is the most up-to-date information on all
waste types generated nationally for the various sectors indicated (DWAF 1998b).

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                            May 2005

                        Agriculture and      Pow er
                           forestry        generation
                               4%             4%
       Domestic and                                              3%

              Sew age sludge


Source: DWAF (1998)
Figure 1.1: Waste generation profile for South Africa in 1998

General waste

The baseline (DWAF 1998b) and
Department of Environmental                 Box 3: Tyres
Affairs and Tourism (DEAT)                  SA's vehicle population stands at over 7 million and is
1992 studies indicate that the total        growing at a rate of about 2 % per year! If each vehicle
general waste generation from               has a set of tyres replaced each year, a total of 28
households,             commerce,           million tyres will either be reused (retreads) or be
institutions and the manufacturing          disposed of in 2005 ( 2004). Tyres are
industry was approximately 13.5             seen as a problematic waste, in terms of disposal. The
to 15 million tonnes per annum,             increased use of tyres as an energy source in the
which will have increased over              cement industry is becoming a popular disposal or
the last seven years due to                 reuse alternative, with a great deal more alternative
population       increases      and         uses and recycling options available for this waste type.
economic growth.             Waste          A Waste Tyre Regulation has been drafted by the
generation rates determined from            DEAT and is planned to be promulgated towards the
these studies, indicate that                end of 2005.
Gauteng followed by the Western             • The primary objective is to establish a Regulation
Cape have the highest per capita                to control the collection and disposal of waste tyres
waste generation rates for general              in South Africa through a network of registered
waste as well as percentage waste               waste tyre collection agents and accredited waste
generation 2(Figure 1.2).         In            tyre users.
addition     to    the   quantities         • Other objectives are to encourage the establishment
mentioned       above,    industrial            of a sustainable, environmentally sound, waste tyre
wastes generated, handled and                   user industry, promoting component recycling and
disposed of in-house (on-site)                  energy recovery, with a view to attaining the goal
amounts to approximately 22                     of zero waste tyre disposal to landfill and for
million t/a (DWAF 1998b).                       positive job and wealth creation.

              The amount of general waste generated by each province as a percentage

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                                                                                           May 2005

                               45%                                                                                                                         800

                                                                                                                                                                 Waste generation rate (kg/cap/a)
                                                                                                                                                       675 700

 Perc entage (% ) generation
                               35%                                                                                                                         600
                               30%                                                                                             547
                                                                                                 518                                                       500
                               10%                       199                                                                                               200
                                5%           113                                                                                           103             100
                                0%                                                                                                                         0













                                                                                                  r th









                                                                                                               r th





                                                               Percentage generation by province                 kg/cap/annum

Source: DWAF (1998b)
Figure 1.2 Average general waste generation per province per annum and the percentage generation per

On average, a calculated figure of 8 864 000 t of domestic waste requiring collection and
disposal is generated nationally (Mid 2004), based on the application of different income group
waste generation rates (Table 1.1) (DWAF 1998b, DACEL 2003, Rustenburg Local
Municipality 2005). This is predicted to rise to some 9 695 000 t or more by the year 2010
(1.4% population growth rate) with an accumulative increase over the six years (2004-2010) of
811 000 t.

Table 1.1. Variables used to calculate the amount of domestic waste generated

 Income levels                Percentage         Mid 2004
                                                   Waste          Domestic waste
                              population        population
                                                 generation        generated (t/a)
                              distribution     distribution
                                  (%)           (kg/cap/day)
Low                                   73.97        34 471 562
                                                          0.41           5 158 669
Middle                                21.44         9 989 795
                                                          0.74           2 698 244
High                                   4.59         2 138 644
                                                          1.29           1 006 981
TOTAL                                   100        46 600 002            8 863 894
Source: DWAF (1998b), GDACEL (2004), Rustenburg (2005), Statistics South Africa (2004)

Hazardous waste

Approximately 309 556 t/a, mainly domestic with some industrial waste sludge, is generated in
South Africa (Herselman et al 2005), given that only one third of the population receives
waterborne sewage (draft National Sanitation Strategy 2004). With an additional 200 000 new
households expected to be developed every year, the amount of sewage sludge generated will
increase exponentially and creative and environmentally sound ways of disposing of this sludge
will have to be introduced.

Medical waste (health care waste) generation is currently not recorded by most of the provincial
health departments or environmental departments. However, the NWMS health care waste
project initiated by the national department is looking at obtaining generator information.

         Background Research Paper: Waste
         South Africa Environment Outlook                                                           May 2005

         Hazardous waste generated per sector has been described for the 1997/1998 national perspective
         (DWAF 1998b). The mining sector generates the greatest proportion of waste which generally
         include for tailings dams, slag dams, rock dumps and the like. The only additional work
         undertaken since 1997 was by the Western Cape where a 68 % increase in generation was
         documented from 1997 to 2002. (DWAF 1998b, Western Cape Department of Environmental
         Affairs and Development documentation). This gives some indication of the potential increase
         in hazardous waste generation in the major centres.

