Desert-ocean thermal energy conversion

Document Sample
Desert-ocean thermal energy conversion Powered By Docstoc
					    Sponsored by Eskom and the
 Department of Science & Technology

VOLUME 14 NUMBER 1                                                                 MARCH 2008

                                                                                   IN THIS ISSUE
    Desert-ocean thermal                                                           Desert-ocean thermal energy
     energy conversion                                                             conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
                                                                                   State of the Nation address . . . . 3
                                                                                   Hydropower news in Africa. . . . . 4
                                                                                   African Utility Week . . . . . . . . . . 5
                                                                                   Civil society launches 10-point
                                                                                   plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

       he most plentiful renewable       the world where the temperature gra-
       energy source on our planet is    dient between warm, surface water         SANEA awards 2008 . . . . . . . . . 7
       solar radiation, approximately    and cold, deep water is greater than      Eta awards 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
170 000 TW falls on the Earth annu-      18°C. The ‘closed-cycle’ system is
                                                                                   Eskom may delay Alcan smelter
ally.                                    shown diagrammatically in Figure 1.       until 2013. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     There is already in existence a         The analysis of a ‘Closed-Cycle’
renewable energy scheme called           OTEC system using the Rankine             Biogas plant markets boom
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion          Cycle is straightforward. Based on a      worldwide, studies show . . . . . . 8
(OTEC). This uses the naturally          unit mass flow-rate of ammonia            What impact are ongoing
occurring temperature gradient in the    vapour (kgs-1) in the cycle:              blackouts likely to have on the
marine water column to generate                                                    property market? . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
electricity. There are two types of      Heat added (J/kg)    qA = h3 – h2
                                                                                   Health24 developing carbon
OTEC systems – ‘Open-Cycle’ and
                                                                                   calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
‘Closed-Cycle’.                          Turbine work (J/kg) wr = h3 – h4
     Open-Cycle involves the flash                                                 Dipetane launch. . . . . . . . . . . . 10
evaporation of a fraction of the warm    Heat rejected (J/kg) |qR| = h1 – h4       Marketers called to unite
seawater by reduction of pressure                                                  against power crisis . . . . . . . . . 10
below the saturation value correspon-    Pump Work (J/kg)     |wp| = h2 – h1
                                                                                   Lights to go out at Pick n Pay. . 11
ding to its temperature, which is then
passed through a turbine to generate     Cycle net work (J/kg)                     Illuminating sponsorship
power before being condensed by the            ∆wnet = (h3 – h4) – (h2 – h1)       alleviates traffic chaos . . . . . . . 12
cold water.                                                                        Wind turbines generate more
     For our purposes, we shall be       Thermal efficiency                        than 1% of global electricity . . . 13
focussing on ‘Closed-Cycle’ OTEC             w       (h3 – h4) – (h2 – h1)         Assessment and alternatives for
systems. The operation of a typical      η = q net =       (h3 – h2)
                                              A                                    Northern Free State coal-fired
‘closed-cycle’ OTEC scheme is based
                                                                                   power station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
on the Rankine cycle in which a sec-          Due to the small temperature gra-
ondary working fluid (e.g. ammonia)      dient, the thermal efficiency of the      Portable gensets, ups and battery
is pumped through a heat exchanger       system is low (around 3 – 4 %), which     standby systems for home and
and is heated by the warm surface,       is a lot lower than conventional forms    office use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
where it evaporates (and hence           of power production, but it is accept-    Mining towns in South Africa
expands). From there it is passed        able due to the endless supply of         Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
through a turbine coupled to a gener-    earth-bound solar energy. There are
ator which generates an electric cur-    also other cycles to consider (e.g. the   What is ProBEC?. . . . . . . . . . . 20
rent. The fluid exiting the turbine is   Kalina and Uehara) which are              Programme in fuel qualities,
then condensed using the cold, deep      claimed to have a greater theoretical     specifications and compliance . 21
water, ready to be re-circulated         efficiency.                               Energy management training
through the system. The greater the           One of the main limiting factors     courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
temperature gradient the greater         with regard to conventional OTEC
amount of energy can be extracted        schemes is the need to pump large         Forthcoming energy and energy-
from the system. Because of this, to     volumes of cold water needed to con-      related conferences and courses:
make it viable, applications have pri-   dense the working fluid from depths       2008–2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
marily been limited to those areas in    as deep as 1 000m and the associat-
2 Energy Management News

           Warm water in                                                                               Des-OTEC provides a conceptual
                             Working                Working          Cold water out               modification to existing OTEC systems
                              fluid                  fluid
                             vapour                 vapour                                        by circumventing the need for an ambi-
            Evaporator                                                Condensor                   ent temperature gradient in the water
                                3                        4                                        column and removing the constraints
                                       Turbo-generator                                            imposed by cold water pipe technology.
           Warm water out                                            Cold water in                It is envisaged that small-scale, locally-
                                                                                                  orientated electricity supply schemes
                                                                                                  would greatly benefit the towns and
                         2                                               1                        settlements along the west coast of
         Working fluid                                               Condensate                   South Africa and Namibia and the
                                                                                                  coasts of other upwelling areas. The
                             Figure 1: The ‘closed-cycle’ system                                  electric power generated by such
                                                                                                  schemes can be used for domestic or
                                                                                                  small-scale industrial supply. Alterna-
ed difficulties of sinking and securing           based, closed-cycle OTEC plant, how-            tively, it can be used to run desalination
the large diameter pipes needed to                ever, before the system can operate             plants supplying fresh water for drink-
these depths.                                     successfully, it is necessary to acquire        ing or agriculture. The water pumped
     The west coast of South Africa and           a source of heat 18°C or more than the          ashore as part of Des-OTEC is rich in
Namibia has an abundant supply of                 coldwater source. A variety of solar col-       plant nutrients and would be suitable
cold surface and near-surface water               lectors, heat ponds etc. are being con-         for local aquaculture projects.
lying adjacent to the coastline due to            sidered to obtain this. This heat source
                                                                                                  G Contact: Dr Howard Waldron
the dynamical oceanographic process               can then be used to evaporate the                  Department of Oceanography
known as ‘upwelling.’ This readily avail-         working fluid.                                     University of Cape Town
able supply of cold water overcomes                   The coastline of the Benguela                  Tel: 021 650 3284
problems surrounding cold water pipe              Upwelling System is mainly of the                  Fax: 021 650 3979
technology in conventional OTEC sys-              desert type, especially in its mid and             E-mail:
tems. If a means can be found to create           northern sections. There are high rates
a positive temperature differential of            of incident solar radiation (up to 1200            David Petrie
greater than 18°C with this source                W.m-2) and elevated sand-surface tem-              E-mail:
water then thermal energy conversion              peratures (c. 60°C). It is the initial
will be possible. It is proposed that the         design criterion that this untapped heat
pre-requisite gradient can be obtained            source be used to increase the water
by an input of heat from a combination            temperature at a sufficient rate for use
of incoming solar radiation, the hot              in the closed-cycle evaporator.
desert surface and local wind energy.                 Incident and back solar radiation
In operational terms, the best way to             may be sufficient to obtain the neces-
achieve this differential is to heat a suf-       sary temperature gradient, however,
ficient volume-per-unit-time of the               supplementary energy is available from
incoming source water. This modifica-             the substantial wind energy available in
tion provides a significant departure             the coastal belt. The southerly and
from conventional OTEC schemes and                south-easterly wind (25 – 40 knots)
has been provisionally named `Des-                could be harnessed using available
OTEC’.                                            technology to provide subsidiary ener-
     The west coast of South Africa and           gy to help with pumping, heating, or
Namibia is home to the Benguela                   potentially, as an independent source
Upwelling System, one of five major               of power. A diagram of the proposed
coastal upwelling areas in the world              scheme is shown in Figure 2.
ocean. Others are located off the
coasts of Peru and Chile, California,
                                                    S Atlantic               Land
N.W. Africa and seasonally off the
coast of Somalia. They are all charac-                   Coastline
terised by strong equatorward winds                                       Closed Cycle
                                                               Cold        Des-OTEC
which drive an offshore movement of                            water                   Electric
surface water (through Ekman trans-                                                    power
                                                    Cold                     Warm      output
port) resulting in the upwelling of cold,          coastal                    water
nutrient-rich deep water into a broad               water
zone adjacent to the coast. Des-OTEC
would be applicable to any of these
upwelling systems.
     The Benguela therefore has a                                        Solar radiation/
perennial reservoir of coastal water                                  heated desert surface
between 7°C and 12°C. This water is                 Figure 2: Schematic of Des-OTEC
readily available for pumping to a land-                         system
                                                                                        Energy Management News 3

                                                State of
        he national emergency repre-                                                    refined through consultation with the
        sented by the current power out-                                                various stakeholders and then pub-
        ages poses a challenge and
presents the opportunity to the entire
nation to give concrete expression to
the call we have just made for all of us
                                                 Nation                                 lished.
                                                                                             On the supply side, Eskom is work-
                                                                                        ing furiously to ensure the introduction
                                                                                        of co-generation projects as a matter of

to unite in action and act in unity to                                                  urgency. We are taking steps to
keep our country on course. This must                                                   enhance Eskom’s maintenance capac-
say to all of us that we are indeed in a                                                ity. We have emergency task teams
period of challenges, but surmountable                                                  dealing with the challenge of coal qual-
challenges. And precisely because it is                                                 ity and supply with the coal mining
a period of challenges, it is also an era                                               industry and we are working to fast
of opportunity!                                  PRESIDENT THABO MBEKI,                 track the approval and construction of
     In this regard, the President ex-          IN HIS STATE OF THE NATION              gas turbine projects. All these actions,
pressed his appreciation and full agree-          ADDRESS IN FEBRUARY,                  taken together with the electricity sav-
ment with the comments made by the              MENTIONED THE FOLLOWING                 ing measures, will improve certainty
Chief Executive of Anglo American,                  ON ENERGY MATTERS                   and raise the reserve margin.
Cynthia Carroll, when she addressed                                                          The massive Eskom build pro-
the Mining Indaba in Cape Town on 5                                                     gramme in new generation, transmis-
February. ‘I don’t regard the problems                                                  sion and distribution capacity will con-
of energy supply here as a disaster.                                                    tinue; and where possible, some
And South Africa is not alone: there are                                                projects will be accelerated. In a meet-
pressures on supply regarding our                                                       ing with the Chairman of General Elec-
expansion projects in Chile and Brazil.      we can do this immediately is reduce       tric (GE) during the course of last week,
     ‘Sure, the problems here are seri-      demand and thus ensure a better            GE offered to assist by procuring
ous; overcoming them will require inge-      reserve margin.                            scarce turbine equipment on our
nuity, especially in energy efficiency            The President mentioned that gov-     behalf. In South Africa our own large
and energy saving, as well as the            ernment’s task is to now lead and unite    companies such as Sasol, Anglo and
development of alternative power sup-        the country behind a campaign for          BHP Billiton are all in concrete discus-
plies. But if all of us can forge strong     energy efficiency that will address this   sions with the Departments of Mineral
partnerships to tackle the situation, we     challenge. Among other things, we          and Energy and Public Enterprises to
will all come through – I hope relatively    must use the current adversity to          find cost effective and sustainable solu-
unscathed…This is not a time for finger      ensure that our homes and economy          tions to the supply constraint. The
pointing, but for working together in        become more energy efficient.              approach is one of common action
finding solutions.’                               There are concrete actions each       rather than recrimination. Government
     This having been said, it is however    individual, household and business can     will be working to minimise the adverse
also necessary that we take this oppor-      take. These are being disseminated by      impacts that events have had on the
tunity to convey to the country the          the Department of Minerals and Energy      mining industry.
apologies of both the Government and         and we remain open to any other sug-            Collective effort and consultation
Eskom for the national emergency             gestions. Government will start imple-     are at the centre of our response to the
which has resulted in all of us having to    menting a campaign to ensure efficient     emergency. Task teams are currently
contend with the consequences of load        lighting, solar water heating and geyser   working in many areas. Provincial Pre-
shedding. In the past two weeks, the         load management in households, in-         miers will convene their fora with may-
Ministers of Minerals and Energy and         cluding housing standards for all new      ors to plan and implement the energy
Public Enterprises have outlined the         houses and developments. We urge           saving measures in all the municipali-
nature of the emergency we confront          households that can afford to act imme-    ties across the country. They will be
and what each one of us can do to nor-       diately to consider implementing these     supported by technical teams from EDI
malise the situation.                        energy-saving measures.                    Holdings, Eskom and the National
     In essence the significant rise in           An instruction has been issued for    Energy Efficiency Agency. The Depart-
electricity demand over the last two         all government buildings to reduce their   ment of Provincial and Local Govern-
years has outstripped the new capacity       consumption of electricity and please      ment will co-ordinate this activity sup-
we have brought on stream. The result-       feel free to name and shame those who      ported by the line Departments of
ant tight supply situation makes the         do not.                                    Mineral and Energy and Public Enter-
overall system vulnerable to any inci-            The details of other voluntary and    prises.
dent affecting the availability of energy.   mandatory actions in the Power Con-             The President will convene a meet-
In this situation, we have to curtail the    servation Programme have been set          ing of the Joint Presidential Working
unplanned outages and the only way           out by the Ministers, and these will be    Groups to co-ordinate our overall
4 Energy Management News

