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FLIGHT AND PERFORMANCE PLANNING

VIEWS: 39 PAGES: 16

									FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
        AND
     PLANNING

 PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE

   HELICOPTER MANUAL

        SACAA-02
 FOR EXAMINATION PURPOSES ONLY


           SOUTH AFRICAN




           CIVIL AVIATION
            AUTHORITY
SACAA-02                                                                              CONTENTS
                                                                                         Page (i)


                                             CONTENTS

                                     SECTION 1 - PERFORMANCE GRAPHS

   Page   1-1 .........Figure   1-1..............Airspeed System Calibration
   Page   1-2 .........Figure   1-2..............Density Altitude Graph
   Page   1-3 .........Figure   1-3..............Wind Component Graph
   Page   1-4 .........Figure   1-4..............Hover In Ground Effect Graph
   Page   1-5 .........Figure   1-5..............Hover Out of Ground Effect Graph
   Page   1-6 .........Figure   1-6..............Never Exceed Speed (Vne) Graph
   Page   1-7 .........Figure   1-7..............Normal Operating Speed (Vno) Graph
   Page   1-8 .........Figure   1-8..............Maximum Continuous Power Table
   Page   1-9 .........Figure   1-9..............Autorotation Performance
   Page   1-10 .......Figure    1-10............Height-Velocity Diagram




                                       SECTION 2 - MASS AND BALANCE

   Page 2-1 .........Figure 2-1..............Mass and Balance Loading Form
   Page 2-2 .........Figure 2-2..............Longitudinal CG Graph
   Page 2-3 .........Figure 2-3..............Lateral CG Graph




PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                    PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                        Page 1-1


                                                       AIRSPEED SYSTEM CALIBRATION




                                              140



                                              120
                CALIBRATED AIRSPEED - KNOTS




                                              100



                                               80



                                               60



                                               40



                                               20



                                                0
                                                 0    20     40     60      80     100    120   140
                                                             INDICATED AIRSPEED - KNOTS




                                                     Figure 1-1: Airspeed System Calibration



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                                                     PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                                                         Page 1-2


                                                        DENSITY ALTITUDE GRAPH




                                                        STA
                                   20,000
                                                                      000
                                                                   18,
                                                           NDA
                                   19,000
                                                                         000
                                   18,000                     RD     17,
                                                                             000
                                   17,000                                16,
                                                                               000
                                   16,000                                 15,
                                                                                  000
                                   15,000                                     14,
                                                                                   000
                                   14,000                                       13,
                                                                                      000
                                   13,000                                         12,
                                                                                        000                                           ES
                DENSITY ALTITUDE




                                   12,000                                           11,                                      IT UD
                                                                                           000                           ALT
                                   11,000                                              10,                         UR
                                                                                                                     E
                                                                                                           SS
                                                                                              0         RE
                                   10,000                                                 900          P
                                                                                                  0
                                    9000                                                   800
                                                                                                  0
                                    8000                                                      700
                                                                                                    0
                                    7000                                                        600
                                                                                                           0
                                    6000                                                              500
                                                                                                               0
                                    5000                                                               400
                                                                                                                0
                                    4000                                                                    300
                                                                                                                  0
                                    3000                                                                     200
                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                100          VE
                                                                                                                                  L
                                    2000                                                                                    E
                                                                                                                         AL
                                    1000                                                                            SE

                                       0
                                            -40   -30       -20     -10   0     10                             20           30             40
                                                                   TEMPERATURE - °C




                                                   Figure 1-2: Density Altitude Graph




PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                                                                  PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                                                                      Page 1-3


                                                                             WIND COMPONENT GRAPH




                                                     50




                                                                                            REE TION




                                                                                                                                65 D
                                                                                                                                 W 0 ITY
                                                                                                                                  IN
                                                                                                                                    VE 55 OT
                                                                                        DEG REC




                                                                                                                                     6 C
                                                                                               S




                                                                                                                                      LO
                                                     40

                                                                              30 NWAY - IND DI




                                                                                                                                         KN 50
                                                                                      NW




                                                                                                                                            S
                                                                             AND ETWEE
                                                               10




                                                                                                                       45
                                                                                  20
                  HEAD/TAIL WIND COMPONENT - KNOTS




                                                                                  RU




                                                     30
                                                                                B




                                                                                                                 40
                                                                             LE
                                                                          ANG




