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									                                TECHNICAL GUIDELINES
                                  FOR UNITED NATIONS
                                 INTERNET PUBLISHING



Author:                           Publications Board
                                  Working Group on Internet Matters
                                  Task Team on the Technical Guidelines
Date Last Modified:               21 July 2003




This document contains proprietary information of the United Nations. Information contained herein is to be used solely
for the purpose submitted, and no part of this document or its contents shall be reproduced, published, or disclosed to a
third party without the express permission of the United Nations.




          Date Modified: 21 July 2003                         Page 1 of 32                   Technical Guidelines
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1      BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

2      OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................................. 3
2.1        RESPONSIBILITIES ..................................................................................................................................... 3
       2.1.1    Responsibilities of author departments .......................................................................................................... 3
       2.1.2    Responsibilities and services of the United Nations Website Section (UNWS) .............................................. 4
       2.1.3 Responsibilities and services of the Information Technology Services Division (ITSD) ..................................... 5
2.2   WEB SITE PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION; CREATION OF, OR MAJOR ENHANCEMENTS TO, UNITED
NATIONS WEB SITES ............................................................................................................................................... 6
       2.2.1        Web site planning and organization ............................................................................................................... 6
           2.2.1.1           Presentation on United Nations web sites ................................................................................................................ 6
           2.2.2.2           Essential web page elements on United Nations web sites ...................................................................................... 7
           2.2.2.3           Optional web page elements on United Nations web sites ....................................................................................... 8
           2.2.2.4           Web site and file naming conventions ..................................................................................................................... 8
       2.2.2        Creation of, or major enhancements to, the United Nations web sites........................................................... 9
2.3        DOCUMENT PREPARATION ........................................................................................................................ 9
2.4        THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICIAL DOCUMENT SYSTEM (ODS) ............................................................... 10
2.5        MULTILINGUALISM ................................................................................................................................. 11
2.6        WEB SITE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 11
       2.6.1        Web site maintenance ................................................................................................................................... 12
       2.6.2        Web site Version Control.............................................................................................................................. 12
2.7        WEB SITE SECURITY ............................................................................................................................... 13
3      ANNEXES ................................................................................................................................................................. 15
3.1   ANNEX A: SOFTWARE CHARACTERISTICS: WEB PAGE CREATION AND EDITING: WEB TOOL FEATURES
AND MULTILINGUAL CAPABILITIES ...................................................................................................................... 15
       3.1.1        Web tools currently in use ............................................................................................................................ 15
       3.1.2        Other tools .................................................................................................................................................... 18
3.2        ANNEX B: GUIDELINES FOR WEB STATISTICS ..................................................................................... 20
3.3        ANNEX C: WEB SITE PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION ......................................................................... 21
3.4        ANNEX D: METADATA AND HIDDEN INFORMATION ............................................................................ 28
       3.4.1        Metadata ...................................................................................................................................................... 28
       3.4.2        Metadata for the web .................................................................................................................................... 28
       3.4.3        HTTP-EQUIV Attribute ................................................................................................................................ 28
       3.4.4        Content Controls .......................................................................................................................................... 28
           3.4.4.1 Content-Type .................................................................................................................................................................29
       3.4.5        Refresh .......................................................................................................................................................... 29
       3.4.6        Name Attribute ............................................................................................................................................. 29
       3.4.7        References: ................................................................................................................................................... 30
3.5        ANNEX E: POLICY FORMULATING GROUP ........................................................................................... 32




             Date Modified: 21 July 2003                                                           Page 2 of 32                                       Technical Guidelines
1       BACKGROUND

        These technical guidelines for United Nations Internet publishing are being issued pursuant
        to paragraph 1.5 of the Administrative Instruction establishing Guidelines for Internet
        Publishing in the United Nations ST/AI/2001/5*. Paragraph 1.5(b) of that instruction calls,
        inter alia, for the Working Group on Internet Matters to develop and issue guidelines for
        home-page layouts of departments and offices and presentation standards.


2       OBJECTIVES

        The purpose of these technical guidelines, prepared by a task team of the Working Group on
        Internet Matters of the Publications Board, is to provide a practical framework for the
        creation and maintenance of United Nations web sites. These technical guidelines should not
        be viewed as a static set of rules and regulations, as they will be updated periodically to
        reflect the evolution and growth of the United Nations web site, and its underlying
        technology, as well as of the Internet itself.



2.1     Responsibilities

        The United Nations web sites are the results of the collaboration of three groups. At
        headquarters these are: author departments, the Department of Public Information through its
        United Nations Website Section (UNWS), News and Media Division, and the Department of
        Management through its Information Technology Services Division (ITSD), Office of
        Central Support Services. Similar structures exist in offices away from headquarters. The
        respective responsibilities are set out below.



2.1.1   Responsibilities of author departments

        Author departments are responsible for developing, editing, coding and posting content of
        their home pages and subpages in conformity with organizational mandates, secretariat
        policies, departmental strategies, relevant administrative instructions and in compliance with
        these guidelines. They are responsible for ensuring the timeliness and accuracy of their
        content, and for using organizational web resources in a sustainable manner. Departmental
        web focal points (webmasters) provide assistance to divisional content managers, including
        web page preparation and updating, dissemination of information, knowledge transfer and
        skills development.

        Date Modified: 21 July 2003                 Page 3 of 32              Technical Guidelines
2.1.2   Responsibilities and services of the United Nations Website Section
        (UNWS)

        The United Nations Website Section (UNWS), formerly the Information Technology Section
        (ITS), serves as focal point for Internet content management of the United Nations web site.
        Contact UNWS by telephone at 212-963-6974.


