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NEXT GENERATION OF CRUISE FERRIES

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					                         Cruise + Ferry 2003


                 NEXT GENERATION
                        OF
                  CRUISE FERRIES




                                    Kai Levander
                           Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology

                                        Olli Jantunen
                                     Kvaerner Masa-Yards

                                              Rolf Kjær
                                              Color Line




This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
Figure 1: Post Panama cruise ship “Navigator of the Seas”, 138 300 GT




Figure 2: Panamax cruise ship “Carnival Spirit”, 85 900 GT




Figure 3: Cruise Ferry “Color Line”, 74 600 GT


Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                         2
         This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
1.                     FERRY DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

1.1                    Increasing size and capacity

Ferries are vessels carrying passengers,
cars and cargo on short sea routes. The
ferry business has become an important
segment for ship designers, builders and
operators. This ship type started to
develop during the 60’s in the Baltic and
rapidly spread to the North Sea and to the
Mediterranean routes. A strong local
market can also be found in Japan. The
passenger car ferries have been growing
in size and capacity. This rapid growth
has led to the development of several
dedicated ferry types, each tailored for a
different mix of passengers, cars and
cargo. This range reaches from the cargo
                                              The new cruise ferry for Color Line
only RoRo ferries to the cruise ferries,
with almost cruise ship like facilities onboard for a large number of passengers (fig 1). The latest
new building ordered by Color Line from Kvaerner Masa-Yards will be an impressive vessel of
close to 75 000 GT. The passenger capacity and the number of cabins will be comparable with a
typical Panamax cruise ship.

                  100000

                                                                                                             Cruise Ships
                   90000


                   80000                                                                                     Cruise Ferries

                   70000
                                                                                                             RoPax Ferries
  Gross Tonnage




                   60000

                                                                                                             PaxCar Ferries
                   50000


                   40000                                                                                     RoRo Ferries

                   30000


                   20000


                   10000


                       0
                       1950     1955     1960     1965     1970     1975     1980      1985    1990     1995     2000      2005   2010
                                                                            Delivery

Figure 1: Ferry development trends




Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                                           3
                    This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
1.2      Different ferry types
RoRo cargo is carried on many short sea
routes. If less than 12 passengers or lorry
drivers are carried onboard the vessel is a
RoRo ferry and can be built according to
cargo vessel rules (fig 2). Cargo is loaded
through the stern, mostly only at one level
to the main deck, with internal ramps to the
lower hold and upper deck. The upper deck
can be uncovered for the full length.                     Figure 2: RoRo Ferry

If the ferry carries more than 12 passengers
or drivers it is considered to be a passenger
vessel. If the RoRo decks are large and the
passenger facilities onboard are limited the
vessel is called a RoPax ferry. This type
often has a lower hold, main deck and
upper deck for RoRo cargo (fig 3). The
deckhouse is lengthened to accommodate
space for the passengers. The upper RoRo
deck is then partly covered. Most RoPax
ferries have both stern and bow ramps to                  Figure 3: RoPax Ferry
speed up the loading and unloading of the
RoRo decks.

Ferries with passenger facilities suitable for
longer routes are called passenger-car
ferries or PaxCar ferries (fig 4). On top of
the RoRo decks these vessels have a full-
length superstructure for the passenger
cabins and public spaces. Hoistable car
platforms are often installed on the RoRo
decks to increase the deck area for private
cars. The free height needed on the RoRo
decks for lorries and trailers is 4,4…4,8 m
                                                          Figure 4: PaxCar Ferry
and the hoistable platforms divide the space
into two private car decks with a free height
of 2,0…2,4 m.

