A Human resource development stategy for the Tourism - A HUMAN

Document Sample
A Human resource development stategy for the Tourism - A HUMAN Powered By Docstoc
					      A HUMAN RESOURCE
 DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR THE
        TOURISM SECTOR




                                                March 31st 2008
HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008               1
                                                      Preface


It is generally perceived that gaps in skills development constrain the growth and development of
the tourism sector to the anticipated level of global competition. The human resource development
strategy for the sector is yet another step forward in streamlining and rationalizing skills
development in the sector so that it can add value to the sector’s growth and performance. The
skills audit for the sector was the first major breakthrough in gaining a fuller understanding of gaps
and issues in skills development. But the tourism sector is diverse and complex, and its
institutional arrangements for education and training are equally complex and fraught with gaps
and inconsistencies. While in many cases, the fundamentals are in place in terms of policies and
structures for excellence in education and training, these fundamentals have not cohered into a
sufficiently viable system for responding to the skills needs of the sector.

The HRD strategy seeks to start from where we are and build a more usable infrastructure for the
sustained supply of skills to the sector. Starting from where we are means that we must recognize
both our strengths and weaknesses, and thereby determine the best manner in which we could re-
engineer our structures, institutional arrangements and delivery processes to take advantage of
our strengths and find new ways of responding to the challenges we face. The HRD strategy is an
attempt to reflect on where we are in both the development and utilization of our human capital.
Having reflected, we identify a set of strategic interventions that could take us forward.

HRD here is not perceived as merely training; and, as a result, the HRD strategy is not intended as
a full documentation of what training is needed in the sector. Here, HRD is seen in its fullest sense
as all efforts we make to ensure that there is a constant supply of talent and skills to the sector to
enable the sector’s workplace responsibilities to be undertaken with the level of proficiency and
efficiency that would enhance the sector’s performance and global competitiveness. In this sense,
the HRD strategy embodies considerations for improving education and training, as well as
considerations for improving and streamlining the structures through which education and training
is rendered. In essence the strategy is concerned, not only with the outcome of having a sustained
supply of skilled people for the sector, but with having effective and efficient structures through
which such skills are produced and properly utilized.

As presented here, the HRD strategy is both a documentation and reflection upon the current
status of the sector and a roadmap and guide for ensuring the contribution of HRD to a
transformed sector with significantly enhanced economic performance. But the strategy is only the
beginning. Ultimately the HRD strategy is the catalyst for a process of transformation where
stakeholders could revisit their roles and responsibilities and reconfigure themselves in new ways
to be more effective in building and utilizing the human capital for the sector.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 2
                                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE....................................................................................................................................................................2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...............................................................................................................................................3
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................................................5
LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................................................5
LIST OF GRAPHS .......................................................................................................................................................5
ACRONYMS................................................................................................................................................................6
     1.1       PURPOSE & OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................9
     1.2       WHY AN HRD STRATEGY IN TOURISM ..............................................................................................................10
     1.3       APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................................11
     1.4       LIMITATIONS .................................................................................................................................................15
     1.5       CORE CONSIDERATIONS FOR STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT .....................................................................................16
     1.6       KEY DEFINITIONS ..........................................................................................................................................21
     1.7       ORGANIZATION OF THE DOCUMENT ..................................................................................................................22
2.         PROFILE OF THE TOURISM SECTOR ...........................................................................................................25
     2.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .........................................................................................................................25
     2.2       TOURISM AND TOURISM PRODUCTS?................................................................................................................25
     2.3       THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SECTOR................................................................................................................26
     2.4       THE STRUCTURE OF TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA ................................................................................................30
     2.5       THE EDUCATIONAL AND SKILLS PROFILE OF EMPLOYEES IN THE SECTOR ...............................................................34
     2.6       THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICE CAPACITY .....................................................................................36
     2.7       THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF GOVERNMENT INFRASTRUCTURE ...................................................................36
     2.8       THE TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE TO PROMOTE ACCESSIBILITY .................................................................36
     2.9       VISION AND STRATEGY IN TOURISM ..................................................................................................................36
     2.10      ISSUES AND TRENDS IN THE SECTOR................................................................................................................39
3.         REFLECTION ON HRD FOR THE TOURISM SECTOR ...................................................................................40
     3.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .........................................................................................................................40
     3.2       HUMAN CAPITAL AND TOURISM........................................................................................................................40
     3.3       THE CONCEPT OF HRD FOR THE TOURISM SECTOR ...........................................................................................40
     3.4       FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PURSUIT OF AN HRD STRATEGY .............................................................41
     3.5       CRITICAL QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED IN CRAFTING AND HRD STRATEGY FOR THE SECTOR ..................................42
4.         THE POLICY AND STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR HRD..............................................................................43
     4.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .........................................................................................................................43
     4.2       CONCEPTUALIZING THE FRAMEWORK................................................................................................................43
           4.2.1     Development Imperatives.................................................................................................................43
           4.2.2     Economic and Social Policy Frameworks..........................................................................................44
           4.2.3     The Public Regulatory Framework....................................................................................................44
           4.2.4     The Public Policy and Regulatory Framework Governing Tourism .....................................................46
5.         AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN CAPITAL DYNAMICS IN THE TOURISM SECTOR.............................................48
     5.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .........................................................................................................................48
           5.1.1     Demographics .................................................................................................................................49
           5.1.2     Economic ........................................................................................................................................50
           5.1.3     Educational......................................................................................................................................51
           5.1.4     Employee Wellness Management.....................................................................................................52
           5.1.5     Immigration, Emigration and Labour Mobility.....................................................................................52
           5.1.6     Planning and Management...............................................................................................................54
           5.1.7     Social Factors..................................................................................................................................56
           5.1.8     Industry Practice ..............................................................................................................................57
           5.1.9     Policy Leadership and Governance ..................................................................................................58
           5.1.10    History and Tradition ........................................................................................................................59
           5.1.11    Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................60
6.         THE CONTEXT OF HRD IN TOURISM ............................................................................................................61
     6.1      INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .........................................................................................................................61
     6.2      STRUCTURE OF HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR .................................................................................................61
           6.2.1    The Policy Framework .....................................................................................................................63
           6.2.2    The Spheres of Government ............................................................................................................63
           6.2.3    Stakeholders and Private Bodies ......................................................................................................64

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                         3
          6.2.4      Frameworks for Coordination and Intergovernmental Relations .........................................................64
          6.2.5      The Community - Frontline of Delivery ..............................................................................................64
      6.3     THE SUPPLY AND AVAILABILITY OF SKILLS .........................................................................................................65
      6.4     SKILLS DEMAND FOR THE SECTOR ...................................................................................................................66
      6.5     INFRASTRUCTURE FOR DELIVERY .....................................................................................................................70
      6.6    CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................................72
7.          STRATEGIC IMPERATIVES FOR HRD IN TOURISM ......................................................................................74
      7.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .........................................................................................................................74
8.          A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR........................................................82
      8.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .........................................................................................................................82
      8.2       KEY COMPONENTS OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .......................................................................................82
            8.2.1 A Vision for HRD in the Tourism Sector...................................................................................................85
            8.2.2 A Comprehensive Programme of Interventions........................................................................................85
            8.2.3 Core Principles for Informing, Guiding and Strengthening Strategic Interventions ...................................110
9.          A PLAN OF ACTION FOR IMPLEMENTING THE HRD STRATEGY FOR THE TOURISM SECTOR ..............116
      9.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .......................................................................................................................116
      9.2       THE STRUCTURE FOR PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................116
      9.3       THE PROJECT FRAMEWORK ..........................................................................................................................118
      9.4       BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTS .........................................................................126
10.         PROMOTING SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION.........................................................................................143
      9.1       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .......................................................................................................................143
APPENDIX A: LIST OF DOCUMENTS REVIEWED..................................................................................................145
APPENDIX B: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS INTERVIEWED .........................................................................................146
APPENDIX C: INDUSTRIAL COMPONENTS OF THE TOURISM SUB-SECTORS ...................................................147




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                     4
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF THE HRD STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ......................................13
Table 2: SELECTED FEATURES FO TOURISM ATTRACTIVENESS IN SOUTH AFRICA ...........................................27
Table 3 ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF TOURISM CONTRIBUTION TO THE ECONOMY.............................................30
Table 4: ESTIMATION OF SIZE OF SUB-SECTORS IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY ...................................................31
Table 5: VARIATIONS IN ESTIMATIONS OF EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES..............................................................32
Table 6: SMME ..........................................................................................................................................................32
Table 7: GENDER AND RACE PROFILE OF EMPLOYEES .......................................................................................33
Table 8: EMPLOYEES BY OCCUPATIONAL LEVEL & RACE ....................................................................................33
Table 9: SUMMARY OF DEMOGRAPHIC BREAKDOWN OF THETA WORKFORCE .................................................34
Table 10: SENIOR MANAGER/OFFICIAL PROFILE...................................................................................................34
Table 11: EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATION LEVEL ........................................................................................................35
Table 12: EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ACROSS SUB-SECTORS .....................................................................................35
Table 13: BUSINESS TOURISM.................................................................................................................................38
Table 14: STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS FOR HRD EMERGING FROM THE POLICY AND STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
       FOR THE SECTOR .........................................................................................................................................47
Table 15: LEARNERS SUPPLIED TO SECTOR.........................................................................................................65
Table 16: NUMBER OF LEARNERS ENROLLED, COMPLETED AND EMPLOYED....................................................66
Table 17: CRITICAL SKILLS NEEDED.......................................................................................................................67
Table 18: GENERIC SKILLS NEEDED.......................................................................................................................68
Table 19: SKILLS GAP - HARD TO FILL POSITIONS ................................................................................................69
Table 20: TRAINING PROVIDER STATUS PER PROVINCE AND PER CHAMBER....................................................71
Table 21: TRAINING DEMAND (EMPLOYMENT) VS PROVISION (TRAINING PROVIDERS).....................................71
Table 22: RATIONALE & INTENDED OUTCOMES FOR CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT ...............................................87
Table 23: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - OBJECTIVES & SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR:
       CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT............................................................................................................................89
Table 24: RATIONALE AND INTENDED OUTCOMES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT INITIATIVES ..................93
Table 25: OBJECTIVES & SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR: ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT
       INITIATIVES....................................................................................................................................................95
Table 26: SUMMARY OF RATIONALE AND INTENDED OUTCOMES .....................................................................100
Table 27: OBJECTIVES AND SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR........................................102
Table 28: SUMMARY OF RATIONALE AND INTENDED OUTCOMES .....................................................................107
Table 29: OBJECTIVES AND SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR........................................109
Table 30: TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT TASK FORCE INTERPRETATION OF PROJECTS WITH ASSOCIATED
       CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS ...................................................................................................................121
Table 31: GOVERNANCE & ADMINISTRATION TASK FORCE INTERPRETATION OF PROJECTS WITH
       ASSOCIATED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS ............................................................................................123
Table 32: PROMOTION AND ADVOCACY TASK FORCE INTERPRETATION OF PROJECTS WITH ASSOCIATED
       CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS ...................................................................................................................125
Table 33: SUMMARY OF CONTENT OF PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEETS .......................................................126



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: STRUCTURE FOR ANALYSIS TO DERIVE HRD STRATEGIC PROVISIONS..............................................12
Figure 2: THE LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK AFFECTING HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR ..........................45
Figure 3: KEY ELEMENTS OF THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SECTOR........62
Figure 5: STRATEGIC FOCUS ON CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES...........................................................86
Figure 6: STRATEGIC FOCUS ON ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT INITIATIVES .......................................................92
Figure 7: STRATEGIC FOCUS ON GOVERNANCE...................................................................................................99
Figure 8: LINKAGE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES......................................................104
Figure 9: RECOMMENDED STRUCTURE FOR PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION.......................................................117
Figure 10: PROJECT FRAMEWORK FOR IMPLEMENTING THE HRD STRATEGY FOR THE TOURISM SECTOR .118



LIST OF GRAPHS
Graph 1:      EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM TO SOUTH AFRICA.............................................................28
Graph 2:      TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO GDP 1990 TO 2006.................................................................................28
Graph 3:      TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO EMPLOYMENT 1990 to 2006 ..................................................................29
Graph 4:      CONTRIBUTION OF TOTAL TOURISM EXPENDITURE TO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT...................................29
Graph 5:      ESTIMATED NUMBER OF JOBS DUE TO TOURISM EXPENDITURE ........................................................29




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                     5
                                                      Acronyms
    ABET                   Adult Basic Education and Training
    APP                    Annual Performance Plan
    ASGISA                 Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa
    BEE                    Black Economic Empowerment
    DEAT                   Department of Economic Affairs & Tourism
    DOL                    Department of Labour
    DTI                    Department of Trade & Industry
    EPWP                   Expanded Public Works Programme
    GCP                    Global Competitiveness Programme
    GDP                    Gross Domestic Product
    HRD                    Human Resource Development
    HRM                    Human Resource Management
    IDP                    Integrated Development Plan
    JIPSA                  Joint Initiative on Priority Skills Acquisition
    LED                    Local Economic Development
    MINMEC                 Committee of Members of Executive Councils responsible for
                           tourism in the provinces and the Minister and Deputy-Minister of
                           Environmental Affairs and Tourism in the central government
    MIPTEC                 Committee of Provincial Technical Executives responsible for
                           tourism in the provinces and the Director General and Deputy Director
                           General of Environmental Affairs and Tourism in the central government
    NQF                    National Qualification Framework
    NSDS                   National Skills Development Strategy
    NTHRDS                 National Tourism Human Resource Development Strategy
    PGDP                   Provincial Growth and Development Plan
    RPL                    Recognition of Prior Learning
    SADC                   South African Development Community
    SAQA                   South African Qualification Authority
    SDA                    Skills Development Act
    SGB                    School Governing Body
    SMME                   Small Medium and Micro Enterprises
    SSP                    Sector Skills Plan
    THETA                  Tourism, Hospitality & Sport Education & Training Authority
    WSP                    Workplace Skills Plan
    WTO                    World Trade Organisation




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 6
    1. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION

    Globally, tourism has earned its stature among other economic sectors as being significant to
    the economic and social welfare of many nations. The travel and tourism industry has grown
    significantly over the years, and has become the world’s largest industry and a highly
    competitive field of economic activity. The rise to stature of tourism internationally is not
    unexpected. When properly managed, it has significant benefits beyond the government tax
    revenues it generates. As noted in the 1996 Tourism White Paper, it is the world’s largest
    generation of jobs; it is labour intensive, with more jobs being created per unit of capital; it
    employs a multiplicity of skills; it creates entrepreneurial opportunities; it brings development to
    rural areas; and, among others, it has a significant multiplier effect and spill over benefits to
    other sectors of the economy. Beyond its value as a foreign exchange earner, tourism brings
    significant impetus to the development agenda, and it is a great marketing vehicle for a nation’s
    taste, its products and its people.

    It is understandable, therefore, that tourism is placed as a highly prioritized sector on South
    Africa’s transformation and development agenda. South African Tourism is perceived as a
    major economic sector of enterprise and of national wealth creation. This has not always been
    the case. South African tourism has grown significantly since 1993. It has grown from 3 million
    tourists in 1993 to more than 8.4 million tourists in 2006; and from 5% contribution to GDP, to a
    contribution of more than 8% within the same period. South Africa has always been perceived
    as having a huge potential for tourism. This potential lies in its accessible wild life, its varied
    and impressive scenery, unspoiled wilderness areas, diverse cultures, and, among others, its
    well developed infrastructure and virtually unlimited opportunities for special interest activities.
    Among such activities are whale watching and wild water rafting; hiking, bird watching and
    bush survival; and, hunting, deep sea fishing and deep sea diving. This is among extensive
    opportunities for business tourism. South Africa is therefore unrivalled in its diversity, and in its
    potential for global competitiveness in the industry. But, while there has been growth over the
    last decade, and while prospects for the future are still outstanding, South Africa is unable to
    live up to its well lauded potential as a tourism destination. Unfortunately, successful tourism is
    not about the tourism assets and products a country possesses, but about the manner in which
    these assets are marketed, managed and made to add value. The revealing statement in the
    1996 Tourism White Paper is still relevant today “ … competitive advantage (in tourism), is no
    longer natural, but increasingly man-made, driven by science, technology information and
    innovation”.

