Controversy on the Audiovisual by dfsiopmhy6


									            Beatriz Sainz, Judith Redoli, Rafael Mompó and Miguel López-Coronado

            Controversy on the Audiovisual
            Market – the Pay Television Model in
            Comparison with Open-Broadcast

                          This article analyses one of the current problems of                          analyses the market to find out whether or
                                                                                                        not it is competitive once it has been
                          the audiovisual market – the pay television model in
                                                                                                        defined. This body applies an ex-ante
                          comparison with open-broadcast television. It looks at                        regulation if there is evidence to suggest
                          various examples to study the consequences for the                            that the market does not work and that
                                                                                                        there are dominant companies. In contrast,
                          market should one of the models take up a dominant
                                                                                                        the authority for the defence of competition
                          position. The scenario under study comprises a strong                         acts ex-post only, in other words, once a
                          pay-TV platform, with market control, leaving open-                           practice or behaviour considered abusive
                                                                                                        has taken place. Both seek to guarantee
                          broadcast TV void of content and preventing possible                          effective competition in markets, but the
                          competitors from gaining access, giving rise to abusive                       evidence available for the adoption of the
                          behaviour by pay-TV companies in the audiovisual                              decision and the instruments within their
                                                                                                        reach to correct the situation are different.
                          market.                                                                           The consequent model is the result of
                                                                                                        political convergence1. The role played by
                                                                                                        European institutions is fundamental to the
                                                       Introduction                                     preparation of regulations governing the
the role played by                                     The new regulatory framework for                 national media. This is contrary to other
                                                       telecommunications of the European Union         world markets where, as a result of religious
European institutions is                               of March 2002 establishes the competencies       beliefs or ideology, democratic values are
                                                       of two regulation authorities – the authority    unfortunately not in place.
fundamental to the                                     for the defence of competition, and the              The ex-ante regulation model we put
                                                       authority for sector regulation. The             forward in this article provides sector
                                                       authority for sector regulation (see Figure 1)
preparation of regulations                             acts when there is no evidence of abuse by
                                                                                                        regulation authorities with a vision on
                                                                                                        which to base regulatory mechanisms for a
                                                       the company but there is a need to discover      sector where there are clear situations of
governing the national                                 whether or not there is dominance and it         dominance, where this dominance prevents

                                                       Figure 1 European Union regulatory framework for

                                                              Ex-ante Regulation

                                                                The Authority                                                   The Authority
                                                                                           To Guarantee Effective
                                                                 for Sector                                                    for the Defence
                                                                                           Competition in Markets
                                                                 Regulation                                                    of Competition

The Authors: Beatriz Sainz, Rafael Mompó
and Miguel López-Coronado are with the                                                                                        Ex-post Regulation
University of Valladolid and Judith Redoli is
with the University of Alcalá de Henares.

The Journal of The Communications Network       • Volume 6 Part 1 • January–March 2007                                                             55
Future Delivery of TV