Ferries with cabin space for all passengers
and large public spaces with restaurants,
lounges, bars, etc. are often called Cruise
Ferries. These ferries operate on over night
routes and some of the passengers travel
back with the ferry on the return trip (fig 5).
The RoRo decks are small and the
passenger cars occupy a large portion of the
RoRo space.                                               Figure 5: Cruise Ferry



Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                         4
         This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
2.                        FERRY PAYLOAD
2.1                       Passenger capacity
Passengers with or without cars are the
important targets for the ferries. The large
seasonal variations in the number of travellers
demand flexibility from the ferry operators.
On many routes the capacity needed during
the summer vacation period is much bigger
than during the low winter season. By adding
onboard facilities and services, like meeting
rooms and conference spaces, health centres,
speciality restaurants and live entertainment
the ferry operators try to attract passengers
year-round. The passenger capacity and
number of cabins for ferries of different type
and size are shown in figures 6 and 7.


                      3 500
                                                                                          Cruise Ferry
                      3 000
 Passenger Capacity




                      2 500
                      2 000
                                                                                   PaxCar
                      1 500
                      1 000
                       500
                                                                                    RoPax
                          0
                              0       10 000       20 000       30 000       40 000       50 000      60 000       70 000       80 000
                                                                               GT

Figure 6: Passenger Capacity


                      1 200
                                                                                            Cruise Ferry
                      1 000
 Passenger Cabins




                       800
                                                                                                            PaxCar
                       600

                       400
                                                                                                            RoPax
                       200

                          0
                              0       10 000       20 000       30 000       40 000       50 000      60 000       70 000       80 000
                                                                               GT

Figure 7: Passenger Cabins

Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                                           5
                       This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
2.2                                     Cars and cargo capacity in different ferry types




Ferries are an important link in the intermodal “city - to - city” transport network, due to their
regular schedules and frequent departures. The RoRo decks in modern ferries can accommodate
many different types of vehicles. Private cars, trucks and trailers are typical cargo carried by the
passenger car ferries. The RoRo capacities for different types of ferries are shown in figures 8
and 9.


                                     1 200
                                                                                           PaxCar
                                     1 000
 Passenger Cars




                                                                                                  RoPax
                                      800

                                      600
                                                                                                                             Cruise Ferry
                                      400

                                      200

                                        0
                                             0      10 000       20 000       30 000       40 000       50 000      60 000       70 000       80 000
                                                                                             GT

Figure 8: Car Capacity


                                     5 000
      Cargo Capacity [lane-meters]




                                                                                  RoRo
                                     4 000
                                                                                             RoPax

                                     3 000                                                            PaxCar

                                     2 000
                                                                                                                   Cruise Ferry
                                     1 000

                                         0
                                             0       10 000       20 000      30 000       40 000      50 000       60 000      70 000       80 000
                                                                                            GT

Figure 9: Cargo Capacity



Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                                                         6
                                         This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
2.3      RoRo deck arrangement
The car and cargo capacity of the ferries has grown significantly during the 90’s. The number of
RoRo decks has increased from initially only one to two or even three full height trailer decks. In
addition many ferries have a lower hold to further increase the cargo capacity (fig 10). The RoRo
deck capacity and arrangement indicates which type the ferry belongs to.

Most passengers carrying ferries have drive through possibilities with bow and stern doors. This
makes it possible to load and unload also trucks and trailers during the short port time. RoRo
cargo vessels can carry only 12 drivers and semi-trailers must be used. When terminal tractors
are used for handling semi-trailers or cargo on cassettes drive through facilities are not needed
and most RoRo cargo vessels have only stern loading ramps.


                                                     Cruise Ferry




                                                    PaxCar Ferry




                                                     RoPax Ferry




                                                     RoRo Ferry




Figure 10: RoRo deck arrangement

The access for the passengers from the car decks to the public spaces must also be considered. If
a centre casing is used the arranging of stairs and lift is often easier than when side casings are
used. A centre casing also divides the length of the deck beams and reduces the vibration
amplitudes on the passenger decks above.




Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                      7
      This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.       CRUISE FERRY DESIGN
3.1      Lay out of the next generation
Both passenger expectation and safety rules demand today that the passenger cabins are located
mainly in the superstructure. Also the public spaces should be in the superstructure or on the top
decks of the hull. An indoor promenade connects the public spaces and some inside cabins can
have windows looking down on the activities onboard. This solution was first introduced in
“Silja Serenade” and has become a major feature also in the Voyager class cruise ships.
The main RoRo space is on the bulkhead deck. A separate garage deck for private cars located
above the main RoRo space and close to the passenger spaces. During the peak season cars,
trucks and trailers must share the space available on the main RoRo deck. To further increase the
capacity for private cars, hoistable platform decks are used. In ferries with powerful machinery
and large HVAC plants, the lower holds become rather small. For cruise ferries the RoRo
capacity demand is low and the wide side casings can be used for crew cabins, mess- and
dayrooms (fig 11).




Figure 11: Lay out of the new Color Line cruise ferry


Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                         8
         This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.2                     Passenger, crew and service spaces
The large public spaces in cruise ferries with several food service options, entertainment
alternatives, conference spaces and other activities is reflected in the large passenger areas
compared with the more transport orientated PaxCar and RoPax ferries (fig 12 and 13).

                    45 000
                                     Furnished Areas
                    40 000
                                     Cargo Areas                                Furnished - Cruise ferries
                    35 000         Technical and Engine Areas
                    30 000         Outdoor Decks
  Area [ m² ]




                    25 000
                    20 000
                                                                         Cargo - Other ferries
                    15 000
                                                                                                 Furnished - Other ferries
                    10 000
                                                                                     Cargo - Cruise ferries
                     5 000
                         0
                              0      10 000       20 000       30 000      40 000       50 000         60 000       70 000    80 000
                                                                            GT

Figure 12: Area distribution
                    40 000
                    35 000           Passenger Areas - Cruise Ferries
                                     Passenger Areas - Other Ferries
                    30 000           Crew facilities
                                     All Service Areas
                    25 000
      Area [ m² ]




                                     Drivers facilities
                    20 000
                    15 000
                    10 000
                     5 000
                          0
                              0       10 000       20 000       30 000      40 000       50 000         60 000       70 000    80 000
                                                                               GT

Figure 13: Furnished areas
The passenger mix is very diversified in ferries and several different cabin types should be
available to meet the customers’ expectation and suite their willingness to spend. The cabin types
in a cruise ferry ranges from large suites, well equipped cabins for couples, family cabins with 4
or 5 beds and cabins for conference delegates, mainly intended for single occupancy. Passengers
spend only 1 or 2 nights onboard and the ferry cabins can be smaller than in cruise ships. But
many ferry passengers now prefer double beds and more cabins should be laid out in that style
With all passenger cabins in the superstructure an increased number of outside cabins with
window can be provided. New structural solutions for the accommodation decks make it possible
to have very large windows in the outside cabins. In a ferry with an indoor promenade some of
the inside cabins can have windows facing this space (fig. 14).


Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                                          9
                     This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.3      Passenger Flow
All spaces onboard must be arranged so that it
is easy for the passenger to find their way
around the ship. Two main stairway halls with
ample lift capacity reaches from the main RoRo
deck to the sun deck and observation lounge.
The main passenger spaces with food service,
shops and entertainment are located on two
decks above the car garage and RoRo cargo
deck. These spaces are grouped along the
indoor promenade, which becomes the focal
point onboard (fig 14). All passenger cabins are
located in the superstructure on the decks
above. The upper decks are for different
activities, with conference facilities, swimming
hall, spa and health centre, teenager and
children rooms. The observation lounge on the
top will give the passengers a fantastic view of
sights along the route. This location of all
spaces is very straightforward and the
passenger flow unrestricted both vertically and
horizontally throughout the vessel (fig 15).
                                                              Figure 14: Indoor promenade “Silja Serenade”