        UNWS provides the following services for web sites at United Nations Headquarters and, to
        the extent possible, for web sites of other United Nations duty stations:
   (a) Administers UN web site design and quality control.
   (b) Promotes a consistent United Nations identity through the creation of appropriate templates
       and navigation elements.
   (c) Provides guidance on new web sites, or web site proposals, with consultations on design,
       layout and software to assure their conformity with United Nations standards and web page
       suitability for their adaptation to other languages (see Annex A on web tool features and
       multilingual capabilities).
   (d) Monitors the implementation of Administrative instruction ST/AI/2001/5* and its associated
       technical guidelines for Internet publishing in the United Nations.
   (e) Authorizes the establishment of FTP accounts for access to posting on the web site at United
       Nations Headquarters (www.un.org); administers this process on the basis of received
       registration forms, completed and duly updated by the appropriate Chiefs of Section, and
       approved by the respective Departmental Internet Focal Point.
   (f) Recommends to the Working Group on Internet Matters the feasibility, necessity and/or
       mobility of tertiary domain names.
   (g) Conducts webcast coverage (live and on-demand) of UN meetings, conferences, special
       sessions, their related events and UN special events (see also the establishment of portal
       pages on the UN web site, in Section 2.6 below, and UNWS focal points below). Requests
       for webcasts should be made to the Chief of Web Development and Webcasting Unit,
       UNWS.
   (h) Provides guidance to authoring departments and offices on their responsibilities for web site
       multilingualism and multilingual adaptations. On a case-by-case basis, designs and develops
       multilingual-compliant web sites for authoring departments based on cost-reimbursable
       arrangements (see Section 2.5 on multilingualism; contact: Languages Unit, 212-963-1384).
   (i) Promotes the efficient use of United Nations server resources; monitors site maintenance,
       including the deletion of obsolete or redundant files, efficient sizing of files and images,
       cleaning of extraneous code (see Section 2.6 on web site maintenance).
   (j) Provides guidance on web site content and management issues, including advisory services
       on these issues, such as updating of obsolete information and tracking down broken links.

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  (k) Advises on using web site statistics for web site management and analysis (see Annex B on
      guidelines for web statistics).
  (l) Advises on the suitability and the capabilities of computer programmes and software in
      particular for multilingualism; for web site content generation and management, recommends
      on the respective software packages proposed for OHRM training programmes (see Annex A
      on web tool features and multilingual capabilities).
  (m) Compiles and maintains a list of United Nations Internet focal points and webmasters and
      informs them about new United Nations web site developments, policies and procedures.
  (n) Provides secretariat services for the Working Group on Internet Matters.



2.1.3 Responsibilities and services of the Information Technology Services
Division (ITSD)

       The Information Technology Services Division manages the Internet infrastructure of the
       United Nations Secretariat and provides Internet access to United Nations offices connected
       to the network. Contact ITSD Request for Service (RFS) in any of the following ways: by
       telephone at 212-963-2040, by Lotus Notes E-mail at “ITSD Requests-for-Service”, or by
       Internet e-mail at Requests-for-Service@un.org. ITSD provides the following services:
  (a) Serves as focal point for the technical aspects of Internet site operations at United Nations
      Headquarters.
  (b) Advises on the technologies used in the infrastructure of the United Nations web site.


                  Web site Infrastructure Technology at United Nations Headquarters
           SOLARIS (UNIX) servers
           Apache server software
           SQL server 2000 database
           ASP capability deployed via Chilisoft

    Notes: FTP for uploads; more secure methods of file transfer are in the process of being
    investigated using SSH


  (c) Distributes standard application software to computers connected to the network of the United
      Nations Secretariat, including web-specific tools like web-editors, graphics, editing software,
      etc. that are recommended by the Working Group on Internet Matters. ITSD will provide
      helpdesk services related to the installation of web-related standard desktop software but will
      not provide application support.
  (d) Operates Organization-wide computer-based systems, such as the United Nations Official
      Document System (ODS).

      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                   Page 5 of 32              Technical Guidelines
   (e) Maintains helpdesk services, provides information on computer applications and offers in-
       house solutions for programming needs.
   (f) Creates and maintains on the Intranet, together with UNWS, an online resource for UN
       system webmasters containing high quality graphics images of UN-related emblems and logos
       to be used in new and current web sites, links to most current guidelines and administrative
       instructions related to web-publishing in the UN, instructions on obtaining/renewing FTP
       accounts on the UN web server and database servers, guidelines for linking to ODS, Google
       search, sample codes for linking to UNWS's ASP scripts, etc., announcements of new web
       sites or new web resources within the un.org domain, announcements of software/hardware
       upgrades on UN web servers, database servers, launching of new services, etc.



2.2 Web site planning and organization; creation of, or major
   enhancements to, United Nations web sites


2.2.1   Web site planning and organization

        Web site development and deployment involves a step-by-step process to ensure that output
        goals are met and resources are handled well. A planning framework strategy that serves as
        an outline of all the phases involved in the site construction life cycle is given in Annex C.


2.2.1.1 Presentation on United Nations web sites


        The appearance of United Nations web sites should be consistent, easily recognizable and
        user-friendly. United Nations web sites must allow easy accessibility for users at locations
        with limited Internet connectivity. Content providing Offices are encouraged to ensure that
        all new pages developed conform, to the extent possible, to acceptable standards pertaining
        to access by persons with disabilities.
   (a) Page presentation should be uncomplicated with judicious use of graphics.
   (b) Site navigation should be simple and straightforward.
   (c) Simplicity is favoured over complex elements that may not work (or take long to load) on
       slower connections and older browsers. Elaborate presentations should offer an easily
       accessible text-only version to users with slow Internet connections and older browsers. Large
       navigational images on top-level pages are discouraged, as users who cannot load the image
       will not be able to access the site.
   (d) All pages should be view compatible on different browsers. Internet Explorer 6.0 is currently
       supported by ITSD. Webmasters may make use of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), Dynamic
       HTML, JavaScript and Frames, as most current browsers generally support these.
        Date Modified: 21 July 2003                 Page 6 of 32              Technical Guidelines
       (e) For CSS, text size should be specified as a percentage. This allows users to adjust the font size
           for comfortable reading. (For example, the small-size text could be defined at "80%" and the
           large-size text at “120%”).
       (f) Standard operating procedure should include using sets of style sheets, uniform template
           designs, image files and other layout properties consistent with what is widely in use on the
           principal pages of the United Nations web site and the other mandated UN web sites. These
           should be developed (depending on the complexity of the site) in consultation with UNWS.
       (g) The size of UN web pages should not exceed 90KB (and should strive to remain under 60KB,
           including graphics, a 60KB page requiring 19 seconds to load on a 28.8 modem). The size of
           the principal navigation pages for a web site should be smaller. It is useful for links to PDF
           files to have notations of those file sizes.
       (h) Page formats should be viewable at both 800x600 and 640x480 resolutions without scrolling
           sideways. Page content should be formatted at less than full-screen size to accommodate
           browser tool bars and other borders, as these normally encroach, especially, on the viewable
           height of a web page.
       (i) Images for site navigation (such as "go back to the top of the page") should be accompanied by
           the text version of the action (as in an ALT tag). A text equivalent should be provided for non-
           text elements. Associating text with images allows a user who cannot fully load the screen to
           understand the content and to navigate the page.
       (j) It is highly recommended that designs and navigation pages be “user-tested” using various
           focus groups (at least three), to get comments and feedback about a site design, its style, its
           development and management before its launching.
       (k) Images should be rendered at 72 pixels.1
       (l) Only files of the following types are permitted on the web server: .htm, .html, .txt, .shtml, .asp,
           .aspx, .doc, .pdf, .gif, .jpg, .js, .css, .class, .ram, .swf, .pl, .egi, .xls, .png, .smi, .inc (for include
           files). Before posting any other types, UNWS and ITSD must be consulted.