    Many factors have been cited for constraining the development and “break through” of the
    South African Tourism Enterprise. Among them are slow investment and inadequate
    resourcing of the sector, limited capacity in local communities to mange tourism in local areas
    and the negative image created by crime. However, the most commonly cited reason over the
    last decade for the under performance of the sector has been the inadequacy of tourism
    education and training, and the resulting lack of the appropriate range and level of skills to
    effectively manage and run the sector. In spite of the level of investment in skills development,
    the lack of appropriately qualified and capable human resources for the sector is the primary
    factor which limits its rise to the level attainment anticipated. The production of skilled people
    cannot keep up with the growth of the sector.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    7
    This is reason for concern. While the lag in the production of skills is said to limit economic
    performance of South Africa as a whole, its effect on the tourism sector may be even more
    limiting. Competitiveness in tourism comes through its people. People represent part of the
    tourism product, and “visitor value”, it is noted, is determined through interaction with people.
    When people in the sector lack skills, and when the sector cannot acquire and sustain the
    skilled people it needs, then the consequent under-performance of the industry has a ripple
    effect into other sectors and, as a result, it drags the development agenda as a whole. For this,
    and other reasons, the government’s accelerated and shared growth initiative for South Africa
    has identified tourism as an “immediate high priority sector”.

    But addressing this skills deficit is not an easy matter. The tourism sector is complex; its skills
    needs are diverse. The sector is sensitive to the economic dynamics locally and globally, and
    historical issues have laid their imprint on the manner in which the sector operates.
    Performance in skills development is affected by the fragmented and unarticulated nature of
    the sector. It is constrained by the quality of basic education received by entrants into the
    industry. Quality and standards in training are poorly managed; the quality of trainers varies;
    the content and quality of materials vary; the standards in facilities and equipment are not
    controlled; and, among others, poor links with the industry and private enterprise limits the
    relevance and appropriateness of training. Even many of those who are trained are labeled as
    being without the capacity to perform. Building skills for the sector is not solely about getting
    people trained; it is about reconstituting a full and viable infrastructure for the sustained supply
    and maintenance of appropriately qualified people. It is about policy as well as courseware;
    governance structures as well as trained teachers; it is about the capacity to lead and manage
    as well as the capacity to train and prepare talent to perform. While the calculus of managing
    supply and demand of skills in the sector is critical to its performance, the problem of skills
    development will not be solved by our knowledge of skills gaps alone. The entire infrastructure
    for producing skilled people must be reconstructed – from the manner in which the system is
    managed, to the manner in which it produces and sustains skilled people.

    This brings even more complexity to the challenge of skills development in tourism. The sector
    is government-led, private sector-driven and community-based. A wide array of government
    entities are involved in the sector. Their efforts are sometimes uncoordinated and duplicated or
    in conflict. The private sector is not homogeneous; it is diverse, fragmented and relatively
    independent in its thrust to acquire the right skills to deliver. Communities are relatively
    dislodged from the strategic policy thrust of the country, and most are without access to the
    opportunities which will bring the capacity and competence to manage and benefit from their
    own tourism assets. Success, therefore, depends on the extent to which a fragmented sector
    can be streamlined, and the extent to which collaboration and partnerships can be key features
    in the reconstruction of a viable skills development infrastructure that will accelerate the pace at
    which the tourism enterprise can meets its potential.

    It is in this context that we set the task of preparing and presenting a Human Resource
    Development Strategy for the sector. The HRD strategy is but one of the instruments that will
    be set in place to assist in building the human capital needed to grow and sustain the sector’s
    performance. It is an important instrument.

    The HRD strategy must craft the solution to the skills development dilemma, and must serve as
    the master plan for the reconstitution of an infrastructure that will build and sustain human

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   8
    capital. Because of this function, the structure, content and presentation of the strategy must
    demonstrate its capacity to be relevant and appropriate to the context and circumstances of the
    sector. This chapter seeks to lay out the purpose, approach and core considerations which
    have framed the strategy, and it seeks to outline the manner in which the presentation of the
    strategy will unfold.

    The following items will be discussed in this chapter:

    1.   Purpose and Objectives
    2.   Why an HRD Strategy in Tourism
    3.   Approach and Methodology
    4.   Limitations
    5.   Core Considerations for Strategy Development
    6.   Key Definitions
    7.   Assumptions
    8.   Organization of the Document

    These sub-sections follow in the respective order.

    1.1 Purpose & Objectives

         Purpose
         The purpose of this document is to present an HRD strategy for the tourism sector. This
         HRD strategy should essentially be a master plan for human capital formation in the sector.
         In this regard, the strategy is intended to outline a structure of strategic interventions which
         could assist in rectifying the skills shortage dilemma currently experienced; but, moreso, the
         strategy is intended to put in place an organizational infrastructure and a set of associated
         projects which will lead to the sustained supply of high quality human resources to the
         sector.

         The sector is not intended as an immediate solution because the issues faced are so
         complex, and the structures and cultures to be changed so entrenched. The strategy is
         therefore a roadmap to be negotiated, and should serve as the basis for stakeholder
         engagements and a guide to incremental action in the sector. It is a structured statement of
         what it takes to be “where we want to be” in skills development. But the interventions
         presented are not new. As such, the strategy is essentially an expression of the collective
         views and statements which have been shared over the last two decades regarding what
         will be required to create a structure for human capital formation which can add value to
         tourism growth. Here, the HRD strategy taps into the rich documentation already available
         in the sector in order to reconstruct and plot a strategic path for human capital formation
         that is comprehensive, clear, focused and responsive to the human resource challenges in
         the sector which constrains growth and competitive positioning.

         Objectives
         In developing the strategy, several intermediate objectives were to be attained. In
         response to and following from these objectives, the document is structured in a manner
         which seeks to set a foundation and build a case for the strategic options that are chosen.


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    9
         In meeting the purpose as outlined above, the following objectives are met in the respective
         chapters as outlined.

              i.        To review the structure and strategic focus of the tourism industry so as to
                        ensure that the HRD strategy is responsive to the strategic priorities of the
                        sector.

              ii.       To assess the status of HRD in the tourism sector in order to determine the
                        administrative circumstances and needs of THRD.

              iii.      To identify strategic focus areas for HRD in the tourism sector that are
                        responsive to the tourism growth strategy and the overall strategic development
                        framework of South Africa.

              iv.       Outline a comprehensive tourism human resource development strategy which
                        could establish an agenda for resolving the skills development crisis; and
                        creating over the next five years an environment for sustainable human capital
                        formation.

              v.        To present an action plan and an implementation guide for the adoption and roll
                        out of the strategy in the sector.


         1.2 Why an HRD Strategy in Tourism

              People are fundamental to the success of public and private organizations and
              enterprises. Strategic priorities cannot be attained without people. In this respect, an
              HRD strategy which seeks to ensure that people are made capable to undertake their
              responsibilities is fundamental to the success of any enterprise; and, an HRD strategy
              which seeks to ensure a sustainable supply of talent to the organization is, in a
              competitive environment, an absolute necessity. Beyond this, however, an HRD
              strategy in tourism is even more critical in light of the inability of the sector to generate
              and sustain the human capital it needs. It is a generally understood fact that skills
              development constrains the growth of the tourism sector; or, alternatively, that the skills
              development is unable to keep pace with the growth in tourism. But this claim is not
              new. According to the recently completed Skills Audit for the sector, “skills issues
              identified in the 1990s have not been adequately addressed as they are the same ones
              that are typically raised today”. In the Tourism White Paper of 1996, skills development
              was identified as one of the factors which constrained growth. In the Tourism Growth
              and Development Strategy 2008-2010, skills development is still singled out as one of
              the key issues faced in seeking to make the sector globally competitive. Even
              references to the lack of a service culture and ethos is South African tourism is not new.
              These too stem back to the early 1990s, and this critical and lingering gap can also be
              classified as a skills development shortfall.

              An HRD strategy for the sector seeks to put in place the structures, systems and
              interventions which will ensure that skills development ceases to be a hurdle in the path
              of tourism growth. In this respect, an HRD strategy for tourism is essential.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     10
              But, is an HRD strategy still needed in light of all the research, documentation and
              recommendations which exist regarding skills development in the sector? Here, the
              persisting need for an HRD strategy results from the existing disarray and
              disorganization of the information which currently exists. While some extensive and
              thorough research has been done in the field over the years, and while the recent skills
              audit represents a significant milestone in the progress of the sector toward effective
              management of its human capital, the recommendations which have emerged from
              these strategic documents, although useful, do not in sum represent or constitute a
              strategy. A strategy is a more comprehensive and integrated plan of action which
              addresses, in a more integrated manner, all the factors which constrain human capital
              development and utilization. A strategy plots a properly calculated course of action for
              building a more effective skills development infrastructure for the sector. In this regard,
              a strategy does not exist and crafting one is perceived as a matter of urgency.

         1.3 Approach and Methodology

              The approach to the preparation of a human resource development strategy is both
              responsive to the circumstances and obligations of DEAT, and participative in creating
              an appropriate supportive environment among stakeholders. In this regard, the
              NTHRDS was crafted in a manner which sought to respond to the following:

              a.   Stakeholder perceptions and inclinations
              b.   The business priorities of the various components of the sector
              c.   The strategic frameworks for the growth of the sector
              d.   The policy frameworks which govern activities in the sector, and
              e.   The challenges which are currently encountered in promoting, administering and
                   delivering HRD services.

              In order to ensure that appropriate content is derived for the preparation of the HRD
              strategy, the strategy development process was framed in a manner that would be
              responsive to the HRD strategy for the public service and relevant to the circumstances
              faced in HRD in the sector. This is represented in Figure 1. The figure seeks to
              conceptualize the approach used; and it seeks to outline the manner in which strategic
              priorities for HRD were derived. Within the framework of this conceptual structure,
              there were four critical steps in the preparation of the strategy. These are outlined
              below and are presented in Table 1. Each component of the approach is briefly
              discussed below:

              a.   Preliminary Desk Review
              b.   Data Collection and Analysis
              c.   Strategic Focus Areas
              d.   HRD Strategy Development




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   11
           Figure 1: STRUCTURE FOR ANALYSIS TO DERIVE HRD STRATEGIC PROVISIONS



         CAPACITY                  STRUCTURAL         GOVERNANCE    ECONOMIC GROWTH &
       DEVELOPMENT                   SUPPORT           RESPONSES       DEVELOPMENT
        RESPONSES                  RESPONSES                            RESPONSES


                                                                                             Business
                                                                                             Priorities




                                                                                            Delivery
                                                                                          Constraints or
                                                                                             Issues



                                                                                             Strategic
                                                                                           Opportunities




           Strategic                  Strategic        Strategic        Strategic
           Priorities                 Priorities       Priorities       Priorities




         The outcome of each step is presented in Table 1 and more details of each component of
         the methodology are presented in the sections to follow. But there are core principles to be
         observed in the process of developing the strategy. These principles can serve as a guide
         in both the design of the strategy and in ensuring successful implementation. These
         principles are addressed in the last section of this chapter.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 12
        Table 1: CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF THE HRD STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS



        COMPONENT                                     RATIONALE                              OUTCOME


1. Preliminary Desk                  This was the first critical step of the     • A report was presented on
   Review                            process. There is extensive                   context and circumstances
                                     documentation on tourism, and many            noting strategic implications for
                                     reports and references on HRD in the          HRD and preliminary strategic
                                     sector. This documented information           priorities. These were used as
                                     was the basis upon which a full set of        the basis for interviews.
                                     issues and strategic priorities were
                                     derived.


2. Empirical Data                    The data collected from the                 • A detailed set of information was
   Collection and Existing           documentation fell short of specifying a      generated on constraints, issues
   Analysis                          full set of options and alternatives for      and strategic options for HRD.
                                     building a viable HRD infrastructure for      This information was used as
                                     the sector. Though much statistical           the basis for deriving strategic
                                     information was available and                 themes.
                                     importance of the issues confronted
                                     and the constraints faced, little cogent
                                     information was available on the
                                     strategic options to be applied. In
                                     addition to this, strategy implementation
                                     is easier if key stakeholders, as the
                                     storehouse of knowledge, are able to
                                     share the body of wisdom they
                                     possess.


3. Derivation, Analysis              Based on the analysis noted above,          • A comprehensive set of
   and Validation of                 strategic themes or focus areas for           strategic themes, focus areas
   Strategic Focus Areas             HRD were derived. These themes were           and provisions for HRD
                                     used as the basis upon which the
                                     strategic provisions for HRD were
                                     specified. These strategic provisions
                                     represent the core of the strategy to be
                                     presented herein.


4. Preparation of a                  On the basis of these strategic focus       • A comprehensive Tourism
   Comprehensive HRD                 areas the NTHRDS was developed.               Human Resource Development
   Strategy for the                                                                Strategy.
   Tourism Sector




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                13
         Preliminary Desk Review
         The desk review explored structural and contextual issues in the sector which affect the
         viability of human capital development and utilization. The review covered policy
         frameworks and organizational arrangements, and it included the review of statistical
         information, exemplary practices, the findings of various research reports and related
         strategic documents such as the Tourism Growth Strategy, the THETA Sector Skills Plan,
         the Skills Audit and Research Report prepared by the National Business Initiative, the
         Department’s Strategic Plan and APP, and relevant cabinet memoranda and conference
         reports as available.

         A formal content analysis was conducted on these documents in order to isolate business
         priorities, identify strategic opportunities and list existing HRD and related constraints and
         challenges in the sector. For each of these, an assessment was made of the relevant
         strategic priorities for HRD. The value here is twofold: first, to develop a comprehensive
         list of possible strategic interventions in HRD; and secondly, to develop a list of questions
         or issues which could be framed in an instrument or interview schedule in order to solicit
         ideas from key stakeholders. The documents reviewed are listed in Appendix A.

         Empirical Data Collection and Analysis
         Based on the findings of the research review and the resulting analysis, data was collected
         from key stakeholders on HRD issues faced in the sector and possible strategic
         interventions which could be applied to remedy the constraints faced. Interviews were
         open-ended in nature, and sought to validate perceptions derived from the literature, clarify
         issues that were not sufficiently interrogated and seek input regarding the strategic options
         that would be appropriate for the designated stakeholder group. The respondents are listed
         in Appendix B.

         Analysis and Presentation of Strategic Themes
         The research review and interview process generated a wide variety of strategic options,
         and a host of good ideas which could be considered for adoption. The strategy to be
         developed, however, was not about a diverse array of good ideas that could be placed into
         practice, but about the manner in which these ideas are categorized, restructured and
         reframed so that they can be crafted into a cohesive set of strategic priorities which could
         be feasibly adopted. The strategic themes were listed, described and clustered. The
         applicability of these themes to the various components of the sector, or to various
         stakeholder groups, was noted. Finally, these strategic themes were re-clustered and
         framed into a conceptual framework which could guide intervention in the sector. Each
         critical component of the framework was specified in greater detail into objectives and sub-
         objectives. Finally, a team of experts revisited the findings of the research review to
         determine the degree to which the strategic framework was responsive to the conclusions
         made.

         Preparation of the HRD Strategy
         On the basis of the research review and the content in the conceptual framework, a
         logistical framework was set up to determine the manner in which the text of the HRDS
         should unfold. Here, the key consideration was that of structuring the flow of the key
         components and the text of the strategy so that its presentation would reveal the line of
         logic which resulted in the strategic options selected. It is on this basis that the table of

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 14
         contents was prepared, and it was through this analysis that the evidence collected was
         assembled into a comprehensive, cohesive and integrated outline and presentation of the
         strategy. This document represents the results of this effort.

    1.4 Limitations

          At the outset, the limitations of the study should be highlighted in order to present a
          realistic view of the manner in which the effort was undertaken. The constraints faced did
          have some effect on the outcome of the assignment. These constraints are noted and
          described briefly below.

              • Time
              The major constrain on the project was the time allowed for the completion of the
              strategy. The strategy had to be completed within a period of 3 months. Because of
              the scope and complexity of the sector, the depth of the issues and the time constraints
              faced by respondents, addressing the full scope of issues faced and properly validating
              findings represented a challenge. The effort was rushed because of its urgency to the
              sector, and because it had to be aligned with other plans of DEAT and THETA. The
              wide scope of information also presented a challenge in terms of the time available to
              review all the documents collected.         Fortunately, however, the availability of
              documented information partly compensated for the limited time available.

