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					SECTION 7

 Disposal of dead livestock must be in accordance                Rendering companies may have restrictions on
 with Section 15 of the Livestock Manure and                     the condition of the mortalities they process. In
 Mortalities Management Regulation (Appendix                     general, the mortalities should be brought in as
 B). This regulation specifies that mortalities                   quickly as possible in the summer time. Pigs that
 must be kept in a secure storage room, covered                  die during the winter can be frozen and delivered
 container or secure location and continually                    to the rendering plant at periodic, convenient
 frozen or refrigerated if not disposed of within                intervals. Rendering companies will generally not
 48 hours after death. They must be stored in a                  accept mortalities that do not remain intact when
 location that prevents access by scavenger                      handled. Depending upon the end product of the
 animals such as coyotes, wolves, dogs or birds.                 rendering process, there may be other restrictions
 Acceptable methods of disposal include delivery                 on mortality quality and condition.
 to a rendering plant, burial, composting or
                                                                 7.2 Burial
                                                                 Burial is an acceptable method for dead animal
 7.1 Rendering                                                                                                                 69
                                                                 disposal under certain circumstances. Small
 Rendering is the ideal method of disposal for                   operations (less than 300 A.U.) are allowed to
 dead pigs. However, if a rendering plant is not                 bury routine mortalities, however, operations
 nearby, the time and expense for traveling may                  with 300 or more A.U. are not permitted to
 make delivery impractical for small mortality                   bury mortalities on the operation’s property
 numbers.                                                        without written approval from the director of
                                                                 Manitoba Conservation.

                                                                 Caution is required when selecting a burial site.
                                                                 The site should be at least 100 m (328 ft) from
                                                                 any surface watercourse, sinkhole, spring or well,
                                                                 property boundary, and any source of water used
                                                                 for domestic purposes. Areas with high
                                                                 groundwater levels or shallow aquifers must be

                                                                 Dead pigs can be placed in a trench which is
                                                                 backfilled each time a mortality is added.
                                                                 Mortalities must be covered with a minimum
                                                                 one metre (3 ft) of soil. It should be noted that,
                                                                 depending on soil conditions, decomposition can
                                                                 be very slow with mortalities remaining intact
 Container for temporary storage of mortalities.                 for five years or more.

 FA R M P R A C T I C E S G U I D E L I N E S F O R P I G P R O D U C E R S I N M A N I T O B A ( A P R I L 2 0 0 7 )   S ECT ION 7
FA R M P R A C T I C E S G U I D E L I N E S F O R P I G P R O D U C E R S I N M A N I T O B A ( A P R I L 2 0 0 7 )

                                 During the winter, mortalities must be stored in a               activity will cause the temperature in the pile to
                                 secure location (such as a covered trailer) where                rise again. The compost is finished and ready for
                                 they are frozen and protected from scavengers                    storing or applying on the field when the
                                 until burial is possible in the spring. If left                  temperature of the pile has dropped to the
                                 unprotected, scavengers will drag the mortalities                outside air temperature, which indicates that
                                 around, creating both a nuisance and a possible                  bacterial decomposition is complete.
                                 health hazard. For piglets, it may be practical to
                                 store the mortalities in a designated freezer until              During the primary and secondary phases of
                                 the numbers are sufficient to justify burial.                     mortality composting, the volume and weight of
                                                                                                  the pile is reduced due to the loss of carbon
                                                                                                  dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The bulky
                                 7.3 Composting                                                   raw materials should be transformed into a
                                 Composting is becoming an increasingly popular                   crumbly, finer-textured compost. Properly finished
                                 method of disposing of dead animals. Mortality                   compost should appear as a dark, granular
                                 composting is a controlled process in which                      material resembling humus or potting soil. It may
                                 bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms                        have a slightly musty odour. Some resistant
                                 convert the dead animals and organic material                    materials (bones, skull parts, teeth) may be visible,
                                 into a stable humus-like product through both                    but they should be soft and crumble easily.
                                 aerobic and anaerobic decomposition.
                                                                                                  The amount of time required to complete the
                                 There are two phases with mortality composting.                  entire composting process will depend on the
                                 In the primary phase, mortalities that are high in               type of bulking agent, temperature, moisture,
                                 nitrogen are surrounded with a bulking material                  management and mortality size. Normally, the
                                 high in carbon such as sawdust, straw or wood                    secondary stage of composting will take roughly
                                 chips. During this phase anaerobic                               the same length of time as the primary phase.
                                 microorganisms work to decompose the                             Turning the pile frequently to maintain aerobic
                                 mortalities releasing fluids and gases. The                       activity should reduce the time required for the
                                 material surrounding the mortality is aerobic.                   secondary phase.
                                 When the fluids and gases enter the aerobic
                                                                                                  Once the compost process is finished, the
                                 zone, aerobic microorganisms break them down
                                                                                                  compost can be used as an inoculant to quick
                                 into carbon dioxide and water. Temperatures in
                                                                                                  start a new compost pile or applied to fields. If
                                 the primary phase should reach above 40°C for
                                                                                                  the finished compost is applied to fields, it should
                                 at least seven consecutive days. Once the
                                                                                                  be tested to determine the nutrient content and
                                 temperature in the pile drops continuously for
                                                                                                  applied at a rate beneficial to the soil.
                                 10 to 14 days, the primary phase is completed
                                 and it is time to turn the pile.
                                                                                                  Composting piles must be sited, designed and
                                                                                                  managed so they do not cause pollution and are
                                 The secondary phase of the process involves
                                                                                                  secure from scavengers. Composting sites
                                 turning the pile regularly to introduce oxygen
                                                                                                  should be located at least 100 m (328 ft) away
                                 and increase aerobic activity. Large bones and
                                                                                                  from any surface watercourse, sinkhole, spring or
                                 hair remaining from the primary phase
                                                                                                  well, property boundary, and any source of water
                                 decompose during the secondary phase. The pile
                                                                                                  used for domestic purposes. When locating the
                                 should be turned once a week to maximize
                                                                                                  composting site, the farm residence and any
                                 aerobic activity. This increase in microbial