2.2.2.2 Essential web page elements on United Nations web sites


       (a) The United Nations emblem should appear, at least, on all top-level pages. Each appearance of
           the UN emblem should link to the appropriate language-specific version of the United Nations
           home page. (Use of the United Nations emblem in electronically published documents is set
           out in document ST/AI/189/Add.28, paragraph 28.) Full references are found on-line at
           http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/flag.html). A collection of logos can be found at
           www.un.org/images/logos. Links must be made to the logos in this directory rather than
           replicating the same logo in multiple directories. A set of high quality images (scalable vector
           format) of UN logos, UN flags, UN agencies individual logos and UN special events official
           logos is being made available to all UN webmasters on the Intranet.

1
    Guidelines on accessibility will be provided in the next version of these guidelines.
             Date Modified: 21 July 2003                           Page 7 of 32             Technical Guidelines
   (b) Every UN web site must clearly identify the United Nations office responsible for the site and
       should provide generic contact information.
   (c) Feedback forms must not disclose UN staff members’ underlying e-mail addresses.
   (d) Key information, including icons for alternate language versions, should be immediately
       viewable without scrolling down. Language version icons can be found at
       www.un.org/images/languages.


2.2.2.3 Optional web page elements on United Nations web sites


   (a) Author departments, content providers, are encouraged to include the following elements on
   web pages, with guidance or assistance available from UNWS:
                Link to copyright notice and/or disclaimers (see the annex of ST/AI/2001/5*) available
                 at http://www.un.org/copyright.htm.
                Automated notation on web pages of the date of the latest page version/update.
                Pages that incorporate a predefined search for recent news items, press releases,
                 speeches and other documents from UN databases. This eliminates the need for
                 updating pages that link to the individual documents contained in these databases.
                 Scripts for these elements will be provided by UNWS on request.


2.2.2.4 Web site and file naming conventions


   (a) The web sites will be stored within a directory structure under “www/” (see Annex E) and
       will contain sub-directories for each of the official UN languages (Arabic, Chinese, English,
       French, Spanish and Russian).
   (b) The directory names for each web site will be determined by UNWS in consultation with
       author departments.
   (c) Common images will be stored in the directory “www/images”.
   (d) The homepage for each site will be named index.html, index.shtml or index.asp.
   (e) Unless absolutely necessary, all links must be relative, in order to reduce the file sizes.
   (f)   File names must not have spaces.
   (g) All directories and file names must, where applicable, be in lower case and contain no spaces
       to be compatible with the UNIX server and all browsers.
   (h) The document page title, metadata and other <HEAD> content information must, where
       applicable, be included. Defining the page title, encoding metadata and other key information
       helps site visitors and search engines identify the page and targeted information being
       requested (see Annex D on metadata and hidden information).
         Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 8 of 32               Technical Guidelines
2.2.2   Creation of, or major enhancements to, the United Nations web sites

        Author departments should consult UNWS or ITSD as follows:


   (a) UNWS should be notified and consulted at the planning stage before webmasters create a new
       site, substantially re-design a current site or introduce major enhancements on an existing site.
   (b) ITSD should be informed prior to deployment of a web site in order to be able to plan and
       make available appropriate server and network resources that include, but are not limited to,
       firewall protocol amendments, DNS configuration and server-side programming
       environments.
   (c) ITSD requests prior consultation in order to assess the impact of new web site technologies
       and/or the impact of significant web site size increases on UN web site infrastructure,
       including possible effects on other users.
   (d) Offices and departments are encouraged to formulate their selections of web authoring tools in
       consultation with both UNWS and ITSD. Features such as the insertion of media objects
       (audio and video) and Flash content (vector-based graphics and animations), especially,
       require consultation with UNWS, who will provide technical advice. UNWS will refer users
       to ITSD if necessary. Web pages created in Flash, particularly navigation pages, should have
       an available HTML and/or text-only alternate version (see Annex A on web tool features and
       multilingual capabilities).
   (e) Authoring departments should require that external contractors provide any special or unusual
       fonts and the PhotoShop files (PSD) with layers so that preparation of language adaptations
       are facilitated.
   (f) UNWS should be consulted so as to assure the coordination of web sites, and conformity with
       United Nations standards (see Sections 3 through 7 below).
   (g) UNWS establishes the United Nations web site portal pages for major UN issues, events and
       official observances. The purpose of these portal pages is to centralize, consolidate and
       streamline access to related United Nations Internet resources that originate from a number of
       United Nations Offices, Programmes, Funds or Agencies. As such content-creating offices
       should inform UNWS of any material made available so as to be included in these portal pages
       and listed under “Recent Additions”.