the entry of new companies looking to                     actually possible to establish this                   Our regulation model focuses on the
compete in the market.                                    criterion since it would draw companies          consumer as the final beneficiary and also
    We need to create a field of action for               into a loss-making situation;                    aims at making the market attractive for
the audiovisual market governed by the                 • a mechanism must be designed to induce            enterprise.
principles of perfect competition (Figure 2).             the enterprise to attain the optimal                  We must also consider that an
Perfect competition is a situation that is                solution – the regulator’s objective is for      appropriate design of a regulation is more
entirely unreachable in most cases, where                 the companies in the market to maximise          important than its justification.
the following situations exist:                           profits when the socially optimal                Furthermore, before regulating content, it is
• the existence of many companies, none                   quantity is produced and sold at the             necessary to regulate the structures that
     of them dominant, incapable of                       socially optimal price.                          effectively improve access to the various
     influencing prices;                                    The elements or forces intervening in          levels and uses, especially with regard to
• numerous consumers incapable of                      this model (Figure 3) are as follows:               provision and reception3. To date, it can be
     influencing prices;                                                                                   said that the part corresponding to the
                                                       • consumer (who demands the content);
                                                                                                           regulation of structures on a European scale
• similar products;                                    • company (who supplies the content);               is sufficiently developed, despite the
• free entry to and exit from the market;              • content (the product the company offers           occasional loose end. Therefore, and given
• an abundance of open, free information.                 the consumer);                                   the fact that access is regulated, the focus
     Each company looks to obtain the                  • content price (how much consumers                 must be placed on regulating the content
highest possible profit without taking into               value the supplied product, i.e. taking          that is broadcast.
account, at least directly, social well-being.            into account the value it is given by                 There is no straightforward formula that
Each consumer maximises their own use                     consumers and how much they would be             covers all these interests. For example, if we
without worrying about others. The result of              willing to invest).                              consult consumers regarding the type of
these cases is maximum social well-being                   In addition, digital content must be            television they prefer, most would choose
from the Pareto point of view †.                       defined: it is information that is digitalised,     free television – this is not, however, the
     Unfortunately, the situations do not              developed or acquired with the precise aim
always arise naturally and there is a need             of being accessible and interchangeable to
for external intervention in markets to attain         favour cultural dialogue and the economic           Figure 2 Audiovisual market
the social optimum. The case of the natural            development of those using this technology.                  should be governed by
monopoly is the most typical in the market                 The idea is for it to be possible to                     the principles of perfect
and arises when production costs are such              distribute the content reaching users over
that it is cheaper to satisfy the demand with                                                                       competition
                                                       various media and, depending on the type
one single company than with several. The              of content, for its use to be accessible
situation contrasts with the first case of             through payment or otherwise.
perfect competition, which states that there
should be a number of firms incapable of
influencing prices.
     In these situations, regulation assumes
importance as a way of guaranteeing social             Deregulation brought about the revision of
well-being when perfect competition is not a           the universal concept of service. Conse-
natural result. The regulator has to influence         quently, in today's society, new regulations
enterprise by inducing the production of the           are necessary2.
social optimum at a certain price. However,
this situation does not normally arise in
practice because the regulator does not have           Figure 3 The elements or forces intervening in the model
all the information required to determine
the optimal quantities and prices. The
regulator is rarely aware of a company’s cost
structure, which is the basis on which the
socially optimal supply and price are
     However, there are two basic problems:
• there must be a characterisation of the
     optimal combination of price and
     quantity that maximises social well-                                                       Audiovisual
                                                                       Consumer                                            Company
     being; in an ideal situation, basic                                                         Market
     concepts of micro-economy can be
     applied, such as that which states that
     price is equal to marginal cost in the
     optimal solution – however, it is not
†                                                                                                 Price
  An allocation of resources A is Pareto optimal if
there is not an allocation B in which at least one
agent is better than in A and no agent is worse than
in A.

56                                                                         The Journal of The Communications Network    • Volume 6 Part 1 • January–March 2007
                                                                                                                                  Future Delivery of TV