Figure 15: Passenger flow of the new Color Line cruise ferry

Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                         10
         This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.4      Onboard service
The extensive onboard service
provided in cruise ferries demands
well-organised internal transport
between storerooms, galleys,
pantries, bars and shops. Also the
change of bed linens and towels
must be well organised during the
short time in port. Containers or
trailers are used to speed up the
processes. Loading of supplies and
unloading of garbage must not
prevent the cargo handling on the
RoRo decks. Most cruise ferries
can use the main RoRo deck for
the supply handling, but in RoPax
ferries the supply containers are Figure 16: Indoor promenade “Voyager of the Seas”
lifted onboard “through the roof”.
The new escape rules for ferries prevent the location of passenger and crew spaces below the
main RoRo deck and this space is now best utilized for stores (fig 17)




Figure 17: Service flow of the new Color Line cruise ferry


Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                      11
      This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.5      Car Deck Arrangement




Figure 18: Car and cargo deck arrangement of the new Color Line cruise ferry

The cruise ferries on “city - to - city” routes need only limited RoRo facilities for private cars,
trucks with trailers and unaccompanied semi-trailers. Drive-through facilities on the main car
deck speeds up the cargo handling. The deck has 6 truck lanes and wide side casings on both
sides. A row of pillars in the centreline supports the beams of the decks above. Hoistable car
platforms with 4 lanes are installed on port and starboard sides. The platforms can be used in
several configurations to suite the mix of trucks, busses, mobile homes and cars on each voyage.

The lower hold is intended for semi-trailers with a lift platform installed for cargo handling. In
the lower hold there are storage space for the provision and laundry trailers, with access ramps to
the storerooms

Above the main RoRo deck is a separate garage for private cars. The garage has a side door aft
and a fixed ramp in the port is used for driving the cars on and off the ferry. Through the main
stairs and lifts there is easy access to the passenger spaces above. The garage will be outfitted so
that this space can also be used for exhibitions.




Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                         12
         This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.6           Machinery alternatives

Passenger and RoRo ferries are almost exclusively equipped with medium speed diesel engines.
This engine type has the advantage of compact size and low weight, but still can operate on
heavy fuel oil. Several different machinery solutions have been studied for the next generation of
cruise ferry. The evaluation of the alternatives was based on cost, reliability and environmental
friendliness.

      Propulsion                      Generators           4 × 8L46 ->
      2 × 15 600 kW                   4 × 3 000 kW         4 × 7 800 kW
      = 31 200 kW                     = 12 000 kW          = 31 200 kW


                                          G
                                                                                          G




                                                                                 MSB
                                                                          8L46

                                                                                          G
                                          PTO                                                     6L32
                                          2 × 5 000 kW
 Thruster                                 = 10 000kW                                      G




                                                                                 MSB
                                                                                                               Thrusters
 2 x 1.0 MW                                                                                                    3 x 2.2 MW
                                                                                          G
                                                                          8L46

                                          G
Figure 19: Diesel-mechanical drive with CP propellers

                         2 x 15 600 kW                             6 x 8L38 ->
                                                                   2 x 5800 kW
                                                                   =34800 kW
                                              Conv




                                 M                                                     8L38

                                                                  8L38                        G
                                                           G                                  G
                                                                                                    MSB
                                                     MSB




  Thruster
  2 x 1.0 MW                                               G                                  G
                                                                                                                 Thrusters
                                                                                                                 3 x 2.2 MW
                                              Conv




                                 M                                                            G


Figure 20: Diesel-electric drive with twin FP propellers

  2 x 5 000 kW                        2 x 8 400 kW                            3 x 5 280 kW
                                      =16 800 kW                              =15 840 kW
                          Conv




                                                                              8L38

                                          8L46                            G
                                                                              8L38
                                                                   MSB




                                          8L46
 15 600 kW
                                                                          G
                                                                              8L38                              Thrusters
                                                                                                                3 x 2.2 MW
                                                                          G
                          Conv