2.3     Document preparation

        Web site authoring tools should be selected in consultation with UNWS for software and
        language compatibilities and for clarity of code (see Annex A on web tool features and
        multilingual capabilities).
        Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 9 of 32               Technical Guidelines
            Public information products, such as brochures, booklets, press kits, etc., including products
            outsourced, which are to be made available on the web site, should specify a web version as
            one of the output formats. Brochures should be available in optimized PDF format and/or
            HTML.


            For reference, the Department for General Assembly and Conference Management –
            DGACM requires that documents be submitted in a text-based MS WORD format. When
            final documents are being posted to the ODS, they are also being converted to a search-
            optimized text-based PDF format, with embedded images when applicable. Documents
            submitted in a non-WORD format (i.e. paper-based, PDF, etc.), especially voluminous and
            prepared under tight deadline, can be made available on time only as an image embedded
            into PDF. As a result, these documents are not searchable and sometimes retain the common
            scanning distortions. The availability of the text-based documents greatly depends on the
            format of submitted documents and the ability of the Text Processing Units to produce text-
            based PDF files under production time pressure. The document submission standards are
            described in the editorial directive ST/CS/SER.A/44.



2.4         The United Nations Official Document System (ODS)

            Webmasters should link to documents on the United Nations ODS using the ODS direct
            access function. Linking to the ODS provides the official version of United Nations
            documents in all language versions in the authentic formats, as mandated by the General
            Assembly. A side benefit from the direct link is that it will save a significant amount of disk
            space on the server, as there is no need to copy the documents on the server.


            Direct links to the ODS are automatically authorized for all pages on the UN web site
            (http://www.un.org) and for United Nations Headquarters Intranet. However, other United
            Nations web sites will have to be registered in ODS, as such, in order to use the ODS direct
            access function. Requests should be made to ITSD using the RFS form. The request will be
            granted, regardless of the physical distance of the web site from UNHQ, as long as the web
            site officially belongs to an entity of the United Nations. ITSD/SMS will provide webmasters
            of all registered sites with a white paper outlining how to use the function on the web.


            Links to documents on the ODS can be tested only from registered servers.


            Webmasters are urged to make applicable use of the ODS direct access function for all new
            links to UN documents.

      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                   Page 10 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
            All official documents that are PDF files available on the ODS should be removed from web
            sites and a direct link made to the ODS documents. Large PDF files should be removed on a
            priority basis. In this way a large amount of disk space will be saved and fragmented file
            structure will be simplified on the server, resulting in a much faster response time on the
            server. (See Annex D for refresh/redirect files.)



2.5         Multilingualism

            Focal points and webmasters should ensure that the goal of equal treatment of the six official
            languages is taken into account in the development of United Nations web sites, in
            accordance with General Assembly resolution 54/248E, of 23 December 1999 and 57/130B,
            of 11 December 2002. Focal points should take up with higher management these
            requirements so that adequate budgetary provisions are made within their own budgets to
            meet these requirements.


  (a) Requirements for the selection of authoring software should consider its adaptability and
      equal performance in the six official languages (see Annex A on web tool features and
      multilingual capabilities).
  (b) Each of the language versions of UN web sites must be maintained in a dedicated
      corresponding directory e.g. www.un.org/arabic, www.un.org/chinese, www.un.org/french,
      www.un.org/russian, www.un.org/spanish.
  (c) All language versions of UN web sites should have a parallel structure, to facilitate ease of
      access to the same information in all versions.
  (d) Icons for alternate language versions of web pages should be visible immediately when the
      page loads, without scrolling down, and should be arranged in English alphabetical order, i.e.
      Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
  (e) Language adaptations must also conform to United Nations language standards and be edited
      according to set rules and regulations as set out in paragraphs 11-14 of document
      ST/AI/189/Add.28.



2.6         Web site Management

            To facilitate optimum management of the United Nations web site, webmasters are
            encouraged to be in close contact with UNWS to assure site-wide consistency. The following
            standard practices will help to assure coherent site-wide posting of information:



      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 11 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
   (a) Webmasters should prepare and submit their site maps to UNWS along with the names and
       contact information of focal points for each branch of the site.
   (b) Adequate web usage statistics are vital for site management. Examples of usage statistics are
       elements such as the number of pages successfully accessed and the countries where access
       requests originated (see Annex B on guidelines for web statistics).
   (c) Testing of new pages should be done on a staging server, whenever possible. (Links to
       documents on the United Nations ODS can be tested only from registered servers).
   (d) Posting of new sites or of substantial enhancements to existing sites should be announced on
       the UN homepage under "Recent Additions". This can be done through the UNWS contact
       (Section 2.1.2).
   (e) Web pages that are updated on a regular basis that feature links to recurring events, or links to
       recurring major UN reports, should be maintained under a fixed URL with links, if desired, to
       archived earlier versions.
   (f) Pages posted outside of the www.un.org web site not be searched by the UN search engine,
       unless arrangements are made with the UN web site search Collections Manager (contact: 212-
       963-2266, vazquez@un.org) .



2.6.1    Web site maintenance

   (a) Current materials should be regularly safeguarded with frequent scheduled off-line back-ups.
       The index pages should especially have one backup in each directory in case of accidental
       overwrite. All uploaded pages should be carefully checked immediately following upload. The
       production web server must not be used for backups. ITSD can restore files from tape.
       However, if additional backups are needed, these should be done on other storage.
   (b) Links should be monitored on a continuous basis. Broken links must be removed from the site
       or amended. Link verification tools should be used on a regular basis.
   (c) Superseded items must immediately be removed from the server and, if desired, archived
       offline. Note that the search engines will access and provide access to superseded items that
       remain on the server. Site maps facilitate cleaning files posted on the server by ensuring that
       there is no duplication of files.
   (d) Code should be cleaned and unnecessary tags and comments removed as a part of standard
       operating procedure (see the table in Annex A on “file cleaning and testing”). Links to new
       official documents should be to documents on the United Nations ODS (see Section 4 for
       further information on the ODS).



2.6.2    Web site Version Control


   Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 12 of 32                        Technical Guidelines
  (a) Currently, administrative rights are given to webmasters where they may maintain web sites
      on the production UN internet web site. This method is not conducive to proper web site
      maintenance, integrity and security.
  (b) The Information Technology Services Division will provide a staging web server where
      webmasters may test and verify web content before it is migrated to the production web site.
      Procedures will be put into place, managed by DPI, which will ensure link integrity and an
      overall content overview.