actions. He will also shortly announce a
team of ‘Energy Champions’ consisting
of prominent and knowledgeable South
Africans who will assist government
with the energy efficiency campaign
and inform investors and communities
on the actual situation and how they
can help to address our current chal-
     The Minister of Finance would pro-
vide more information in the Budget
Speech on the support that the govern-
                                                   in Africa
ment will provide for the energy effi-

ciency campaign and to Eskom in its                  s power shortages become more common on the African con-
build programme.                                     tinent and the demand for energy increases, it seems that
     We face an emergency but we can                 Africa’s governments and utilities are opting for generation of
overcome the problems in a relatively         electricity through hydropower. Even more significant is the invest-
short period. This situation has precipi-     ment that has flowed into hydropower projects and the number of
tated the inevitable realisation that the     PPPs, indicating a growing confidence in hydropower as a long-term,
era of very cheap and abundant elec-          sustainable and clean energy option.
tricity has come to an end. However,             Some projects receiving funding are:
given our large base of installed gener-
ation capacity, for a long time to come       CAMEROON
ours will remain amongst the few              Memve’ele hydropower station will be built by Globeleq, who have
economies with affordable electricity.        signed a deal with the government for construction of the new 200
     We are a minerals resource econo-        megawatt power station.
my. We must therefore continue to sup-
port the mining industry. It is inevitable    DRC
that if we are to continue on our growth      MagEnergy Inc. signed a preliminary agreement with INGA hydro-
path as a manufacturing country, we           electric facility owner, Societe Nationale d’Electricite (SNEL), calling
will also have to continue supporting         for the rehabilitation of all the turbines currently installed at INGA I
the processing industry. However, it is       and II.
imperative that all enterprises become
more energy efficient. Indeed, energy         ETHIOPIA
efficiency itself provides economic           The Gibe111 Hydro Electric Power Project was signed between the
opportunity.                                  Electric and Power Corporation (EEPCO) and SALINI Construction,
     Let us therefore use this emergency      an Italian construction company.
to put in place the first building blocks
of the essential energy efficient future      MADAGASCAR
we dare not avoid. Let us ensure that         The German Cooperation Agency, GTZ, has lent its support to the
all hands are on deck to address the          feasibility studies for a mini-hydropower plant and distribution net-
turbulence that has hit us, inspired by       works to be implemented in the Lokoho river basin.
the approach that our circumstances
call for Business Unusual!                    NIGERIA
     To speed up the process of building      The Mambilla station is part of Nigeria’s National Integrated Power
infrastructure, we will finalise the devel-   Plants (NIPP). The Nigerian government has pumped US$2.5 billion
opment of an integrated infrastructure        into the NIPP project to strengthen power transmission infrastructure
plan, with specific emphasis on energy        and the distribution network.
efficiency. This entails co-ordinating the
programmes of the State-owned Enter-          UGANDA
prises and overlaying all the infrastruc-     The World Bank has to date invested US$360 million of loans and
ture plans, including freight and other       guarantees in Uganda’s Bujagali Hydropower Project. The European
logistics, energy pipelines, information      Investment Bank (EIB) in London signed the documentation for a
and communications technology, road           loan of roughly Euros 92 million to be extended to Bujagali Energy
infrastructure, water and electricity,        Limited (BEL). BEL is a private company established in Uganda to
both in terms of their timing and geo-        build, own and operate a 250 MW hydro-electric project on the upper
graphic location.                             Nile at Bujagali.
G Website:                         G Contact: Nicole Smith
                                                                                         Energy Management News 5

               African Utility Week
                                                                                         G Contact: Nicolaas Loretz (General

       frican Utility Week, from 19 – 23      Porcelain; DST International; Eason
                                                                                           and conference information)
       May 2008, has become the               Electronic; El Sewedy Electrometer           Spintelligent
       largest annual forum for African       Company; Elster Kent Metering; Ener-         E-mail:
and international experts to network,         web; Geopower Africa; GIMS; GMC    
attend workshops and to learn from            Powerlines; Goldstone Infratech Ltd.;
others’ experiences on how utilities can      Greenbro; Grinpal Energy Manage-             Andrew Evans (Exhibition or sponsor-
be more efficient and offer cost-effec-       ment (Pty) Ltd; Hefcom; Hefcom; Hol-         ship information)
tive services through improved infra-         ley Metering Group Co. Ltd.; INFO-           E-mail:
structure maintenance, load manage-           GRATE; Integrity Control Systems;  
ment, delivery and revenue manage-            Intelligent Metering Systems (Pty) Ltd;
ment choices.                                 J & D Electronics Co., Ltd; Jocastro         Rue Limekhaya (Registration, travel
    This year African Utility Week has        Switchboard; Kama Coils and Trans-           and accommodation information)
been streamlined into three distinct          formers; KBK Power Solutions; Kelman
themes:                                       Distributors Africa; KG Technologies
                                              Inc.; Krishnam Group of Companies;
Towards efficient and sustainable             Landis+Gyr (Pty) Ltd.; Lesira-Teq (Pty)
power generation                              Ltd; Lucy Switchgear; Magnalec; Meg-
Generation Africa will examine the on-        ger Inc.; Metacom (Pty) Ltd; National
going power crisis in Africa and rea-         Energy Regulator of South Africa –
sons behind this. Proper planning is          NERSA; Nexans Pty Ltd; Njabulo Light-
vital and ignorance can be detrimental        ing; Nu-Lec Africa (Pty) Ltd.; Ore Ener-
to any progress. What plans are being         gy Product Solutions (Pty) Ltd; Palace
implemented, how to implement vari-           Group; Powertech Technologies Ltd;
ous technologies and future challenges        Rea Sebetsa; Reinhausen t/a SBR
are just some of the vital issues that will   Engineering; Schweitzer Engineering
be addressed.                                 Laboratories (Pty) Ltd; Schweitzer
                                              Engineering Labs; SDMO; Seifel;
Towards reliable and profitable               SERGI France; SIAME; Spintelligent;
energy delivery                               Siemens South Africa Ltd; South
Transmission & Distribution Africa will       African Electrotechnical Export Coun-
address cross-border electrification,         cil; Surge Technology; Syntell; Tap
energy trade issues, maintenance and          Engineering; Tenesol Manufacturing
industrial electrification. Case studies      (Pty) Ltd; Trans-Africa Projects Ltd;
on a BPL project, a Virtual Power Sta-        Trinity Telecomms; Urban and Rural
tion and much more will be showcased.         Engineering Services Limited; VAMP
                                              Solutions; Verotest; and Zest Electric
Towards secure and intelligent                Motors & Drives.
Next generation technologies towards             The multi-track programme enables
a smart utility, with the emphasis on         delegates to match their information
Smart Metering and Smart Grids, will          and learning needs with sessions dedi-
be highlighted in the Metering,               cated to:
Billing/CRM Africa theme.                     • Regulatory issues (Why?)
                                              • Transitory issues (How?)
    Some of the companies you will            • Current issues (What’s now?)
hear from in the program and see on           • Future issues (What’s next?)
the exhibition floor include: 4RF Com-
munications; ABSA Corporate Bank;             Smart pre-conference workshops in-
Actaris Measurement and Systems               clude:
South Africa; ADD Group Ltd; Adroit           • Smart Metering
Technologies; Alectrix; Alstom Protec-        • Smart Grids
tion & Control; Barlows Power Sys-            • Maintenance and refurbishment
tems; Comtest; Conlog Durban; Coop-           • Nuclear generation
er Industries SA; Cullinan Industrial
6 Energy Management News