         Table 1.2. Division of hazardous waste generated per industrial group and classification

Industrial sector                                 Hazard rating
     group             Hazard          Hazard       Hazard       Hazard             Hazard          Total per
                      Group 1*        group 2*     Group 3*     Group 4*           Group 5*          sector
Non-metallurgical        22 313         148 205      281 167     4 772 190         10 149 134       15 373 009
Metallurgical and            0             11      334 698       4 566 830                 0          4 901 539
Service                      0        33 300         14 001      1 654 098        20 190 000         21 891 399
Mining                     180     1 046 489         12 317      34775629        34 0807 436        376 642 051
Total                   22 493     1 228 005       642 183 45 765 747            371 146 570        418 804 998
        *Hazard Group 1 = Danger Group 1 – High hazard waste: presents a very severe risk
         *Hazard Group 2 = Danger Group 2 – Moderately hazardous waste: presents a serious risk
         *Hazard Group 3 = Danger Group 3 – Low hazardous waste: presents a relatively low risk
         *Hazard Group 4 = Danger Group 4 – Potentially hazardous waste: presents a very low risk
         *Hazard Group 5 = Danger Group 5 – Non-hazardous waste
         Source: (DWAF 1998b, SABS 1995)

         Service delivery and associated problems

         Local authorities are mandated to collect, handle and dispose of domestic waste from all
         households and to ensure an equitable service to their communities in a sustainable manner in
         terms of section 152 of the Constitution. As indicated by the census 1996 and 2001 findings
         (Figure 1.3), Gauteng, Western Cape and Kwazulu Natal service the greatest number of
         households. Municipal waste collection has only improved by 2.7 % but is still not acceptable as
         almost 50 % of the population is not receiving a regular municipal waste collection service. The
         percentage of households receiving a weekly municipal service within each of the provinces has
         been illustrated in Figure 1.4. The metropolitan municipalities deliver an almost 100 % service,
         while the local municipalities in some cases deliver no service at all.

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                                            May 2005

        Number of households receiving a weekly service































                                                                                             1996    2001

Source: StatSA (1996, 2001)
Figure 1.3. Municipal service provision

Yearly assessments of the ability of local municipalities to perform their refuse removal and
disposal functions are undertaken by the Municipal Demarcation Board. Figure 1.5 shows the
percentage of local municipalities who are fulfilling this function and indicates capacity and
infrastructure inadequacies. When comparing Figure 1.4 with Figure 154 there is a discrepancy
in terms of the municipality’s ability to perform the given task and the actual service provided.
Although inadequate staff and infrastructure are common place within local municipalities who
cannot perform, this too seems misleading in Figure 1.5. Issues such as rapid urbanisation,
increased informal settlements, increased “free services” such as street sweeping, garden sites,
etc., underutilisation of income generating activities such as billing at disposal sites, poor
payment for services and little correlation related to households services versus those billed, has
resulted in income shortages and small operating budgets.

The private sector and Small Micro and Medium Enterprises (SMMEs) have been contracted in
by many local municipalities to help them in the provision of services, which often is a much
cheaper alternative as they are in most cases more efficient and carry less or no overheads to
budget for. SMME companies are often required to develop a number of different skills in the
labourers and entrepreneurs they employ. Because of access problems in the delivery of an
adequate waste collection service to informal settlements, one-person contracts using local
entrepreneurs are often deployed (with varying rates of success) to service these areas. The
transportation of the waste from these areas to disposal sites often create a secondary form of
job creation. Temporary employment is also generated by the Department of Planning and Local
Government (DPLG) through the Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG), to assist local
municipalities where required. However, budgets generally run short in terms of operational
expenses and certain activities cannot be performed adequately.

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                                                              May 2005

Source: StatsSA, Census 2001
Figure 1.4. Percentage households provided with a weekly municipal waste collection service within the
different provinces in 2001.

    Percent (%)































                             LM Perfom function           % LM with adequate staff        % LM with adequate infrastructure

Source: Municipal Demarcation Board (2004)
Figure 1.5. Level of local municipal waste function ability and staff and infrastructure capacity

Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                                                        May 2005


Resource management and conservation is the corner-stone of waste minimisation strategies.
Waste avoidance, minimisation and recycling in particular has become a focal aspect in waste
management as a result of NEMA and as highlighted at the first DEAT National Waste Summit
held at Pietersburg during the 26-28th of September 2001. This Summit recognised that Waste
Management is a priority for all South Africans, and acknowledged the need for urgent action to
reduce, reuse, and recycle waste in order to protect the environment. The hierarchy of waste
management was highlighted as the key to waste reduction. The outcome of the Summit was the
signing of the Polokwane Declaration of which the main goal is to stabilise waste generation
and reduce waste disposal by 50 % by 2012 and develop a plan for zero waste by 2022.
Stabilisation of waste generation can only be achieved if formal waste minimisation, including
waste avoidance, reuse and recycling strategies, and other methodologies that encourage the
large scale diversion of general waste from landfill is supported. However, reducing waste
disposal by 50 % and eventually approaching a zero waste scenario, will require major
intervention. Figure 1.6 shows that the trend in recycling has increased over the last 20 years by
as much as 202 % or 982 000 t compared to a 70 % increase in the tonnage of materials
converted into packaging (PACSA 2002). By 2002, 52 % of paper and board was being
recovered, plastic recovered and recycled each year equated to approximately 13 % of the virgin
polymer converted, and 64.2 % of metal and 20 % of glass was recycled annually.