2.7         Web site Security

            FTP User IDs and passwords should be actively safeguarded and kept confidential. If there is
            any reason to believe that the password has been compromised, UNWS should be contacted
            immediately for change of password. It is the responsibility of the user office to retain the
            FTP User ID and passwords through changes of personnel and vacation periods. Neither
            UNWS nor ITSD can assist in case of lost passwords. A new application will be required and
            will need several days to activate a new User ID and password. User IDs and passwords must
            not be provided to interns, volunteers or consultants and should not be saved in any FTP
            software programme.


            As explained in ST/AI/2001/5*, paragraph 3.6, generally, links from United Nations web
            sites to external web sites must not be used, unless authorized. However, the Administrative
            Instruction recognizes exceptions to this general policy in two cases, namely:


                 External web sites that provide information regarding the activities of other non-
          United Nations system intergovernmental or non-governmental organizations that operate
          programmes or conduct activities consistent with the policies, aims and activities of the
          Organization, and provide a link back to the UN web site; or
                 External web sites that contain information or non-commercialized products (such
          as downloadable software) that facilitate the use of United Nations web sites.

            Additional exceptions, which are consistent with the overall policy set forth in the
            instruction, may be made upon the decision of the Publications Board, through its Working
            Group on Internet Matters. All Secretariat units maintaining web sites will establish internal
            procedures for the approval of external links in accordance above-mentioned guidelines and
            communicate such procedures to the Working Group on Internet Matters. Such procedures
            should, for example, make provision for approval at the supervisor level, as appropriate. The
            Working Group should be kept informed, by means of periodic communication to its
            Chair/Secretary, of the details of all external links approved by each Secretariat unit and
            posted to its respective web site. Links to external web sites, which do not clearly fall within
            the above permissible categories, should first be approved by the Working Group in
      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                   Page 13 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
      consultation with UNWS and on the advice of the Office of Legal Affairs, if necessary. Such
      requests (with justifications) should be sent to the Secretary of the Working Group and
      copied to UNWS sufficiently in advance for consideration. Whenever external links are
      included on a United Nations web site, the following disclaimer should be included (see the
      annex of ST/AI/2001/5*, paragraph 2):


      “This site may contain links and references to third-party web sites. The linked sites are not
      under the control of the United Nations, and the United Nations is not responsible for the
      content of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site. The United Nations provides
      these links only as a convenience, and the inclusion of a link or reference does not imply the
      endorsement of the linked site by the United Nations.”


      The disclaimer will be placed on the same page of the link or in an intermediate pop-up
      window, which provides the users with the choice of continuing on to the external site or
      returning to the referring page.


      Links to scripts, such as counters on external sites, are a security risk and cannot be used.
      Images associated with external counters (and such similar scripts) call up Java codes on
      external servers that pose a potential threat. Such links will be deactivated by ITSD and/or
      UNWS and the user office notified.




Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 14 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
3           ANNEXES

3.1         Annex A: Software Characteristics: Web page creation and
            editing: Web tool features and multilingual capabilities

A= Arabic                                 E= English                                      R= Russian
C= Chinese                                F= French                                       S= Spanish



3.1.1       Web tools currently in use
***Software that is bold will be delivered by CMS and training will be offered by OHRM (to be approved by the Working Group on
Internet Matters)

Web page creation:
               Software                  A C E          F    R     S                             Remarks
ChineseStar                                   X                             Web creation and editing
Dreamweaver MX                           X X X X X X Advanced HTML source editing, navigation, HTML
                                                                            code analysis, JavaScript coding, etc.; could be
                                                                            distributed by CMS upon recommendations of the
                                                                            Internet Working Group
EditPlus Text Editor 2.11                          X X             X ES-Computing
FrontPage                                     X X X X X Web creation and editing; maintained and
                                                        installed by CMS
FrontPage FP 2002 XP                     X X X X X X Web creation and editing
HomeSite                                      X X X X X Advanced HTML source editing, JavaScript
                                                        editing, HTML code analysis
HTML Writer                              X         X X                      Web authoring
Netscape Composer 6.2                         X X X X X Not supported by ITSD or UNWS
Netscape editor                                    X X             X Part of Netscape Communicator, basic HTML source
                                                                            editing, visual page layout formatting, web page
                                                                            prototyping
NotePad                                  X X X X                   X Basic HTML source editing;
NoteTab                                  X X                                Source editing
TopStyle                                 X                                  Style editing


Text Editors and text tools:

      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                           Page 15 of 32                                  Technical Guidelines
             Software             A C E      F    R     S                            Remarks
Context 4.0                                       X              Dictionary
FineReader Office 5.0                             X              Scanning and OCR
Microsoft Word                    X X X X X X Conversion to HTML; maintained and
                                              installed by CMS
NotePad                           X X X X X X Basic HTML source editing;
NoteTab                           X X                            Source editing
OmniPage Pro 12                          X X X X Document production
OpenOffice                               X X            X Conversion to HTML
ORFO 2002 Russian                                 X              Spell checking
Parawin Pro for Windows 98                        X              Keyboard layout and screen fonts
WordPad                           X X X X X X Basic HTML source editing; maintained and
                                                                 installed by CMS


Graphic design and animation:
             Software             A C E     F     R     S                           Remarks
Adobe Illustrator                 X X X X X X Graphic design
Adobe Photoshop 5.5                  X X X X X Image and graphics editing, graphic file
                                               optimization, image slicing
Adobe Photoshop 6                    X X X X X Image and graphics editing, graphic file
                                               optimization, image slicing. Needs a patch
                                               for Russian.
Adobe Photoshop ME                X X X X X X Image and graphics editing, graphic file
                                              optimization, image slicing could be
                                              distributed by CMS upon recommendations
                                              of the Internet Working Group
Flash 5.0                            X X X              X Basic Web animations
Flash MX                                X X X X Basic Web animations
Macromedia Fireworks                    X X X X Image and graphics editing, graphic file
                                                optimization, image slicing, rollover
                                                JavaScripts
MapEdit 2.42 (Boutell)                                  X Graphic design; image maps
Microsoft PowerPoint                 X X X X X Online multimedia tutorials and presentations;
                                                                 maintained and installed by CMS
Paint Shop Pro                    X X X X X X Image and graphics editing, graphic file
                                              optimization, image slicing
    Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 16 of 32                                Technical Guidelines
SWISH                            X X X X X X Animations