        arthlife Africa, the Congress of
        South African Trade Unions,
        Sustainable Energy Africa (SEA),
                                                launches                                   7.        The Department of Treasury
                                                                                           and the Department of Trade and
                                                                                           Industry must engage with the Renew-
the Southern African Faith Communi-
ties’ Environment Institute (SAFCEI)
and the South African Climate Action
Network (SACAN), have started a cam-
                                                 10-point                                  able Energy sector to determine invest-
                                                                                           ment incentives to attract national and
                                                                                           international expertise to build renew-
                                                                                           able energy plants, and other interna-
paign to turn the current electricity cri-
sis into an energy opportunity. Although
the deficit of generation capacity has
been billed as a crisis, it can also be
                                                   plan                                    tional financiers for investment in
                                                                                           renewable energy, particularly solar
                                                                                           thermal electric power plants. Eskom’s
                                                                                           new power plants must prioritise
seen as an opportunity to shift to a                                                       Renewable Energy with commitment to
more long-term sustainable approach.                                                       binding and significant renewable ener-
    Our past reliance on coal and                                                          gy targets.
nuclear and our proposed continued
reliance on fossil and nuclear genera-       3.         NERSA is to implement the          8.       DEAT must prioritise renew-
tion are in direct contradiction to our      feed-in tariff (this was planned to be in     able energy and energy efficiency
commitment to sustainable develop-           2008), and two-way metering. Govern-          Strategic Environmental Assessments.
ment. But here is an opportunity to do       ment is to work with renewable energy         All EIAs for new developments must
things differently.                          experts to determine a reasonable tar-        demonstrate energy efficiency and
    A focus on energy efficiency in the      iff, and funds allocated to subsidise the     renewable energy measures to be
short term, with a longer term emphasis      grid if necessary.                            implemented.
on renewable energy for generation will
take us down the renewable road,             4.        The Department of Labour            9.         Social and environmental jus-
meeting the sustainable development          and the Department of Education are to        tice must be prioritised to avoid unfair
aims and addressing climate change           work together to put together a fast          discrimination against the poor. A
along the way.                               track training programme which will           stepped tariff must be prioritised and
    We have therefore put together a         skill workers for solar water installation,   there should be a freeze on subsidised
ten-point plan that we think would put       and manufacture as well as other              electricity for industry.
South Africa on the road to economic         renewable energy and energy efficien-
sustainability:                              cy related skills which are lacking in the    10.      Government is to establish an
                                             country at the moment. A budget is to         advisory team of energy experts includ-
1.       Solar Water Heaters mass            be allocated from 2008 and use of             ing from the NGO sector to provide
mobilisation project (M2SWH) – kick-         SETA funds prioritised.                       guidance to Cabinet over the next 5
start implementation with a communi-                                                       years.
cation campaign to be conducted over         5.         The National Energy Efficien-
the next 4 months – emphasis on              cy Agency must employ at least 100                This ten point plan is a start and
accredited installers and quality sys-       people, and send them out to facilitate       signifies willingness to engage with all
tems (imported or locally made). Low-        energy efficiency practical implementa-       stakeholders to resolve the “energy cri-
income households are to receive sub-        tion to industry and business. Local and      sis” in a way that promotes human well-
sidy and to pay off through rates bill,      provincial government must employ             being through sustainable develop-
and high-income households are to use        permanent energy efficiency officers,         ment. All individuals and organisations
tax based incentive. Local Government        and develop integrated energy plans.          are encouraged to endorse the plan.
must ensure mass rollout.
                                             6.        Large energy intensive busi-
                                                                                           G E-mail:
2.       National Treasury is to             ness and industry should enter into
                                                                                             Fax: 086 654 9788.
announce that approved energy effi-          negotiations with renewable energy
ciency measures implemented by any-          power providers to establish stand
one can be declared tax deductible.          alone power stations – solar, thermal,
These measures must be implemented           electric (for 24 hour heavy industry),
in the next year, and can be written off     ocean and tidal for coastal areas, and
over 2 years.                                wind (with storage) where appropriate.
                                                                                         Energy Management News 7

    SANEA awards 2008

        he South African National Energy      achievements in the Energy Sector.
        Association (SANEA) has as its        The aim is to inspire innovation and
        Vision “Energy People Working         actions to address future energy
Together”. SANEA continues to honour              Entrants are welcome to nominate
and celebrate the achievements of             candidates in more than one category.
companies, organizations and individu-        Please fill in a separate entry form for
als that are making an effort to ensure       each category.
and contribute to a sustained and
                                              G Contact: Sarita Cronjé
healthy South African Energy Sector.            South African National Energy Associ-
     The energy industry in South Africa        ation
has changed vastly in the last few              Tel: +27 (0)12 346 6004
years, and continues to change, devel-          Cell: +27 (0)83 325 6716
op and mature. Many individuals and             Fax: 086 611 5942
companies have worked together and              E-mails: and
have made significant contributions   
towards these developments. Some of             Website:
these are high profile and have become          2008/
household names while many are the
hard working “behind the scenes” types
who quietly get on and deliver. All are
important to the development of South
Africa. These are the individuals,
organisations and companies that

                                                           Eta awards
SANEA would like to recognise for their
efforts to promote and provide sustain-
able energy supply and use for the
benefit of all. These are the individuals

and organisations that deserve to have
their role recorded in the history of the
South African Energy Sector. These
are the people and organisations that

merit nomination for one of the SANEA                he eta Awards is an annual event, endorsed by the Department of Miner-
Awards.                                              al and Energy as well as Eskom, and has been running for the past 17
     The Awards include the following                years. The purpose of the eta Awards is to promote the more efficient use
categories:                                    of energy and to improve business competitiveness. The awards are granted for
• SANEA Energy Award                           exceptional effort in promoting the more efficient use of energy.
• SANEA Energy Project Award
• SANEA Recognition Award                      WOMEN IN ENERGY INDUSTRY AWARD
• SANEA Service Award                          Lisa Reynolds, Saint-Gobain General Manager: Technical and Specifications,
• SANEA Energy Journalism Award                won the “Woman in Energy Industry” category of the eta Awards. Lisa won the
• SANEA Education Award                        award for her contribution to the writing and driving of Energy Efficiency stan-
It is these people that we would like to       dards for buildings; and also for her energy awareness raising achievements
know about. It is these names that we          within the building and other industries.
would like to bring forward to thank. It is
these to whom we wish to pay our               COMMERCIAL CATEGORY – ENERGY EFFICIENCY AWARD
respects.                                      Electro Sense won the Commercial Category of the eta Awards. This is the sec-
     The finalists and recipients of the       ond year running that they have won this prestigious award.
awards will be entertained at a presti-
gious banquet and awards ceremony                  The winners of the Awards were announced at a gala dinner function held on
hosted by SANEA on the 31st of July            the 10th of December 2007.
2008. This gala event will reflect the
                                               G Contact: Nikki Nel
significance of the both the awards and           SAEE
the recipients. The awards are                    E-mail:
designed to generate public, govern-
ment and business awareness of
8 Energy Management News

  Eskom may delay Alcan smelter
           until 2013

         ccording to an article in Business     ity to the citizens and voters of this
         Report on 17 January 2008              country.’
         (‘Shelve new projects, Eskom
                                                G Contact: Tristen Taylor
warns’), Eskom’s financial director is            Energy Policy Officer
asking the Government to stop market-             Earthlife Africa, Johannesburg Branch
ing South Africa as a low-cost electrici-         Tel: +27 11 339 3662
ty investment centre. This would                  Fax: +27 11 339 3270
include delaying, until 2013, the contro-         Cell: +27 84 250 2434
versial and proposed Alcan aluminium              E-mail:
smelter at Coega. The Alcan was the
subject of intense civil society, local
Port Elizabeth, and international oppo-
sition in 2007.
     Eskom’s financial director, Mr. Bon-
gani Nqwababa, is reported to have                Biogas plant                              able. The generation and storage of
said, in regard to the Alcan smelter,                                                       renewable energy will be the fastest
that, ‘Eskom needs to review supply to            markets boom                              growing sector in the energy market
Coega’, and that paying penalties for                                                       for the next 20 years. The market vol-
the delaying the project would be                  worldwide,                               ume of renewable energy worldwide
cheaper than building a new power sta-                                                      will increase from US$ 95.8 billion in
tion, which is what the proposed                  studies show                              2007 to US$ 124.4 billion in 2010, and
smelter would require.                                                                      reach US$ 198.1 billion in 2015.
     Earthlife Africa Johannesburg wel-                                                     These figures and developments are

comes this reasoned and enlightened                      iogas plant markets are boom-      based on the whole value chain.
viewpoint and hopes that this is the                     ing worldwide in Municipalities,        Biogas power plants are a combi-
beginning of responsible energy supply                   Industry and Agriculture. The      nation of anaerobic digestion systems
planning, especially in the current cli-         profit potential is high. The world mar-   with associated electricity generators
mate of load shedding. Responsible               ket was about 2 billion Euros in 2006      such as gas turbines or gas engines.
energy planning requires demand man-             and is expected to increase to over 25     The electricity they produce is classi-
agement and industrial energy efficien-          billion Euros by 2020.                     fied as renewable or green energy and
cy.                                                   Helmut Kaiser Consultancy re-         if sold into the national grid attracts
     Earthlife Africa Johannesburg urges         leased a new study about the markets       subsidies. In the last 20 years, biogas
Cabinet to reject the tariff policy (the         for biogas plants worldwide. The world     utilisation has been successful in
Developmental Electricity Pricing Pro-           markets for Biogas and Biogas Plants       wastewater treatment plants, industri-
gramme – DEPP) under which the 25-               have increased over the years by 20        al processing applications, landfills
year contract with Alcan was signed.             to 30 percent depending on the coun-       and the agricultural sector.
Abandoning the DEPP would help to                try. Germany, as a technology leader,           The future increased use of biogas
ensure security of electricity supply for        reached about 700 million Euros with       is a strong goal in most countries, not
South Africa’s ordinary citizens. The            400 companies in 2006, and 100 com-        only because is it a renewable energy
DEPP ensures that contracts between              panies offering the whole value chain,     source but it will help to reduce green-
the State and foreign corporations               the export is between 10 and 15 per-       house gas emissions, water pollution
remain secret and not for public review.         cent. Some 900 plants were built and       and soil degradation and, last but not
This is extremely anti-democratic.               the objective is about 3 600 plants in     least, it will change the agriculture
     The Energy Policy Officer of Earth-         total. It is expected a market size of     sectors in many countries worldwide
life Africa Johannesburg, Tristen Taylor,        7.5 billion Euros by 2020 for plants, 30   to produce energy partly.
states, ‘The big question that should be         percent export and 85 000 jobs in Ger-          This study is the first research
asked when Eskom turns off the lights            many alone.                                worldwide for biogas plants in 50
is; why, if Eskom can’t supply electricity            The competition is growing too,       countries with potential and develop-
to the citizens of this country, is it offer-    worldwide. The USA and China show          ments to 2030, with technologies and
ing foreign companies large amounts of           much greater potential than Germany        competition worldwide.
power at reduced tariffs? Must individu-         and the rest of Europe. Many plants
                                                                                            G Contact: Hku Tuebingen
als and small businesses suffer so that          are low tech and easy to reproduce           E-mails: and
large industries can be assured profit?          and design. The key is the knowledge
It seems that Mr. Nqwababa under-                in biotechnology, molecular science          Websites:
stands these questions and has sug-              and optimization in the future.     and
gested it would be irresponsible to sup-              The total energy mix of the future
ply the Canadian multinational corp-             will be more regenerative and sustain-       ml
oration Alcan before supplying electric-
                                                          Energy Management News 9

                       onté Jordaan, MD of Multi-Pro-     characteristics of a normal market, it is
                       jects, an investment property      just ‘taking a breather’ from a 5-year
                       marketing company based in         growth period. I am sure that it will con-
   impact     Somerset West, says: ‘We do not know
              how great the impact on the economic
                                                          tinue its positive run in and from 2009
                                                          to 2012/2014. For those who want to

        are   growth of South Africa is going to be.
              Only time will tell on that score. But we
              do believe that the energy crisis will
                                                          invest in property, now is the right time
                                                          to buy – especially in new develop-
                                                          ments that will only be completed in
  ongoing     have an effect on property develop-
              ments – and developers who do not
                                                          2010 or thereafter.
                                                              ‘People must not make hasty, irra-
              plan for alternative energy sources will    tional decisions and sell their properties
blackouts     suffer.
                   ‘Developers and developments that
                                                          without considering all the options; they
                                                          might just find out down the line that