best solution. Indeed, if all television            a pay television channel should never             the structural diversity of
channels were open, there would be no film          compete with open-broadcast television
premiere slots or certain thematic channels,        channels, since its rivals in the market are
for which there is demand from certain              the other pay television channels.
                                                                                                      broadcasting media is the
segments of the consumer base.
     Consequently, open-broadcast television                                                          best way of ensuring
and pay television must coexist.                    Scenarios in the Model
     The aim of the model is for each                                                                 ideologically diverse
consumer to find what they are looking for
and the best tool for this is a varied supply.
                                                    From the perspective of demand, all
                                                                                                      programming which, in
Indeed, competition between two different
                                                    television consumers are consumers of
types of television is possible, since rather
                                                    open-broadcast content. However, this vast        turn, is the best way of
than compete for the same consumer, they
                                                    collective includes two different groups.
complement each other to satisfy every kind
of consumer. This is the pay television             • Orthodox – majority group
                                                                                                      obtaining a healthy
model in comparison with open-broadcast
                                                        According to the latest study in Spain        democracy
                                                        (EGM of February to November 2005),
     So, our hypothesis is that the consumer            the number of viewers per day watching
and not the content will be the element that            television is 88.9% (interestingly, this is   open-broadcast television due to the
differentiates between open-broadcast                   the lowest level since 1997); in other        excessive activity of pay television.
television and pay television (Figure 4).               words, they constitute a public that          Consequently, a number of limits must be
     The aim must be for pay television to be           prefers open-broadcast (free) television      set. The simplest criterion would be to
limited in its function, that is:                       only. They are capable of lowering their      establish the market quotas for each kind of
• providing a service to a certain consumer             requirement criteria as long as the           television. As we have already mentioned,
   with well-defined needs who is willing to            product is free – consequently they           the percentage of pay-television viewers is
   pay;                                                 tolerate advertising.                         lower. Therefore, when it exceeds its quota,
                                                                                                      it would be penalised. However, ‘easy’
• television without advertising;                   • Heterodox – currently a minority group          solutions such as this give rise to certain
• television with ‘immediate’ contents, e.g.            These are also consumers of open-             ethical questions: ‘If a pay television
   film premieres;                                      broadcast television. Unlike the previous     channel obtains high viewing figures as a
                                                        group, this group is willing to pay for the   result of its work, would it be correct to
• television with specific and particular               satisfaction of certain needs that a free     penalise it in favour of other less effective
   themes, e.g. culture, sports.                        television is unable to provide, such as      open-broadcast TV channels?’
     Of course, open-broadcast television is            the absence of advertising, the
unable to meet these objectives. Con-                   broadcasting of specific content, the
sequently, pay television is responsible for            immediacy of content, etc.                    Scenarios
satisfying the needs of the part of the                                                               An initial question that must be considered
market that is beyond the possibilities of          Purpose                                           is whether or not there is sufficient market
open-broadcast television.                          It is necessary to avoid the situation where a    quota for more than one pay-television
     To remain coherent with our initial            consumer in the orthodox group is forced to       channel. For example, in Spain, some pay-
hypotheses, we must establish the fact that         pay for content that should be available on       television channels have disappeared
                                                                                                      (QuieroTV, the first Spanish digital
                                                                                                      terrestrial television channel, closed on
Figure 4 The consumer, and not the content, makes the difference
                                                                                                      30 June 2002) and the historical merger of
                                                                                                      the two most powerful platforms (Canal
                                                                                                      Satélite-PRISA and Vía Digital-Telefónica) as
                                           Pay Television                                             it was argued that there was insufficient
                           Providing a service to a certain consumer with                             business in the Spanish pay audiovisual
                           well-defined needs who is willing to pay                                   market for two companies.
                           Television without advertising                                                 However, we must not overlook the fact
                           With ‘immediate’ contents, e.g. film premieres                             that the structural diversity of broadcasting
                           Specific and particular themes, e.g. culture, sports
                                                                                                      media is the best way of ensuring
                                                                                                      ideologically diverse programming which, in
                                                                                                      turn, is the best way of obtaining a healthy
                                   Open-broadcast Television
                                                                                                      democracy4. The pluralism and diversity of
                                     The product is free                                              the media is being reduced, while the
                                     General themes                                                   concentration of the ownership of the media
                                                                                                      is on the increase5.
                                                                                                          Our model proposes the promotion of
                                                                                                      the development of various companies on
                                                                                                      the pay audiovisual market. We need to
                                                                                                      avoid the hidden monopoly we have today,
                                                                                                      since the only loser in this situation is the
                                                                                                      consumer. Therefore, our source of