File/document production:
            Software             A C E     F    R     S                     Remarks
Adobe Acrobat ME                 X X X X X X PDF documents production and editing.
                                             Adobe Acrobat applications used as
                                             elements on web pages should include a link
                                             to the Adobe Acrobat Plug-in.
Adobe Acrobat 5.0                   X X X X X Document production; maintained and installed by
                                                           CMS
Ascent Capture 4                 X X X X X X Document batch scanning/Pdf production
FrameMaker + SGML                      X X                 Document production desktop publishing
                                                           software (saves output in html, xml, pdf)
Kodak PixView Imaging                      X               Document batch scanning/PDF production
Microsoft PowerPoint 2000           X X X X X Document production; maintained and installed by
                                                           CMS
Microsoft Word 2000                 X X X X X Document production;                    maintained           and
                                              installed by CMS
Microsoft Visio 2000                   X                   Flowcharts,    Published     as         HTML;
                                                           maintained and installed by CMS
XnView for Windows1.3                  X                   Document conversion/production software
                                                           (converts text files into multi-tiff output
                                                           without scanning)


File Cleaning and Testing:
            Software             A C E     F    R     S                     Remarks
OpenOffice                       X X X X X X Convert MSWord to HTML; cleaner text,
                                             file size reduced 50%; could be distributed
                                             by CMS upon recommendations of the
                                             Internet Working Group; ITSD has a VB
                                             Script that can automate the process
HTML Tidy                            X X X X Good tool for cleaning codes; could be
                                             distributed by CMS upon recommendations
                                             of the Internet Working Group
Dreamweaver MX                      X X X X X See above
HomeSite 4.5                        X X X X X Cleaning of empty spaces
Webtrends                        X X X X X X Checking links, site mapping, document
                                             lists
   Date Modified: 21 July 2003                 Page 17 of 32                        Technical Guidelines
FTP:
              Software            A C E     F    R     S                     Remarks
Cute FTP                              X X X            X
Hummingbird's FTP                 X X X X X X (WFTP 32-Bit) File uploading, file
                                              maintenance on FTP server; maintained and
                                              installed by CMS
Macromedia Dreamweaver              X X X X X FTP feature built into Dreamweaver, site
                                              management tools including cross-site
                                              checking for broken links
WS FTP                            X X X X X X File transfer client
WS FTP Pro                        X X X X X X (WFTP 32-Bit) File transfer client for
                                              Windows /95/98/NT/2000


File compression:
              Software            A C E     F    R     S                     Remarks
WinZip                            X X X X X X File compression for downloadable files,
                                              usually for storage or transfer.



3.1.2     Other tools

Multimedia production:
              Software            A C E     F R        S                     Remarks
RealProducer Basic                X       X X               Audio and video encoding to Real Media
                                                            format. RealPlayer applications used as
                                                            elements on web pages should include a link
                                                            to the RealPlayer Plug-in.
Windows Media                               X          X Audio file encoding/optimization. Currently
                                                         not supported by UNWS.
Flash 5.0 Standard                    X X X            X Basic Web animations
Sound Forge 6.0                       X                X Digital Audio Editing


Statistics:
              Software            A C E     F    R     S                     Remarks

    Date Modified: 21 July 2003                 Page 18 of 32                        Technical Guidelines
Analog                                  X                       Web server log file analysis (usage statistics
                                                                are comparable to that generated by
                                                                Webtrends)
Live Stats 5 (DeepMatrix)               X                       Statistical reports, web server log analysis,
                                                                usage statistics, etc.
Lotus Notes databases             X     X X X                   Maintained and installed by CMS
Microsoft Excel 2000              X X X X X X Statistical reports; maintained and installed
                                              by CMS
MSAccess – ASP                    X     X X                     Statistical Databases;      maintained            and
                                                                installed by CMS
Webtrends                         X X X X X X Web server log analysis, currently used by
                                              UNWS


Database production:
             Software             A C E     F    R     S                          Remarks
Epixtech Horizon                                                This is the Library integrated management
                                                                system and is not a web tool. The data is
                                                                pushed to the web via the product's add on
                                                                software WebPac (current system) and iPac
                                                                (in development) but these tools are so
                                                                closely allied to the management system
                                                                that they could not be used for web
                                                                development by anyone else.
Folio Views 4.2                                                 Used to print PDF output from databases
Lotus Notes R5 designer           X X X X X X Maintained and installed by CMS
Macromedia Ultradev                   X X X X X
SQL                               X X X X              X Maintained and installed by CMS
Microsoft Access                  X X X X              X Maintained and installed by CMS




    Date Modified: 21 July 2003                 Page 19 of 32                              Technical Guidelines
3.2         ANNEX B: Guidelines for Web Statistics

          The guidelines for logging and utilizing web site statistics are currently being drafted. The
          existing method of obtaining web usage statistics involves having an automated script gather
          the log files from all of the web servers and push them to a central location, where an external
          programme is responsible for parsing the data to obtain useful information. This method is not
          desirable for a number of reasons, primarily due to the fact that there is only one log file for a
          majority of the Internet sites published by the United Nations.


          A central logging server is being developed that will allow each of the web servers to record
          usage and error information for each site. The logs will be separate to make it easier to
          maintain usage statistics on a per-site basis. As such, it will be possible to gather extended
          logging information on each site.


          This mechanism will make possible historical logging and archiving, as well as ease migration
          to a database facility in the future.


          Currently UNWS provides limited site statistics that can be set up for author-offices upon
          request. Contact Web Development and Webcast Unit: 212-963-6733, webcast@un.org.




      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                   Page 20 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
3.3         ANNEX C: Web site Planning and Organization
            Web site development and deployment involves a step-by-step process to ensure that output
            goals are met and resources are handled well. Below is a planning framework strategy that
            serves as an outline of all the phases involved in the site construction life cycle.