           0         200000        400000       600000        800000        1000000      1200000      1400000     1600000
                                               Quantity of material recycled (t/a)

                                    Paper & Board        Plastic     Metal (Tin Plate)      Glass

Source: PACSA (2002);Consol Glass (2004); Sappi (2004); Collect-a-can (2004) & Plastics Federation of SA (2004)
Figure 1.6. Tonnage of material recycled from 1984 to 2004 from general waste

The private sector is the main role player in the introduction and implementation of waste
minimisation initiatives, while community participation and government involvement has been
limited. Informal salvaging and reclamation has spontaneously developed over the years, in
response to an economic need in the form of major unemployment. Informal reclaimers salvage
waste at landfills, in mostly unacceptable working conditions, and more recently reclaiming
waste has spread to the curbside in urbanised areas. This activity is frowned upon by residents
who see it as a front for the increase in crime in their residential areas. This increase in
recyclable material recovery has flooded the recycling market and market prices on recyclables
have dropped as a result. This aspect of waste management seems to be the priority area for job
creation in addition to service delivery options, but sustainability cannot be ensured given the
current market trends. There are hundreds of small companies who reclaim recyclable material
or who operate as buyers for reclaimed material to sell to recycling companies. The main actors
involved in general waste recycling include amongst others: Collect-a-can, Sappi, Mondi,

                                                                   - 10 -
Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                                                                                                           May 2005

Nampak, Consol glass, the Plastics                                                                                                Box 4: Electronic waste
Federation, SA Polyester Recyclers, the                                                                                           Electronic waste (e-waste), refers to
National Recycling Forum and the National                                                                                         electronic products nearing the end of their
Glass Recycling Association. Recycling of                                                                                         "useful life." Computers, cell phones,
scrap metal (ferrous and non-ferrous)                                                                                             medical equipment, televisions, VCRs,
amounts to hundreds of millions of tonnes                                                                                         stereos, copiers, and fax machines are
per annum, however, no actual figures are                                                                                         common electronic products. Many of these
available. However, there are a numerous                                                                                          products can be reused, refurbished, or
players in this market, which currently is not                                                                                    recycled. Unfortunately, electronic discards
regulated.                                                                                                                        are one of the fastest growing segments in
                                                                                                                                  the waste stream. There are about 12.5 to 15
Although certain hazardous substances are                                                                                         million computers alone in South Africa,
recycled or reused, the greatest of these by                                                                                      with a life cycle of only 7 years. Very little e-
far is oil. The Rose Foundation (a section                                                                                        waste is disposed of at landfills, with storage
21 company formed some 10 years ago                                                                                               of these items common place. Hazardous
which is supported by the Oil Industry) has                                                                                       wastes as well as precious metals such as
reported that approximately 78 million litres                                                                                     gold, are components of this waste. There
of oil is recycled annually (correspondence                                                                                       are only a few recycling companies who
from the Rose Foundation).                                                                                                        recycle this waste at an average of more than
                                                                                                                                  4000 t/a.
To place the cradle to grave concepts of
waste generation, waste reduction through avoidance, minimization, reuse and recycling, and
the Polokwane goals into perspective, Figure 1.7 presents certain generalised trends in waste
    General waste generation in million tonnes per annum (t/a x 106)

                                                                                                                                                                   3% Growth

                                                                       25                                                                                GRO PE
                                                                                                                                                    E NT    O
                                                                                                                                               C URR ENVEL          2% Growth

                                                                       20                                                                                           Realistic

                                                                                                                          CURRENT WASTE TO LANDFILL 10 x 106 t/a    Optimistic


                                                                                   POLOKWANE GOAL 1:          POLOKWANE GOAL 2:
                                                                                   50% REDUCTION IN         PLAN IN PLACE FOR
                                                                                   WASTE TO LANDFILL     ZERO WASTE TO LANDFILL                                     Need a
                                                                                        BY 2012                  BY 2022                                            Paradigm Shift
                                                                                                       2012                        2022
                                                                            1997   2000       2010             2015         2020

                                                                                                                      Time in years

Source: J.M. Ball (2005)
Figure 1.7 Generalised Waste Generation Trends and the Polokwane Declaration Goals

From Figure 1.7 it is seen that the current waste going to landfill is rounded off at
approximately 15 million t/a. A growth rate envelope of between 2% and 3% is taken. This may
be conservative when compared with measured individual growth rates in different parts of
South Africa. Nonetheless it takes the current recorded recycling and composting quantities into
account. While some see doubling the recycling and composting effort as realistic, tripling them
would be considered very optimistic. This is because the law of diminishing returns dictates that

                                                                                                                            - 11 -
Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                         May 2005

this will elevate costs to an uncompetitive and hence unsustainable level with concurrent
reducing value of the waste recovered for recycling. It is thus unlikely that it will be possible to
reduce to waste going to landfill to below the 15 million tonnes per annum level, by these
means, unless large financial subsidies are introduced (which is unlikely).

