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					           The Identification and Development

                of Cross Lateral Integration

in Humans with and without Developmental Disabilities




     The research interests of:

                Scott J. Pedersen, Ph.D., CAPE




       A Developmental Motor Milestone:
           Cross Lateral Integration

•   Motor development can be documented by the
    attainment of developmental motor milestones.

•   One example of this ability is crossing the midline of
    the body (Ayres, 1972; Surburg & Eason, 1999).

•   Many researchers have reported that cross lateral
    integration is a significant marker of central nervous
    system maturity.




                                                             1
What is Cross Lateral Integration?
    • The ability to plan and initiate movements to both sides of the
      body with equal efficiency, regardless of extremity choice.




                    Right                       Left



                                                            Body
                                                           Midline




A Developmental Motor Milestone: Cross Lateral Integration

•     This line of inquiry dates back to 1920 and the work of Henry
      Head who developed the Hand, Eye and Ear Test to assess the
      motor integrity of adults with brain damage (aphasia).

•     Beginning in the late 1960’s, researchers began to revisit this
      type of development in children with and without
      developmental delays (Wapner & Cirillo, 1968; Kephart, 1970;
      Ayres, 1972; Schofield, 1976).




                                                                        2
A Developmental Motor Milestone: Cross Lateral Integration

•   This line of inquiry dates back to 1920 and the work of Henry
    Head who developed the Hand, Eye and Ear Test to assess the
    motor integrity of adults with brain damage (aphasia).

•   Beginning in the late 1960’s, researchers began to revisit this
    type of development in children with and without
    developmental delays (Wapner & Cirillo, 1968; Kephart, 1970;
    Ayres, 1972; Schofield, 1976).

    A developmental model for the ability to cross the midline of the body

    Simple movements before complex movements; therefore
    contralateral movements after ipsilateral movements




                                                                             3
     This is an
Ipsilateral Movement




                       4
           This is a
 Contralateral Movement




A Developmental Motor Milestone: Cross Lateral Integration

•   This line of inquiry dates back to 1920 and the work of Henry
    Head who developed the Hand, Eye and Ear Test to assess the
    motor integrity of adults with brain damage (aphasia).

•   Beginning in the late 1960’s, researchers began to revisit this
    type of development in children with and without
    developmental delays (Wapner & Cirillo, 1968; Kephart, 1970;
    Ayres, 1972; Schofield, 1976).




                                                                      5
A Developmental Motor Milestone: Cross Lateral Integration

•    This line of inquiry dates back to 1920 and the work of Henry
     Head who developed the Hand, Eye and Ear Test to assess the
     motor integrity of adults with brain damage (aphasia).

•    Beginning in the late 1960’s, researchers began to revisit this
     type of development in children with and without
     developmental delays (Wapner & Cirillo, 1968; Kephart, 1970;
     Ayres, 1972; Schofield, 1976).

    Southern California Sensory Integration Tests
        Crossing the Midline Test                   Does including a
                                                    temporal component
        Space Visualization Test
                                       ?            make this test better able
                                                    to detect developmental
                                                    differences?




Quantitative Analysis of Cross Lateral Integration

    In 1993, Eason and Surburg proposed that a choice
    response time task used to index motor processing
    ability would be a more suitable measurement to detect
    cross lateral integration in humans.

    Response time = reaction time + movement time

    This required children to generate their response within a
    short time-frame making this quantitative assessment
    more stringent.




                                                                                 6
                                    Laptop



Lower and Upper                Catch trial light
Extremity Assessment             Target
                                pads with
                                stimulus
                                  lights
                Start
                pad
                            Chair




                                    Laptop

Goal 1:

To identify an age range       Catch trial light
for the development of           Target
cross lateral integration       pads with
in normal developing            stimulus
children.                         lights
                 Start
                 pad
                            Chair




                                                   7
                                                       Laptop

Goal 2:

To identify midline                               Catch trial light
crossing inhibition in                              Target
individuals with                                   pads with
developmental                                      stimulus
disabilities                                         lights
                 Start
                 pad
                                               Chair




  Individuals with developmental disabilities have much
  more difficulty achieving this motor milestone:

   – children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
     (Pedersen, Surburg, Heath, & Koceja, 2004; Pedersen &
     Surburg; 2005; Pedersen, Heath, & Surburg, 2007; Pedersen &
     Surburg, 2008)

   – children with learning disabilities (Woodard & Surburg, 1999)

   – adolescents and adults with mental retardation (Eason &
     Surburg, 1993; Surburg, Johnson, & Eason, 1994; Woodard,
     Surburg, & Lewis, 1998; Surburg & Eason, 1999)

   – adults of advanced age (Lombardi, Surburg, Eklund, & Koceja,
     2000; Pedersen, Surburg, Brechue, 2005)




                                                                      8
          So What Can We Do?
• As educators of children, your games and activities
  should focus on this developmental motor concept.

• When learners and teachers take advantage of this
  simple way of increasing the brain’s efficiency,
  learning is bound to be more engaging and successful.

• With equal stimulation of both hemispheres, the
  senses more fully access the environment and both
  sides of the body can move in a more integrated way
  for more efficient action.




                                                          9
10
11
12
13
14
Cross Lateral Movements

• Facilitate development of the corpus callosum
  – nerve pathways between the two cerebral hemispheres



                            Which sports require
                            cross lateral integration?




                                                          15
                  Bal-A-Vis-X
               http://www.bal-a-vis-x.com


      Balance / Auditory / Vision eXercises




BAVX exercises promote:

  – focused attention

                                            Bill Hubert
  – full body coordination

  – self-challenge

  – cooperation

  – peer teaching




                                                          16
BAVX exercises utilizes:

   – bean bags

   – racquetballs

   – balance boards




                 Readiness Exercises

1. Slow motion lower

2. Drop, two hand catch

3. Drop, one hand catch, right

4. Drop, one hand catch, left




                                       17
              Bag Exercises for Individual
1.   2 hand toss, 1 bag

2.   1 hand toss, 1 bag, right (then left)

3.   1 hand toss, right to left (then left to right)

4.   1 hand toss, right to left, clap return (then left to right)

5.   1 hand toss, right to left, behind back return (then left to right)

6.   Double toss, 2 hands, 2 bags




              Bag Exercises for Individual


• 2 bag juggle, right toss

• 2 bag juggle, left toss



Try to keep the rhythm within your group!




                                                                           18
               Bag Exercises for Partners
Try these with one or two bags. Challenge yourself!

1. The rectangle, right (then left)

2. The oval, right (then left)            Cross Lateral Integration


3. The diagonal, right to right (then left to left)

4. The figure 8, right to right (then left to left)




             Ball Exercises for Individual
1.   Puppet arms bounce, 1 ball each hand, with pause (then no pause)

2.   Double bounce, 2 hands, 2 balls

3.   2 ball bounce juggle, right (then left)

4.   2 ball simultaneous bounce, 1 hand, right (then left; then alternate)

5.   2 ball alternating bounce (Advanced)

6.   X bounce (Advanced)




                                                                             19
    Advanced Ball Exercises for Individual

1. 3 ball bounce juggle

2. Fountain

3. Triangle




UTAS-Launceston Motor Control Laboratory

Scott Pedersen, Ph.D., CAPE
Lecturer - Centre for Human Movement
University of Tasmania
Location: Launceston Campus, G Block, G218
Postal Address: Locked Bag 1330 Launceston Tasmania 7250
Australia
Telephone: +61 3 6324 3554
Fax: +61 3 6324 3679
Email: Scott.Pedersen@utas.edu.au




                                                           20

				
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