     likely   incorporate alternative energy sources
              to Eskom-produced power will flourish.
                                                          they cannot replace what they had.
                                                          Property remains the cornerstone of
              Developments with generators and            wealth creation for the majority of
  to have     alternative ‘green’ sources of power
              (such as solar panels) will be in high
                                                          South Africans, and will continue to be
                                                          so for decades to come. I strongly
              demand. Security that runs off solar        believe in the South African property
    on the

              panels or stand-by generators will also     market and its future. In terms of the
              increase in desirability and value, since   power shortages, we must just all
 property     power-cuts increase security risks. The
              smarter developers that apply creative
                                                          remain calm and find a common solu-
                                                          tion – after all, this power shortage is
              thinking will survive and prosper.          just a symptom of a growing economy!’
   market     Developers are committed capitalists –
              and they will find solutions.
                                                          G Contact: Monté Jordaan
                   ‘However, as indicated by Eskom,          Tel: +27 (0)21 850 9620
              all the indications seem to be that            Cell: +27(0)82 774 9202
              power cuts are likely to accelerate until      E-mail:
              well into the future – and major power         Website:
              stations require about 5 years or longer
              to construct. This could mean fewer
              developments taking place, or lead to
              them being postponed for several
              years. This in turn will result in less
              stock being available, especially resi-
              dential units. John Loos of First Nation-
              al Bank believes that the demand for
              residential property in the affordable
              market of up to R800 000 will increase.
              This increased demand will lead to
              increased prices in this category –
              while a shortage will drive the prices up
              further. We further believe that land-
              owners that want to dispose of their
              land for development purposes (espe-
              cially unzoned land) will see a dramatic
              reduction in their expected values, due
              to the economy cooling down, the
              increased development cycle, and the
              increases in holding costs for develop-
              ers. These costs cannot just be passed
              on to the consumer; the consumer mar-
              ket is currently very price- sensitive.’
                   Jordaan says he believes that the
              interest cycle is very close to its peak,
              and that we could see reductions in the
              first half of 2009. ‘Taking all of the
              above into account, one must always
              remember that investing in property is a
              long-term journey and not a quick one;
              investors must remain calm and focus
              on the longer term. The South African
              property market is still exhibiting the
10 Energy Management News

      developing                          Marketers called to unite against
        carbon                                     power crisis
                                                   itizens and businesses joined        weeks, before we include the next key
                                                   forces in mid-February to launch     message. Our communications will

         ealth24 is planning on devel-             The Power of One, a national         include feedback on participation, as
         oping a simple carbon calcu-     call to action for the people, by the peo-    well as figures on the reduction of
         lator. To do this, they will     ple to rally together to use less power       power consumption where possible.’
 need a number of ratios for factors      and save South Africa from pending                Besides individuals, companies are
 like the amount of carbon released       disaster.                                     participating by spreading the messag-
 while driving, amount of carbon              The Power of One has attracted a          ing in a free viral campaign to all their
 saved by switching to energy-sav-        wealth of collaborators – from the man-       stakeholders, from staff, suppliers to
 ing light bulbs, etc.                    in-the-street, famous individuals, small      customers.
     Heath24 would appreciate             enterprises to large and powerful cor-            Sue Ferguson, MD of Ireland/Dav-
 assistance with these kinds of           porates who have rallied together to          enport, the advertising agency collabo-
 ratios, and where applicable, ratios     pool their resources to take The Power        rating on the Power of One says, ‘A
 that are specific to South Africa. Any   of One campaign to the nation. These          range of media advertising and spon-
 suggestions surrounding what a           include Helen Zille, Pam Golding, Biz-        sorship opportunities are available for
 carbon calculator should consist of, Nashua Mobile, Me-             companies to help spread the message
 would also be welcome.                   dia24, Massmart, Ireland/Davenport,           to every corner of our country.
                                          TBM Communications, amongst oth-                  ‘We invite all our fellow colleagues
 G Contact: Marcus Low
                                          ers.                                          in the advertising, media, PR and relat-
     E-mail:              The Power of One is a totally inde-       ed marketing industries to join forces
     Website:            pendent, non-profit, apolitical, all-inclu-   and use this channel. For example,
                                          sive and positive endeavour to help           media groups – large and small – are
                                          alleviate the power crisis in South           donating air time, electronic or print
                                          Africa. The campaign provides a vehi-         space to carry the messages. Mass-
                                          cle for national collaboration allowing       mart’s marketing team are carrying the
                                          every individual, business and govern-        messages in their flyers, online, in-
         Dipetane                         ment department to unite under one
                                                                                        store and other campaigns. Advertising
                                                                                        agencies are asking clients to include
          launch                              The primary objective is to reduce
                                          electricity consumption in South Africa
                                                                                        the messaging as a strap-line in their
                                                                                        adverts. All the finished art work is
                                          by inspiring every individual – including     available for inclusion.

     rish R & D fuel technology is the    children, teenagers and adults – to               ‘We are commoditising certain mar-
     sole inventor, manufacturer and      practice power saving methods through         keting items,’ adds Ferguson. ‘These
     distributor of Dipetane, and is      mass media messaging.                         include posters, stickers, glow-in-the-
 based in Kilcoole, 20 miles south of         Max Pichulik, Power of One project        dark bangles, and Street Pole Adverts,
 Dublin, Ireland.                         manager says, ‘The campaign is three-         where companies can include their
      Dipetane is a single product for    fold: it’s about uniting South Africans to    logos and distribute through their sup-
 all fuels and has one mix rate of        ‘plug into’ the campaign, encourage           ply chain.’
 1:200. So, 6 litres will treat 1 200     people to actively follow the messages            There are a range of free down-
 litres of diesel or petrol, or heating   and then influence friends, family and        loads on the Power of One website
 and industry fuels.                      colleagues to do the same.’                   available for inclusion and distribution
      Dipetane works as a pre com-            The first message is a call to action     on emails, websites, voicemail mes-
 bustion technology to enable the         for every person to ‘switch off’. The         saging, on buildings and cars, in
 oxygen to access the carbon much         message is loud and clear and is a call       adverts, to name a few.
 more completely, leading to the          to action to start cutting back on per-
                                                                                        G Contact: Max Pichulik
 benefits. It is a pure 100% hydro-       sonal electricity consumption.                  Power of One
 carbon, and contains no additives            ‘It’s time that we, as the man in the       Tel: 021 442 9600
 of any description.                      street, take the bull by the horns,’ adds       E-mail:
      Dipetane has been used in           Pichulik, ‘and become part of the solu-         Website:
 many older motor vehicles with           tion rather than the problem. If there’s
 excellent results. It may also have      to be a future in this country, we need
 use for other applications such as in    to create it! The Power of One is about
 generators.                              the power of a nation to overcome a cri-
                                          sis in a positive and proactive manner.
 G Contact: Drew – Dipetane
                                              ‘One power saving method at a
                                          time will be broadcast for four to six
                                                                                          Energy Management News 11

                                                 to go
                                                 out at
       eading by example, one of South                                                    sumption,’ says Chamberlain.
       Africa’s biggest food retailers,
       Pick n Pay, has decided to cut its
power consumption by 20%. Not only
                                                 Pick n                                       ‘Nevertheless, we have identified
                                                                                          several more ways in which we intend
                                                                                          to aggressively cut back further on our
that, it is selling energy-efficient light                                                electricity usage and meet our target of
bulbs at cost to consumers.
     Pick n Pay is well equipped to deal
with the effects of load shedding, with
                                                  Pay                                     a 20% reduction. Many are simple,
                                                                                          commonsense measures that we will
                                                                                          implement immediately, and many are
most major stores having their own                                                        longer-term interventions that will fun-
generators to protect the cold chain                                                      damentally change the way we use
and run tills, lights and security. How-                                                  power and do business.’
ever, the company believes that what is
more important is the national role it                                                    SIMPLE STEPS TO USE LESS
has to play by significantly cutting back    Tessa Chamberlain, the company has           ENERGY
on its own electricity usage.                long since identified more efficient         Badminton confirmed the immediate
     ‘Using generators to keep our           power usage as a key objective for           actions to conserve power in both the
stores open during blackouts address-        reducing its carbon footprint, an indica-    group’s stores and corporate offices,
es the symptom, not the cause of load-       tor of how much energy it consumes,          which include the following:
shedding: that there is not enough elec-     and this constitutes a major part of its     • Educating staff about how to con-
tricity to go around. The reality is that    sustainability strategy.                         serve power and why they should
we are all at the mercy of our circum-           ‘We were South Africa’s first major          do so, and encouraging them to be
stances, and we can continue to point        retailer to participate in the Carbon Dis-       vigilant
the finger of blame or we can do some-       closure Project, an international initia-    • Switching off lights in areas that
thing about it. The time has come for        tive to promote more efficient use of our        have sufficient natural lighting
everyone to act in the national interest     planet’s precious resources, and we          • Isolating lighting to necessary
by conserving electricity, and we will       have been working hard for several               spots, such as above desks
aim to lead by example by cutting our        years already to reduce the amount of        • Installing geyser blankets, turning
own power consumption by at least            power we consume.                                down the settings of geysers, and
20%,’ says Pick n Pay CEO Nick Bad-              ‘For example, we have been using             switching off geysers for activities
minton.                                      upright merchandise freezers with                such as hand-washing
                                             glass doors in new and refurbished           • Running air-conditioners only when
BULBS SOLD AT COST                           stores since 1998, as they use 60%               necessary
‘But we also want to help our cus-           less electricity than open horizontal        • Using equipment more efficiently
tomers do their bit, too. This is why we     refrigeration cabinets. We also com-         • Evaluating equipment such as that
have decided to sell energy-saving light     menced with the fitting of fluorescent           used in kitchens and canteens, with
bulbs at cost. Although they are cost-       lighting with electronic ballasts in our         a view to better efficiencies
effective in the longer term – because       stores, which are 22% more efficient         • Unplugging equipment such as cell-
they last much longer and use much           than conventional lighting, in all new           phone chargers when they are not
less power than conventional light           stores from 2001. In the past year, we           being used
bulbs – their unit cost is comparatively     began converting the balance of our          • Switching off lights and unneces-
much higher, which makes them less           stores to the new lighting. We have              sary equipment at night, and using
affordable to a great many South             also since 2001 been using heat                  only security lighting
Africans. We want to change that by          reclaim systems, which harness heat          • Keeping cold room doors closed
making them more accessible to more          dispelled from our refrigeration sys-            when not in use, installing alarms
people, and in so doing also have an         tems, to provide hot water. All our larg-        that will sound if cold room doors
indirect beneficial impact on our coun-      er stores have also been using the               are left open too long, and ensuring
try’s power situation.’                      same heat reclaim systems for comfort            that cold room flaps are kept in top
     According to the group’s general        heating through the air-conditioning             condition
manager for sustainable development,         system, further cutting back on con-         • Installing fridge covers for open-top
12 Energy Management News

    refrigerators, to be used at night
    Switching off or turning down ovens             Illuminating                              intersection to get to our offices. By
                                                                                              ensuring that the robots stay functional,
    when they are not in use                                                                  we can make certain that our company
• Fitting some equipment with timers,
    so they switch off at non-essential
                                                    sponsorship                               continues to provide the excellent serv-
                                                                                              ice for which we are known.’
                                                                                                  Solar-powered traffic light systems
• Engaging with centre manage-                                                                have been successfully operational in
    ments regarding signage lighting at                                                       Europe for many years and more
    Longer-term actions include chal-               traffic chaos                             recently, have been manufactured in
lenging the group’s equipment suppli-                                                             ‘We have a power crisis, so let’s