Figure 21: Diesel-mechanical centre propeller with twin diesel-electric pods




Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                                13
        This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.6                 Machinery comparison
The ferry is operating on a 360 nm route with many hours of full speed in both deep and shallow
waters. The initial cost of the major machinery components is lowest for the diesel-mechanical
machinery. The twin pod diesel-electric alternative is about 25 % more expensive and the hybrid
machinery with diesel-mechanical centre propeller and diesel-electric twin pods lays in between
(fig 22). The pod propulsion has about 8% lower shaft power than the traditional twin-screw ship
with long exposed shaft lines, brackets and rudders. But due to the electrical transmission losses
of the variable speed pod drive the fuel consumption is almost the same. The hybrid
arrangement, however, gives a considerable saving due to the improved propulsion efficiency
and reduced power of the electric part of the machinery. Model tests with the hybrid arrangement
show saving potential of up to than 15 % in propulsion power. The total annual cost is lowest for
this alternative (fig 23), but the difference is small compared to the well-proven diesel-
mechanical solution. Figure 24 shows the machinery layout selected for the new Color ferry.

       40 000 000                                                                         9 000 000
                                                         Auxiliaries                                                                   Maintenance
                                                         Propulsion & Manoeuvring                                                      Fuel Oil and lubricants
                                                                                          8 000 000
       35 000 000                                        Engines & Generators                                                          Capital


                                                                                          7 000 000
       30 000 000

                                                                                          6 000 000
       25 000 000

                                                                                          5 000 000
                                                                                    EUR
 EUR




       20 000 000
                                                                                          4 000 000

       15 000 000
                                                                                          3 000 000


       10 000 000
                                                                                          2 000 000


        5 000 000                                                                         1 000 000



               0                                                                                 0
                       Diesel Mech.    Diesel Electric            Hybrid                              Diesel Mech.   Diesel Electric          Hybrid


Figure 22: Initial cost                                                              Figure 23: Annual cost




Figure 24: Diesel-mechanical machinery selected for the new Color Line cruise ferry



Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                                                                   14
                    This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
3.7      Safety and Environment Protection
For ferries there is a new rule for the escape route from all accommodation spaces. The escape
stairs must not lead through more than two decks levels, up or down before reaching the muster
station or an open deck. In a large cruise ferry there can be accommodation spaces on more than
10 decks above the bulkhead deck. This means that the escape routes must be arranged in a
different way than in large cruise vessels. The number of lifeboats is in most ferries based on the
rule for “Short International Voyages” and the liferafts accordingly. Escape slides or chutes with
rafts for up to 100 persons are replacing the davit launch rafts in many newbuildings.

For environment protection the bunker is in inside deep tanks on top of the double bottom. Both
black and grey water is processed and cleaned in the sewage plant before pumping overboard.
Waste and garbage chutes from all decks leads to two garbage compression stations located on
the main RoRo deck and all garbage is taken ashore.




Figure 25: Lifeboats and liferafts of the new Color Line cruise ferry




Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                      15
      This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
4.     74 600 GT CRUISE FERRY FOR COLOR LINE




Figure 26: The new cruise ferry for Color Line

Main Dimensions:                                             Machinery and Propulsion
Length over all             223,90 m                         Propulsion machinery 4 × 7800 kW
Breadth, wl                   35,00 m                        Electric power plant              4 × 2450 kVA
Draught                          6,8 m                       Shaft generators                  2 × 6000 kVA
Deadweight                     5000 t                        Bow thrusters                     3 × 2200 kW
Gross tonnage               74 600                           Aft thrusters                     2 × 1000 kW


Passengers                                                   Cargo:
Passengers                     2750                          Trailer capacity                       1270 lm
Passenger cabins                968                          Car capacity                             750 cars
   Outside                      492
   Atrium                       120                          Crew:
   Inside                       356                          Crew                                     250
                                                             Crew cabins                              248


                          Olav Nils Sunde, Owner and CEO of Color Line:
      “This is not a cruise ferry - this is a cruise ship with a car deck”



Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                          16
          This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
5.     CITY TO CITY CRUISE
Color Line has had about 600 000 passenger yearly on the Oslo-Kiel route, which is expected to
rise significantly by introducing the new cruise ferry, with more capacity and cruise-like
attractions.