In light of the above the obvious conclusion is that the Polokwane goals i.e. the reduction of
waste going to landfill by 50% by 2012 and a plan for zero waste to landfill by 2022, may be
unobtainable. However, while the timeframes do appear to be unrealistic, the goals may
eventually be approached, provided South Africa and the world make a commitment to a major
paradigm shift in the way we live. Examples of such paradigm shifts include concepts such as
“the Natural Step” or the approach to waste as set out in the book “Cradle to Cradle” by
McDonough and Braungart (2002). In which it is postulated that the approach is based in
essence on the straightforward principles that waste is food, there is no “away” and that
everything is part of a cycle. Consequently waste, and hence pollution, are products of bad
design. Manufacturers should therefore be persuaded to internalise the cost of waste by
designing products that will be biodegradable for reuse in the environment as organic feedstock,
or reusable in their own or other manufacturing processes, without reducing quality, (i.e.
“upcycling”). Consumers on the other hand must be persuaded to exercise a choice and buy
products that comply with the above principles.


Treatment of waste includes methodologies other than landfill inter alia: composting, chemical
and physical treatment of hazardous waste as well as incineration and other specific treatment
methodologies for health care risk waste in particular. Internationally, large scale waste
incineration and waste to energy plants fall into this category

In 1997, more than 300 incineration facilities were estimated to be operating in South Africa.
But many of these incineration facilities could then not meet the required emission standards
which could have had an unacceptable impact on human health and the environment (DEAT
1999). Most health care facilities do not keep records of waste incinerated on their premises
and there is a substantial gap in information regarding quantities of waste treated. However, the
amount of health care risk waste treated at the largest private treatment facilities (excluding
hospital facilities and incinerators) is in the region of 10 000 t/a (GDACE 2004a, consultation
with treatment facilities).

The Health Care Risk Waste (HCRW) Action Plan developed within the NWMS, is currently
being implemented. Information on sources of waste, generators, waste types, quantities of
waste generated and treated, and information on incinerators and treatment facilities will be
available once this HCRW project has been implemented and has been operational for some
time .


All waste storage, transfer and disposal is currently controlled by the landfill permitting system
(Section 20 of the ECA) currently regulated by DWAF as aided by the Minimum Requirements,
a set of guideline documents published in second edition by DWAF in 1998. The Minimum
Requirements is currently being expanded and revised which should be complete by the end of
2005. DEAT is set to take over the landfill permitting function from DWAF.

General landfills sites accept domestic waste, commercial and industrial non-hazardous wastes,
building waste and garden waste. These sites are more often owned and operated by the local
authority. Because many of these landfills (especially in the non-metro municipal areas) do not
have records of incoming waste, due to the lack of capacity and funds, up-to-date information is
not readily available.

                                               - 12 -
Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                                     May 2005

DWAF head office has indicated that 475 general landfill sites have been granted a permit from
the DWAF and that 12 new applications are in process. This only represents 64% compliance
to Section 20 of the ECA as more than 760 sites (legal and illegal) are known to DWAF.
According to the baseline studies (DWAF 1998a) however, there could be up to 15 000
unrecorded communal sites in the rural areas. Many illegal waste disposal sites have developed
over the years due to a number of reasons such as the lack of a collection services, long
transport distances to formal disposal sites, the refusal by the public or industry to pay landfill
fees, an indifference to the environmental consequence of poor waste handling and disposal and
the lack of waste education and awareness.

The best way of determining the current extent of hazardous waste found in the waste stream, is
currently at the disposal point. However, many larger industries have developed their own
hazardous landfill sites (H:H – high hazard sites; H:h – low hazard sites) e.g. PetroSA in Mossel
Bay. Other industries have to make use of limited private hazardous waste disposal sites (H:H
and H:h) operated by private companies such as Enviroserv and Wasteman Group. Unlike other
municipalities a H:h site is currently being operated by the City of Cape Town. According to
the baseline studies (DWAF 1998b), approximately 5 million m3 per annum of potentially
hazardous waste is disposed of on-site or at other disposal sites. The quantity of hazardous
waste accepted at these private waste hazardous waste sites for 2004 is estimated at 440 000 t/a.
Of a total of 63 hazardous treatment and disposal facilities permitted, closed and awaiting
permits in South Africa, 41 have been classified as H:H sites and 22 H:h sites. There are
approximately 27 operational facilities, approximately 22 sites are either closed or are in the
process of closure, while 14 new applications are in process. Of all of the aforementioned sites
and applications, 41 are industry exclusive sites and 22 public/private use sites (DWAF permit
records, IWMSA 2004).

As South Africa is signatory to the Basel Convention on the transboundary movement and
disposal of hazardous waste, the DEAT has to regulate and account for all hazardous waste
exported and imported by South Africa. Figure 1.8 shows the decreasing trend in transboundary
movement of hazardous waste from year 2000 to 2003, which indicates government’s
commitment to limit transboundary movement of hazardous waste as well as to handle and treat
hazardous waste locally.
    Quanities of waste imported and exported






                                                       2000      2001            2002         2003

                                                              Total Exports   Total Imports

Source: DEAT records
Figure 1.8 Annual quantities of hazardous waste imported and exported by South Africa


The NWMS requires that local authorities have to develop and submit local Integrated Waste
Management Plans for incorporation into a larger provincial plan to improve on the local

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municipal waste management scenarios. The deadline for submission has however been
exceeded (2003). Many local authorities have only responded over the last two to three years to
this task with Table 1.3 presenting the status on the progress of waste planning within local
government as obtained from the district, local and metropolitan municipalities. Although
many of the Integrated Waste Management Plans (IMWPs) have been completed very few have
been submitted to the provincial authorities for approval. In addition, district municipalities
include for the IWMPs of local municipalities within their own plan.