              • Previous Interventions
              There have been many studies conducted in the sector in the recent past – the most
              recent and notable being the skills audit for the sector. Concerns were raised initially
              regarding respondent fatigue because of the many contacts made to the same people
              for what was perceived to be the same information. As a result of this, there may have
              been some respondents whom we could not meet. In spite of this, however, the
              respondents who participated in the study were extremely well informed, eager to
              participate and very helpful in terms of the information provided. These respondents
              generally felt that the exercise is long overdue and eagerly looked forward to the
              results.

              • Sampling
              The sample for the study, unlike that of recent studies conducted in the sector was not a
              randomly selected statistically crafted sample where statistical significance could be
              used as the basis for generalization. The sample was a key informant’s sample which
              was used as part of a qualitative approach to derive strategic options. Through the
              process of triangulation and expert verification the finding is definable as being valid
              and true. The findings of the research review, however, are consistent with the
              evidence gained from existing documents. In spite of this, the geographic and sub-
              sectional representativity of the evidence could be questioned. In this respect, any
              claims made are supported by documented evidence only.

              There is a serious paucity of information for decision-making in the sector. The
              available information was generally of poor quality and sometimes incomplete. The
              estimations and projections made on supply and demand, for instance, were fraught
              with technical errors and untested assumptions. We can at best make general

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 15
              judgements based on the evidence available.          Notwithstanding, the available
              information was used. Consistency in the findings reported may well indicate that the
              data available points in the right direction.

              • Inability to Explore Sub-Sector Differences
              The study did not explore sub-sector differences, and has not derived sub-sectorally
              targeted strategic recommendations. Time was not enough to explore the sub-sectional
              differences which do exist. However, the findings and recommendations made in the
              strategy, though general and targeted to a higher policy and strategic level, are
              pertinent to the sector as a whole. Implementers are asked to explore sub-sectoral
              implications for each of the recommendations made.

              • Scope of Documentation
              Tourism is an important and dynamic sector; highly competitive, potentially very
              lucrative and very critical to the economic development strategy of South Africa. As a
              result of this, several critical interventions have been made in tourism and much
              documentation is available regarding these interventions. There is a wide scope of
              strategic documents which pertain to tourism generally (with HRD implications), and
              much is written about the plight of HRD in the sector. In this respect, there was a lot to
              read, review and analyze. This was time consuming. In some cases, however, the
              sheer scope of information contributed more to the fragmentation of HRD in the sector
              than to resolving the issues and creating lines of progress which could be explored.

    1.5 Core Considerations for Strategy Development

          As the study unfolded, it became clear that many issues, if not properly handled, could
          affect the course taken, the strategic options selected, and eventually the outcomes of the
          study. In this respect, critical choices had to be made so as to keep perspectives and
          choices in balance, and set the HRD strategy on the right course. It is important to
          highlight some of these choices at the outset, so that the pitch, tone and outcomes of the
          strategy could be placed in the appropriate context. The core considerations are noted
          and briefly addressed below.

              • The Tourism Sector
                Many terms are used to refer to the boundaries which define the HRD strategy – the
                tourism sector, tourism industry, tourism enterprise. It is important, however, to clearly
                delineate the target audience from the HRD strategy. By the tourism sector, the
                strategy is directed to three of the sub-sectors of tourism: Hospitality; Travel and
                Tourism; and Conservation and Tourism Guiding. In this respect, two sub-sectors
                which are within the mandate of the THETA are excluded – Sports, Recreation and
                Fitness as well as Gaming and Lotteries. This decision was made at the outset of the
                project in order to limit the study to the sub-sectors which were within the strategic and
                administrative control and authority of DEAT. It was perceived that a broader focus
                would raise complications in agreeing on targets and in managing implementation.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    16
              • Meaning of HRD
              Human resource development has a different meaning to different audiences. Some
              take a narrow perspective of direct training and skills development while others see
              HRD as the internal organizational and policy infrastructure that results in trained
              individuals. The perspective employed here is the latter. This is addressed in more
              detailed in chapter 3.

              • Complexity of the Sector
              The tourism sector is diverse in terms of the type of business enterprises, the structure
              and approaches to training, the quality of training programmes and training providers,
              and, among others, the number of public and private entities which influence training
              and performance in the sector. In terms of skills development, for instance, THETA
              represents and governs a set of 5 diverse and inherently different sub-sectors. As a
              result, the term “tourism sector” may seem more homogeneous than it really is because
              of the vast differences between them. Findings in one sub-sector cannot be readily
              generalized to the other; and, similarly solutions which may be appropriate for one may
              not be appropriate to the other.

              • A Perspective on Strategy
              There are different perceptions in the field about what constitutes a strategy, and
              therefore differences about what should constitute a tourism strategy for HRD. Strategy
              is a set course of action to be taken in respect to a specific circumstance which has
              been assessed. It is the manner in which solutions to problems which exit are crafted
              into an integrated programme of action. The strategic focus pursued here is that of
              crafting an integrated course of action for HRD in response to the definitions which exist
              on the management and decline of skills development in the sector.

              • Basic Assumptions
              The project was undertaken with the anticipation that expectations in respect to
              outcomes are clear. It was soon necessary, however, to clarify expectations as the
              project progressed. In like manner, there are a few other expectations that are
              assumptions only. To the extent that these assumptions are not true, the viability of the
              approach and the strategy will be compromised. The assumptions made are outlined
              below.

                a. It is assumed that the expectations about what a strategy should produce are the
                   same among stakeholders.          A strategy in this sense is not a list of
                   recommendations or actions but a comprehensive and integrated set of
                   interventions which are programmed to correct the deficiencies which undermine
                   skills development in the sector.

                b. It is assumed that each is willing to play a part in the reconstruction of the skills
                   development infrastructure for the sector.

                c. It is assumed that the issues which have been constantly raised regarding skills
                   development in the sector are indeed credible and true. In this regard, when such
                   findings have been cross-referenced for internal consistency, the conclusions and


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  17
                     strategic options which result from them are considered as valid and relevant to
                     the sector.

                d. It is assumed that, once developed, the strategy is not “set in stone” and is not
                   considered inflexible. It is assumed that there is an openness to refine and target
                   the strategy over time so that it can evolve into an increasingly more relevant and
                   precise body of interventions for enhancing HRD in the sector.

                e. It is assumed that all stakeholders in the sector will align their strategic thrusts and
                   their development priorities and interventions with the content, focus and strategic
                   priorities of the NTHRDS. In this respect, there will be a high level of
                   cohesiveness in the sector which can create a unified momentum to reconstruct
                   the skills development enterprise in tourism.

              • Stakeholder Participation
              Stakeholder participation is critical to the success of the strategy. This participation is
              critical to both the development of the strategy and its endorsement and
              implementation. Unless the strategy is accepted by the tourism industry, it is unlikely
              that it will achieve its intent and its targets. The representativity of key stakeholders is
              therefore essential.

              • Strategic Integration
              The HRD strategy must promote strategic integration. In addition to the Tourism White
              Paper, the Tourism Act, the BEE Charter and other key pieces of legislation, there are a
              host of other strategic documents and policy instruments that are pertinent to skills
              development in the sector. These are PGDPs, IDPs and a host of departmental and
              sectoral strategic plans. The HRD strategy should be a unifying force which brings all
              these policies within one arena of strategic consideration.

              • Reliance on Best Practice
              Global best practice in the field will be used as the springboard for examining strategic
              options. But it is necessary to contextualize these best practices so that their relevance
              and appropriateness could be determined. Best practices from countries at a similar
              development level may not always be appropriate in light of other economic,
              demographic, social, cultural and historical factors.

              • Uniqueness in the South African Context
              In relation to the point made in the foregoing sub-section, it is critical to note that the
              South African context is unique. Its cultural diversity, the transformation agenda arising
              from its history, the scope and breadth of rurality and poverty and its distinct and
              stunning array of tourism resources are only a few of its unique characteristics. It is an
              environment in which best practices could be created as we seek to address our unique
              circumstances.

              • Unifying Diverse Perspectives
              Stakeholder views and interests differ.      Many stakeholders are inclined to take
              positions which will advance their own interests. The diverse perspectives and views
              shared by stakeholders regarding possible strategic options must be rationalized so as

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     18
              to ensure that selected options and interventions could add value to the sector as a
              whole. Diverse perspectives and special interests could be unified by establishing an
              agenda to which all can subscribe.

              • Scope of Relevant Input
              The scope of input for the development of the strategy is wide in light of the diverse
              array of stakeholder groups involved. But the sector is so vast, complex and diverse
              that it is never certain that the reach of the project in terms of scope is adequate. The
              adequacy of the scope of input will be revealed only to the extent that the strategic
              options chosen have relevance to a broad audience in the sector.

              • Receptivity of Overall Environment
              One assumes that all stakeholders in the sector could benefit from, and will
              wholeheartedly support, an HRD strategy for the sector. Hence, one expects an
              environment that is receptive to the idea. But in some cases, receptivity may not be
              forthcoming. In a competitive and highly prioritized environment, receptivity will
              sometimes depend on what is on the table (strategic options) and the extent to which
              current interests are being compromised.

              • The Transformation Imperative
              The transformation imperative is one of the unique aspects of the South African context.
              But as will be discussed, an HRD strategy for the sector as a whole, may not
              necessarily meet the needs of SMMEs, and may not, as a rule, advance transformation.
              Consideration must be given to an HRD strategy which is specially directed to the
              needs and requirements of transformation.

              • The Unavailability of Data
              In the absence of a comprehensive database on training in the sector, the quality of
              data is questionable. There is no comprehensive database on the availability of training
              nationally, no accurate and technically rigorous studies of skills supply and skills
              demand in the sector, and no full set of competency profiles for occupations in the
              sector against which the quality of programming could be judged. In this sense, it is
              difficult to fully and accurately assess the skills base, the skills supply and demand
              characteristics of the various sub-sectors and the status of access geographically to
              high quality training.

              • The Evolution of the Sector
              Tourism has evolved as an enterprise that is structured and driven by the private sector
              in a manner where each grouping or sub-sector has pursued objectives, individually or
              through associations, that advanced its own interest. Therefore, the strength of the
              sector, in most cases, lies in the capacity of private associations or bodies to pursue the
              interest and enable the viability of its membership. Although the sector is government-
              led and community-based, and although some policy frameworks have been created to
              guide and govern the sector, the path of growth taken by the sector is essentially
              determined by the owners of private enterprises in the sector. The leadership role of
              government in the sector is fairly well framed in policy, but not very well executed
              institutionally. As a result, streamlining and reconstituting HRD in the sector must be
              pursued with the direct and concerted involvement of the private sector. While the

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   19
              process must be initiated and facilitated by government, its success is questionable
              without the use of the private sector as the driving force. Though tourism is community
              based, communities, in general, are not capacitated to be the custodians of their
              tourism resources and assets.

              • The Sector Skills Plan and the HRD Strategy
              The content of the sector skills plan provides a rich source of input for the development
              of an HRD strategy. The sector skills plan profiles and describes the sector from the
              perspective of its mandate and its obligations under the SDA and the NSDS. It does
              not lay out a comprehensive programme of action. The HRD strategy seeks to analyse
              the sector as a whole, and, as a result, it seeks to develop an integrated programme of
              action which could add value to the business priorities of the sector and contribute to
              the transformational agenda of government.

              • The Skills Audit Report and the HRD Strategy
              The skills audit report is a clear and thorough analysis of the structure of employment in
              the sector and the supply and demand for skills, and an overall description of the skills-
              related and other circumstances which affect the performance of the sector. It      does
              not fully explore the HRD implications of its very detailed findings, and it does not
              formulate its various lists of recommendations into a cohesive and integrated multi-year
              strategy for sustainable and efficient human capital development. While, as a skills
              audit the document is clear, detailed and thorough; as a strategy it falls short. This,
              however, as clarified in its introduction, was not its intent.

              • The Urgency of an HRD Strategy for the Sector
              With the advent of the 2010 World Cup Soccer, with the growing emigration of
              experienced tourism professionals, and with young and talented learners and graduates
              opting for opportunities outside of the tourism sector, the future supply of skills for the
              sector is under threat. A strategy to mediate this is a matter of extreme urgency.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   20
    1.6 Key Definitions

              Tourist                   A person who travels away from home, staying away for at least one night.
                                        A tourist can be a domestic tourist (for example resident of Johannesburg
                                        staying one night in Durban), a regional tourist ( a visitor from Zimbabwe
                                        spending one or more nights in the Free State) or an overseas tourist (a
                                        resident of Germany staying one or more nights in the North-West
                                        Province). A tourist travels for different purposes including business,
                                        leisure, conference and incentive.


              Tourism                   All travel for whatever purpose, that results in one or more nights being
                                        spent away from home


              Tourism                   All recipients of direct spend incurred by tourists. This includes pre-trip
              Industry                  expenditure on travel and booking, travel and enroute expenditure, and all
                                        spending at the destination.


              Tourism                   Three of the sub-sectors of tourism: Hospitality; Travel and Tourism; and
              Sector                    Conservation and Tourism Guiding


              HRD                       Human Resource Development is defined as those efforts undertaken by
                                        organizations to ensure that employees are well prepared to undertake
                                        their responsibilities and grow into viable careers, thereby adding value to
                                        the productivity and service of their organizations, the motivation and
                                        performance of their peers and the attainment of the overall vision of the
                                        developmental state. In doing so, organizations seek to ensure that the
                                        right people are prepared at the right place, at the right time and for the
                                        right positions to which they can readily contribute.


              Human Capital The stock of knowledge and skill, embodied in an individual as a result of
                                        education, training, and experience, that makes them more productive.


              Scarce Skills             Scarce skills can arise from one or a combination of the following, grouped
                                        as relative or absolute:

                                        a) Relative Scarcity (suitably skilled people available but do not meet
                                           other employment criteria):
                                                   • geographical location
                                                   • equity considerations
                                                   • replacement demand (due to lead time between demand and
                                                     training)

                                        b) Absolute Scarcity
                                                  • a new or emerging occupation
                                                  • lack of skilled people
                                                  • replacement demand – no people enrolled or engaged in the
                                                    process of acquiring the skills that need to be replaced


              Strategy                  Strategy is a set course of action to be taken in respect to a specific
                                        circumstance which has been assessed. It is the manner in which
                                        solutions to problems which exit are crafted into an integrated programme
                                        of action.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                 21
    1.7 Organization of the Document
        The HRD strategy is divided into 10 individual chapters, where each chapter seeks to
        provide details on one critical segment of the log for presenting the strategy. The strategy
        itself is presented in the eighth and ninth chapters of the document. The preceding
        chapters seek to present a basic set of analytical information which leads to the strategy.
        In fact, the content structure and interventions suggested in the strategy have all emerged
        from assessing the HRD strategic implications of the information presented in the
        preceding chapters. The respective chapters of the document are enumerated below.
        The content and focus of each chapter is described briefly.

          Introduction
         The introductory chapter is intended as a background chapter. It presents a brief statement
         of the context of HRD strategy development, and it seeks to enable a fuller understanding
         of the approach taken and the perspectives and assumptions applied to the strategy
         development process. This chapter is constructed and presented in a manner which seeks
         to inform and empower the reader to assess the strategic choices made and more fully
         understand and contextualize the information presented.

         Profile of the Tourism Sector
         The profile of the tourism sector seeks to sketch the overall structure, content and
         circumstances of the sector. This chapter provides contextual relevance. It ensures the
         question “HRD for what?”     The intent of the chapter is not to provide a comprehensive
         assessment of tourism in South Africa. It seeks to make six essential points as follows:

              a. South Africa is part of a highly competitive tourism market globally and must be able
                 to compete for space and market share in the global tourism market.

              b. South Africa has a set of diverse and highly competitive tourism products which
                 provides it with a label as a tourism market with high earning potential.

              c. There has been outstanding tourism growth over the past decade or more.

              d. Tourism is an essential sector in the South African economy.

              e. The essential structures, features and circumstances of South African tourism have
                 significant implications for the structure and content of HRD.

              f.   Tourism growth and success in South Africa will depend on the quality and capacity
                   of people in the sector.