ers to present innovative solutions in                 eading aerial laser surveying firm,    accept it and fix it. Let’s all help Eskom
terms of low-energy equipment, building                Southern Mapping Company               to help South Africa, and it can be done
stores that are more energy-efficient,                 (SMC), is taking the lead in allevi-   if we all work together for our country
making air-conditioning more efficient,         ating some of the power problems, by          and not just our pockets. We challenge
implementing better store maintenance           sponsoring one of the first solar pow-        other business owners to step up to the
practices, making better use of heat            ered traffic lights in Gauteng.               plate to help alleviate this crisis and to
reclaim systems, reviewing opportuni-                SMC recently signed an agreement         convert as many robots as possible to
ties to make business activities more           with the National Energy Efficiency           solar power before the end of the year,’
energy-efficient, and looking to interna-       Agency (NEEA) to sponsor the traffic          Moir concludes.
tional retailers to identify further power-     lights at one of the busiest intersections
saving innovations. In addition, Pick n         in Johannesburg, on the corner of             With acknowledgements to Bizcommu-
Pay will be investigating the feasibility       Cedar and Witkoppen Roads in Four-  
of using decentralised renewable ener-          ways, to ensure that motorists will have
gy sources.                                     the pleasure of fully functional robots at
    ‘It is common cause that load-shed-         that point very soon – even during
ding is far more than just an inconven-         Eskom’s power cuts.
ience; it is a national crisis. It is costing        ‘Commuters are at breaking point,
our economy millions of rands every             and someone has to do something
day in lost productivity, and it is threat-     about it urgently. This is exactly why
ening jobs and inhibiting economic              we’ve decided to come on board with
growth. However, all this can be min-           the NEEA by sponsoring the traffic
imised if we all pitch in – in both big and     lights at this extremely busy intersec-
small ways. Every little bit makes a dif-       tion,’ says Peter Moir, Southern Map-
ference.                                        ping Company MD.
    ‘We all need to take simple, imme-               ‘Retrofitting robots to run on solar
                                                                                                 The photograph shows a similar
diate steps to cut back on our electrici-       power is probably the best solution we
                                                                                                 installation at an intersection in
ty consumption, at home and at work.            have for the current traffic crisis,’
                                                                                                            Cape Town
But more importantly, we all need to            affirms NEEA Acting General Opera-
change our mindset by accepting that            tions Manager, Barry Bredenkamp.
electricity is a scarce commodity that                                                        G Contact: Peter Moir
should be used sparingly and judicious-         COVERING COSTS                                   Southern Mapping Company
                                                                                                 Tel: 011 467 2609
ly. Only by doing that together can we          Although solar powered traffic lights
                                                                                                 Fax: 011 467 3443
steer our country away from economic            are more expensive to install than con-
loss. It’s the responsible thing to do,’        ventional robots, the efficiency of the          Website:
says Badminton.                                 solar traffic light will allow for costs to
                                                be recovered within the first year of            Barry Bredenkamp
With acknowledgement to Bizcommuni-             operation, in terms of power saved.              E-mail:                                              The traffic lights at the corner of
                                                Cedar and Wikoppen Roads will be fit-
G Contact:
                                                ted with a 4m² solar panel and battery
                                                packs to capture energy from the sun.
                                                Solar panels at the top of the light pole
                                                are used to power the lights, and sur-
                                                plus power is stored in battery packs,
                                                allowing the system to work throughout
                                                the night, and for up to three days in
                                                cloudy weather, if need be.
                                                    Moir adds, ‘Southern Mapping Co-
                                                mpany decided to sponsor this inter-
                                                section at Cedar and Witkoppen Roads
                                                in particular, as it plays an integral role
                                                in our business, because many of our
                                                employees and customers use the
                                                                              Energy Management News 13

    Wind turbines generate more
    than 1% of global electricity
                                    19.7 GW added in 2007

    n 2007, 19.696 MW of new wind
    energy capacity was added sum-
    ming up to a global installed capaci-
ty of 93.849 MW by the end of Decem-
ber. The added capacity equals a
growth rate of 26.6 %, after 25.6 % in
2006. The currently installed wind
power capacity generates 200 TWh per
year, equalling 1.3% of the global elec-
tricity consumption. In some countries
and regions, wind energy already con-
tributes to 40% and more. The wind
industry employs 350 000 people
worldwide, an increase of 50 000 peo-               Figure 1: Total installed capacity (MW) 1997-2007)
ple on the previous year.
     Based on the accelerated develop-
ment, the WWEA has increased its pre-
diction for 2010 and expects
170.000 MW to be installed by the end
of that year. However, in the majority of
the top 40 wind markets, the increase
in the deployment of wind energy
slowed down in 2007.
     Dr Anil Kane, President of the World
Wind Energy Association: ‘The year
2007, all in all, was a very successful
year for the wind industry worldwide.
However, there are several develop-
ments that make us feel concerned: 20
out of the top 40 markets have
decreased the volume of additional
capacity and only 18 countries have                         Figure 2: Capacity installed 2007
been able to increase their size. Anoth-
er concern is that most of the develop-
ing countries are far behind the devel-
opment of the leading wind energy
countries. Today the emerging coun-
tries India and China are amongst the
top five wind markets, and there should
be sufficient motivation for the govern-
ments as well as for international donor
organisations to launch effective and
substantial international deployment
programmes. We need a stronger sup-
port for investment in renewable ener-
gies like wind especially in the develop-
ing countries in order to ensure a truly
sustainable development.’
     In comparison with 2006, when
15.120 MW were added, 2007 brought          Figure 3: Additional wind power capacity worldwide 1998-2007 (MW)
14 Energy Management News

another new record in new installa-
tions. Mainly the booming wind markets
in the USA (5.216 MW of new capaci-
ty), Spain (3.515 MW) and China
(3.313 MW) contributed to this record.
China with a growth rate of 127.5 %
showed the greatest performance of
the top five wind countries. Germany
defended clearly its position as number
one country in terms of overall capacity
with 22.274 MW installed. With addi-
tional capacity of 1.625 MW, Germany
as well as India (1.580 MW added) kept
their positions as leading markets,
however, both countries clearly de-
creased in new installations. Only two
countries (after five in 2006) added
between 500 MW and 1.000 MW and
showed strong growth rates: France                 Figure 4: Total installed capacity and prediction 1997-2010 (MW)
(888 MW, 56.7% growth) and Italy
(603 MW, 28.4%). The most dynamic
market in 2007 was Turkey adding
142 MW up to a total of 207 MW, which
equals a growth rate of more than
    The market for new wind turbines
reached an overall size of 19.696 MW,
after 15.120 MW in 2006 (30%
increase). In the last ten years,
between 1998 and 2007, even an
almost tenfold increase can be seen.
    Based on this very dynamic devel-        Figure 5: Wind energy capacity added in 2007 by continent (total: 19.883MW)
opment of the past years, the WWEA
has again lifted its prediction for 2010
from 160.000 MW up to 170.000 MW.
    In terms of continental distribution,
Europe decreased its share in installed
capacity from 65.5% in 2006 to 61% in
2007. However, Europe is still the
strongest continent whilst North Ameri-
ca and Asia are increasing rapidly their
shares. In terms of new additional
capacity, Europe for the first time
installed less than half of the new glob-
al capacity and counted for 43.6%, fol-       Figure 6: Total installed wind energy capacity by continent (total 93,9GW)
lowed by North America (28.5%) and
Asia (26.6%).
    The developing countries in Latin
America and Africa counted for only
0.4% and 0.6% respectively of the total
capacity, and Latin America fell back in
terms of new installations down to only
0.2% of the additional capacity installed
worldwide in 2007.
    An important indicator for the vitali-
ty of the wind markets is the growth
rates in relation to the installed capaci-
ty of the previous year. After a decrease
in the average worldwide growth rates
between 1999 and 2004, the growth
rate went up steadily since 2004,
reaching 26.6% in 2007, after 25.6% in
2006 and 23.8% in 2005. However, this
increase in the average growth rate is                Figure 7: Wind energy worldwide annual growth rates (%)
                                                                                       Energy Management News 15

only due to the fact that the biggest
markets – USA, Spain and China
showed growth rates above the aver-
age. Also France showed a very strong
performance with 888 MW added,
equalling a growth rate of 57% in com-
parison to the previous year.
G Contact: Stefan Gsänger
     Secretary General – World Wind
     Energy Association
     Tel. +49 228 369 4080

                                                        Figure 8: Rates of growth 2007 (%) Top 20 markets (>100MW)

Rank Country/            Total capacity   Additional capacity     Rate of       Ranking      Total capacity   Total capacity
total region                installed      2007 (Difference       Growth       total 2006       installed        installed
2007                       end 2007          2007-2006)             2007                       end 2006         end 2005
                             (MW)                (MW)               (%)                          (MW)              (MW)
1      Germany             22.247,4             1.625,4              7,9           1           20.622,0         18.427,5
2      USA                 16.818,8             5.215,8             45,0           3           11.603,0           9.149,0
3      Spain               15.145,1             3.515,1             30,2           2           11.630,0         10.027,9
4      India                7.850,0             1.580,0             25,2           4            6.270,0           4.430,0
5      China                5.912,0             3.313,0            127,5           6            2.599,0           1.266,0
6      Denmark              3.125,0              -11,0              -0,4           5            3.136,0           3.128,0
7      Italy                2.726,1              602,7              28,4           7            2.123,4           1.718,3
8      France               2.455,0              888,0              56,7          10            1.567,0            757,2
9      United Kingdom       2.389,0              426,2              21,7           8            1.962,9           1.353,0
10     Portugal             2.130,0              414,0              24,1           9            1.716,0           1.022,0
11     Canada               1.846,0              386,0              26,4          12            1.460,0            683,0
12     The Netherlands      1.747,0              188,0              12,1          11            1.559,0           1.224,0
13     Japan                1.538,0              229,0              17,5          13            1.309,0           1.040,0
14     Austria               981,5                17,0               1,8          14             964,5             819,0
15     Greece                873,3               115,7              15,3          16             757,6             573,3
16     Australia             817,3                0,0               0,0           15             817,3             579,0
17     Ireland               805,0                59,0               7,9          17             746,0             495,2
18     Sweden                788,7               217,5              38,1          18             571,2             518,0
19     Norway                333,0                7,9               2,4           19             325,0             268,0
20     New Zealand           322,0               151,0              88,3          25             171,0             168,2
21     Egypt                 310,0                80,0              34,8          21             230,0             145,0
22     Belgium               286,9                92,6              47,7          22             194,3             167,4
23     Taiwan (China)        280,0                92,3              49,2          23             187,7             103,7
24     Poland                276,0               123,0              80,4          26             153,0              73,0
25     Brazil                247,1                10,2               4,3          20             236,9              28,6
26     Turkey                206,8               142,2             220,0          31              64,6              20,1
27     Korea (South)         191,3                15,0               8,5          24             176,3             119,1
28     Czech Republic        116,0                59,5             105,3          34              56,5              29,5
29     Finland               110,0                24,0              27,9          28              86,0              82,0
30     Ukraine                89,0                3,4               4,0           29              85,6              77,3
31     Mexico                 86,5                0,0               0,0           27              86,5              2,2
32     Costa Rica             74,0                0,0               0,0           30              74,0              71,0
33     Bulgaria               70,0                34,0              94,4          37              36,0              14,0
34     Iran                   66,5                19,1              40,4          36              47,4              31,6
35     Hungary                65,0                4,1               6,8           33              60,9              17,5
36     Morocco                64,0                0,0               0,0           32              64,0              64,0
37     Estonia                58,1                25,1              76,1          39              33,0              33,0
38     Lithuania              52,3                -2,7              -4,8          35              55,0              7,0
16 Energy Management News