The National Integrated Waste Management Bill, when promulgated, will make it mandatory
for all municipalities and industry to have IWMPs in place.

Table 1.3. Status on the progress of the development of Integrated Waste Management

 Municipalities Status of development of Integrated Waste Management Plans
                  Not started    In progress       Completed The Percentage of
                                                             completed IWMPs
 Metropolitan            0              4                4          50%
 District                6             25               14          31%
 Local                  40            121               61         27.5%
 Percentage of
 Total               16.73%         54.55%            28.72%
Source: (Verbal communication with local authorities 2004)

Mining waste

The mining industry has grown substantially in response to the great demand for platinum and
chrome in particular, even though gold sales have dropped. As the mining sector produces the
greatest amount of waste or residue stockpiles as compared to other sectors, the potential effect
for pollution will be that much higher. In 1997, the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME)
indicated that in the region of 470 660 000 t of mining waste (general and hazardous) was
generated, with gold contributing to almost half of this (DWAF 1998b).

Radioactive waste

Sources of radioactive waste include health care facilities, research institutions, laboratories
including the CSIR, South African Airways, the National Air force, the construction industry,
certain industrial processes, Koeberg Nuclear Power Station and the mines, who themselves
exclusively handle their radioactive waste. Annual quantities of radioactive waste received from
waste generators external to the Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (NECSA) amount
to approximately 7.9 m3 and 800 individual sources. NECSA generates approximately 560 m3
of solid low and intermediate level short- and long-lived radioactive waste per year. Currently
all the waste collected is stored at the Pelindaba site in anticipation of the eventual approval of
the Radioactive Waste Management Policy and Strategy for the Republic of South Africa
currently in draft which will recommend disposal alternatives (verbal communication and
response letter from NECSA).

The Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in the Northern Cape Region is
currently only licensed to dispose of solid, short-lived low and intermediate level waste from the
Escom Koeberg Nuclear Power Station. This facility has been in operation since 1986 and to
date (31 December 2004) has received 3 774 m3 of low-level waste and 6 515 m3 of
intermediate-level waste from Koeberg. This also includes minor quantities of waste from the
CSIR (1 m3). All spent nuclear fuel waste generated by Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, is
being stored on site as the option to reprocess this fuel is being investigated (City of Cape Town

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Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                        May 2005

2002). It is also possible that the Pebble Bed reactor which will become operational in Koeberg
in a few years will place an additional burden on radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities.

Agricultural wastes

Agricultural wastes, which could be regarded as general wastes include felled trees, sawdust,
trimmings, maize stalks and sugar cane bagasse, of which 20 million tonnes was generated in
1991 (DEAT 1991). In addition, manure from cattle feedlots totals 10 million t/a. No more
recent records exist. However, what has been observed more increasingly, is that run off from
the practices of over fertilisation and the use of pesticides has resulted in the generation of a
waste product which has the potential to contaminate surface waters.

Power generation waste                   Box 5: Energy and waste
                                         Producing one Kilowatt hour of electricity requires
Power generation waste is on the         0.5 kg of coal, 1.29 litres of water, and results in the
increase as electricity is being         generation of 142 g of ash and 0.9 kg of carbon
supplied to more of the population.      dioxide. A tonne of coal would therefore produce
As a result of increased housing and     284 kg of waste ash. To reduce the amount of waste
increased       electricity   usage,     and emissions generated, use electricity sparingly and
industrial and mining development,       switch your lights off when not in use.
the waste ash generated by the nine
coal-fired power stations operated by Eskom has increased from 24 700 000 t/a in 1999 (Eskom
1999) to 58 650 000 t/a in 2003. This waste is disposed of at permitted landfills at each of the
power stations (Eskom 2003). In addition to the large quantities of solid waste generated, the
generation of considerable volumes of CO2 which is emitted into the atmosphere as a waste
product, is cause concern from a climate change perspective.

Asbestos waste

Overall asbestos consumption in manufacturing has reduced by 39 % from 12 689 t in 2000 to
7 744 t in 2002 driven by a decline in international and local demand (DEAT 2003). Although
asbestos mining in South Africa stopped at the end of 2001 and only milled fibre stockpiles
remain, small amounts of asbestos are being imported from Zimbabwe, in particular.
Significant progress has already been made in phasing out the use of asbestos (DEAT 2003).
However, to replace many asbestos containing products, could result in an increase in waste
generated over a specified period. In spite of the efforts to reduce waste the disposal of asbestos
waste from demolition or upgrading of existing facilities is still continuing. Asbestos is usually
disposed of in trenches in a H landfill after being double bagged. Unbroken roof sheets are
disposed of in trenches and covered with previously landfilled waste.

What is government and industry’s response to waste management

As a result of the ECA promulgated in 1989 and because of the threat to the country’s water
resources on account of bad waste disposal practice, DWAF embarked on defining Minimum
Requirements (a set of three guideline documents) for waste disposal by landfill, hazardous
waste management and water monitoring at disposal sites, in 1991. The first edition was
published in 1994, the second in 1998, and the third is currently being drafted. The DWAF is
also working on implementation.