         This chapter is a critical chapter in presenting the HRD strategy since it highlights the
         scope, importance and urgency of the task ahead.

         Reflections on HRD in the Tourism Sector
         In light of the nature of the tourism sector, as discussed in the previous chapter, an attempt
         is made to reflect on the role, purpose and place of HRD in the transformation of the sector.
         This chapter highlights the critical questions to be answered by the strategy once it is

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 22
         presented. It also sets to tone and present a doorway for examining the various
         components of a sound HRD infrastructure.

         The Policy and Strategic Framework which Governs HRD
         The policy and strategic framework which governs HRD in the sector is essentially the legal
         and constitutional framework within which the sector functions, and the strategic
         imperatives which define the focus of growth, development and transformation of the
         sector. The point to be made here is the extreme breadth and depth of the legal and
         strategic framework within which the sector operates. Any attempt to manoeuvre this
         space without a set strategy is fraught with problems and destined to fail.

         Human Capital Dynamics in Tourism – An Overview
         The tourism sector is unique in respect to its utilization of labour. The structure of
         occupations in the sector, its HRM practices (including compensation), the mobility of talent
         within and across enterprises and the diverse, fragmented and unbalanced supply streams
         for human resources sketches a market dynamics which affects the manner in which HRD
         should be approached.

         The Context of Human Resource Development in Tourism – Status, Perspectives and
         Issues
         HRD in tourism is examined in detail. The structure, status and issues in the sector are
         presented, and the relevant strategic implications are noted. This chapter is most closely
         related to the task at hand. The strategic response to this chapter, most of all, is essentially
         the HRD strategy to be explained in the latter chapters.

         Strategic Imperatives for HRD in the Tourism Sector
         Before the strategy itself is outlined and presented, the strategic focus areas are isolated
         and discussed. These strategic focus areas represent the strategic imperatives to which
         we must respond. Strategic imperatives are, essentially the areas in which strategic
         intervention could and will make a difference. Of all the problem areas mentioned in the
         text and in the literature, these areas of focus are those which will add the highest value in
         reconstructing the HRD infrastructure and thereby ensure HRD could add value to the
         strategic priorities and development imperatives to which the sector’s efforts are directed.

         The Conceptual Framework for Outlining the HRD Strategy in the Tourism Sector
         The conceptual framework for HRD is essentially a mind map of the important elements of
         the HRD strategy. It seeks to sketch a cohesive set of interventions which could be
         undertaken within a set and well detailed framework of action. In this chapter the
         conceptual framework is explained.

         A Detailed Outline of the HRD Strategy
         In this chapter a detailed outline of the strategy is presented in the form of objectives and
         sub-objectives and project review sheets which summarize the key features of each of the
         major objectives proposed. In essence, this chapter presents the strategy or the strategic
         response to the findings of the review. This chapter is a culmination of the logical thread
         which runs through the document.



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   23
         Structuring Implementation – Core Considerations in the Implementation Process
         Implementation success is determined by the thoroughness with which implementation is
         planned and the leadership and care with which it is executed. This chapter highlights
         some of the core considerations for managing the process of implementation. This chapter
         seeks to plot the way forward.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                            24
    2. PROFILE OF THE TOURISM SECTOR
    2.1 Introduction and Purpose

          The tourism sector is the domain of concern for which human capital must be developed,
          utilized and sustained. The case has been made that human capital formation is one of
          the key factors which undermine and retard growth in the sector. It is a concern that has
          not been addressed since the early 1990s. Some assert that the human resource problem
          in the sector will not be easily overcome because of the complexity of the sector and
          because of the unique labour market dynamics within it.

          The sector is indeed complex. It is made up of many vastly different sub-sectors, and it is
          supported by a host of other industries and business enterprises which belong to other
          economic sectors. Defining the tourism sector, therefore, is difficult. Its boundaries are
          unclear, its industries and occupations wide in scope, and its services expansive. The
          sector is described as “diverse and multi-layered”. Within it there are formal and informal
          economies, many well established and a fast growing set of emergent business
          enterprises, a host of different labour markets with inherently different characteristics and a
          wide range of audiences and target markets for its services. The sector is governed by a
          wide range of generally uncoordinated governmental bodies, regulated with a broad and
          complex framework of laws and regulations, and is prioritized and catered for by a wide
          range of generally uncoordinated strategic documents within all spheres of government.
          The sector is generally described as fragmented, unarticulated, complex and diverse.

          It is difficult to plan for a sector that cannot be easily described or rationalized. A human
          resource development strategy for the sector must therefore take into account its reach
          and its limits. Describing the profile of the sector is an attempt to highlight the reach and
          limits of an HRD strategy. It is also an attempt to highlight the importance and urgency of
          the task and the inherent difficulty faced in having sustained impact on the human
          resource challenges faced by the sector. How is it possible to make a difference in the
          sector through strategic HRD interventions? This question will only be answered if the
          inherent features of the sector are understood.

          The purpose of this chapter is to sketch the profile of the tourism sector in order to
          highlight its implications for HRD. Such implications will be assessed both in terms of
          human capital formation and in terms of the development and management of an
          infrastructure for sustained skills supply in the sector. The chapter addresses the
          following: tourism products; the global context; objectives to be attained; economic
          structure of the sector; performance of the sector; tourism strategy; issues and trends; and
          implications for HRD.

    2.2 Tourism and Tourism Products?

          Tourism is defined as “all travel for whatever purpose that results in one or more nights
          being spent away from home” (Tourism White Paper). In this manner, the tourism industry
          is broadly defined covering all economic activity associated with travel. South Africa is a
          growing travel destination for business, leisure and events. The international and
          domestic travelers who engage in business or leisure travel, or those who travel to

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   25
          participate in events, essentially constitute the tourist market. In this light, a tourist is
          defined as any person who travels away from home, staying away for at least one night as
          either a domestic, regional or overseas tourist, whose purpose of travel is either business,
          leisure or participation in events. The wide variety of business enterprises and individuals
          who serve these travelers to ensure a memorable experience beyond their expectations,
          make up the tourism industry. There are many enterprises and occupations which deliver
          services to make up the industry – some as direct service organizations and many that are
          in support of these. The tourism industry is large and growing. The reason for its growth
          is the vast and growing array of tourism products offered by South Africa as a destination,
          and the wealth of indigenous assets which contribute to the country’s tourism
          attractiveness. Table 2 presents an outline of some of the features which contribute to
          South Africa’s tourism attractiveness. But those are complimented by hotels, restaurants
          and various places of entertainment, by the people in the industry and by the attitude of
          the public at large.

          But the tourism assets that are available are really the raw materials of the tourism trade.
          Successful tourism comes not from the assets themselves, but from the manner in which
          these assets are developed and managed, and the strategic input that is made to put all
          the necessary factors in place to ensure that these assets can be productive and add
          value to the economy. In this regard, the key drivers of success are: marketing and
          promotion; product development and innovation; ensuring competitiveness and value for
          money; safety and security; and the competence, attitude and service sensitivity of the
          people in tourism. In fact, all the other success factors in tourism depend on people. It is
          an industry whose major assets are its people, and people are needed to sustain its
          growth.

    2.3 The Performance of the Sector

          Historically, tourism has been an unexploited resource in South Africa; this, in light of the
          phenomenal growth in tourism globally over the last 50 years. According to the WTO,
          international tourist arrivals have grown from 40 million in 1950 to over 700 million in 2002.
          In 2006, there were 842 million international arrivals representing a growth of 5.4% from
          2005. The WTO forecasts that international arrivals will increase to 1,6 million by 2020.
          South Africa, in recent time, has taken its share of benefit from this global growth. The
          graph on page 28 presents the story of the evolution of international tourism in South
          Africa. It has grown from less than 1 million international arrivals during the sanctions era,
          to 4.8 million in 1995, and to as much as 8.4 million arrivals in 2006. The graph on page
          28 shows the growth in foreign tourist arrivals in South Africa from 1990-2006. African
          tourists represent 75% of total foreign tourists and constitute an important component of
          South Africa’s tourism industry.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  26
          Table 2: SELECTED FEATURES FO TOURISM ATTRACTIVENESS IN SOUTH AFRICA




                                   The country’s tourism attractiveness lies in …..

                1.    Its diversity
                2.    Its accessible wildlife
                3.    Its varied and impressive scenery
                4.    Its unspoiled wilderness areas
                5.    Its diverse climate
                6.    No “jet lag” from Europe
                7.    A well developed infrastructure and virtually unlimited opportunities for special
                      interest activities (e.g. whale-watching, wild water rafting, hiking, bird-watching,
                      bush survival, deep-sea fishing, hunting and diving
                8.    Its archaeological sites and battlefields
                9.    The availability of excellent conference and exhibition facilities
                10. A wide range of sporting facilities
                11. Its good communication and medical services
                12. Its internationally known attractions (i.e. Table Mountain, Cape of Good Hope,
                      Sun City, Kruger National Park, Garden Route, Maputaland)
                13. Its unrivaled opportunities to visit other regional internationally-known
                      attractions (e.g. Victoria Falls and the Okavango Swamps)
                14. Its competitive business
                15. Its well established network of national parks and private nature reserves
                16. Its global “best practice” in ecotourism
                17. The successful political transformation in South Africa which has opened the
                      country’s tourism potential to the rest of the world and indeed to the previously
                      neglected groups in society




         In many respects, and in spite of the challenge confronted, South Africa has performed well
         in extracting value from its tourism assets. The performance of tourism is not only evident
         in international tourist arrivals, but in its contribution to the economy in terms of GDP
         contribution, its contribution to employment, value capture per employee and foreign
         exchange earnings, among others.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                          27
                                               Graph 1: EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM TO SOUTH AFRICA
                                                                                       Foreign Tourist Arrivals to South Africa 1965-2006
                         9
                                                                                                                                                                          8,4m arrivals in 2006
                         8                       CAGR
                                            1998-2001: 0.3%                                                                       First Democratic
                          7                 1998-2005: 3.7%                                                                       Elections
                                            1998-2006: 4.8%
                                            2001-2005: 6.2%
    Arrivals, Millions




                          6                                                                                      Sanctions against South
                                            2001-2006: 7.5%
                                                                                                                 Africa lifted
                             5

                                                                                                          Nelson Mandela
                         4                                                                                released

                         3
                                                                                                        State of Emergency
                         2
                                                                               Sanctions Era
                         1


                         0
                                 1965        1967         1969   1971   1973    1975     19 77   1979     1981   1983   1985   1987   1989   1 991   1993   1995   1997    1 999   2001   2003   2005




                                 1970s and 80s – Stagnation                                                    1990-1998 – Growth                                1998 Onwards - Cyclicality
                                                                                                          • Initial period of short-term                      • Global events, currency
                         • Stagnation drove low investment,                                                 profit-taking followed by                           volatility drive uncertainty and
                           focus on narrow white domestic                                                   period of investment growth                         short-term strategy by firms
                           market and costs                                                                 and entry of foreign players                      • Investment rates remain weak
                                                                                                          • Start of new focus on skills                        overall
                                                                                                            and training                                      • Skills development slow



                         Source: Reconstruction of graph from Tourism Growth Strategy 2008-2010


                         The contribution of tourism to South Africa’s GDP is approximately R120 billion, thus
                         outperforming all other sectors in terms of GDP contribution and job creation. Table 3
                         presents an analysis of the growth in the contribution of tourism to the economy and the
                         graph below shows the trends since 1990. The contribution to GDP grew from 4.45% in
                         1990 to 8.3% in 2006; and, the contribution to employment grew from 526,790 in 1990 to
                         947,530 in 2006. South Africa creates one job for every 12 tourist arrivals. While the world
                         standard according to the WTO is one job for every eight arrivals, South Africa has come a
                         long way in a short time.

                         In terms of value capture, South Africa earns US$ 7,002 per employee per year compared
                         to Australia’s US$ 12,232.

                                                                 Graph 2: TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO GDP 1990 TO 2006

                                                                         TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO GDP - 1990 to 2006
                                                                        TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO GDP - 1990 to 2006
                                                      9
                                                    9
                                                      8
                                                    8
                                                      7
                                                    7
                                                      6
                                         % of GDP




                                                    6
                                        % of GDP




                                                      5                                                                                                                              INDUSTRY
                                                    5                                                                                                                              INDUSTRY
                                                      4                                                                                                                              ECONOMY
                                                    4                                                                                                                              ECONOMY
                                                      3
                                                    3
                                                      2
                                                    2
                                                      1
                                                    1
                                                      0
                                                    0
                                                           0   1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06
                                                         99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99
                                                        10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 9 2 0 21 22 23 24 25 26    0    0    0    0    0     0
                                                     1 99 1 99 1 99 1 99 1 99 1 99 1 99 1 99 1 99 1 99 2 00 2 00 2 00 2 00 2 00 2 00 2 00

                         Source: Reconstructed from WTTC information in Tourism & Sport Skills Audit

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                     28
                       Graph 3: TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO EMPLOYMENT 1990 to 2006

                                         TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO EMPLOYMENT - 1990 to 2006
                                        TRENDS IN CONTRIBUTION TO EMPLOYMENT - 1990 to 2006

                     1,000,000
                   1,000,000
                       900,000
                     900,000
                       800,000
                     800,000
                       700,000
                     700,000
                       600,000
               000's




                     600,000                                                                                                                                                                           INDUSTRY
              000's




                       500,000                                                                                                                                                                       INDUSTRY
                     500,000                                                                                                                                                                           ECONOMY
                       400,000                                                                                                                                                                       ECONOMY
                     400,000
                       300,000
                     300,000
                       200,000
                     200,000
                       100,000
                     100,000
                              0
                            0
                             19 0

                             19 1

                             19 2

                             19 3

                             19 4

                             1 9 95

                             19 6

                             19 7

                             19 8

                             20 9

                             2 0 00

                             20 1

                             2 0 02

                             20 3

                             20 4

                             20 5
                                   06
                                   9

                                   9

                                   9

                                   9

                                   9



                                   9

                                   9

                                   9

                                   9



                                   0



                                   0

                                   0

                                   0
                                19

                                19

                                19

                                19

                                19

                                19

                                19

                                19

                                19

                                19

                                20

                                20

                                20

                                20

                                20

                                20

                                20
                                90

                                91

                                92

                                93

                                94

                                95

                                96

                                97

                                98

                                99

                                00

                                01

                                02

                                03

                                04

                                05

                                06
                             19




         Source: Reconstructed from WTTC information in Tourism & Sport Skills Audit


         Graph 4: CONTRIBUTION OF TOTAL TOURISM EXPENDITURE TO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT

                             CONTRIBUTION OF TOTAL TOURISM EXPENDITURE TO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT
                            CONTRIBUTION OF TOTAL TOURISM EXPENDITURE TO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT
                                                                                                                          11.61%
                                                                                                               10.59%
                                                                                                                        11.61%
                                                                                                             10.59%
                                                                                                9.64%




                          12%
                                                                                                                                                      8.96%
                                                                                              9.64%




                                                                                                                                                                               8.52%
                                                                                                                                          8.23%




                                                                                                                                                                  8.38%




                                                                                                                                                                                             8.63%
                        12%
                                                                                                                                                    8.96%
                                                                                   8.12%




                                                                                                                                                                             8.52%
                                                                       8.06%




                                                                                                                                        8.23%




                                                                                                                                                                8.38%




                                                                                                                                                                                           8.63%
                                                                                 8.12%
                                                                     8.06%




                          10%
                                                        7.05%




                        10%
                                          6.01%

                                                      7.05%
                                        6.01%




                           8%
                          8%

                           6%
                          6%

                           4%
                          4%

                           2%
                          2%

                           0%
                          0%
                                    4             5              6           7            8              9            0             1           2           3            4             5
                               1499           1599          1699         1799         1899          1999          2000          2100        2200        2300         2400         2500
                             199           1 99          1 99          199         1 99          1 99           200           200         200         200          200          200

         Source: Theta Sector Skills Plan 2008/09


         Graph 5: ESTIMATED NUMBER OF JOBS DUE TO TOURISM EXPENDITURE

                                              ESTIMATED NUMBER OF JOBS DUE TO TOURISM EXPENDITURE
                                             ESTIMATED NUMBER OF JOBS DUE TO TOURISM EXPENDITURE