                                                                                                 40

                                                                                                            35


                                                                                                            50
                                                                                                       30




                                                     20
                                                                                             25




                                                                                                                 60
                                                                                    20




                                                                                                                      70
                                                                           15




                                                     10
                                                                    10




                                                                                                                           80
                                                              5




                                                                                                                           90
                                                     0

                                                                                                                       100

                                                                                                            110
                                                -10                                13            12
                                                                                       0               0
                                                                      14
                                                                        15

                                                                         0
                                                                    160

                                                                           0
                                                              170




                                             -20
                                                          0               10                       20                 30            40           50
                                                                             CROSSWIND COMPONENT - KNOTS




                                                                     Figure 1-3: Wind Component Graph




PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                                                          PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                                                              Page 1-4


                                                        HOVER IN GROUND EFFECT GRAPH




                                     14,000


                                     13,000


                                     12,000


                                     11,000
                                                 STANDARD DAY

                                     10,000
                                                                       DENSIT




                                      9000
          PRESSURE ALTITUDE - FEET




                                                                         Y ALTIT




                                                                                                       -20
                                      8000
                                                                                                              °C
                                                                           UDE 11




                                                                                                    -10
                                                                                                   ° C ° C 10° 0° C 0° C 0° C



                                      7000
                                                                                ,200 FT




                                                                                                       0   +




                                      6000
                                                                                                              C
                                                                                                               +2 +3 +4




                                      5000


                                      4000


                                      3000


                                      2000


                                      1000



                                          1400   1500   1600    1700     1800             1900   2000                   2100    2200   2300   2400
                                                                  GROSS WEIGHT - POUNDS




                                                    Figure 1-4: Hover in Ground Effect Graph




PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                                                               PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                                                                   Page 1-5


                                                   HOVER OUT OF GROUND EFFECT GRAPH




                                     14,000


                                     13,000


                                     12,000


                                     11,000


                                     10,000
                                                                                  STANDARD DAY
                                                        DENSIT




                                      9000
          PRESSURE ALTITUDE - FEET




                                                          Y ALTIT




                                                                                       -20
                                                                                              °C




                                      8000
                                                            UDE 11




                                                                                    -10
                                                                                   ° C ° C 10° 0° C 0° C 0° C
                                                                 ,200 FT




                                      7000
                                                                                       0   +




                                      6000
                                                                                              C
                                                                                               +2 +3 +4




                                      5000


                                      4000


                                      3000


                                      2000


                                      1000



                                          1400   1500        1600          1700   1800                          1900   2000   2100   2200   2300   2400
                                                                             GROSS WEIGHT - POUNDS




                                                 Figure 1-5: Hover Out of Ground Effect Graph



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                                                                  PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                                                                      Page 1-6


                             NEVER EXCEED SPEED (VNE) GRAPH




                                                                          11 000 12 000 13 000 14 000 15 000
                                                                          9000 10 000
                                                                                                               PRESSURE ALTITUDE - FEET
                                          C
                                      -20°




                                                                          8000
                                                                          7000
                                      0° C




                                                                          6000
                                                                          5000
                                          C
                                      +20°




                                                                          4000
                                           C




                                                                          3000
                                      +40°




                                                                          2000
                                                                          1000
                                                                          0
                                    120



                                                100
                              130




                                                                70

                                                                     60
                                                           80




                                                                          50
                                                      90
                                          110




                                                VNE - KIAS




                         Figure 1-6: Never Exceed Speed Speed (Vne)



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                                                                 PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                                                                     Page 1-7


                         NORMAL OPERATING SPEED (VNO) GRAPH




                                                                         11 000 12 000 13 000 14 000 15 000
                                                                         9000 10 000
                                                                                                              PRESSURE ALTITUDE - FEET
                                          C
                                      -20°




                                                                         8000
                                                                         7000
                                      0° C




                                                                         6000
                                                                         5000
                                          C
                                      +20°




                                                                         4000
                                          C




                                                                         3000
                                      +40°




                                                                         2000
                                                                         1000
                                                                         0
                              120




                                                               60
                                          100

                                                90




                                                                    50
                                    110




                                                          70




                                                                         40
                                                     80




                                                VNO - KIAS




                       Figure 1-7: Normal Operating Speed Graph (Vno)




PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                    Page 1-8