The Journal of The Communications Network    • Volume 6 Part 1 • January–March 2007                                                                 57
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                                                   Figure 5 Pay television – the new regulator model should take the
                                                            best features from each scenario
inspiration is once again the ideal of perfect
competition, which benefits both consumer
                                                       Supremacy Scenario
and enterprise alike.
     However, if we examine the past and               Beneficial only for the dominant company
compare the structure of telecommuni-
cations networks before and after the                  The consumer only has to subscribe to one
market deregulation, the conclusion is that            channel to receive all the pay-television
                                                       content on the market                                     Parity Model
only slight changes have taken place during
this period, making the network denser but                                                                       Only one subscription is needed
not more open. A more successful
deregulation would have led to a network               Equality Scenario                                         Perfect competition
more open to new players and one in which
                                                       The ideal situation for perfect competition               No abusive prices
the power would have been less centralised,
with a guarantee of competition6.                      The risk of abusive prices is avoided                     The supply is varied
    If exclusivity (providing special or
immediate thematic content) is one of the              The supply at their disposal is varied
characteristics of pay television, when
mishandled, it can become the largest                  The consumers have to subscribe to
obstacle for plurality in the supply. We shall         various pay-television channels
therefore analyse the two extreme scenarios.
• Supremacy scenario
     A pay-television channel controls almost                                                          example, when they are no longer exclusive.
     all interesting content.                      Model Proposal
                                                                                                       The interested channel would only have to
     Business result: hidden monopoly –            Our regulator model takes the best features         pay the provider for the broadcast rights of
     beneficial only for the dominant              from each of these two scenarios (see               content to include it in its programming.
     company, ruinous for the rest.                Figure 5). From the business point of view,         What would differentiate one pay-television
                                                   it is clear that plurality is the most profitable   channel from another, even though both
     Result for the consumer: poor supply,
                                                   and the variety in the supply has advantages        channels offered the same content, would
     lack of competition in the market – it is
                                                   for the consumer. The great disadvantage is         be the important subtleties of quality when
     never beneficial for the consumer. The
                                                   that, as we have already mentioned,                 presenting their products, the different
     dominant company can arbitrarily set its
                                                   consumers have to subscribe to various pay-         presentation, etc. In other words, each
     prices without concern. The only benefit
                                                   television channels.                                company would use its own strategies, such
     for the consumer is that they only have
                                                         For example, let us suppose that one          as getting its programming right with regard
     to subscribe to one channel to receive all
                                                   channel has acquired the exclusive rights for       to a new product, by taking into account the
     the pay-television content on the market.
                                                   football, another for basketball and another        strength of the new product before
     The situation of supremacy was studied
                                                   for history documentaries. Consequently, a          programming it9. It would be similar to
     by Noam 7, who quoted a teacher of
                                                   consumer or, for the sake of our argument, a        what happens with restaurants. On one
     Finance and Economy as saying that:
                                                   family whose father is a football enthusiast,       single street, there are three different
     ‘...the basic foundation of regulation has
                                                   the son a basketball enthusiast and the             establishments offering the same product: a
     been the need to compensate the
                                                   mother a documentary enthusiast, will have          similar menu, the same prices and the same
     imbalance of power between huge
                                                   no option but to subscribe to three different       quality product. However, there will always
     providers of monopoly and small users
                                                   platforms. Different preferences in one             be one that stands out as our favourite
     who are technically ignorant’. In turn,
                                                   family are not rare. For example, Van Rees          because we like its image or because its
     Noam also pointed out that an
                                                   and Van Eijck8 identified eight clearly             service quality is better. As with the
     atmosphere of convergence would solve
                                                   different programming repertoires in terms          restaurant example, the supply of various
     the traditional problems of price, quality,
                                                   of status, gender, age, employment situ-            television channels tends to be similar – the
     security, privacy and content variety.
                                                   ation, religion and political leaning. It is        higher the level of competition, the lower
• Equality scenario                                therefore clear that there is also a segmen-        the level of diversity in programming10 .
                                                   tation of the supply in the media.                       The service (varied supply, absence of
     Various audiovisual platforms operating
                                                         The solution involves avoiding the            advertising, interactivity) would therefore
     under equal conditions share the content
                                                   exclusive broadcast of content by one single        be the element of competition and the
                                                   channel. All pay-television market contents         reason behind the difference in price of the
     Business result: the ideal situation for                                                          various audiovisual content distributors.
                                                   must be readily available for all platforms.
     perfect competition.                                                                                   This would bring together the
                                                   This means that, for example, a product
     Result for the consumer: owing to the         such as the History Channel could be                advantages of the two aforementioned
     competition, the supply at their disposal     broadcast by any or all the pay-television          scenarios and give rise to the following
     is varied and, as there is no dominant        channels. The same would apply to football.         model.
     company, the risk of abusive prices is              This would lower production costs             • Parity model
     avoided. However, the disadvantage is         because the content would not be                       Various audiovisual platforms, operating
     that consumers wanting to access all the      ‘auctioned’, since there would be no sense             under the same conditions, offer pay-
     contents have to subscribe to various         in a pay-television channel spending                   television content without the restriction
     pay-television channels.                      excessive amounts on football matches, for             of exclusivity.