                          1,200,000
                        1,200,000

                          1,000,000
                        1,000,000

                           800,000
                         800,000

                           600,000
                         600,000

                           400,000
                         400,000

                           200,000
                         200,000

                                    0
                                0
                                     94


                                                       95


                                                       96


                                                       97


                                                                                           98


                                                                                                        99


                                                                                                        00


                                                                                                        01


                                                                                                                                                02


                                                                                                                                                03


                                                                                                                                                04


                                                                                                                                                05
                                   19


                                                     19


                                                     19


                                                     19


                                                                                         19


                                                                                                      19


                                                                                                      20


                                                                                                      20


                                                                                                                                              20


                                                                                                                                              20


                                                                                                                                              20


                                                                                                                                              20
                                  94


                                                    95


                                                    96


                                                    97


                                                                                        98


                                                                                                     99


                                                                                                     00


                                                                                                     01


                                                                                                                                             02


                                                                                                                                             03


                                                                                                                                             04


                                                                                                                                             05
                                19


                                                  19


                                                  19


                                                  19


                                                                                      19


                                                                                                   19


                                                                                                   20


                                                                                                   20


                                                                                                                                           20


                                                                                                                                           20


                                                                                                                                           20


                                                                                                                                           20




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                               29
         Source: Theta Sector Skills Plan 2008/09

           Table 3 ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF TOURISM CONTRIBUTION TO THE ECONOMY

                               ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM GROWTH

   PERIOD OF         CONTRIBUTION TO GDP                  EMPLOYMENT
                                                                                         COMMENTS
  ASSESSMENT        INDUSTRY        ECONOMY
                                                      INDUSTRY   ECONOMY
                        %              %


      1990            1,83%           4,45%           251,820    526,790   -

                                                                           1993 – Little change over that recorded
   1992-1993          1,74%           4,61%           253,570    529,440   in 1990

                       2.1%
      1994                             5.0%           257,180    532,910   -
                                                      288,060              Compared to 1993, in 1995 14% more
                      2,19%           5,44%                      636,680
   1995-1996                                           (1995)              direct jobs are created in the travel &
                      (1995)          (1995)                      (1995)
                                                                           tourism industry
                                                                           1998 – The tourism sector is starting to
                      2,78%           7,08%           393,520    868,340   make an impact on employment with
   1997-1999
                      (1998)          (1998)           (1998)     (1998)   37% more direct jobs than in 1995

                                                                 780,740
                      3.04%           7.48%           394,980
   2000-2001                                                      (2001)   -
                      (2001)          (2001)           (2001)
                                                                           In 2002, tourism contribution to GDP
                       3,5%            7.4%           395,460    843 860   and employment had increased over
                      (2002)          (2002)           (2002)     (2002)   that recorded in 1998. However, by
                                                                           2004, the sector’s contribution to job
                                                                           creation and GDP had shrunk. The
                                                                           GCP report indicates that in 2002 there
   2002-2004
                                                                           is one tourism employee for every 12
                                                                           foreign tourist arrivals. By contrast
                       3,2%            7,8%           365,770    797,120   Australia had 1 tourism employee for
                      (2004)          (2004)           (2004)     (2004)   every 8/9 foreign arrivals and Kenya has
                                                                           around 1 job for 4 foreign tourists.

                       3,3%                                                In 2005, tourism contribution to GDP
                                       8.0%           393,650    864,460
                      (2005)                                               and employment had increased once
                                      (2005)           (2005)     (2005)
   2005-2006                                                               again, regaining the ground lost in 2004.
                       3.4%            8,3%           425,930    947,530   Additional gains were made in 2006.
                      (2006)          (2006)           (2006)     (2006)




    2.4 The Structure of Tourism in South Africa

          The structure of the tourism sector is represented in its industrial or business structure, or
          the structure and distribution of its enterprises; the structure of employment; the
          educational level and skills profile of its employees; the geographic distribution of its
          service capacity; the geographic distribution of the governmental infrastructure which
          supports and contributes to its performance; and the transportation infrastructure which
          makes the nation’s tourist assets accessible.

          The Structure of Tourism Enterprises
          The tourism sector is divided into 5 sub-sectors which represent the body of SA’s tourism
          assets. The sector contains about 42,000 enterprises. Table 4 presents a breakdown of
          the number of enterprises in each of the respective sub-sectors. The majority of



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                   30
          enterprises are represented in the hospitality sub-sector with 28,000 or 67% of the total
          sector. But these estimations may not be entirely correct.


              Table 4: ESTIMATION OF SIZE OF SUB-SECTORS IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY

                              ESTIMATION                                       ESTIMATION OF INDUSTRY SIZE
       SUB-SECTOR                                            YEAR
                               SOURCE                                       (Employers, Employees where available)
                                                      2000
                             Grant Thornton                               35,380 employers – 477,800 employees
                                                      2005
                             HSRC                                         6,704 employers
                                                                          14,828 enterprises split as follows:
                                                                              • 98% small
                             THETA SMS                2006
        Hospitality                                                           • 1.5% medium
                                                                              • 0.5% large
                                                      2006
                             Qubelisa                                     9,781 organizations
                             Department of
                                                      2005                35,830 organizations – 477 800 employees
                             Labour
                                                      2007
                             Skills Audit                                 28,000 employers – 290,000 employees

                                                      2000
                             Grant Thornton                               2,870 employers – 38,600 employees
                                                                          1,800 enterprises split as follows:
                                                                              • 98% small
                             THETA SMS                2006
                                                                              • 1% medium
        Travel and                                                            • 1% large
         Tourism
                             Qubelisa                 2006                3,942 organizations


                             Skills Audit             2007                6,200 employers – 28,000 employees


                             Grant Thornton           2000                900 employers – 30,300 employees


                             HSRC                     2005                966 employers – 2,246 employees

                                                                          1,579 enterprises split as follows:
                                                                              • 98% small
                             THETA SMS                2006
                                                                              • 1% medium
      Conservation                                                            • 1% large
      and Tourism
        Guiding    Qubelisa                           2006                3,459 organizations

                                                                          900 employers – 30,300 employees (based
                             Government                                   on Grant Thornton data, contained in
                                                      2007
                             Gazette                                      THETA's SSP)


                                                                          3,500 employers – 30,000 permanent
                             Skills Audit             2007
                                                                          employees

         Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                  31
         Table 5 presents a picture of the variations in the estimations of employers and employees
         in the sector




Table 5: VARIATIONS IN ESTIMATIONS OF EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES


                                                        SECTOR SIZE

           SUB-SECTOR                         ESTIMATED NUMBER                           ESTIMATED NUMBER OF
                                                OF EMPLOYERS                     %            EMPLOYEES        %
Hospitality                                             28,000                 67%             290,000         77%
Travel and Tourism                                       6,200                 15%             28,000           7%
Gaming and Lotteries                                      740                   2%             10,000           3%
Sport, Recreation & Fitness                              3,300                  8%             20,000           5%
Conservation & Tourist Guiding                           3,500                  8%             30,000           8%

                TOTAL                                   41,740                                 378,000
Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007


         The industrial components of the sector are presented in Appendix C. While no information
         is available on the number of enterprises in each component of the sector, the breadth and
         diversity of the sector is clear.

         One critical feature of South African tourism is its transformational component, as it seeks
         to provide opportunities for wealth redistribution in the sector through facilitating the entry of
         previously disadvantaged individuals into the sector. Useful data in this regard is the
         percentage of black owned enterprises, the growth in GDP and employment contribution
         enterprises in the sector. Most of this information is currently unavailable. But, another
         component of essential data in this regard is the number of SMMEs in the sector and their
         relative performance compared to SMMEs in other sectors.

         Table 6 shows that SMMEs constitute over 90% of the tourism sector with the highest
         percentage occurring in the Hospitality and the Travel and Tourism sub-sectors. This is an
         essential and unique feature of SA’s Tourism enterprise structure. The preponderance of
         small employers has implications for economic performance and for the manner in which
         human capital is developed and utilized.

Table 6: SMME


                                                            SMMEs

                      SUB-SECTOR                                         PERCENTAGE SMMEs IN SUB-SECTOR
Hospitality                                                                                  97%
Travel and Tourism                                                                           97%
Gaming and Lotteries                                                                         89%
Sport, Recreation & Fitness                                                                  98%
Conservation and Tourist Guiding                                                             89%
Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                             32
         The Structure of Employment
         Tables 4 and 6 also present estimates of employees in the tourism sector. It is established
         that there are 378,000 employees in the sector. But this figure could be as high as 600,000
         if the varying estimates in Table 4 are taken into account. Both these tables present
         employee estimates by the respective sub-sectors. Again, the hospitality sector accounts
         for the highest number of employees. Again, there is no data on the geographic dispersion
         of employment by the respective sectors, but some data is available to illustrate the
         transformational impact of employment. Table 7 shows the gender and race profile of
         employees
              .
Table 7: GENDER AND RACE PROFILE OF EMPLOYEES


                                     EMPLOYEE GENDER AND RACE PROFILE

           SUB-SECTOR                             % BLACK EMPLOYEES                            % FEMALE EMPLOYEES
Hospitality                                                    72%                                        52%
Travel and Tourism                                             58%                                        48%
Gaming and Lotteries                                           68%                                        51%
Sport, Recreation & Fitness                                    53%                                        46%
Conservation and Tourist Guiding                               74%                                        42%
Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007


         The percentages of black and female employees are quite high with 72% of the employees
         in the Hospitality sector categorized as black, and 52% female. The data, however, does
         not tell the whole story. When the data is broken down further, it shows that a large
         percentage of the black employees in the sector are employed in low entry level jobs, many
         of which are casual employment without prospects for promotion and career growth. Table
         8 for instance, shows the number and percentage of employees by occupational level and
         race. The same trend is evident. Non-white employees are generally grouped at the lower
         levels of the occupational ladder. Table 9 shows trends in the breakdown of the THETA
         workforce by equity status. The data shows a growth in the number of Africans employed
         and a growth in the number of female workers. It shows over the period a decline in the
         number of white employees in the workforce.

Table 8: EMPLOYEES BY OCCUPATIONAL LEVEL & RACE

OCCUPATION                            NUMBER AND % OF EMPLOYEES BY RACE                                             TOTAL
                            BLACK         COLOURED          INDIAN        WHITE
                        #           %     #       %       #        %    #       %                               #           %
Senior               2 914        2.1       1 071        0.8         642       0.5       6,405     4.7      11,032      8.0
Professional
Professional           997       0.7         350         0.3        218        0.2       1906      1.4      3,471       2.5
Technicians           3 318      2.4        1,087        0.8        778        0.6       4211      3.1      9,394       6.9
Clerical              7 949      5.8        2,389        1.7       1,146       0.8       3919      2.9      15,403      11.2
Service              46 764      34.1       7,861        5.7       1,862       1.4       6115      4.5      62,602      45.7
Skilled               3 636      2.6         507         0.4        92         0.1        464      0.3      4,699       3.4
Plant and             1 809      1.3         216         0.2        19         0.0        45       0.0      2,089       1.5
Machinery
Labourers            23 421      17.1       4,191        3.1         257       0.2           519   0.4      23,388      20.7
TOTAL                90,800      66.1      17,672       12.9       5,014       3.7      23,584     17.2    137,078      100
Source: Reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                             33
Table 9: SUMMARY OF DEMOGRAPHIC BREAKDOWN OF THETA WORKFORCE

 EQUITY SHARES                2003-2004(%)               2004-2005(%)               2005-2006(%)      2006-2007(%)
African                             61.1                       60.3                      62.1             66.3
White                               21.8                       22.3                      20.9             17.2
Coloured                            13.1                       12.9                      12.6             12.9
Indian                              4.4                        4.3                       4.4              3.7
Female                              53.5                       53.6                      54.1             55.1
Source: Reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09


         Table 10 shows the percentage of black senior managers/officials in the sector. The
         percentage is averaged at 40%-50%, but relatively high in terms of historical trends and
         employment practices in the sector.

         At 20%, the area of Conservation and Tourism Guiding has the lowest percentage of black
         Senior Managers/Officials

Table 10: SENIOR MANAGER/OFFICIAL PROFILE


                                       SENIOR MANAGER/OFFICIAL PROFILE
                                                % EMPLOYEES IN SENIOR                          % BLACK SENIOR
           SUB-SECTOR                             MANAGER/OFFICIAL                           MANAGERS/OFFICIALS
                                                     CATEGORY
Hospitality                                                   21%                                   40%
Travel and Tourism                                            40%                                   45%
Gaming and Lotteries                                          29%                                   56%
Sport, Recreation & Fitness                                   23%                                   40%
Conservation and Tourist Guiding                              16%                                   20%
Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007




    2.5 The Educational and Skills Profile of Employees in the Sector

         The educational levels and skills profile of the sector is an indication of the sector’s
         potential to respond to the sector’s accelerating growth, development and expansion. The
         levels of education in the sector are critical in a market that has become more competitive,
         more technically sophisticated and more challenged with the growing expectations of
         clients for the quality of service rendered. In respect to educational levels and the
         adequacy of the profile of skills among employees, South African tourism is challenged.

         Table 11 presents data on the educational level of employees in the sector. The picture
         raises concern. The majority of employees in the sector are qualified below the level of
         NQF4, and a large percentage is below NQF level 1. In the sub-sectors, Travel and
         Tourism and Gaming and Lotteries, the educational levels are relatively high. In the other
         sectors, educational levels are average to low. The Hospitality industry, with the highest

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                  34
         number of enterprises and the most employees, has the highest number of under-qualified
         employees.




Table 11: EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATION LEVEL

                                          EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATION LEVEL

            SUB-SECTOR                                % NQF 5-8                  %NQF 2-4                %< NQF 1
Hospitality                                              18%                         28%                     54%
Travel and Tourism                                       74%                         18%                     7%
Gaming and Lotteries                                     55%                         40%                     5%
Sport, Recreation & Fitness                              19%                         37%                     44%
Conservation and Tourist Guiding                         22%                         50%                     28%
Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007


         Table 12 shows the same data, but presents the numbers of employees in each sub-sector
         by educational levels. The same trend is evident.

         In summary, the following should be noted regarding the educational levels of employees in
         the sector.

                   •    34% of employees have Grade 12
                   •    About 27.5% have less than Grade 12
                   •    About 78% of employees in Hospitality have Grade 12 and below 42% has less
                        than Grade 11
                   •    The Gaming and Lotteries sub-sector has the second highest percentage (67%)
                        of employees with Grade 12 and therefore a greater demand will be on level 5
                        and higher qualifications
                   •    Travel and Tourism has the highest percentage of employees (46%) with post
                        Grade 12 qualifications and lowest percent (9%) of Grade 11 and below.

Table 12: EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ACROSS SUB-SECTORS

                         CONSERVATION                                                SPORT,
    EDUCATION                                 GAMBLING &                                         TOURISM &         GRAND
                           & TOURISM                            HOSPITALITY       RECREATION &
   DESCRIPTION                                 LOTTERIES                                          TRAVEL           TOTAL
                            GUIDING                                                 FITNESS
Grade 12
                              1,055               9,291            18,364             2,610       2,974            32,294
Cert/ Diploma/
NTC 5-6
                               533                2,170             9,203             2,940       3,801            18,647
Undefined
                               151                3,074            11,393               292       1,356            16,266
Below Grade 9 /
Std 7 / ABET 4
                              1,983                294              5,861               525        126             8,789
Grade 10 / Std 8 /
NTC1
                               500                 825              6,496               319        261             8,401
Grade 11 / Std 9 /
NTC1
                               185                 561              4,137               326        337             5,546
Grade 9 / Std 7 /
ABET 4
                               639                 120              3,936               251         80             5,026
Degree/ Higher
Diploma
                               329                4128              1,321               249        611             2,928

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                     35
Honours / Masters
Degree
                               118                 138         339     104           97          796
Doctoral
                                15                    1         3       9             3           31


TOTAL                         5,508              16,892       61,053   7,625        9,646      100,724

Source: Table reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09
    2.6 The Geographic Distribution of Service Capacity

          The geographic spread and capacity of the tourism enterprise is a critical factor in planning
          tourism growth and development. South Africa’s tourism assets are distributed throughout
          the geography of the state with many located in rural communities. Each area targeted for
          development should asses its own capacity to deliver services. Each of the GCP areas,
          for instance, should base its planning on a detailed analysis of its capacity for delivery.
          While no comprehensive data is currently available in this regard, there are trends which
          show that rural areas are lagging behind in capacity. Their markets for labour are more
          restricted because of the emigration of talent to the urban centres; the scope of tourist
          facilities are restricted because of challenges related to lack of investment capital; the
          qualify of services rendered is sometimes lower because of the absence of training
          facilities. In many cases development initiatives in the sector are unable to reach many
          communities.