        Bergen
                                                            Oslo




                                        Sandefjord
                                             Larvik                  Strømstad                               Stockholm
        Stavanger

                      Kristiansand




                                         Hirtshals
                                                             Frederikshavn




                                                                                 København




                                                     Kiel




                                                                                       Berlin




Figure 27: The route of the new Color Line cruise ferry

Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                           17
      This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
6.          PASSENGER FERRY EVALUATION

The passenger ferries operating on many of the European short sea routes have gone through a
fantastic development. It started from the need for transport of both passengers and goods. In the
beginning the ferries only offered their passengers basic services needed on the crossing. But
with growing wealth passenger interest increased and ferry travel became also part of their
vacation or a weekend trip. The demand for comfort and service increased, the first step was that
passengers wanted their own cabin. Ferry operators also quickly realized that passengers
travelling for “fun” gave them a possibility to reduce the seasonal variations of the passenger
loads. Short cruises, cruises to nowhere, conferences and business meetings could complement
the basic transport function on the ferry route. The tax-free shopping possibility on the routes
between the many countries in Europe supported this development. Also the technical
development of the ferries has been impressive. The vessels have grown many times in size,
machinery power and outfitting. With increasing volumes and speed safety and environment
protection become of greatest importance. Safe and reliable operation is a must for the ferry
business.

Today in a united Europe the scene is changing. Bridges and tunnels compete with sea transport
on many routes. Tax-free shopping possibilities are limited to countries outside the European
Union: The ferry operators must compete on equal terms with land based travel and transport
operators. The potential passengers have many options to spend their free time and money. The
next generation of ferries must offer a multitude of services and activities for the passengers to
choose from at competitive cost. Passengers expect “value for money”, but at the same time they
are looking for unique experiences and are willing to pay if they find what they want. Passenger
ferries have much to offer.

                                                                                                                                                                                     SAFE TY
 BUSINESS PROFILE                   2020      PASSENGER MOTIVATION                 TECHNOLOGY                                                                                        ENVIRONMENT           VESSEL SIZE

                                                 BRAND COMPETITION           LAND BASED FOOD           ZERO
 UNIQUE EXPERIENCES                              DOUBLE BED CABINS           PREPARATION & CLEANING    ENVIRONMENTAL
                                                PANORAMA WINDOWS                                      IMPACT
 ATTRACTIONS & ACTIVITIES                       INTERNET, MEDIA ON DEMAND   DIESEL ELECTRIC
                                                TRENDY RESTAURANTS           MACHINERY WITH PODS     ALTERNATIVE FUELS
                                                SHOPPING MALL                                        LOW SOX, LNG
 EXHIBITIONS & CONFE RENCE                     THEME PARK, WATERPARK       REDUNDANT MACHINERY
                                               LECTURES, WINE TASTING                               CATALYSATORS                                                                                          COLOR LINE
 INTERMODAL TRANSP ORT                        BUSINESS CENTER                                       WATERINJECTION                                                                                        74 600 GT
                                                                          AREA OUTFITTING          COMMON RAIL
                                              EXHIBITION HALL