National government has also taken heed on the international stance to waste and the
management thereof. Many of the international conventions related to waste of which South
Africa has been signatory to, such as the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary
Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, were acceded to prior to 1994. However,
with the Constitution in place, over the last 10 years, legislative and policy drivers, projects,
programmes and initiatives have been actively pursued, developed and implemented to ensure a

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Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                     May 2005

safe and healthy environment for all. Steps taken to date to ensure the environmental right
include: the publication of the Environmental Management Policy for South Africa (1998); the
White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (1998); the National Water Act
(1998); as well as the promulgation of the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA)
(1998) which emphasises the fields of environmental concern, namely, resource management,
pollution control and waste management and landuse planning and development. It promotes
sustainable development and the concept of waste minimisation as well as environmental social
and economic sustainability of waste management developments such as landfills. An
important function of NEMA is to serve as an enabling Act for the promulgation of legislation
to effectively address integrated waste management.

The White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management, details government's policy
on pollution and waste management and has formed the point of departure and framework for
the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS). The NWMS defines government’s “cradle
to grave” approach to the management of waste, which is a holistic and integrated management
approach extending from the feasibility and planning stages of a project, through waste
prevention and minimisation, as well as the generation, storage, collection, transportation,
treatment and final disposal of waste. This strategy deals with the problems of waste and
associated pollution and details strategies, action plans and sets time frames and targets.
Currently implementation of the NWMS is being undertaken on the following selected
components; the Waste Information System, Waste Minimisation and Recycling, Health Care
Waste and Capacity Building.

The Polokwane Declaration 2001, was the first time National Government set national targets
for waste management. Although these targets have not been legislated, the legal reform
process will address the goals and targets set within the Polokwane Declaration. The DEAT is
currently undertaking the legal reform process, which includes reviewing, developing and
implementing legislation dealing with integrated waste management. The problems currently
encountered with monitoring compliance and the enforcement of waste management legislation
will be consolidated and reviewed as part of the Law Reform Process. An important outcome of
this process is the development of the Integrated Waste Management Bill, which is intended to
be promulgated early 2006. In addition to this process, the transfer of the waste permitting
function from DWAF to DEAT currently underway, will assist in streamlining this process and
build capacity within DEAT.

The Plastic Bag Regulations which came into effect on the 9th of May 2003 stipulates that new
plastic bags, which have a minimum thickness of 30 micrometres (microns) will replace the old,
thin and unrecyclable plastic bags with an average thickness of 17 microns. These regulations
have resulted in a reduction of bags being consumed, the reuse of bags and encouraged the
recycling of these bags. The amount as well as type of ink to be used has also been specified so
as not to compromise the recycling potential of the bag. Although this is seen as a successful
environmental initiative, the packaging industry have indicated job losses. According to DEAT,
there should be an increase in reclaimers and recycling companies employing staff. Other
specific waste types are similarly being targeted e.g. tyres, with a similar approach.

National and provincial NWMS projects such as South Africa’s Cleanest Town Competition,
have encouraged local authorities to improve on waste management within their jurisdiction and
to change attitudes by raising awareness and educating their communities. A number of
municipalities have addresses these issues in revised bylaws.

Provincial authorities have also responded to improved waste management in a number of ways,
one being the development of provincial regulations such as the Gauteng Provincial
Department’s Waste Information Regulations (GDACE 2004b) and Health Care Waste
Regulations (GDACE 2004c). Other important initiatives include the development of various

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Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                     May 2005

waste planning guidelines for local authorities and the establishment of waste minimisation
clubs at schools, etc.

As a component of the NWMS, local authorities have been developing their IWMPs to assist
them in planning for future scenarios, for addressing current shortfalls in service delivery and
improving on environmental compliance. They encourage SMME development and assist in
the creation of jobs through recycling projects, service delivery work opportunities and
development of buyback centres and often form relationships with industries in terms of
promoting recycling, waste minimisation, and education and awareness. Civil Society and
associations such as the Institute of Waste Management Southern Africa, Waste Minimisation
Clubs (established in the Durban, Gauteng and Cape Town region), the National Recycling
Forum, the National Glass Recycling Forum, the Packaging Association of South Africa,
Tyre/rubber recycling organisations, etc. have been set up by civil society and industry in
particular to promote sound waste management practices.

Data collection and waste information

Waste information was collected from a number of sources which included, all 9 Environmental
Provincial Departments and Health Departments, all District and Metropolitan municipalities,
certain Local municipalities, the DEAT, DWAF, DME, NECSA, National Nuclear Regulator,
Statistics South Africa, Municipal Demarcation Board, Recycling companies, private waste
collection and transportation companies, private waste site owners and operators and waste
management consultants. A fair amount of information was obtained, but as certain was
current, while other information reflected information gathered over 5 years ago, an up-to-date
picture could not be presented in certain instances. Information on generators of waste is
something that national government have been grappling with and only through the law reform
process, will generators have to disclose the required information. Local municipalities will
also have to introduce waste information systems as information required by Provincial
authorities in terms of their waste information needs will have to be provided. Management of
services, at all levels of government, is highly dependent on good management tools such as
record sheets, information systems and databases. As much of the information is still reliant on
the DWAF Baseline studies undertaken in 1997, information on all waste types will have to
updated as cognizance has to be taken of the development and growth which has taken place in
the interim.