58                                                                      The Journal of The Communications Network   • Volume 6 Part 1 • January–March 2007
                                                                                                                                     Future Delivery of TV

                                                                                                        open-broadcast television
   Business result: the ideal situation for           to each other: the limitations of the one are     and pay television are
   perfect competition. Different companies           the virtues of the other. We have to achieve
   offer the same product. They would be              this symbiosis, preventing it from becoming       necessary for consumer
   differentiated by their different forms of         an aggressive relationship in which one of
   management and presentation. None of               the parties tries to absorb the other. The risk   satisfaction – they can
   the providers has a dominant position, as          will normally come from pay television.
   is the case now with football clubs,               Consequently, certain measures are                both coexist in peace and
   which set excessive prices.                        necessary to insure that it does not forget its
   Result for the consumer: there are no              identity or raison d’être, which is to provide
                                                      a service for its market segment, which will
                                                                                                        harmony since they are
   abusive subscription fees as there is no
                                                      generally comprise a number of smaller
   one dominant company that takes over
                                                      niche markets. Becoming the reference point
                                                                                                        complementary to each
   content of interest and, as a result of the
   competition, the supply at their disposal          for the audiovisual market must never be
   is varied, where each consumer can                 the goal of pay-television channels.              other
   choose a television company that best                   Figure 6 shows a model of coexistence
   suits their preferences (as in the                 between open-broadcast television and pay            able to broadcast the leftover content
   restaurant example). This means that               television. To obtain a better view of the           rejected by open broadcast television.
   everybody is happy:                                situation, we again need to analyse the              Business result: ruinous for pay-
                                                      situation using the case of the extremes.            television channels as they will not be
   – the supply because their efforts do not
                                                      • Pay-TV supremacy scenario                          able to offer their clients attractive
   have to focus on amortising the high cost
                                                         There is no kind of restriction to pay-TV         products – a company in the sector will
   of exclusive content, but rather on
                                                         platforms and they can broadcast any              not find it profitable to invest in a pay-
   presenting them attractively;
                                                         content. Together with the advantage of           TV model.
   – the demand because the consumer                     the parity model, this avoids the high            Result for the consumer: completely
   does not have to subscribe to various                 cost of content of interest and places all        satisfactory for the open-broadcast
   pay-television channels to access all the             the more attractive content in the sphere         television client. However, as the pay-TV
   content.                                              of pay-TV channels.                               model is not practically profitable, the
                                                         Business result: monopoly of content              supply will not exist, and consumers
                                                         held by the pay-TV platforms.                     preferring television without advertising,
Model of Coexistence with                                Result for the consumer: many will be             and with the immediate content open-
Open-broadcast TV                                        forced to subscribe to pay-TV channels            broadcast television is unable to provide,
                                                         to enjoy their content of interest.               will not be satisfied.
                                                      • Open-broadcast TV supremacy scenario                 Consequently, in the same way that
Open-broadcast television and pay
                                                                                                        Burstein11 proposes that the courts should
television are necessary for consumer                    Severe restrictions regarding the
                                                                                                        distinguish between the regulation of the
satisfaction. They can both coexist in peace             exclusivity of content on the pay-TV
                                                                                                        production of impact content or quality
and harmony since they are complementary                 platforms. In practice, they will only be
                                                                                                        publishing companies and those which
                                                                                                        structure the distribution of information, a
                                                                                                        balance should be found in the case of
Figure 6 Model of coexistence between open-broadcast television                                         television that benefits all parties – the
         and pay television                                                                             business world and the end consumer. To
                                                                                                        achieve this, the best option is to establish
                                                                                                        limits for both.
                                                   Open-broadcast TV Supremacy Scenario
                                                                                                             The events of particular general interest
   Pay-TV Supremacy Scenario                       Ruinous for pay-television channels as they will     would be determined by a certain screen
                                                   not be able to offer their clients attractive        quota (e.g. 20%). In this way, content
   Monopoly of content held by the pay-TV          products                                             exceeding this margin should be offered for
   platforms                                                                                            broadcasting to both open-broadcast and
                                                   As the pay-TV model is not practically profitable,   pay-television channels.
                                                   the supply will not exist for consumers preferring        Accordingly, the characteristics of both
                                                   television without advertising                       would be as follows:
                                                                                                        • Open-broadcast television
                      Comprehensive Model
                                                                                                           – open-broadcast programming;
                      Profitable for pay-TV and open-broadcast TV                                          – with advertising;
                                                                                                           – will broadcast events of particular
                      The legitimate rights of the open-broadcast                                          general interest.
                      television client are protected                                                   • Pay television
                      Consumers wishing to view the special content                                        – closed-broadcast programming;
                      will also be able to opt for this choice, albeit in                                  – stricter regulation of advertising;
                      exchange for economic payment                                                        – rights for the first broadcast of
                                                                                                           exclusive and immediate content that is
                                                                                                           not of particular general interest.