    2.7 The Geographic Distribution of Government Infrastructure

          Tourism is government-led and private sector-driven. This leadership must be exercised
          from the national level, and articulated across all spheres of government including
          communities. There are many governmental regulations and initiatives which impact on
          the sector. Accessibility to these services must be across the geography of the state.
          Here again, no comprehensive analysis has been done. The available data, however,
          seems to indicate that rural communities are disadvantaged in this regard. For many of
          them, government initiatives do not reach their jurisdiction and accessibility to services and
          information remains restricted.

    2.8 The Transportation Infrastructure to Promote Accessibility

          While the overall transportation infrastructure of South Africa is excellent, again, some
          rural communities are disadvantaged as they are without the necessary transportation
          infrastructure to adequately market and benefit from the tourism assets in their area.

          While tourism plans and strategies may be adequate, little can be accomplished in terms
          of overall growth and development if the necessary infrastructure is not in place.

    2.9 Vision and Strategy in Tourism

          One of the critical questions to be answered is whether the vision and objectives for
          tourism could be supported by the current structure and capacity of the sector. The vision
          for tourism sets the stage for the path to be taken in growth and development, while the
          strategic business priorities for the sector define the areas for investment, strategic focus
          and increased productivity. These, however, must be considered in light of the foregoing

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    36
          information on capacity. It is clear, however, that capacity building is needed at all levels
          before development initiatives can pay off in terms of the growth and development of the
          sector.

          The early vision for tourism as expressed in the 1996 White Paper on Tourism, is “… to
          develop the tourism sector as a national priority in a sustainable and acceptable manner,
          so that it will contribute significantly to the improvement of the quality of life of every South
          African”. Here, tourism was seen as a major force in reconstruction and development.

          While the earlier vision focused on the redistribution and transformation agenda in the
          tourism sector, the more recent vision expressed by DEAT stresses a customer service
          orientation in tourism. Both are critical. The Tourism Act mandate for the sector is
          sustainable GDP growth, sustainable job creation and redistribution and transformation.

          In order to meet this vision South African tourism in its strategy has established 11 areas
          of focus as the pillars of development in tourism. These are itemized below.

              a. Targeted marketing strategies as a means of focusing on markets which can add
                 the most value to tourism growth. Here, the core markets are the domestic market,
                 Kenya, Nigeria, Botswana; the USA and the UK; Australia and India; and France,
                 Germany and the Netherlands. In addition, there will be a focus on business
                 tourism where there is significant room for growth. The focus here will be on
                 meetings (see Table 13).

              b. Promoting and enhancing skills development in support of the tourism sector.

              c. Promoting product and business development in order to build a sound tourism
                 infrastructure for service delivery.

              d. Capacitating local government to manage and sustain tourism resources in their
                 local jurisdiction.

              e. Placing a strategic focus on the 9 GCP areas as follows:

                   •   Greater Durban and Pietermaritzburg
                   •   Drakensberg
                   •   East London and Wild Coast
                   •   Panorama Route
                   •   Central Limpopo
                   •   Pilansberg / Madikwe
                   •   Port Elizabeth and Environment
                   •   Dolphin Coast
                   •   Elephant Coast

              f.   Promoting and ensuring quality service and standards through strategic
                   interventions to improve the grading system; to promote the tourism trade and
                   travelers charter and the tourism ombudsman; legislation of tourism business; and
                   review of tourist guide legislation.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     37
              g.   Improvement in the quality of information, intelligence and research.
              h.   Implementation of the tourism safety and awareness plan.
              i.   Promoting transformation in tourism.
              j.   Improving access to transportation.
              k.   Implementation of the 2010 Tourism Plan.
                                                  Table 13: BUSINESS TOURISM


                                                                      BUSINESS TOURISM

                                                         PERFORMANCE STATISTICS

 CATEGORIES OF                                         2002                                       2005
   BUSINESS
    TOURISM                                                                                                                         COMMENTS
                                     TRAVELLERS




                                                                                    TRAVELLERS
                                                    RANDS (BN)




                                                                                                 RANDS (BN)
                                                                        US$(BN)




                                                                                                               US$(BN)
                                        (MN)




                                                                                       (MN)
                                                                                                                          • A large market with over 70
    Exhibitions                                                                                                             exhibitions in South Africa
                                                                            No data                                         every year and over 1.5
                           Global
Strategy:                                                                                                                   million attendees
Do not appear                                                                                                             • However, they tend to be
attractive at present                                                                                                       mostly for a domestic
– need more                                                                                                                 audience
information from                                                                                                          • Moreover, there is a limited
industry before they                                                                                                        impact on many of SAT’s
become a focus for                                                                                                          goals
SAT                                                                                                                       • Better data on foreign visitors
                            SA                                              No data                                         to exhibitions is needed
                                                                                                                            before SAT should invest in
                                                                                                                            this market
                                                                                                                          • High spend per trip
     Incentives                                                                                                           • Contributes to SAT’s goals
                           Global          3                     86           8.3        4                59        9.8   • However, strong overlap with
Strategy:                                                                                                                   leisure tourism and with
Not a priority on their                                                                                                     meetings
own – form part of                                                                                                        • Better data on visitor numbers
the corporate               SA         0.04                  n/a              n/a    0.04           0.03         0.05       is needed before SAT should
meetings strategy                                                                                                           invest heavily in this market
                                                                                                                          • Large market
      Meetings                                                                                                            • Contributes to SAT’s goals,
                                                                                                                            particularly improving
Strategy:                  Global        12                297             28.6         20            317            53
                                                                                                                            seasonality
Meet SAT’s goals,                                                                                                         • South Africa is well positioned
large and attractive                                                                                                        to serve this market with world
market                                                                                                                      class facilities
                                                                                                                          • Although recent slipping down
                                                                                                                            ICCA rankings, South Africa
                            SA
                                         n/a                 n/a              n/a    0.24               1.7         0.3     has a strong competitive
                                                                                                                            position, and on a number of
                                                                                                                            delegates hosted basis, its
                                                                                                                            ranking is actually improving
Source: Tourism Growth Strategy 2008-2010




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                  38
         2.10 Issues and Trends in the Sector
            The strategic focus areas are in direct response to the issues confronting the tourism
            sector. These are itemized below.

              •   Lack of targeted marketing strategies
              •   Uncoordinated approach to branding
              •   Limited transformation
              •   Inappropriate transport capacity and services
              •   Unfocussed and uncoordinated product and business development and investment
                  approach
              •   Skills gaps not understood
              •   Quality assurance interventions not yielding results
              •   Perception of South Africa as an unsafe destination
              •   Local government not capacitated to deliver on tourism




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  39
    3. REFLECTION ON HRD FOR THE TOURISM SECTOR

    3.1 Introduction and Purpose

          The growth potential of the sector is enormous and the strategic priorities for the sector are
          complex and demanding. But success and competitiveness in the sector cannot result
          without people. The sector must have the stock and flow of the appropriate skills that will
          keep it at a global level of service excellence. In spite of the national tourism resources
          possessed by South Africa as a country, and in spite of the many tourism products which
          could be tendered competitively in the global market, it is the talent in our people that will
          make the difference. Human resource development is therefore the lynchpin of tourism
          success. But HRD for such a complex, diverse and growing sector is not merely a matter
          of training in areas of scarce and critical skills. It must be a comprehensive and efficient
          structure for building, maintaining and properly utilizing human capital for the performance
          of the sector. It will be worthwhile to explore and reflect in this chapter on the nature and
          meaning of HRD for the tourism sector.

    3.2 Human Capital and Tourism

          As a primary asset for tourism success, the human factor is its most valuable capital asset.
          Building human capital for the sector is therefore a concern which must permeate all of the
          sector’s activities. But building human capital is a long term process. Human capital
          formation for the sector begins with the early social and educational foundation provided in
          the schools, homes and communities of the country. It begins, not only with the right
          educational exposure at an early age with investments in literacy and numeracy, but with
          the rich attitude, cultural pride and social disposition upon which good traditions of service
          excellence are made. Human capital formation for the sector must be founded upon a rich
          and wide base of talented potential which comes from the diverse and scattered
          communities of the state. It is from this pool of talent that our stream of supply eventually
          emerges. The structure for human capital formation in the sector must therefore begin at
          the source where fundamentals are taught. The manner in which this talent is groomed
          and shaped through our various institutions, organizational structures and workplaces
          must be properly managed. Human capital formation for the sector is the structure and
          process through which such talent is groomed and made available to employers in the
          sector. But this structure has evolved into a complex, multi-faceted, uncoordinated and
          inefficient super structure for skills generation where the production of skilled labour
          cannot be tracked or managed to promote the interest of the industry as a whole.

    3.3 The Concept of HRD for the Tourism Sector

          The concept of HRD for tourism refers not only to the skills to be developed in people who
          deliver services in the sector but to the effective development of all the human capacity
          required to manage the structures, operations and processes for human capital formation
          and utilization. Here, we do not refer to the employees in establishments and enterprises
          only; we refer to all individuals who are involved in ensuring the effective performance of
          the sector. This includes policy makers, training providers, relevant officials in local
          government and among others, members of the respective communities whose

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  40
          knowledgeable attitude and behaviour will affect the success of tourism locally. One
          aspect of tourism planning is the means through which an environment is made “tourist
          ready”; and, one component of this, is the readiness of community members to serve and
          cater to visitors. Even here, in fact, HRD should play an important role, perhaps through
          ABET.

          Beyond this broad scope of human capital development there are other critical aspects of
          a national HRD strategy for tourism. HRD must be delivered within a well defined policy
          framework; it must run in a context where organizational structures for education and
          training delivery are cohesive and properly integrated, and where there are systems and
          processes in place to ensure that human capital development is responsive to the
          demands of the sector.

          In effect, strategic HRD is about the content of education and training as well as structures
          and systems that are in place to ensure that education and training adds value and
          enhances performance. A strategic approach to HRD will therefore take cognizance of the
          entire education and training infrastructure which ensures that, in the end, that the people
          who are produced by our system are able to render the best in service to our clients and
          accord them with due hospitality and satisfaction.

    3.4 Fundamental Requirements for the Pursuit of an HRD Strategy

          There are 4 fundamental requirements upon which the HRD strategy must be framed: the
          availability of focused business plans; the availability of avenues through which all sub-
          structures in the sector could be readied; the availability of policy frameworks within which
          a strategy for the sector could be constituted; the availability of people from which a pool of
          talent can be built. Each will be discussed separately below.

         i.        Business Planning
                   The value of HRD is in its impact on the attainment of business priorities. People
                   are developed so that the strategic targets and priorities of the sector can be
                   attained. A thorough business plan therefore precedes the development and
                   viability of an HRD strategy. Business plans are in place for the tourism sector as a
                   whole and for its respective sub-sectors, which then provides a sound basis for
                   HRD strategy development for the sector. However, business plans may not be in
                   place for many local jurisdictions and for many governmental and non-governmental
                   entities in the sector.

         ii.       Extended Reach
                   The HRD strategy is for the sector as a whole. Its provisions must be applicable to
                   all segments of the sector, and all parties must be able to fully respond to and abide
                   by its strategic provisions. This will require organizational structures and processes
                   which extend the reach of the strategy into all structures and communities where its
                   provisions are applicable. It is these same structures which must work together for
                   the strategy to be successfully implemented. There are gaps in some of these
                   essential structures.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   41
         iii.        Policy Frameworks
                     Policy frameworks refer to the overall strategic provisions for HRD in the country
                     within which the HRD strategy for the sector must fit. These include the National
                     HRD Strategy, the National HRD Strategy for the Public Service, and the National
                     Skills Development Strategy, among others.

         iv.         People
                     People to be developed to drive the sector, is one of the key components of the
                     HRD strategy. But the availability of people to be developed may be deceptive.
                     While there are many who are willing to be trained for the sector, in general, there
                     are pockets – either geographically or occupationally – where suitably qualified
                     people are not available for training.         In addition, there are gaps in the
                     organizational structure and staffing of government where no personnel are
                     allocated to undertake critical responsibilities in managing the performance of the
                     sector. There must therefore be a comprehensive review of the availability of
                     people to be developed for undertaking responsibilities in the sector.

    3.5 Critical Questions to be Answered in Crafting and HRD Strategy for the
          Sector

          The HRD strategy must answer six critical questions as follows:

                a. What is our vision for HRD?
                b. How will we configure institutional structures for effective delivery?
                c. What governance mechanisms will ensure that HRD adds value?
                d. What are the strategic levers for improving effectiveness and efficiency in HRD in
                   the sector?
                e. What delivery instruments will ensure and sharpen the link between skills
                   development, economic performance and competitiveness in the global tourism
                   environment?
                f. What capacity is needed to reconfigure and sustain a viable HRD enterprise in the
                   sector?




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     42
    4. THE POLICY AND STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR HRD

    4.1 Introduction and Purpose

          Human resource development in the tourism sector must be designed and managed in a
          manner that supports the success of tourism in the economy. HRD, in this respect, must
          serve the business priorities, development expectations and legal obligations to which
          activities in the sector are directed. It is only through its people that the sector will address
          its legal obligations and business priorities. HRD must therefore be considered within the
          policy and strategic framework which sets out and defines the obligations and focus of the
          sector’s activities. The purpose of this chapter is to map the legal and strategic framework
          which defines the scope and boundaries of HRD in tourism. In the end the chapter
          highlights the implications of this framework for strategic priorities in HRD.

    4.2 Conceptualizing the Framework

          The legal framework for HRD in tourism, like the legal framework for all government policy,
          is founded upon our institutional norms and principles and affected and shaped by the
          development issues which affect social welfare and which influence economic growth and
          development. In seeking to respond to the welfare of all citizens, a strategic and
          regulatory framework has been created to guide and govern the efforts of government in
          impacting and resolving the social and economic challenges of our time. Tourism, as a
          major and targeted sector of the economy, is intricately woven into government’s response
          to the fundamental development imperatives which affect the welfare of the nation. In
          representing the legal and strategic framework for HRD, therefore, it is necessary to
          examine 4 separate areas of emphasis in policy governance for the sector.

          i.        The development imperatives which influence the structure and content of policy
          ii.       The fundamental economic and social policy frameworks
          iii.      The overall public regulatory environment impacting on tourism and HRD in tourism
          iv.       The regulatory environment governing tourism and tourism plans and strategies

         Each of these areas will be discussed separately, and the strategic implications will be
         assessed in the final section of the chapter.

         4.2.1     Development Imperatives
                   Public policy and strategic initiatives in the tourism sector cannot ignore the
                   development imperatives which define and influence all the policy efforts of
                   government. While economic viability, political stability and social welfare remain
                   central to government’s policy, the core issues which are fundamental to people’s
                   livelihoods and welfare permeate the policy agenda, and continue to affect all
                   aspects of public policy intervention.       Among these issues are poverty;
                   unemployment; public insecurity through crime and violence; the persistence of
                   social and economic inequities; and issues of future health particularly in reference
                   to HIV and AIDS. These are matters of ongoing concern and cannot be extracted
                   from the tourism agenda. For this reason, tourism has been selected as one of the
                   priority economic sectors of JIPSA. As a growing sector, it has an inherent potential

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     43
                   to make a difference in the lives of people. In addition to its contribution to the
                   economy, in light of its geographic scope and occupational structure, the sector also
                   has much potential for creating employment among youth, for creating business
                   opportunities for many and for changing the landscape of economic employment
                   and social inequities. Tourism touches every community, and has the greatest
                   reach in terms of creating opportunities “on the ground”. In this respect, its potential
                   for making a difference in the lives of people may be its greatest asset.