            1. Goals and objectives
            Planning and organizing a web site should start with a clear statement of the site goals, a set
            of well-defined objectives and the expected outputs in creating the proposed web site. This
            illustrates the magnitude and boundary of web development tasks at hand. It helps focus on
            the particular short- and long-term needs of a web site.


            1.1 Purpose
            What is the purpose of the web site?
             Informational
             Transactional
             Other, please specify ______________________________________________________


            1.2 Goals
            What are the goals and objectives?
            __________________________________________________________________________
            __________________________________________________________________________
            __________________________________________________________________________
            __________________________________________________________________________
            __________________________________________________________________________


            What is the primary goal from the list above?
            __________________________________________________________________________


            1.3 Assessment
            1.3.1 Who is your target audience? (Check all that apply.)
             Public
             UN and non- UN agencies
             NGOs
             Working Group
             Statistical Offices
      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                   Page 21 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
       Governments
       Academics
       Media
       Other, please specify:_____________________________________________________


      1.3.2 What do you want to accomplish under this site? What are your expected outputs, e.g.
      news, statistics, illustrations, databases, etc?
      __________________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________________


      1.3.3 What range of connectivity and speed does the target audience have?
      __________________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________________


      1.3.4 What is your timeline?
       Concept ______________________________
       Plan (site architecture) __________________
       Identification of resources _______________
       Gathering/preparation of content __________
       Preliminary design _____________________
       Focus groups (usability) _________________
       Design and content approval _____________
       Programming and site preparation__________
       Testing ______________________________
       Deployment __________________________


      1.3.5 Where will the site be hosted? _____________________________________________


      1.3.6 What languages will the site be using?
       Arabic
       Chinese
Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 22 of 32                        Technical Guidelines
       English
       French
       Russian
       Spanish
       Other, please specify:______________________________________________________


      1.3.7 How will the proposed site be categorized in terms of:
      (a) Scope Coverage and size? (volume of data and information, number of content
      providers/authors, number of contributors, collaboration with other offices/departments/UN
      and non-UN agencies, etc.)
      __________________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________________


      (b) Frequency of updates of:
       Static material
       Dynamic material
      Comments
      __________________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________________




Date Modified: 21 July 2003                  Page 23 of 32                    Technical Guidelines
      2. Requirements


      2.1 Human resources requirements
      Below is a sample table.


                   Function                 Responsibility                          Head Count
                  Project Manager          Oversees the whole web site
                                            development; Outlines specific
                                            deliverables and oversees the team
                                            and processes from start to finish;
                                            Defines project life cycle, schedules
                                            timelines and deadlines; and,
                                            Handles weekly status updates.
                  Web Designer             Oversees visual web interface
                  Content
                   Provider/Researcher
                  Information Architect
                  Application Developer
                  Database Administrator
                  Editor/Proofreader
                  Translator
                  Quality Assurance
                  Others _____________


      2.2 Technical requirements checklist
      Identify the general technical needs to accomplish the site.
       Web hosting / Acquisition of space, URL, FTP access
       What platform does the host server run on and what is supported/not supported
       Equipment _______________________________________________________________
       Databases
       Static/Dynamic HTML Coding
       Other necessary programming, please specify ___________________________________
       Other processes, please specify _______________________________________________
Date Modified: 21 July 2003                     Page 24 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
      3. Resources Evaluation
      Based on requirements from Section 2, outline and assess needs to meet and upgrade
      internal capability based on scope and magnitude of the proposed site.


      3.1 Human resources
            List available qualified staff and additional staff necessary for the proposed web site.
                        Function           Necessary Head       Current Head       Needed Head
                                               Count               Count              Count




      3.2 Equipment resources and available software
       Current hardware setup _____________________________________________________
       Software in use ___________________________________________________________
       Disk space requirements (MB) _______________________________________________


      3.3 Timetable definition
      Start Date _____________
      End Date _______________


      3.4 Allotted budget _________________________________________________________


      3.5 Assessment of additional resources
       Consultation with ITSD and UNWS ___________________________________________
       Additional Technical Assistance ______________________________________________
       Outsourced functions ______________________________________________________
       Others __________________________________________________________________


      4. Site Construction and Design

Date Modified: 21 July 2003                     Page 25 of 32                        Technical Guidelines
      4.1 Content Development Checklist
       Research: Gather information from catalogues, brochures, existing sites, etc.
       Establish Site Map of working directory.
      This directory under the local drive would serve as the staging area and should mirror the
      site structure in the remote server where files will be posted.
       Organize Navigation Structure and Graphical User Interface


      4.2 Technical review
      Selection of web authoring tools and hardware depends on the complexity of the proposed
      site. This would be reflected in the internal needs assessment formulated in consultation with
      the computer services group within the offices or departments, ITSD and UNWS. (See
      Annex A for currently used web tools.)


      4.2.1 Software
       Web authoring tools _______________________________________________________
       Graphic design tools _______________________________________________________
       Databases _______________________________________________________________
       Others __________________________________________________________________


      4.2.2 Hardware
       Servers for static HTML pages _______________________________________________
       Servers for database-driven pages _____________________________________________


      4.3 Site Creation
                                           Phases                          Date required
              1. Create initial web site
              2. Management approval
              3. Test Entire site
               Proofread and spell check, link and code validation
               View with different browsers
               Verify that forms work
               Access at various times on different days
Date Modified: 21 July 2003                         Page 26 of 32                Technical Guidelines
              4. Focus group feedback
              5. Adjustments to site based on feedback
              6. Web site launch


      5. Maintenance
       Respond to visitor comments and questions promptly.
       Check often to see if site is up and running.
       Update site on a timely basis. Ensure that site content is current.
       Run check for broken links.
       Create site back up on a daily basis.




Date Modified: 21 July 2003                     Page 27 of 32                 Technical Guidelines
3.4         ANNEX D: Metadata and Hidden Information
3.4.1       Metadata

Metadata is structured data that describes the characteristics of a resource. Metadata is similar to the
cataloguing data found in library, museum or archives records. It also provides a description on a wide
scope of operations, such as resource discovery, e-commerce, digital signature, content rating and
many others.