                            MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS POWER TABLE




                                  MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS POWER
                        PRESSURE
                                        OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE - ° C
                        ALTITUDE
                        FEET         -20 -10     0    10   20   30    40
                        SEA LEVEL    22.4 22.6 23.0 23.4 23.6 24.0 24.4
                        2000        22.2 22.4 22.6 23.0 23.2 23.6 23.8
                        4000        22.0 22.2 22.4 22.6 22.8 23.0 23.2
                        6000        21.6 22.0         FULL THROTTLE
                        FOR MAX TAKE-OFF POWER (5 MIN LIMIT) ADD 1.1 IN.HG




                            Figure 1-8: Maximum Continuous Power



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                        PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                            Page 1-9


                                                             AUTOROTATION PERFORMANCE




                                     16,000

                                     15,000

                                     14,000

                                     13,000

                                     12,000

                                     11,000
          PRESSURE ALTITUDE - FEET




                                     10,000

                                      9000

                                      8000

                                      7000

                                      6000

                                      5000

                                      4000

                                      3000

                                      2000

                                      1000

                                         0
                                              0   1      2     3   4    5    6    7    8    9    10    11   12
                                                      HORIZONTAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED - NAUTICAL MILES




                                                        Figure 1-9: Autorotation Performance




PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                                            PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
                                                                                                                               Page 1-10


                                                                        HEIGHT - VELOCITY DIAGRAM




                                               650
                                                                          AVOID OPERATION IN SHADED AREAS
                                               600

                                               550
            HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND LEVEL - FEET




                                               500

                                               450                           7000 FT DENSITY ALTITUDE AT 2000 LBS

                                               400

                                               350

                                               300

                                               250

                                               200       SEA LEVEL AT 2300 LBS

                                               150

                                               100

                                                50

                                                 0
                                                     0     10    20     30     40  50  60  70  80   90 100          110   120   130
                                                                             INDICATED AIRSPEED - KNOTS




                                                                      Figure 1-10: Height Velocity Diagram




PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                 MASS AND BALANCE
                                                                                   Page 2-1


                              MASS AND BALANCE LOADING FORM




                                          Weight   Arm Aft Datum      Moment
                                           (lbs)      (inches)     (inch-pounds)

              Basic Empty Weight          1350        105.5           142425

              Pilot and Fwd Passenger                  48.5

              Fwd Baggage                              43.0

             Aft Passengers and Baggage                78.5

             Total Zero Fuel Weight

             Main Fuel                                104.0

             Aux Fuel                                 103.0

              Total Loaded Helicopter

                NOTE: The Maximum All Up Weight of this helicopter is 2300 lb.




                          Figure 2-1: Mass and Balance Loading Form



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                            MASS AND BALANCE
                                                                                                              Page 2-2


                                                            LONGITUDINAL CG GRAPH




                                   2400

                                   2300

                                   2200
           GROSS WEIGHT - POUNDS




                                   2100

                                   2000

                                   1900

                                   1800

                                   1700

                                   1600

                                   1500

                                   1400
                                          90   91   92      93  94   95    96    97   98  99  100    101   102
                                                         FUSELAGE STATION - INCHES FROM DATUM




                                                         Figure 2-2: Longitudinal CG Graph



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                MASS AND BALANCE
                                                                                  Page 2-3


                                            LATERAL CG GRAPH




                                  4R

                                  3R

                                  2R
            LATERAL CG - INCHES




                                  1R

                                    0

                                  -1 L

                                  -2 L

                                  -3 L

                                  -4 L




                                         Figure 2-3: Lateral CG Graph



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter
SACAA-02                                                                                              MASS AND BALANCE
                                                                                                                Page 2-4


                                                   ALLOWABLE CG MOMENT VS GROSS WEIGHT GRAPH




                                      2300




                                                                                                         T
                                                                                                       EN
                                                                                                    OM
                                      2200




                                                                                                  LEM
                                                                                                AB
                                                                                              OW
                                      2100




                                                                                               L
                                                                                            AL
  LOADED HELICOPTER WEIGHT - POUNDS




                                      2000



                                      1900



                                      1800



                                      1700



                                      1600



                                      1500



                                      1400
                                             130   140   150   160     170   180    190     200       210    220   230
                                                          LOADED HELICOPTER MOMENT - 1000 INCH-POUNDS




                                                          Figure 2-4: CG Moment Vs Gross Weight



PPL Flight Planning Manual- Helicopter

								
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