         4.2.2     Economic and Social Policy Frameworks
                   The architecture of development is reflected in the basic plans, policies and
                   strategic frameworks which inform the activities of all government. Fundamental
                   among these documents are the National Spatial Development Strategy, the MTEF
                   and the IDPs and LED Strategies of local government. These, together, craft the
                   path of development for South Africa, and they set the basic priorities in place for
                   growth in various jurisdictions. Tourism growth and development is a common
                   feature in all these documents as tourism is commonly advanced as an area of
                   priority in policy pronouncements, and is usually seen as the bedrock of economic
                   opportunity in most areas. But in order to accommodate the growth and
                   development of tourism, these strategic documents must also address the wider
                   development issues which affect the growth and performance of the tourism
                   industry.     Among these are:       environmental issues such as soil erosion,
                   deforestation, water shortages and water and air pollution and waste management;
                   infrastructure issues such as lack of roads and electricity in rural areas; issues such
                   as tourism security as evidenced in the wide perception of violence and crime in
                   communities; and social issues such as poverty, unemployment and the growing
                   prevalence of health risks in communities.

                   The tourism industry cannot be isolated from these concerns since tourism must be
                   built on sound physical and social infrastructure where the overall environment is
                   responsive and where the people and their cultures can add value to the robustness
                   of the industry. Tourism growth and development is therefore a multi-level, multi-
                   faceted and inter-disciplinary endeavour where inter-sectoral approaches are
                   fundamental to success. The core social and economic policy frameworks therefore
                   constitute the base upon which strategy for the sector is constructed.

         4.2.3     The Public Regulatory Framework
                   For HRD in tourism, the public regulatory framework is constituted of: the policy
                   provisions for public sector transformation and for managing the public service as a
                   whole; the body of public policies related to education and training and to HRD in
                   the public service and beyond, and the regulatory frameworks which govern the
                   activities of other sectors and government departments that influence and affect the
                   management and performance of the tourism industry in general. This regulatory
                   framework is extensive, complex and dynamic. As the policy environment is better
                   understood and as more issues are confronted and resolved, policy prescriptions
                   change over time and they become more thorough and sometimes more demanding
                   and cumbersome. In this light, policy coherence in tourism and in HRD in tourism is
                   critical to the industry. Policies, which are meant to strengthen the sector, cannot, in
                   the end, serve to stifle the sector’s progress.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     44
Figure 2: THE LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK AFFECTING HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR

          SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE PUBLIC SERVICE


                                                 GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES
       Government Departments                        Coordinating Structures                        Industry Bodies
• DEAT                                       • National Tourism Skills Development        TBSCA, FEDHASA, SAAHS, HILG, TESA,
• THETA                                        Forum                                      SAACI, NTTPF, STASA, SACCAWU,
• DTI                                        • MINMEC and MIPTEC                          HIAWU



                       PUBLIC SERVICE POLICY, STRATEGY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
                          GOVERNING TOURISM AND TOURISM PLANS AND STRATEGIES
       Legal Framework                 Strategic Framework             Transformation Initiatives        Special Programmes and
• White Paper on the              • Tourism Growth Strategy         • Integrated Tourism Enterprise              Projects
  Development and Promotion         2008-2010                         Support Programme (TEP)         • ASGISA
  of Tourism in South Africa      • Global Competitiveness          • Transformation Strategy for     • JIPSA
  (1996)                            Report (GCP)                      SA Tourism                      • EPWP
• Tourism Act and Associated      • Tourism Second Economic         • BBBEE Strategy                  • CDW
  Amendments                        Strategy                        • Tourism Infrastructure
                                  • Tourism Airlift Strategy          Investment Framework
                                  • Tourism Land Transport          • Integration of Tourism with
                                    Strategy                          Spatial Development
                                  • Tourism Trade and Travellers      Initiatives
                                    Charter                         • Leadership of Tourism
                                                                      Enterprises with SMEDP




                                         PUBLIC REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
                                     IMPACTING ON TOURISM AND HRD IN TOURISM
    Public Service Transformation &          Education HRD and Skills Development          Regulatory Frameworks and Strategies
          Regulatory Frameworks              • HRD Strategy for South Africa                    in Sectors which affect Tourism
• Batho Pele White Paper                     • HRD Strategy for the Public Service        • Department of Labour Policies on Wage
• White Paper on Transforming the Public     • National Skills Development Strategy 2       Determination
  Service                                    • White Paper on Human Resource              • Department of Home Affairs and Policies
• White Paper on the New Employment            Management in the Public Service             related to Visas
  Policy for the Public Service              • White Paper on Public Service Education    • Department of Transport and Policies
• Public Service Act and Regulations           and Training                                 related to aviation, taxi and tour
• Employment Equity Act                      • SAQA Act                                     operators, transport for tourism, condition
• Labour Relations Act                       • Higher Education Act                         of roads and infrastructure
                                             • Skills Development Act                     • Department of Arts, Culture and Sports
                                             • Skills Development Levies Act                and regulations related to sports and
                                                                                            heritage issues
                                                                                          • Department of Health – standards for
                                                                                            handling foodstuffs
                                                                                          • DPLG Leadership and Management
                                                                                            policy
                                                                                          • DTI’s role in stimulating business growth
                                                                                            and competitiveness



     ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICY FRAMEWORKS WHICH AFFECT TOURISM PLANS AND STRATEGIES
     Policy positions taken        Integrated Development Plans
            politically:                       (IDPs)
• Budget speeches                                                        Medium Term Expenditure       National Spatial Development
• State of the Nation Address      Local Economic Development              Framework (MTEF)                      Strategies
                                            Strategies



DEVELOPMENT IMPERATIVES AFFECTING SOCIAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
• Poverty Alleviation
• Unemployment
• Backlogs in service delivery – housing, water, schools, electricity
• Reduction of crime and violence and promotion of safety and security
• Health and welfare of citizens – HIV and Aids
• Transformation




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                 45
         4.2.4     The Public Policy and Regulatory Framework Governing Tourism
                   The tourism sector is governed by the Tourism Act and its amendments, by the
                   early provisions and vision of the White Paper on the Development and Promotion
                   of Tourism, and by a variety of plans and strategies which relate to the activities of
                   the various sub-sectors of the industry. Of particular note among these strategic
                   documents are the Tourism Growth Strategy 2008-2010 and the wide variety of
                   transformation initiatives that are being undertaken in the sector. The key
                   documents are itemized in Figure 2.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   46
Table 14: STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS FOR HRD EMERGING FROM THE POLICY AND STRATEGIC
FRAMEWORK FOR THE SECTOR


KEY ASPECTS OF THE POLICY                               EVIDENCE                                  IMPLICATIONS
AND STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK

                1.                                                                    •   There is a “social responsibility”
  The development imperatives to                Pervasive social issues and               dimension of tourism where tourism
  which tourism as a sector must            government programmes which seek              plans interact with development
             respond                                 to address them                      imperatives
                                                                                      •   Need for targeting tourism
                                                                                          programmes to areas where there
                                                                                          could be high impact in the short
                                                                                          term
                2.                                                                    •   The need for capacity to manage
  The pervasiveness of tourism-            Incidence of tourism-related content in        tourism at all levels
related plans and initiatives on the          IDPs, LED strategies, provincial
development plans and strategies            growth and development strategies,        •   The need for plan and strategy
       of many communities                                   etc.                         integration
                                                                                      •   The need for structures which
                                                                                          streamline strategy and policy
                                                                                          intervention down to communities
                 3.                            White Papers and public policies       •   Transformation is a critical
    The public policy agenda for            which seek to maximize opportunities          component of strategy and policy in
          transformation                          for the poor and previously             the tourism sector
                                            disadvantaged, change the manner in
                                            which the public welfare is governed,     •   Sector is difficult to transform, but
                                            change the structure of the economy           has the greatest potential for
                                              to expend opportunities for wealth          meeting a broad based
                                                          creation, etc.                  transformation agenda
                 4.                                                                   •   The need for inter-governmental
    The expansive and complex                 Many government departments,                coordination
   regulatory environment which               national, provincial and local, are
          governs tourism                     involved in managing aspects of         •   Need for capacity to effectively
                                            public regulation which affects tourism       manage complex policy
                                                                                          environments
                5.                                                                    •   HRD in the tourism sector must be
    A sound and well-specified              Many laws, plans and strategies exist         aligned with HRD for the public
 framework exists in public policy           on HRD and skills development in             service, with the NSDS II and with
for managing HRD generally and in                         general                         overall provisions for human
        the public sector                                                                 development in South Africa

                  6.                                                                  •   The HRD strategy must be targeted
 The legal and strategic framework          The Tourism Act, its amendments and           to critical priorities for growth and
     for tourism in South Africa             various strategies pertaining to the         development in tourism, and it must
specifies a wide variety of priorities         sector provide a framework of              address the issues in the field
for tourism growth and operation in          priorities and guidelines for action.        which can be resolved with an
            South Africa.                                                                 education and training response




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                           47
    5. AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN CAPITAL DYNAMICS IN THE
       TOURISM SECTOR
    5.1 Introduction and Purpose

         Human capital in tourism refers to the stock and flow of skills that are available to
         employers in the sector. In this respect, there is a general sense that in spite of the rich
         potential for tourism growth and development, South Africa does not have the level and
         quality of human capital to become truly competitive internationally. All the available
         evidence in this regard seems to substantiate this claim. The claim, however, raises a
         variety of concerns. The first concern is the extent to which the lack of skills restrains the
         sector’s growth. A more important concern, however, is that perceptions of skills shortage
         in the sector seems to be determined only through a variety of analyses of existing
         shortfalls in the interface between the production of skilled people and the availability of the
         right mix of skills in the sector. This view, essentially, is from the side of employers who
         perceive that their success is limited by the lack of skills. The appropriate solution
         therefore, is to train more people in the areas where there is a demand for skills. The result
         is the detailed documentation of areas in which training is needed, and a concomitant
         response by education and training institutions to provide training which will fill the skills
         gap. But, in spite of the training delivered over the years, the skills gap remains. Perhaps
         the skills shortage issue in the sector is much more complex. Training more people will not
         necessarily result in the utilization of this base of talent by employers, and, as a
         consequence mass training interventions may not lead to the enhanced performance of the
         sector.

         The issue is not only human capital formation in the sector, but the efficacy of human
         capital management. In this respect, inconsistencies in the sector abound. There is
         simultaneously skills surpluses and skills shortages in the sector; while in selected
         occupational areas a surplus of skills may exist, there are still some geographic areas
         which may experience shortages; in some cases the education and training output for the
         sector may end up in other sectors because of a variety of inadequacies in the labour
         market for tourism; the availability of skills in the economy does not necessarily result in the
         sustained availability of skills in the sector; even when skills exist in the sector these skilled
         individuals are sometimes misallocated and placed in positions outside their areas of
         training.

         There are other examples of inconsistencies. In the sector, there is a wide base of skills
         and a large proportion of individuals in lower segments of the occupational ladder, but,
         because of the labour dynamics in specific occupations and the HRM practices of many
         employers, people who begin in the lower level occupations do not generally flow in mid
         management and management positions.

         The issue here is the gap between human capital formation and human capital utilization. It
         is necessary to determine the factors which affect the sustained availability of human
         capital, and, on that basis, create protocols for human capital management in the sector.



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     48
         The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to briefly explore some of the factors which typify
         the inconsistency, contradictions and market dynamics of human capital management in
         the sector. The purpose here is to establish a base for identifying possible responses to
         the circumstances which now exist and then craft these responses into strategic
         interventions. In essence, human capital will not be effectively managed in a manner that
         benefits the sector, unless and until consideration is given to those factors which affect the
         flow and utilization of skilled people. Several factors will be discussed. These factors will
         be grouped into separate categories as follows: demographics, educational, economic,
         employee wellness management, emigration, planning and management, traditional social
         factors, industry practice, policy leadership and governance, availability of infrastructure,
         history and tradition, and a body of legal factors. Each of these sections will be discussed
         below.

         5.1.1 Demographics
         The human capital in the sector is fundamentally affected by demography. The labour
         force is constituted of all individuals 19 years of age and over. With 45% of the population
         under the age of 19, there is about 55% of the population or 22 million people who
         represent, in sum, the available skills potential to serve the economy. But this is deceiving
         in many ways since all 22 million may not be available. Among the factors which limit the
         productive potential of the labour force are: about 5% of the population over 19 years are
         beyond working age; the educational level of the population in general; internal migration;
         geographic dispersion and population density; the age structure of the population; the
         health status of people of working age; declining birth rates as families become more
         affluent; the limited range in the base of skills available in the population; labour mobility;
         and among others, the rising death rates and voluntary separations among economically
         active people. This, in fact, paints a picture of the circumstances which contain the base of
         skills available to the economy. With the growth of the economy and the expansion of our
         industrial and commercial capacity, a growing number of employers have to compete in an
         increasingly restrictive pool of talent. As will be discussed later, educational factors can
         mediate the productivity of the labour force; but even here, issues arise.

         In respect to the list of demographic factors above, a few comments will be made in order
         to more accurately highlight the circumstances. About 71% of the population has less than
         a matric certificate; about 21% of the population possesses a matric certificate only; and
         only 8% of the population possesses higher education. The majority of South Africa’s
         population has less than a matric certificate. In fact, overall, 18% of the population has no
         schooling, with 22% of the population in the Eastern Cape, 33% in Limpopo and 28% in
         Mpumalanga. The situation is even worse in some rural communities and in some
         townships and informal settlements in all the larger cities. Participation rates in education
         are relatively low. Among the ages 5-24, representing 19 million individuals, about 30% or
         5.5 million of them are not in school, and only 1.6% or 316,000 are enrolled in some form of
         higher education. The first issue here is the inadequacy of the educational base for skills
         development. But other issues arise: the extent to which lack of education among many
         restricts the pool of labour; the great divide in the conditions or rurality and that of urban
         areas; the great and growing division in social classes where education is the means
         towards wealth and economic opportunity, and where the poor and uneducated remain in
         menial jobs at the lower level of the occupational ladder. Their access to wealth and
         economic opportunity is restricted. The implications of this for the tourism sector are

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  49
         significant. A restricted labour pool is particularly disadvantageous to the tourism sector,
         because, in many cases, this sector is not among the prime economic sectors where the
         most educated of our population seek jobs and establish careers. Other implications
         include: the prospect for developing tourism products in rural areas; the level of awareness
         and service excellence to be expected among the poor who have no history or experience
         being accommodated in hotels, for instance; the prospects of promotion for those who enter
         the lower level occupations without adequate qualifications; and, among others, the
         inclination of some employers in the sector to exploit the under-educated with low salaries,
         poor working conditions and little job security. All of these have implications for the labour
         pool that is available to the sector.

         5.1.2 Economic
         The fundamental education factors affecting the availability of labour in the tourism sector
         are noted in the sub-section above. This sub-section of the chapter seeks to explore the
         institutional factors in education which affect the availability of the appropriate level and
         type of skills to the economy in general and to the tourism sector in particular. One must
         first note that the tourism sector is diverse and requires a wide array of different skills. The
         expectation is that, while industry provides training, the education sector will fulfill the skills
         needs of the country. But this requires demand-led planning for educational programmes.
         This is not generally the case, and, as a consequence the educational sector is criticized for
         not really fulfilling the skills needs of some sectors of the economy, one of which is tourism.

         Tourism as a sector is especially vulnerable. The average education of workers in the
         sector is only 11 years, or an education level of grade 10 and below. This means that most
         workers in the sector do not have a matric certificate; but even within the sector, only one in
         seven workers have access to training. For its workers, the sector relies on many avenues
         of training which currently exist; but the quality and capacity of many structures and
         institutions where training options are available are not adequate. Formal educational
         structures are numerous and fragmented and are accused of generally not meeting the
         needs of industry. THETA, the tourism education and training authority under the Skills
         Development Act, is generally accused of not meeting the needs of the industry, partly
         because of its shallow reach into the industry, partly because of its low level of productivity,
         and partly because of its lack of responsiveness to industry needs and circumstances.
         There are few accredited training providers in the respective sub-sectors because of the
         delay and expense in seeking accreditation; programmes offered by government agencies
         such as DEAT and DTI, and those offered under government’s special programmes such
         as TEP, JIPSA and EPWP, for instance, generally do not reach enough people to impact
         the wide and growing demand for skills. In addition, the formal education and training
         system is not sufficiently articulated or consistent in its curriculum to create the impact
         needed; some training is of poor quality with inappropriate learning materials and facilities;
         and, among others, many teachers and trainers in the business do not have industry
         experience and are not appropriately qualified to teach.