The Journal of The Communications Network     • Volume 6 Part 1 • January–March 2007                                                                   59
Future Delivery of TV

     In the same way that we proposed that         • Comprehensive model.                                     5   KaitatziWhitlock, S. Pluralism and media
in the pay-television market model there                                                                          concentration in Europe - Media policy as
                                                       Harmonious coexistence permeates                           industrial policy. European Journal of
should be no exclusivity of content for one            through both open-broadcast television                     Communication, 1996, 11(4), pp. 453–483.
single platform, we suggest the same                   and pay television. They complement
between open-broadcast and pay television              each other and there is no rivalry                     6   Jordana, J. and Sancho, D. Policy networks and
but with certain logical conditions.                   (Figure 7).                                                market opening: Telecommunications
• The events of particular general interest            Business result: profitable for both.
                                                                                                                  liberalization in Spain. European Journal of
     will be for common use                                                                                       Political Research, 2005, 44(4), pp. 519–546.
                                                       Each one competes for its potential
     The fact that their open broadcast is             clients with pay television clearly                    7   Noam, E.M. Media regulation - New rules for
     regulated does not mean that the content          understanding that its market quota is                     new time. Media Studies Journal, 1996, 10(2–3),
     is not made available to a pay-TV                 lower.                                                     p. 39.
     channel. The pay-TV channel can also
                                                       Result for the consumer: the party
     broadcast the content if it so desires to                                                                8   Van Rees, K. and Van Eijck, K. Media
                                                       gaining the greatest benefit. The
     consumers who, for example, wish to                                                                          repertoires of selective audiences: the impact
                                                       legitimate rights of the open-broadcast                    of status, gender, and age on media use. Poetics,
     follow a sports event that is of general
                                                       television client are protected and                        2003, 31(5–6), pp. 465–490.
     interest without the advertising slots of
                                                       consumers wishing to view the special
     the open broadcast.
                                                       content (either due to its exclusive,                  9   Adams, W. J. TV program scheduling strategies
• The pay-television channels will hold the            immediate nature or to the fact that there                 and their relationship to new program renewal
     rights for the first broadcast of certain         is no advertising) will also be able to opt                rates and rating changes. Journal of Broadcasting
     content                                                                                                      & Electronic Media, 1993, 37(4), pp. 465–474.
                                                       for this choice, albeit in exchange for
     Once the character of immediacy and               economic payment.
     exclusivity has been lost, the content will                                                              10 Li, S. C. S. and Chiang, C.C. Market
                                                                                                                 competition and programming diversity: A
     be placed on the open-broadcast market.                                                                     study on the TV market in Taiwan. Journal of
     Examples include films and                    References                                                    Media Economics, 2001, 14(2), pp. 105–119.
     documentaries, which, by being
     broadcast first of all by a pay-TV                                                                       11 Burstein, M. J. Towards a new standard for first
     channel, provide the channel in question      1   Harcourt, A. Engineering Europeanization: the             amendment review of structural media
     with the immediacy and exclusivity a              role of the European institutions in shaping              regulation. New York University Law Review,
                                                       national media regulation. Journal of European            2004, 79(3), pp. 1030–1069.
     certain percentage of consumers are
                                                       Public Policy, 2002, 9(5), pp. 736–755.
     prepared to pay for. Subsequently, once
     the exclusivity and immediacy have been       2   Verhoest, P. The myth of universal service:
     lost, the content is also placed on the           hermeneutic considerations and political
                                                       recommendations. Media Culture & Society,
     open-broadcast television market for the
                                                       2000, 22(5), pp. 595.                                  we propose that there
     enjoyment of other consumers.
                                                   3   HoffmannRiem, W. New challenges for
                                                       European multimedia policy - A German
                                                                                                              should be no exclusivity of
Conclusion – the                                       perspective. European Journal of Communication,
                                                       1996, 11(3), pp. 327–346.                              content between open-
Comprehensive Model
                                                   4   Krotoszynski, R. J. and Blaiklock, A.R.M.
                                                       Enhancing the spectrum: Media power,
                                                                                                              broadcast and pay
In conclusion, we arrive at a balanced
                                                       democracy, and the marketplace of ideas.
model we shall call the ‘comprehensive                 University of Illinois Law Review, 2000, 3, pp. 813–   television
model’.                                                887.