Emerging issues

•   Radioactive waste is more and more becoming a prominent issue world wide in terms of its
    environmental effect and potential impact on communities. Although this waste is regulated
    by the DME, improved liaison between the DEAT and the DME is necessary so as to
    alleviate any fears associated with this waste type and to manage this waste type to best
    suite environmental and social needs.
•   Various alternative treatment technologies are being marketed to the local authorities in
    particular, where it is said that many of the current waste problems and requirement will be
    met by introducing these systems. They are normally very costly and have not been proven
    as acceptable technologies in South Africa. Extensive research needs to be undertaken
    before these technologies are bought and a comprehensive EIA would have to be conducted
    to determine their feasibility.
•   Although the Basel Convention prohibits the transboundary movement of hazardous waste
    from one country to the next, hazardous waste is crossing boarders for disposal in South
    Africa. Strict customs control needs to be enforced to ensure that the conditions of this
    convention are being met.
•   The increased influx of illegal immigrants is placing undue pressure on existing services as
    well as contributing to an increase in informal settlement population. If this continues,
    delivery of services will decrease relative to demand.

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Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                      May 2005

•   Waste and waste management cannot be reported on if up-to-date relevant information is
    not available. All government departments need to review their current systems and make
    changes and upgrades where possible.
•   Tyres (see box 3)
•   Historical general waste disposal, mine related and industrial waste sites have either been
    abandoned, left unrehabilitated or have not been adequately closed according to the DWAF
    Minimum Requirements. These sites have the potential to leach out pollutants and
    compromise soil and water resources or they could release methane gas, which could pose a
    safety risk to nearby residents. Identification of these sites and the subsequent management
    should be prioritised by all levels of government.

Box 6: Opportunities for waste and waste management

Waste should not be seen in isolation and should be considered in a holistic approach
which starts with a paradigm shift. The protection of natural resources and the reduction
of all forms of wastage should be a cornerstone to all waste management strategies.
• Waste should be seen as a resource and the potential for various uses investigated
• Separation at source can result in the creation of work opportunities and assists in
    preventing contamination of recyclables thereby improving usability
• Alternative product packing methods could instill creative entrepreneurship and
    means of storage. Products such as biodegradable packaging products (e.g engineered
    starch) could be developed and a market could be established for these goods.
• Manufacturers should be persuaded to embark on a paradigm shift from planned
    obsolescence to design products that will be biodegradable or reusable in their own or
    other processes,
• Cleaner technology improves cost effectiveness, reduces waste, improves product
    development and design which could lead to reduced emissions (air and water) ie the
    management of a waste stream starts up-stream.
• Alternative uses of waste streams as resources for other products (ash in brick
    making, gypsum for gypsum board, pulverized rubber waste integrated into
    bitumen/tar, etc.)
• Opportunities for job creation in supplying of services, reuse of waste products to
    create usable products, art, etc.
• Opportunities can be found in the harvesting of landfill gas for heating, electricity and
    an alternative fuel source which also reduces emissions of greenhouse gasses.
• Industrial waste exchange systems between industries and other waste producers must
    be expanded
• Carbon credit projects (where carbon credits could be sold as an income for local
    municipalities in particular)
• Diversion or reduction of the waste stream to disposal sites, reduces potential
    pollution problems.
• Where waste information systems are lacking, entrepreneurs/companies can design
    and market systems to assist local authorities in particular.
• With so many historical sites, not properly rehabilitated and closed, opportunities
    exist for SMMEs in particular to reshape and rehabilitate these sites, which could
    have a long-term beneficial use for the local community – Pikitup (Johannesburg) are
    currently rehabilitating 6 sites in Soweto with end uses varying from sports fields,
    open spaces for communities, subsistence agricultural farming to the establishment of
    recycling facilities.
• Proper waste management including waste reduction, costs money and the
    misconception that achieving zero waste can save money and create vast amounts of
    jobs must be corrected. The value of waste and amount to be made or saved is not
    linear with the amount of waste recovered for recycling, from the waste stream.

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Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                       May 2005


State of the environment reporting is reliant on continuously updated information to show trends
and changes over a period of time. With the obvious lack of current information within all
waste sectors and government departments, using indicators as measuring tools for
improvement or change will not be successful. Waste information has to improve over the short
and long-term to give value to the information reported on.

Waste and the management thereof is a complex system of interrelated activities which require
the input from a number of sectors, involves a wide spectrum of waste types and requires that
collection, storage, handling, recycling, treatment and disposal be conducted in various different
ways. Waste volumes have increased over the last decade, but the responses to this have not
corresponded to this increase. Service delivery falls short of the intended mandate of local
authorities. Compliance with legislative statutes such as permitting of landfills, development of
IWMPs, etc. are areas requiring improved management, increased budget, capacity and
enforcement. Waste management is regulated in a number of ways, and there is a relationship
between regulation at national, provincial and local level. National government sets the general
framework, leaving provinces and municipalities to independently design provincial strategies
and local collection and disposal solutions. The framework however, does not necessarily
identify with implementation at the ground level, sometimes making it difficult for local
authorities to rollout government policy and strategy.