Rank Country/            Total capacity   Additional capacity   Rate of    Ranking     Total capacity   Total capacity
total region                installed      2007 (Difference     Growth    total 2006      installed        installed
2007                       end 2007          2007-2006)           2007                   end 2006         end 2005
                             (MW)                (MW)             (%)                      (MW)              (MW)
39   Luxembourg               35,3                 0,0            0,0        38             35,3              35,3
40   Argentina                29,8                 2,0            7,2        40             27,8              26,8
41   Latvia                   27,4                 0,0            0,0        41             27,4              27,4
42   Philippines              25,2                 0,0            0,0        42             25,2              25,2
43   Jamaica                  20,7                 0,0            0,0        43             20,7              20,7
44   Guadeloupe               20,5                 0,0            0,0        44             20,5              20,5
45   Tunisia                  20,0                 0,0            0,0        45             20,0              20,0
46   Chile                    20,0                18,0           900,0       59              2,0               2,0
47   Colombia                 19,5                 0,0            0,0        46             19,5              19,5
48   Croatia                  17,8                 0,6            3,5        47             17,2               6,0
49   South Africa             16,6                 0,0            0,0        48             16,6              16,6
50   Russia                   16,5                 1,0            6,5        49             15,5              14,0
51   Guyana                   13,5                 0,0            0,0        50             13,5              13,5
52   Curaçao                  12,0                 0,0            0,0        51             12,0              12,0
53   Switzerland              11,6                 0,0            0,0        52             11,6              11,6
54   Romania                   9,0                 6,2           226,1       57              2,8               0,9
55   Israel                    7,0                 0,0            0,0        53              7,0               7,0
56   Slovakia                  5,0                 0,0            0,0        54              5,0               5,0
57   Faroe Islands             4,1                 0,0            0,0        55              4,1               4,1
58   Ecuador                   3,1                 3,1                       73              0,0               0,0
59   Cape Verde                2,8                 0,0           0,0         56              2,8               2,8
60   Nigeria                   2,2                 0,0           0,0         58              2,2               2,2
61   Cuba                      2,1                 1,7          366,7        67              0,5               0,5
62   Jordan                    1,5                 0,0           0,0         60              1,5               1,5
63   Martinique                1,1                 0,0           0,0         61              1,1               1,1
64   Belarus                   1,1                 0,0           0,0         62              1,1               1,1
65   Indonesia                 1,0                 0,2          25,0         63              0,8               0,8
66   Eritrea                  0,75                0,00           0,0         64             0,75              0,75
67   Peru                     0,70                0,00           0,0         65             0,70              0,70
68   Uruguay                  0,60                0,45          300,0        70             0,15              0,15
69   Kazakhstan               0,50                0,00           0,0         66             0,50              0,50
70   Namibia                  0,47                0,22          88,0         69             0,25              0,25
71   Netherl. Antilles        0,33                0,33                       74             0,00              0,00
72   Syria                    0,30                0,00            0,0        68             0,30              0,30
73   North Korea              0,01                0,00            0,0        71             0,01              0,01
74   Bolivia                  0,01                0,00            0,0        72             0,01              0,00
     Total                 93.849,1            19.695,8          26,6                    74.153,3         59.033,0
                                                                                           Energy Management News 17

    Assessment and alternatives for Northern
       Free State coal-fired power station
BACKGROUND                                    bon tax.                                     avoid unacceptable and/or avoidable

        ite work is already advancing for        With the process currently under-         impacts on ecosystems, including com-
        the Medupi coal-fired power           way, the following questions should be       munities that are part of the receiving
        plant in Lephalala in Limpopo,        answered in the public domain:               environment, but also to avoid stupid
and tenders have been awarded for             • Will South Africa need another 5           decisions, such as public investment in
supplying the main components of the             400 MW of coal-fired electricity gen-     infrastructure that is at high risk of
plant. While full information on the             eration capacity in the next decade       becoming a stranded asset early in its
costs of the plant are not available to          and following construction of about       anticipated lifespan.
Eskom’s shareholders, the public at              10 000 MW additional capacity                  Richard Worthington, Coordinator
large, nor even relevant parliamentary           already on the cards?                     of Earthlife Africa’s Sustainable Energy
committees, cost estimates per unit of        • If government finally implements           and Climate Change Project, thinks
plant have apparently doubled since              policy commitments (see White             there can be no more easy or obvious
the initial investment decision was              Paper on Energy Policy 1998) to           opportunity for individuals to support
made. Recently reported estimates are            integrate externalised costs in ener-     responsible public decision-making:
R80 billion and rising and this is quite         gy planning and pricing, would a          ‘Anybody who is wondering whether
separate from the escalation of opera-           coal-fire plant, particularly one not     there is anything they can do about cli-
tional costs, inter alia due to compli-          utilising best available technology,      mate change, or what kind of a society
ance with air quality standards sched-           be the ‘cheaper’ generation option        their children will live in, or whether
uled to come into force ahead of plant           by the time it is fully commissioned?     coal really is cheap, or just dirty and
commissioning, which Eskom has                • Given both the improving economic          profitable, should not hesitate to sup-
explicitly stated is not factored into cur-      case for, and policy commitments          port the assessment of alternatives.
rent plans, as well as rising coal prices.       to, energy efficiency and conserva-       However, even if you are in denial
     A positive Record of Decision (RoD)         tion, is Eskom heading for a repeat       about the human contribution to global
against the Environmental Impact                 of its over-investment in generation      warming, don’t care about the public
Assessment (EIA) has also been                   capacity in the 1980s, which is the       health care costs of inefficient coal
issued for another enormous coal-fired           foundation of current electricity sup-    burning and think that windmills are a
plant (set to be the world’s largest) in         ply shortfalls?                           greater environmental blight than
the Witbank area. The terms of the            • Is Eskom still avoiding even study-        smokestacks, you may still be curious
RoD are largely a replication of the             ing the possibility of large-scale        as to whether we could save a hundred
decision on Medupi: while the project            renewable energy utilisation?             billion through more intelligent use of
proponents have not yet identified the                                                     energy and thus keep electricity more
extent or efficiency of pollution abate-          As our public utility would be invest-   affordable.’
ment equipment to be fitted at these          ing well over R100 billion to develop             While a populist view sees EIAs as
plants the RoD requires, operation of         the proposed coal-fired plant and            a barrier to development, anybody that
the plant will be conditional to compli-      intends to operate it for upwards of 50      can see beyond an exclusive preoccu-
ance with all legislation, including air      years, there seems to be a fairly obvi-      pation with economic growth or the
quality standards that are promulgated        ous case for looking into available          most immediate short-term results,
after the issuance of the RoD. At this        options.                                     should realise that an EIA is a valuable
point the impacts of these plants can-            Earthlife Africa is not convinced that   tool to address the quality of develop-
not be fully assessed, as decisions           the Witbank coal-fired plant (in addition    ment, not only as a public responsibili-
have not been made regarding the              to the Medupi pant in Limpopo) is a          ty but also to improve the prospects for
trade-offs between local and global pol-      socially or environmentally defensible       better returns over time. Such returns
lution, as well as different forms of         or a sound public investment decision,       may be simple profits, or may be in the
local/regional impacts: for example,          but those decisions have largely been        quality of life of beneficiaries of housing
both dry cooling to avoid unsustainable       made and will need to be addressed           projects, durability of a road or bridge
water consumption and exhaust gas             via avenues such as the Energy Policy        under changing climate conditions, or
cleaning to reduce local health impacts       Review process that Minister Sonjica         the viability of a commercial activity
and degradation of land and water at a        has promised for 2008. In the case of        under constraints resulting from
regional scale, resulting in higher rates     the Free State Plant, as the Scoping         humanity continuously diminishing the
of atmospheric pollution and thus cli-        Report and Plan of Study have not yet        carrying capacity of our ecosystem,
mate change. The later point is a cost        been completed, there is the opportuni-      even as over-consumption increases.
as well as a corporate social responsi-       ty for the EIA process to truly serve the         February 14 was the deadline for
bility issue, giving strong signals that      purpose for which it is designed. Prop-      comments on the Draft Addendum
government intends to introduce a car-        er assessment is required not only to        Scoping Report of the Environmental
18 Energy Management News

Impact Assessment: Proposed new            should include assessing the job cre-
coal-fired power station and associated    ation potential of renewable energy            Portable
infrastructure in the Northern Free        options, particularly rapidly accelerated
State. The project proposal also as-
sumes extensive new coal mining in
                                           roll-out of solar water heating, to avoid
                                           some or all of the electricity demand
the vicinity of Sasolburg, although this
is outside the scope of the current
                                           growth that is assumed as the principle
                                           driver of this project activity.               ups and
process (despite local community                Failure of the EIA to assess activity
requests that the two activities be
assessed together).
                                           alternatives beyond the fairly insignifi-
                                           cant variables considered to date
                                           would not only prevent the possibility of
                                           an informed decision, but also make a
For too long the implementation of EIA     nonsense of the most recent statement
regulations that require consideration     of the ruling party, of January 8, which     systems for
of alternatives to proposed activities     asserts: ‘We must therefore proceed
has been restricted to consideration of
more than one site. Occasionally some
                                           without delay to implement our resolu-
                                           tions on climate change, particularly
                                                                                         home and
very general statements have been
made about higher costs of alternative
                                           with respect to the reduction of green-
                                           house gas emissions and the promo-            office use
technologies, but such assertions have     tion of renewable energy sources.’
not been subject to any investigation.
                                           G Contact: Karen Shippey or Lindiwe
Recent developments make this                 Gaika
approach not just short-sighted, but          Ninham Shand