                                   2000                                                                                                                                       ENVIROMENT                                 2000
                                               CABINS FOR ALL                                                                                                                PROTECTION
                                                                        AUTOMATIC
 CITY TOURISM                                 DINING ALTERNATIVES
                                                                        NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
 SHORT CRUISE                                INDOOR PROMENADE                                                                                                            HI-FOG SPRINKLERS
 PRIVATE CARS                                BRAND PRODUCTS
 MOBILE HOMES                               CHILDREN’S BALL POOL    HIGH SPEED / LIGHT CRAFT
                                           GRAND SHOWS                             HH
                                                                                   SS
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                                                                                                                                                                      STOCKHOLM                 SILJA SERENADE
                                          HEALTHCENTER, POOLS                                                                                                        REGULATION                 58 400 GT         1990
                            1990
                                                                BLOCK OUTFITTING
 VACATION TRIPS                     BUFFET & A LA CARTE
 WEEK-ENDS                         NIGHT CLUB & DISCO                                                                                                           SPRINKLERS
 BUSS TRAVEL                      TAX FREE                PREFABRICATED
                                 ENTERTAINMENT            CABIN MODULES                                                                                                               VIKING MARIELLA
                                                                                 SEWAGE TREATMENT                                                                                     37 800 GT
                                MEETING ROOMS
                     1980                             GAS TURBINES                                                                                                                                      1980
                                                                           GARBAGE HANDLING
 HIGH SPEED CROSSINGS                               SHORT HARBOUR TIME
                                                                      FIRE SAFE MATERIALS
                             MORE CABINS          BOW THRUSTERS                                                                                                          FINNJET
 TRANSPORTATION                                                                                                                                                          24 600 GT
                                           CONTROLLABLE     ESCAPE ROUTES
            1970       BUFFET              PITCH PROPS                                                                                                                               1970
                     SAUNA           MEDIUM SPEED    ENCLOSED LIFEBOATS
                   AIR SEATS         DIESELS
                                              FIRE ZONES            SCANDIA & NORDIA
     1960                                                           3 600 GT        1960
                                    DOUBLE BOTTOM




Figure 28: Ferry development trends


Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                                                                                                                                  18
            This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net
  PASSENGER SHIPS FROM MASA-YARDS DURING THE LAST 15 YEARS


                                                 L-1319 Juan J. Sister
         L-1294 Seaward                            22 000 GT, 1993
         42 300 GT, 1988                                                                L-1344 Voyager of the Seas
                                                                                            137 300 GT, 1999


     L-1296 Royal Viking Sun                       L-487 Fascination
         37 800 GT, 1988                           70 400 GT, 1994                         L-498 Costa Atlantica
                                                                                             85 700 GT, 2000

          L-1297 Athena                       L-1323 Crystal Symphony
         40 000 GT, 1989                          50 000 GT, 1995
                                                                                        L-1345 Explorer of the Seas
                                                                                            137 300 GT, 2000
        L-1302 Cinderella                          L-488 Imagination
        46 400 GT, 1989                             70 400 GT, 1995
                                                                                            L-499 Carnival Spirit
                                                                                              85 700 GT, 2001
          L-479 Fantasy                            L-489 Inspiration
         70 400 GT, 1990                           70 400 GT, 1996
                                                                                       L-1345 Adventure of the Seas
                                                                                            137 300 GT, 2001
         L-1298 Kalypso                               L-1337 Aida
         40 100 GT, 1990                            38 600 GT, 1996

                                                                                            L-500 Carnival Pride
                                                                                              85 700 GT, 2001
       L-1301 Silja Serenade                  L-492 Grandeur of the Seas
         58 400 GT, 1990                          74 000 GT, 1996

                                                                                           L-501 Carnival Legend
                                            L-493 Enchantment of the Seas                     85 700 GT, 2002
          L-480 Ecstasy
                                                  74 000 GT, 1997
         70 400 GT, 1991

                                                  L-1340 Superfast III                 L-1347 Navigator of the Seas
      L-1309 Silja Symphony                        30 000 GT, 1998                          137 300 GT, 2002
         58 400 GT, 1991


          L-485 Barfleur                             L-491 Elation                         L-503 Carnival Miracle
         20 000 GT, 1993                            70 400 GT, 1998                           85 700 GT, 2003



      L-1312 Royal Majesty                        L-1341 Superfast IV
        32 000 GT, 1992                            30 000 GT, 1998                      L-1348 Mariner of the Seas
                                                                                            137 300 GT, 2003

        L-1315 Normandie                             L-494 Paradise
         27 000 GT, 1992                            70 400 GT, 1998                      L-502 Costa Mediterranea
                                                                                             85 700 GT, 2003

         L-484 Sensation                             L-495 Europa
         70 400 GT, 1993                            28 400 GT, 1999
                                                                                             L-1351 Color Line
                                                                                              74 600 GT, 2004



Kai Levander
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Technology                                                                                        19
      This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

				
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