3.4.2       Metadata for the web

A metadata record consists of a number of pre-defined elements representing specific attributes of a
resource, and each element can have one or more values. The meta element <META> provides
metadata such as a document's keywords, description, author, etc. These tags must be written within
the <HEAD> and </HEAD> tags of an HTML document. Meta tags have two possible attributes:


         <META HTTP-EQUIV="name" CONTENT="content">
         <META NAME="name" CONTENT="content">



3.4.3       HTTP-EQUIV Attribute

The HTTP-EQUIV attributes control the action of browsers, and may be used to refine the
information provided by the actual HTPP headers (HTTP headers specify information about the
object, not what information the object contains.). META tags with an HTTP-EQUIV attribute
provide structural metadata.


Note: Some browsers and web proxies may ignore the HTTP-EQUIV META tag. It appears to work
properly with Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.



3.4.4       Content Controls

There are many content control types but only two are elaborated for use in the United Nations web
site and other organizational web sites.




      Date Modified: 21 July 2003                Page 28 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
3.4.4.1 Content-Type


This is extended to provide character set. It is recommended to always use this tag. For proper display
of text in English, Spanish and French:
       <META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1">


For proper display of text in non-Latin scripts, the use of the following meta data for encoding web
pages in languages is recommended:
       Arabic:     <META            HTTP-EQUIV=Content-Type                 CONTENT="text/html;
        charset=windows-1256">
       Chinese:    <META           HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type"                CONTENT="text/html;
        charset=gb2312">
       Russian:     <META            HTTP-EQUIV=Content-Type                CONTENT="text/html;
        charset=windows-1251">


The standard language for Chinese is “Simplified Chinese” and the font standard for Arabic is
“Arabic Traditional".



3.4.5     Refresh

The syntax first specifies a delay in seconds before the page loads the document. Typically used to
redirect the web page to another URL. Use zero (0) as the delay for URL redirection.
       <META HTTP-EQUIV=Refresh CONTENT="0;http://www.un.org">



3.4.6     Name Attribute

META tags with a NAME attribute are used for other types that do not communicate with HTTP
headers. Below is the syntax:
       <META NAME="name" CONTENT="content">
The NAME attribute presents a property element while the CONTENT attribute provides the
subsequent values. The CONTENT attribute may contain text, but not HTML tags.

The table outlines the different categories and associated elements for the NAME attribute with their
descriptions.

    Date Modified: 21 July 2003                 Page 29 of 32                       Technical Guidelines
                Category
                                                             Explanation and Syntax
                 Element
Identification Meta-Data           A distinguishing identifier.
Unique Identifier                  Unique string to identify the document, usually web URL.
                                   <META NAME=”DC.Identifier”
                                   CONTENT=”http://www.un.org”>
Context Meta-Data                  The origin of the document (i.e. the person or system that is
                                   responsible for generating the document) and provides data that
                                   support its use as evidence of a transaction.
Publisher                          Responsible functional organization/unit.
                                   <META NAME=”DC.Publisher” CONTENT=”DESA”>
Date/Time                          <META NAME=”DC.Date” SCHEME=”W3CDTF”
                                   CONTENT=”2002-09-09”>
Content Meta-Data                  The actual document description.
Title                              <META NAME=”DC.Title” CONTENT=”Welcome to the
                                   United Nations. It’s your world.”>
Description                        <META NAME=“DC.Description” CONTENT=” This is the
                                   official Web Site of the United Nations Headquarters in New
                                   York. Here you will find daily UN News, UN Documents and
                                   Publications, UN Overview information, UN Conference
                                   information, Photos, and other UN information resources.”>
Subject/Keywords                   <META NAME=”DC.Subject” CONTENT=” United Nations,
                                   UN, U.N., UNHQ, Secretariat, Security Council, SC, General
                                   Assembly, GA, Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC,
                                   International Organization”>
Document Language                  <META NAME=”DC.Language” CONTENT=”English”>
Access And Use Meta-Data           Defines the terms and conditions for access and copyright notice.
Rights Management                  <META NAME=”DC.Rights” CONTENT=”Privacy Notice.
                                   Copyright, United Nations, 2002.”> (Specify terms for use)



3.4.7    References:

       Administrative Committee on Coordination/Information Systems Coordination Committee.
        ACC/1998/ISCC/12 - Annex: Migration to Contemporary Document Management: Core Set of
        Metadata for use by UN-System Organizations. New York: 30 June 1998.


   Date Modified: 21 July 2003               Page 30 of 32                        Technical Guidelines
   Day, Michael (2001). Metadata in a Nutshell [Online]. The UK Office of Library and
    Information Networking (UKOLN). Available from: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/
    [Accessed 13 September 2002].
   Powell, Andy (10 April 2002). Metadata for the Web. RDF and the Dublin Core [Online].
    Available from: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/presentations/ [Accessed 13 September
    2002].
   A Dictionary of HTML Meta Tags [Online]. Available from: http://vancouver-
    webpages.com/META/ [Accessed 15 September 2002].
   Object MetaInformation [Online]. Available from
    http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/Object_Headers.html [Accessed 15 September 2002].




Date Modified: 21 July 2003               Page 31 of 32                    Technical Guidelines
3.5         ANNEX E: Policy Formulating Group

            Policy-formulating groups related to Internet matters and Information Technology at the
            Secretariat level and at the inter-agency level.


            Inter-agency:
            Chief Executives Board (Geneva)


            UN Secretariat:
            Information and Communications Technology Board, Mr. Andrew Toh [toh@un.org]
            Task Force on Knowledge Management, Ms. Phyllis Dickstein [dickstein@un.org]
            Working Group on Internet Matters, Mr. Mahbub Ahmad [ahmad@un.org]
            Task Team for Updating Technical Guidelines, Ms. Soad Sommereyns
            [sommeryens@un.org]
            Task Team for the Map of Website Content, Mr. Ryszard Siwanowicz [siwanowicz@un.org]




      Date Modified: 21 July 2003               Page 32 of 32                    Technical Guidelines

								
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