now financially irresponsible, contrary       Tel: 021 481 2400                                here has been a dramatic
to national policy and international          Fax: 021 424 5588                                upsurge of interest in and
commitments and morally indefensible.         E-mails:                                         application of generator sets,
    The EIA process should investigate and            UPS and battery standby systems
alternatives to additional coal-fired                within home and office environments.
electricity generation capacity, as well      Website:                 There is undoubtedly a need for
as alternatives to the specific coal-                                                   substantive yet easy-to-understand
based technology proposed. Alterna-           Richard Worthington                       information to address the applica-
tives that may be feasible within the         Earthlife Africa – Johannesburg           tion issues, as well as the serious
revised / extended timeline of the proj-                                                potential health and safety hazards
ect and should be studied in detail                                                     that may arise.
include:                                                                                    The South Africa Network of the
• Electricity conservation – meeting                                                    Institution of Engineering and Tech-
    existing and growing electricity                                                    nology (IET SA Network) had an
    demand growth through energy effi-                                                  evening of presentations on 5 March,
    ciency measures and alternatives                                                    on the practical and safe application
    to electricity use, notably solar                                                   of portable gensets, ups and battery
    water heating (including in residen-                                                standby systems for home and office
    tial, commercial, government build-                                                 use
    ing and industrial sectors);                                                            The two speakers, Gerrit Teunis-
• Renewable energy electricity gen-                                                     sen and Graham Beyleveld, gave
    eration (including accelerated roll-                                                non-commercial presentations aimed
    out of wind, solar thermal and/or                                                   at the general, non-technical, home
    solar photovoltaic generation);                                                     and/or business owner/user. The pre-
• Best available or cleaner and more                                                    sentations focused on providing
    efficient coal-based technologies                                                   practical, down-to-earth and useful
    such as Integrated Gasification                                                     information, and in particular, cov-
    Combined Cycle (IGCC) technolo-                                                     ered the various technology, selec-
    gy, including a comparison of the                                                   tion, rating, application, maintenance
    risks of selection of a less mature                                                 and safety related issues.
    technology with the risks of a less
    efficient and/or more resource/int-                                                 SYNOPSIS
    ensive process.
                                                                                        The application of generator sets
    The social impact assessment                                                        for home and office use
should consider in some detail the                                                      The first presentation was given by
employment effects of all technology                                                    Gerrit Teunissen of City Power
choices, including the potential impact                                                 Johannesburg, who discussed the
of implementing alternatives to the pro-                                                application of generator sets in the
posed project activity, including renew-                                                home and office environment, and
able energy and conservation. This
                                                                              Energy Management News 19

the associated safety requirements.         Mining towns in South
Since early 2007, Gerrit has headed
an 8-man working group of the Asso-
ciation of Municipal Electricity Under-
                                              Africa Conference
takings of Southern Africa (AMEU).                       18 JUNE 2008 – NORTH WEST UNIVERSITY,
The working group comprises repre-                             POTCHEFSTROOM CAMPUS
sentatives from municipal electricity
distributors and Eskom, and was
tasked to produce a document that
could be circulated widely in South        BACKGROUND AND SCOPE

Africa, titled Guidelines for the safe            he Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management of the
use of portable generators on utilities’          North West University, Potchefstroom Campus, in collaboration with
networks. The presentation add-                   the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of the
ressed many of the issues covered in       Free State, aim to bring together researchers from academia and industry to
the latest Revision 9 of this docu-        present leading edge research findings, exchanging ideas, stimulate new
ment, and this edition, published by       research focuses relating to mining towns, and the spatial impact and devel-
EE Publishers, was made available          opment thereof.
and handed out to all delegates                The primary objective of the Conference is to present and discuss the
attending the presentation.                problems of mining towns, to transfer scientific and technological knowledge
                                           to a wide range of stakeholders and to open debate amongst scientists,
The application of UPS and                 practitioners, mining companies, engineers, stakeholders and government.
battery standby systems for home
and office use                             CONFERENCE TOPICS
The second presentation was given          The topics include the following:
by Graham Beyleveld of Meissner            • The process of functional change in mining towns and regions.
Uninterruptible Power, and covered         • Corporate social responsibility and development of mining towns.
the application of UPS and battery         • NSDP and IDP and mining towns.
standby systems for home and office        • Economic development of mining towns.
use, including technology options          • Role of small mines to meaningful contribute to the development of min-
such as in-line, line-interactive and         ing towns on a very limited budget.
switched power supplies, with square       • Housing development in mining towns.
wave, quasi-square wave or sine            • Policy and legislation related to mining towns.
wave output. While UPS equipment           • Environmental rehabilitation and mining towns.
is primarily used for safe shutdown        • Environmental management and planning of mining towns.
and/or the provision of relatively short   • Geo-environmental assessment of mining related urban development.
term back-up power to PCs and
                                           G Contact: Melanie Nell
peripherals, the presentation also           Tel: +27 (0) 18 299 2486
covered the application of batteries,        E-mail:
battery chargers and inverters to pro-
vide standby power for more extend-          Prof. Leon van Rensburg (Sponsorship opportunities)
ed periods to other domestic and             Tel: +27 (0) 18 299 1543
office appliances, lighting equipment,       E-mail:
etc. The application and coordination
of standby generator sets with UPS
equipment, as well as issues of safe-
ty, battery maintenance, replacement
and disposal, were also discussed.
G Contact: Marlindi Bosch
   IET SA Network Secretariat
   VDW - PO Box 868, Ferndale, 2160
   South Africa
   Tel: 011 789 1384
   Fax: 011 789 1385
   E-mails: and
   Websites: and
20 Energy Management News

                                What is ProBEC?

                                   he Programme for Basic Energy           ProBEC offers a stove testing and
                                   and Conservation (ProBEC) is a      research service to identify the most
                                   regional programme implement-       energy-efficient devices and to min-
                            ed by the German Agency for Technical      imise indoor air pollution. It also teach-
                            Co-operation (GTZ) in the SADC             es kitchen management techniques to
                            region. ProBEC is funded by the Ger-       assist beneficiaries with conserving
                            man and Dutch governments.                 energy.
                                ProBEC is a programme that man-            ProBEC’s second component fo-
                            ages and stimulates the establishment      cuses on policy advice. It plays a facili-
                            of various projects based on basic         tating role in order to make the impor-
                            energy conservation in 10 member           tance of biomass and biofuels a
                            states in SADC. Currently ProBEC is        recognized issue at the regional and
                            actively involved in Malawi, Lesotho,      national level; supports the formulation
                            Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and           and enforcement of a regulatory frame-
                            Zimbabwe. ProBEC is in negotiations        work; supports the development of
                            regarding future activities in Botswana,   basic energy strategies and operational
                            Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.       plans with a pro-poor focus; and
                                After May 2008, ProBEC will            improves coordination amongst key
                            expand its scope of work, not only in      stakeholders. An instrument for doing
                            terms of its focus but also in terms of    this is the establishment of a National
                            the countries where it is operating.       Advisory Group in each country in
                                ProBEC has offices at regional and     which ProBEC operates, consisting of
                            at the national level. National offices    government, NGOs, private and other
                            implement projects at the country level;   stakeholders in the energy field.
                            the regional office, located in Johan-         ProBEC is also exploring sustain-
                            nesburg, assists the national offices in   able biofuels and provides the SADC
                            project implementation and has addi-       Secretariat with knowledge and infor-
                            tional actions on policy development.      mation based on best practices to
                            ProBEC has three core components           implement a sustainable biofuels proj-
                            and is focused on improving the access     ect that upholds both international stan-
                            of low-income households to sustain-       dards and social responsibility and
                            able energy. ProBEC’s first component      environmental sustainability criteria.
                            consists of the promotion of the effi-         These different components of
                            cient use of energy devices primarily      ProBEC’s activities are easily inter-
                            associated with cooking such as ener-      linked, and they are structured in such
                            gy efficient wood-fired and charcoal       a way as to be flexible enough to
                            stoves, solar cookers and heat reten-      accommodate regional differences.
                            tion devices.
                                                                       G Contact: Feroza Cassim
                                In order to do this, ProBEC follows       Senior Project Administrator
                            two approaches. Firstly, it adopts a          Programme for Biomass Energy Con-
                            commercial approach towards market            servation
                            development for energy efficient              Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische
                            devices. In order to develop a market,        Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
                            ProBEC builds capacity by training            German Agency for Technical Coop-
                            commercial producers to manufacture           eration
                            energy saving cooking devices and, in         PO Box 13732, Hatfield, 0028
                            parallel, it stimulates the demand for        Tel: + 27 11 339 6633
                            these devices through raising aware-          Fax: +27 11 339 6634/ 086 630 1435
                            ness of potential users. The second           Mobile: +27 82 904 5040
                            approach utilises training of artisanal
                            producers or producer groups through
                            extension workers to supply target
                            groups with efficient energy devices,
                            Lastly, ProBEC also trains users to
                            adopt efficient kitchen management
                            techniques and efficient cooking habits
                            in order to maximise the benefits of
                            energy efficient devices.
                                                                                            Energy Management News 21

                                                Programme in fuel qualities,
                                               specifications and compliance
                                                                              22 – 23 MAY 2008

       his course offers an opportunity        Distribution aspects • Monitoring •                compliance
       to learn more about the South           Compliance •
       African air quality and vehicle                                                        METHODOLOGY
impact, industry views on fuel specifi-        TARGET GROUP                                   A variety of methods including class-
cations, global fuel trends, refinery          This programme is aimed at profes-             room work, group discussions, case
impacts and options. The programme             sionals employed in the South African          studies, presentations and simulation
will be delivered by South African fuel        fuels, transport and automotive sec-           exercises will be used.
quality experts.                               tors. This includes people from govern-
    Limited course funding is available        ment, labour, industry and the research        COST
for small businesses (BEE and NGO’s),          community. Technical and environmen-           The course fee is R4 600 (including
especially ones owned by HDSA.                 tal specialists and managers dealing           VAT). The fee covers tuition, course
Enterprises are encouraged to apply            with petroleum products, marketing,            materials, lunches and parking, but not
early to stand a chance for funding.           pricing, procurement, refining and their       accommodation or transport to the
                                               impacts are especially encouraged to           venue. A cancellation fee of 50% of the
Module 1: South African Situation              participate.                                   total amount is payable if you cancel
Air quality and vehicle impacts • Gov-                                                        your registration 7 days or less before
ernment processes for air quality, fuels       LEARNING OUTCOMES                              the course begins and 100% for failing
specifications, vehicle emissions,             At the end of the course participants          to register on the first day of the course.
transport policy • Industry views on fuel      should be able to:                             Cancellations must be confirmed in
specifications • Biofuels role • Future        • Understand global, European and              writing.
goals                                             Southern African issues regarding
                                                  fuel quality requirements                   VENUE
Module 2: International perspective,           • Demonstrate knowledge of fuel                The course will be held at the MEETI
with a European focus                             quality characteristics and how             offices: Level 9 Block 9, Mintek Cam-
Global fuel quality trends • EU history           these relate to refinery production         pus, 200 Malibongwe Drive (formerly
and current position • Process to deter-          processes                                   Hans Strijdom Drive), Randburg,
mine fuel specifications • Refinery            • Follow changes and trends for the            Johannesburg.
impacts and options • Automotive                  future
                                                                                              G Contact: Musa Mashinin
trends – the technology driver • Air           • Demonstrate a good grasp of                     Training Coordinator – MEETI
quality aspects - driving vehicle tech-           processes to advance fuel quality              PO Box 599, Randburg, 2125
nology and fuels                                  specifications                                 Tel: 011 709 4718
                                               • Understand the role of biofuels                 Fax: 011 709 4657
Module 3: Process issues                       • Identify and describe measures to               E-mail:
Objectives • Timing • Process steps •             monitor fuel qualities and ensure