A marked increase in local economic development, job creation as well as recycling of all types
of wastes has seemingly started addressing the objectives and declarations set by national
government. The critical issue which underlines many of the projects being undertaken, is the

    Box 7: What can you do to improve waste management?

    •   See waste as a resource and ensure that all natural resources are managed and
    •   Capacitate yourself and build up your knowledge base on acceptable waste
        management and try and capacitate and educate communities and those around you.
    •   Be proud of the area where you live, work and play by not littering or dumping
    •   Inform government departments regarding poor service delivery,
    •   Inform the authorities regarding illegal dumping and littering, and perpetrators of
        these crimes.
    •   Pay for the service you receive.
    •   Adhere to Municipal By-laws regarding waste management and the environment.
    •   Participate in local/community waste reduction and recycling projects.
    •   Make a conscious effort to separate waste at source and encourage your
        municipality to collect source separated waste.
    •   See garden waste as a compost source and introduce home composting.
    •   Buy “green” – reduce the amount of packaging consumed.
    •   Reuse waste items.
    •   Industries are to make a conscience effort to introduce energy saving, cleaner
        technology, and waste avoidance and minimisation strategies and initiatives.
    •   Industries to actively investigate waste trading, separation at source and recycling.
    •   Waste management awareness to be introduced at schools, the workplace, home,
        community events, etc.
    •   Consumers should exercise their choice and buy products that comply with
        environmental ethics, rather than promoting consumerism.

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Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                                       May 2005

issue of sustainability, and until this is ensured many projects and programmes will be left by
the wayside.

Only when industry, mines, local municipalities and communities take responsibility for the
waste they generate, will mind shifts take place and will waste be given the priority it deserves.
Greater awareness of waste management and its associated problems will stimulate this change
in attitude.


City of Cape Town (2002). State of Environment Report.
DEAT (1991). The situation of waste management and pollution control in South Africa. CSIR
and Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
DEAT (1998). Situation/Baseline Analysis Report on Non-hazardous waste. Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
DEAT (1999). Action Plan for Waste Treatment and Disposal. Department of Environmental
Affairs and Tourism.
DEAT (2003).The Socio-Economic Impact of the phasing out of asbestos in South Africa: A
Study Undertaken for the Fund for Research into Industrial Development, Growth and Equity
Municipal Demarcation Board (2005). The Powers and Functions: District and Local
Municipality Capacity Assessment Reports (all Provinces - 2003).
DWAF (1997). Disposal Sites for Hazardous and General Wastes in South Africa: Baseline
Studies. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
DWAF (1998a). Waste Management Series. Minimum Requirements for Waste Disposal by
Landfill. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
DWAF (1998b). Waste Generation in South Africa: Baseline Studies. Waste Management
Series. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
DWAF (2004). Draft National Sanitation Strategy. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry,
Eskom (1999). Eskom’s Annual Report. Eskom Holdings Limited.
Eskom (2003). Eskom’s Annual Report. Eskom Holdings Limited .
GDACE (2004a). State of the Environment Report for Gauteng. Gauteng Department of
Agriculture, Conservation and Environment
GDACE (2004b). Environment Conservation Act, Act 73 of 1989: Waste Information
Regulations. Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment.
GDACE (2004c). Environment Conservation Act, Act 73 of 1989: Health Care Waste
Regulations. Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment.
GDACEL (2004). Guidelines for the Development of Integrated Waste Management Plans for
Local Governments. Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation, Environment and Land
Herselman, J.E., Wade P.W., Steyn C.E., and Snyman H.G. (2005). An evaluation of dedicated
land disposal practices for sewage sludge. Water Research Commission Report No. 1209\1\05.
Ball J.M. (2005). Jarrod Ball and Associates, Waste Management Consultants.
McDonough, W and Braungart M. (2002). Cradle to Cradle. North Point Press.
RSA (2002). Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act. Government Printers
RSA (1999). Nuclear Energy Act, Act 46. Government Printers Pretoria.        (2004).      General      tyre     issues   and     tyre     recycling.
Rustenburg Local Municipality (2005). Status Quo Analysis Report on Waste Management in
Rustenburg. Jarrod Ball & Associates.

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Background Research Paper: Waste
South Africa Environment Outlook                                               May 2005

SABS (1995). Code of practice: The identification and classification of dangerous
substances and goods. South African Bureau of Standards.
Stats SA (2004). Census 1996.
Stats SA (2004). Census 2001.


(DWAF) - Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
(NWMS) - National Waste Management Strategy
(NEMA) - National Environmental Management Act
(ECA)- Environment Conservation Act
(NWA) - National Water Act
(MPRDA) - Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act
(DME) - Department of Minerals and Energy
(SMMEs) - Small Micro and Medium Enterprises
(DPLG) - Department of Planning and Local Government
(MIG) - Municipal Infrastructure Grant
(IMWP) - Integrated Waste Management Plan
(NECSA) - Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa
(VOCs) - Volatile Organic Carbons
(HCRW) - Health Care Risk Waste
(PACSA) – Packaging Council of South Africa

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