Figure 7 Events of particular interest will be available for viewing over both open-broadcast and pay-TV

60                                                                        The Journal of The Communications Network          • Volume 6 Part 1 • January–March 2007
                                                                                                        Future Delivery of TV


 Beatriz Sainz                                        Rafael Mompó
 University of                                        University of
 Valladolid                                           Valladolid

 Beatriz Sainz is a telecommunications re-            Rafael Mompó is a telecommunications pro-
 searcher and teacher in the University of            fessor in the University of Valladolid (Spain),
 Valladolid (Spain). She is finishing a PhD in        a freelance consultant and an interim manager
 Telecommunications Engineering. She has              (R&D and business). He has a PhD in Tele-
 devoted all her professional life to the inves-      communications Engineering and a Master’s
 tigation of telecommunications regulation            in Marketing and Sales Management from the
 matters and to the teaching of novel telecom-        Instituto de Empresa Business School. His
 munications systems. Her future research in-         goal is to foster young engineer abilities and
 terests are telecommunications policy and also       education towards technology-based and
 digital content both from the user’s stand-          market-based innovations, mainly through
 point and from the competitive market vision.        the development of entrepreneur profiles                                    and through the mentoring of young entre-
                                                      preneurs. His objectives also extend to small
                                                      organisations that need some help to foster
                                                      their innovation abilities. He has managed
                                                      many R&D projects and worked as a con-
                                                      sultant for several enterprises and technolog-
                                                      ical centres. His fields of experience are
                                                      Internet services for small and medium
                                                      enterprises, e-learning, novel broadband
 Judith Redoli                                        systems for telecommunications operators
 University of                                        and helping regional governments in the
 Alcalá de                                            promotion of the Information Society.

 Judith Redoli is currently a
 telecommunications teacher in the
 University of Alcalá de Henares (Madrid,
 Spain), and a university researcher. She has a
 PhD in Telecommunications Engineering, and           Miguel López-
 prior to her present position, she was an            Coronado
 entrepreneur for three years. Currently her          University of
 research activities are devoted to searching         Valladolid
 new methodologies for the entrepreneurial
 education of young telecommunications
 engineers. This research includes e-learning         Miguel López-Coronado is a telecommuni-
 investigation and e-learning materials               cations professor in the University of Valla-
 production. Her research in e-learning began         dolid (Spain). He has a PhD in Telecommuni-
 in the early days of this technology (1995).         cations Engineering. Since 1991 he has been
 The research team was always                         devoted to the promotion of the Information
 interdisciplinary, having a close relationship       Society in the Castille and Leon region from
 between engineers and education specialists.         several standpoints: Director of the Tech-
 With respect to broadband networks and               nical School of Telecommunications, R&D
 services, she collaborated with the regional         General Manager of a Telecommunications
 government in the promotion of innovative            Technological Centre, and also CEO of a
 Information Society services and with a cable        cable telecommunications operator.
 operator to introduce the novel hybrid fibre-        Currently, his research interests are
 coaxial technology in Spain. The research            Telemedicine, the Information Society, and
 was completed with several early broadband           also contributing to the promotion of the
 service pilot projects.                              entrepreneurial character of the University.                       

The Journal of The Communications Network     • Volume 6 Part 1 • January–March 2007                                      61

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