                 Thursday 22 May                                            Friday 23 May
08h30-10h00      08h30-09h30: Registration & introduction                SA fuel supply and distribution, and related quality issues,
                 09h30-10h30: The SA fuel specification: process         including SABS marks and compliance
                 Adrian Cogills, DME                                      Abner Manaka, SABS
10h30-10h45      Tea                                                     Tea
10h45-11h45      The SA fuel specification: process and plans            Other factors : Transport modes and technology, Biofuels
                 Adrian Cogills, DME                                     Raoul Goosen, CEF
                 South African air quality in context of vehicles
                 Margo Richardson, DEAT
11h45-13h00      Automotive technology drivers international and SA      Refinery challenges and options
                 Stuart Rayner, NAAMSA                                   Cyril Stevens, Engen
 13h00-13h45     Lunch                                                   Lunch
13h45-15h00      International fuels quality issues                      SA fuels qualities and specifications, SWOT analysis
                 Pierre Malherbe, Engen
15h00-15h15      Tea                                                     Tea
15h15-16h30      International fuels quality issues                      SA fuels qualities and specifications, SWOT analysis
                 Pierre Malherbe, Engen
22 Energy Management News

        outh Africa is in the grip of an                                                      This 3-day programme offers a very
        energy crisis as is well-known,                                                   practical and hands-on exposure of the

        which not only endangers the                                                      management aspects of energy man-
country’s economic development, but                                                       agement. In addition to developing an
our standard of living.                                                                   understanding of the issues, it is
    Government announced a pre-                                                           intended to begin the actual planning
emptive plan to reduce the strain on the                                                  process of energy management of
grid. This plan will consist of massive                                                   building clients. Because the course
load shedding and power rationing in         Professional (CMVP) program with the         outcomes essentially involve increased
an attempt to reduce national demand         dual purpose of recognizing the most         organisational capacity for energy
by at least 10%. Voluntary rationing is      qualified professionals in this growing      management, it is especially beneficial
set to become mandatory through reg-         area of the energy industry, and raising     if more than one person from a given
ulation from April 2008 onwards.             the overall professional standards with-     organisation attend. The common
    This will run in conjunction with the    in the measurement and verification          understanding of the issues arising
Power Conservation Programme which           field. The purpose of the course is to       from the course will help to bridge any
includes quotas that require 10%             develop and promote the use of stan-         gaps that might exist withinthe organi-
reductions in energy use and demand          dardized protocols, methods and tools        sation regarding the importance and
for all industries, 15% for all commer-      to quantify and manage the perform-          practicality of energy management.
cial and office buildings and 20% for        ance risks and benefits associated with          Target groups that will benefit from
hotels, resorts and shopping malls.          end-use energy efficiency, renewable         the training are:
Harsh penalties will be enforced if          energy, and water efficiency business        • Plant operations;
these targets are not met, whilst incen-     transactions.                                • Maintenance;
tives will be given if they are.                  The 3-day Certified Measurement         • Engineering;
    It is consequently clear that every-     and Verification Professional course         • Finance; and
body has a role to play in averting a full   will be presented by the Association of      • Management.
scale national crisis. Penalties will have   Energy Engineers (AEE) in conjunction            The CMVP and BEMT Training
a direct impact on your bottom-line          with the Energy Training Foundation          Courses are CPD Accredited.
whilst incentives will make it worth your    (ETF) for three consecutive days. A
                                                                                          G Contact: Christina den Heijer
efforts if you become energy efficient.      four-hour examination will take place          Energy Training Foundation
    However, the question is: Are you        on the last day.                               Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174
prepared to become part of the solu-              The four-hour CMVP exam is given          Cell: +27 (0) 82 334 0923
tion?                                        in conjunction with the Fundamentals           E-mail:
    The two courses that the Energy          of Measurement & Verification three
Training Foundation (ETF) present will       day training program. The examination          Marietjie Strydom
not only help you to put a system in         questions are based on concepts and            Energy Training Foundation
place to become energy efficient             experiences basic to measurement and           Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174
(Building Energy Management Training         verification. The exam is open book,           Cell: +27 (0) 83 401 7709
Course), but will assists you in quanti-     and the questions are a mixture of mul-        E-mail:
fying your actual impacts (Certified         tiple choice and true or false selections.
Measurement and Verification Profes-         After passing the exam you will have to
sional Course).                              submit the CMVP application. Persons
                                             attending the 3-day CMVP Course will
CERTIFIED MEASUREMENT &                      also receive a certificate of attendance.
(CMVP) COURSE                                BUILDING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
The Association of Energy Engineers          (BEMT) TRAINING COURSE
(AEE), in cooperation with the Efficien-     The Energy Training Foundation (ETF)
cy Valuation Organization (EVO) for-         is presenting a Building Energy Man-
merly known as the International Per-        agement Training Course. This is a 3-
formance Measurement & Verification          day programme that was developed by
Protocol (IPMVP), has established the        the Department of Minerals and Energy
Certified Measurement and Verification       (DME) with support from Danida.
    23 Energy Management News                                                     Energy Management News 23

   Forthcoming energy and energy-related
    conferences and courses: 2008–2009
MAY 2008                                 JUNE 2008                                OCTOBER 2008
20 – 21                                  2–6                                      13 – 16
UTLISATION: AN UPDATE                    ENERGY TODAY                             MENT TRAINING COURSE AND
Wits Club, West Campus, University       The Saint George Hotel, Rietvlei-        ENERGY AUDIT TRAINING COURSE
of the Witwatersrand, Johannes-          dam, S Africa                            Birchwood Executive Hotel & Con-
burg, S Africa                           Contact: Gert Claassen, NIASA            ference Centre, Gauteng, S Africa
Contact: Mr Musa Mashinini or Mr         Tel: +27 12 641 1071                     Contact: Christina den Heijer
Stephen Ramotsei                         Fax: +27 12 641 1802                     Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174
Tel: 011 709 4718 or 011 709 4351        Cell: +27 83 602 5254                    Cell: +27 (0) 82 334 0923
Fax: 011 709 4657                        Website:                 E-mails:
E-mail:                                                         and
Website:                12                                       Marietjie Strydom
                                         SOUTH AFRICAN ECONOMIC OUT-              Cell: +27 (0) 83 401 7709
20 – 23                                  LOOK CONFERENCE                          Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174
AFRICAN UTILITY WEEK                     Johannesburg, S Africa         
Cape Town, S Africa                      Contact: Coreen Beukes, Global
Contact: Nadia Boucher, Spintelligent    Insight                                  13 – 17
Tel: +27 21 700 3500                     Tel: +27 12 665 5420                     CERTIFIED ENERGY MANAGER
Fax: +27 21 700 3501                     E-mail: coreen.beukes@globalin-          COURSE
E-mail:                                                      Birchwood Executive Hotel & Con-          18                                       ference Centre, Gauteng, S Africa
Website:                                                    Contact: Christina den Heijer
                                         MINING IN TOWNS IN SOUTH                 Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174
MENT TRAINING COURSE AND                                                          Cell: +27 (0) 82 334 0923
                                         North West University, Potchef-          E-mails:
ENERGY AUDIT TRAINING COURSE             stroom, S Africa
Emperors Palace, Gauteng, S Africa                                                and
                                         Contact: Melanie Nell                    Marietjie Strydom
Contact: Christina den Heijer            Tel: +27 (0) 18 299 2486
Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174                                                      Cell: +27 (0) 83 401 7709
                                           Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174
Cell: +27 (0) 82 334 0923
E-mail:         29 - 2 July                    
and       ADVANCES IN ENERGY STUDIES               NOVEMBER 2008
Marietjie Strydom                        Graz University of Technology,
Tel/Fax: +27 (0) 18 294 7174             Graz, Austria                            20 – 23
Cell: +27 (0) 83 401 7709                Website:             3RD INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION
E-mail:                                            ‘ENERGY 2008’ AND 1ST
                                         JULY 2008                                INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION
21 – 22                                  7 - 10
CITY ENERGY CONFERENCE 2008,                                                      `PHOTOVOLTAIC 2008’
Eskom Convention Centre, Midrand,        XIV CONGRESS OF THE SOUTH                Maroussi, Greece
S Africa                                 AFRICAN SOCIOLOGICAL                     Contact: LEADEREXPO
Contact: Juanita Louw, Ingwe Commu-      ASSOCIATION - POWER AND THE              Tel: +30 210 614 1164 / 1223
nications                                ENVIRONMENT: CHALLENGES FOR              Fax: +30 210 802 4238
Tel: 011 472 5388 Fax: 011 472 5304      THE 21ST CENTURY                         E-mail:
E-mail:              University of Stellenbosch, Stellen-     Website:
Website:              bosch, S Africa
                                         Contact: Dr Heidi Prozesky, SASA         MARCH 2009
22 – 23                                  Secretary, Department of Sociology       16 - 19
PROGRAMME IN FUEL QUALITIES,             and Social Anthropology, University of
                                         Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1,            2009 EUROPEAN WIND ENERGY
SPECIFICATIONS AND                                                                CONFERENCE
COMPLIANCE                               Matieland 7602, South Africa
                                         Tel: +27 21 808 2092                     Marseille, France
MEETI Offices, Randburg, Johan-                                                   E-mail:
nesburg, S Africa                        Fax: +27 21 808 2143
                                         Mobile: +27 83 666 3166                  Website:
Contact: Musa Mashinin, Training
Coordinator, MEETI                       Website:
Tel: 011 709 4718 Fax: 011 709 4657
E-mail:                                                            Visit for
Website:                                                            further events and details
         The newsletter is published quarterly by the Energy Research Centre (ERC) of the
         University of Cape Town. (ERC is an amalgamation in 2004 of two organisations at
       the University: the former Energy Research Institute and the Energy and Development
                                         Research Centre.)
                Energy Management News is available free of charge. The articles do not
                        necessarily reflect the views of the editor or of ERC.
           Enquiries, comments, articles, and information on energy events are welcome, and
                                          should be sent to:

                                          Richard Drummond
                                      Energy Research Centre
                                       University of Cape Town
                                               Private Bag
                                           Rondebosch 7701
                                              South Africa.
                                           Tel: 021 650 3894
                                           Fax: 021 650 2830

                                     Subscribe to

The Journal of Energy in Southern Africa (JESA) has been running for fourteen years, and has proved
 to be of a consistently high standard and to have a widening subscription base. The key receivers of
this quarterly journal are researchers, consulting engineers, energy producers, energy consumers and
                                            decision makers.
  The publication is balanced, representative, up to date and authorative. It is becoming increasingly
                             known in other countries especially in Africa.
The JESA is a successful vehicle for the dissemination of information on the latest results and activities
 in the Southern African energy field, publicising results achieved and stimulating future activities. The
  potential impact in terms of distribution is the whole of sub-Saharan Africa. It covers matters of local
and regional interest as opposed to the internationally high technology content of other journals serving
                                               energy interests.
  It is the intention to keep the subscription rate relatively low to allow as many people as possible to
                                         have access to the JESA.

                              Individuals (Africa): R134 (single copy R51)
                       Individuals (beyond Africa): US$109 (single copy US$39)
                              Corporate (Africa): R321 (single copy R103)
                       Corporate (beyond Africa): US$218 (single copy US$77)

                             Cost includes VAT and airmail postage.
Cheques should be made payable to the University of Cape Town and sent to the address given below.
             Contact: Ann Steiner, Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town,
                          Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.
                                        Tel: 021 650 4646
                                       Fax: 021 650 2830