SEC TI ON 7                                    M O R T A L I T Y          D I S P O S A L
                        FA R M P R A C T I C E S G U I D E L I N E S F O R P I G P R O D U C E R S I N M A N I T O B A ( A P R I L 2 0 0 7 )

neighbouring residences should be taken into                      7.3.2 Bin composting
consideration. Proper composting should not
                                                                  There are many different types of
result in offensive odours. However, the handling
                                                                  composting bins that can be used for
of mortalities and compost on a daily basis may
                                                                  composting mortalities. They may be
not be aesthetically pleasing. The following
                                                                  constructed with wood, concrete or straw
factors should be considered when planning the
                                                                  bales. Hoop structures and altered machine
composting site:
                                                                  sheds can also be used for bin composting.
    traffic patterns required to move dead pigs                    A bin system usually consists of at least two
    to composting site                                            primary bins and one secondary bin, along
                                                                  with a roofing system to help control
    soil type - some soil types (sand, gravel) will
                                                                  moisture levels. An asphalt or concrete pad
    require a clay or asphalt liner
                                                                  with a 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) curb to
    drainage of the site - a well-drained site that               prevent leaching may be required in areas
    is not subject to runoff or ponding water and                 with readily permeable soils such as sands.
    is accessible all season                                      Each bin must be wide enough to allow
                                                                  access with a front-end or skid-steer loader
    wind direction                                                and tall enough to accommodate up to 1.8
                                                                  m (6 ft) of material.

    future expansion                                              7.3.3 In-vessel composting
                                                                  An in-vessel mortality composter is usually a
                                                                  container such as a drum or silo. It is
    7.3.1 Windrow or static composting
                                                                  aesthetically pleasing and is ideal for farms
    Windrow or static composting piles are                        with space constraints. Batches of materials
    commonly used in Manitoba. They are less                      are enclosed in the container and mechanically
    costly than other composting structures,                      mixed on a regular basis. This frequent mixing
    such as bin or in-vessel composting units.                    introduces more oxygen to the composting
    However, they require more management,                        process, which increase the breakdown of the
    since weather conditions that affect                          material and as a result, reduces the time of
    composting can not be controlled.                             the primary composting phase. With an in-
                                                                  vessel system, the operator is able to control
                                                                  the composting environment, regardless of
                                                                  outdoor weather conditions.

Multi-bin composting system                                  In-vessel composting system

       M O R T A L I T Y        D I S P O S A L                                                                              S E CT ION 7
FA R M P R A C T I C E S G U I D E L I N E S F O R P I G P R O D U C E R S I N M A N I T O B A ( A P R I L 2 0 0 7 )

                                 7.4 Incineration                                                 7.5 Disposal of Mass Mortalities
                                 Incineration is an acceptable method of disposal                 In the case of mass mortalities from events such
                                 if performed in accordance with the Incinerators                 as a barn fire or a disease outbreak, operators
                                 Regulation or using an incinerator that is                       should contact their local Environment Officer
                                 acceptable to Manitoba Conservation. For                         for instructions on appropriate disposal. If there
                                 mortalities to be burned without creating an                     is a suspected animal health issue, operators
                                 odour problem, the temperature of the                            should work with their veterinarian to determine
                                 incinerator must be sufficiently high. Incineration               how to deal with the situation.
                                 requires a large amount of energy to completely
                                 cremate mortalities.


SEC TI ON 7                                    M O R T A L I T Y          D I S P O S A L