         The overall result is either restrictions in the level and quality in the production of skills, or
         the structural misallocation of education training resources which misaligns the availability
         of skills with the geographic dispersion of the sector’s employers. The sector responds with
         its own in-house training. But this training is generally available only in large organizations
         and in the few conglomerates in the sector. In SMMEs, for instance, which employ the

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                      50
         majority of individuals in the sector, training is generally unavailable because of the
         expense and because of their inability to remove their limited number of workers from their
         productive tasks in order to participate in education and training. ABET is not widely
         available to employees in the sector and recognition of prior learning is not generally
         practiced. The end result is the significant unavailability of people with the appropriate level
         and quality of skills.

         5.1.3 Educational
         As businesses and commercial enterprises in the sector, overall performance is affected by
         a variety of economic factors; and, industry performance affects the demand and utilization
         of skills. All evidence suggests that performance of the sector is expected to strengthen
         with growth in the number of domestic and international tourists. This growth is expected to
         lead to increased income generation and, among others, a higher demand for skills. But
         the tourism sector is sensitive to a variety of external conditions which can affect its
         performance, and consequently have an impact on the demand for skills. There are
         significant grounds for anticipating growth – strategic marketing as outlined in the tourism
         growth strategy; hosting the 2010 soccer world cup; and, among others, capital inputs that
         expand and enhance the product base thereby increasing the competitiveness of the
         sector. This will result in greater international tourist arrivals and a rise in tourism in the
         domestic market. Many other factors confirm the expectation of growth and hence the
         demand for skills. But this may not be the case, in light of global and local economic
         conditions which may retard growth. The sensitivity of the tourism sector may lead to a
         negative reaction to economic conditions. Increased oil prices globally, economic down
         turn in major foreign markets, rising interest rates locally and issues relating to food
         security, among others, can all have an impact on the tourism sector.

         In addition to this, rising inflation is beginning to affect the basic necessities of life and
         impact on the lives of people. Even now inflation is having an impact on the education
         sector, making education unaffordable, leading to the decline in the supply of talent to the
         industry. This may have the most significant affect on the tourism sector, partly because of
         increased competition for the skills available, and partly because of the sector’s naturally
         high turnover of staff. This situation is aggravated by the perception that tourism as a
         sector is non-attractive to potential employees who are suitably qualified. It is perceived
         that there are no opportunities for successful careers in the sector when compared with
         other sectors; that wages are low, and wage differentials between operational staff and
         managers are high; that there is a preponderance of unacceptable working conditions
         which increase the incidence of job satisfaction among workers; that jobs are largely
         temporary and seasonal and do not promote stability in employment; inclination to hire
         foreigners at both the low and high end of the occupational ladder; and, among others, the
         economic impact of restructuring, mergers, acquisitions and general sector adjustments to
         current economic conditions may lead to retrenchments, increased workloads among staff
         and decline in personal real income as a result of rising inflationary costs. As a
         consequence, the sector may not be as competitive in attracting employees from a
         declining pool of suitably qualified workers. Here, the decline results from withdrawals from
         the industry and the possible decline in the pool of suitably qualified workers.

         What then could be the response? Certainly, more strategic, relevant and appropriate
         interventions in skills development must be made now.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   51
         5.1.4 Employee Wellness Management
         Hospitality businesses consider HIV and AIDS to be a significant driver of change in the
         sector. It is estimated that 12% of the workforce in the industry is infected. The incidence
         of HIV and AIDS, and the resulting ill health of workers are costly to the industry. Such
         sickness results in both an increase in leave days and reduced productivity. It also places
         more demand on businesses to manage their human resource complement in a manner
         that will maintain high service excellence and sustain satisfactory levels of productivity.
         Beyond this, and even more disruptive, is the level of withdrawals from the industry due to
         sickness and death. This also depletes the labour pool.

         What therefore, are the prospects for redress in mediating the impact of HIV and AIDS?
         The rate of infection in South Africa is still on the increase, and HIV and AIDS do not
         represent the only social problems such as enduring and increasing poverty, the overall
         lack of high quality healthcare for the poor, the high cost of living and the incidence of
         homelessness and limited household budgets as economic conditions change, the
         increased cost of basic food items, and, among others, the high rates of unemployment and
         lack of household income in rural areas all serve to create conditions where challenges
         arise in maintaining good health. This lowers the productive working potential of the wealth
         of human resources that are available in the country. Some form of response is urgently
         needed.

         The limited extent to which the sector is currently responding to the rising threat of labour
         unavailability due to ill health is a matter of concern. First of all, many employees in the
         sector are casual and temporary workers with no access to company-sponsored medical
         aid, no access to income when they are ill and unable to show up at work, and no access to
         health promotion interventions and clinical facilities within their places of employment.
         Some contend that the margins are too low in the sector, and health-related support for
         employees is unaffordable; some contend, on the other hand, that, with the wide availability
         of cheap labour, employers do not have to be concerned about the impact of health related
         issues on their respective businesses. Replacements for those who are ill could easily be
         found, and, outsourcing, in any event, will shift the responsibility of health to the peripheral
         companies which serve the sector. The approach is short sighted. If all abandon the sick
         and helpless and if potentially productive workers are set aside due to ill health, then, the
         productive potential of the labour force will decline with catastrophic impact on the overall
         value of our human capital. We may well see the impact when it is too late.

         5.1.5 Immigration, Emigration and Labour Mobility
         The labour market in tourism is dynamic in respect to the mobility of labour; and this
         mobility affects the availability of workers to the industry. Three aspects of labour mobility
         will be discussed: the high level of urbanization; the effect of immigration; and the effect of
         emigration. The sum effect of these factors is sometimes difficult to determine since there
         is variability by sub-sector, by geographic region, the general practices among particular
         businesses in the sector; by occupational level and by differentials in wages.
         Notwithstanding, the availability of labour is affected by labour mobility and the associated
         factors which create variability within the industry.


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   52
         The first challenge here is the growth and development in opportunity in most urban areas,
         and the consequent flight of people from rural areas into cities to seek employment, income
         and relief from the challenges of maintaining livelihoods for the rural poor. This flight
         occurs among both semi literates and the school dropouts and among graduates from
         technical and regular high schools that have been successful in matric exams. With little
         opportunity for higher education and viable employment in rural communities, many areas
         with valued tourism assets remain without an adequate base of human resources to drive
         growth when economic opportunities arise. The pervasive complaint among those who
         prepare local economic development strategies is the inadequacy of human resources to
         drive growth in rural communities. Valued projects become infeasible because of the
         unavailability of people. Urban areas, on the other hand, tend to experience conditions of
         over supply, with the consequences on wages and working conditions alluded to in the
         previous sub-section.

         The situation is then affected by factors related to immigration and emigration. Both can
         have significant impact on the structure and behaviour of the labour market in tourism.
         First, there are the legal and illegal immigrants who have emigrated from neighbouring
         countries in the SADC region. While some of them are well educated and can fill gaps in
         the market where skills are scarce, the majority of them are semi-skilled and unskilled.
         Again, the immigrants move to major city centres where any form of menial labour will
         suffice; and, if they are illegally in the country, opportunities are easier for them to evade
         the law. It is a pool of labour to the sector that is unaccounted for, and is used mainly at the
         lowest levels of the occupational ladder. This labour pool presents a distorted draw effect
         on employment at this level. Since they are willing to work for lower wages, the wage
         structure at this level remains deflated. South African citizens’ competency for employment
         at this level may not be successful because their employment demands may be higher.
         They remain unemployed. In this regard, some responsibility must be taken by employers
         in the industry. While lower labour cost could maximize profitability, the long term effect is
         the continued depletion in the overall value of human capital for the sector. Issues arise
         because in some cases employers see immigrants of this nature as a windfall: they do not
         have to invest in extensive training and career development; labour cost is low; there is a
         reduced threat of industrial relations challenges; and such employees could be hired and
         fired at will providing a degree of flexibility in managing the company’s pool of labour. The
         culture of employment relations at this level, in some communities, remain devoid of social
         responsibility, show little concern for the sector’s human capital in the long term and little
         awareness of the effect of this culture of employment on service excellence in the industry.

         But this is not the only aspect of immigration. The labour pool of foreign workers is also
         comprised of highly skilled workers, particularly at the managerial levels.              Here
         multinationals may bring in selected managers in whom they have confidence; or, in some
         cases, local companies, unable to find qualified workers locally, retain the services of an
         illegal foreign worker. This is particularly so in occupations such as chefs and caterers, and
         in tourist guiding where indigenous foreign language speakers are preferred. There is
         some sense that the current unavailability of good managerial talent in the sector has
         arisen from our past dependence on expatriates who have now departed. Efforts have
         been made to identify some of these scarce and critical skills and to engage in concerted
         interventions to build a greater pool of talent locally. Such efforts have not yet shown

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   53
         significant signs of success. Structural factors in the labour market for scarce skills still
         affect the availability of critical talent to the industry. For instance, hospitality businesses in
         areas outside of the major cities and tourism centres still report difficulty in finding skilled
         managers.
         Is it possible, therefore, that all employers in the sector could subscribe to a commitment or
         credo to vigilantly build a suitable pool of local talent, even though it may be more costly in
         the short term?

         Such a credo is necessary if one considers the current brain drain which creams the top of
         the sector’s talent. Top managers and other professionals in the sector emigrate to
         Australia, New Zealand, Europe and the US where salaries are higher and where working
         conditions are said to be more attractive. In fact, many of these countries actively recruit
         talent from the South African tourism industry. Australia, for instance, makes a concerted
         effort to recruit the country’s best tourism talent. The rate at which the highly skilled are
         leaving for greener pastures is said to have increased. The tourism sector’s Skills Audit
         reports, for instance, that training providers have indicated that up to 16% of students, on
         average, leave South Africa to take up international opportunities. The Skills Audit reports
         further, that 82% of the employers surveyed believe that this trend is likely to increase in
         the next five years.

         The fact is that exact figures are unavailable, and it is therefore difficult to determine the
         short and long term impact on both employment in the sector, and the sector’s performance
         and competitiveness. In the end, we have little alternative but to build and sustain a local
         pool of talent to drive growth. But this is not all. Employment practices, in some corners of
         the sector, must change so that we build rather than dilute the quality of the nation’s labour
         pool.

         5.1.6 Planning and Management
         Planning and management of the sector’s human capital is not a simple matter. It is about
         bringing the right factors together in order to ensure that all available resources are properly
         applied to the task of building and sustaining human capital for the performance and
         competitiveness of the sector. Crafting human capital management is the answer. But the
         formation and efficient utilization of human resources for the sector is constrained by the
         manner in which its human capital is planned and managed. The typical response is to
         train more to fill the gap, and to use a variation of related interventions to ensure that more
         training is undertaken. This has resulted in the preponderance of training in a highly
         fragmented and uncontrolled training enterprise where quality is difficult to manage, supply
         is difficult to control and large sections of the country’s geography cannot be served. While
         the “train more” response may be correct, perhaps this response could be complemented
         with a commitment to train better, smarter and more strategically. In this light, the
         fundamental issue in education and training in the sector remains the manner in which the
         sector’s human capital is planned and managed.

         There are several constraining factors which affect and limit the comprehensiveness and
         quality of planning and management for the sector. The primary ones among them are:
         the inadequacy and general unavailability of information for planning; the fragmentation of
         governance structures which make it difficult to manage an education and training function
         in such a complex and volatile sector; the inadequacy of reporting structures for generating

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                      54
         training data; and the inclination to manage training in the industry without the full
         involvement of employers. Only these will be discussed below merely as examples of the
         factors which constrain.

         The most significant among all these factors is the unavailability of complete, correct and
         appropriate information upon which strategic decisions could be made. And here, we do
         not only refer to data on education and training only but to a host of other data which will
         present a more complete picture for strategic interventions; statistical data on industrial
         and labour market surveys to monitor trends in the sector; demographic and social factors
         in order to monitor the growth and mobility patterns of the population and the social
         conditions under which they live; the rate and location of capital injection into the sector in
         order to assess the input of developments by specific geographic regions; wage surveys
         and surveys of employment practices in the sector and the nature and quality of
         infrastructure development for providing education and training. Here, it is necessary to
         combine economic and employment data, social and demographic data and data on the
         contribution of education and training so that a more complete picture can be crafted about
         what is necessary to promote more effective human capital development in the sector.
         Much statistical data is available in the tourism sector from the efforts of firms such as
         Prodigy and Grant Thornton, among others. But often this data is not integrated and
         combined in ways that will present the whole picture of what should inform the wide and
         diverse scope of training interventions. THETA generates information from its WSPs. This
         information is potentially valuable, but the data generated is not representative of the
         sector. Of the 41,740 employers in the sector, only 20,166 or 48% are registered with
         THETA, and of those registered, only 751 or 1.8% submit WSPs. Data based on WSPs
         alone is therefore not useful for making judgements about the education and training for the
         sector as a whole. Of the 28,000 employers in the hospitality sub-sector of THETA about
         14,828 or 53% are registered, but still only 456 or 1.6% submit WSPs.

         Economic and demographic information of high value exists; though not complete, this data
         is generally not in an integrated manner so that a more complete set of information is used
         to inform strategic decisions. The wide range of government organizations involved in the
         tourism sector could, together, produce a valuable set of useful information about the
         sector’s status, performance and prospects in education and training. But, there is no
         central point in government that is assigned to retrieve, collect and process a combined set
         of data. Generally, each department keeps its processes and the data generated for its
         own use. The end result is that overall planning and management for the sector is
         constrained.

         Education and training for the sector is constituted of a complex body of public and private
         entities which undertake the responsibility to grow the sector’s skills base. It includes
         Departments of Education, THETA, DEAT and other government departments, in addition
         to private providers of training including the training undertaken by large employers. The
         complexity in the sector’s education and training presents significant issues in planning and
         management. Among the issues are that: there are several different points of governance
         authority which creates fragmentation; there is no common format for reporting on
         education and training; achievements which generate information that cannot be
         aggregated; policies which govern different streams of training may differ, leading to
         different priorities and approaches; and, among others, the content and process of training

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  55
         in the same course may differ widely among training entities. Hence standards are not the
         same. In spite of this, there are no effective integrated mechanisms to streamline the
         diverse arrangements for training. Many in the field indicate that this is essentially the
         mandate of THETA; but THETA’s scope of influence and range of operational concern is
         much too narrow to serve the sector well. THETA limits its role to the regulation of
         leaderships and skills programmes, and thereby fails to take account of the majority of
         training in the sector which occurs in many different institutions and which is delivered in
         many different forms. Effective planning and management for the sector must overcome
         both its complexities and its inconsistencies in order to streamline the overall system for
         producing the sector’s skilled people.

         In reflecting on the past, many in the field have suggested that effective leadership in the
         sector could be driven by the industry. It is noted that leadership by industry leaders can
         create the impetus for change. But while industry’s ongoing input and leadership support is
         essential to any progress, the developments in the sector should be government-led,
         especially since so much of the current education and training function for tourism growth is
         lodged in the public sector. THETA, as the designated education and training authority for
         the sector, is constituted of labour unions and employers, who in theory should provide
         leadership in taking education and training decisions which will benefit the sector. But
         THETA’s leadership role in this regard has not materialized. Many in the industry contend
         that employers who can be drivers of change in the sector are not represented on the
         THETA board and have no significant role in reshaping the education and training system
         for the sector. Some efforts must be made to more fully integrate employers in the planning
         and management of human capital formation and utilization in the sector.

         5.1.7 Social Factors
         Unlike other countries, human capital formation in South Africa is deeply rooted in a well-
         defined and vigorously pursued agenda of transformation; and, not unexpectedly, this
         agenda is intricately woven into the fabric of policy, practice and strategy in pursuing the
         sector’s growth and development objectives. But the agenda of transformation is even
         more critical in tourism as an economic sector, than it, perhaps, is in other sectors of the
         economy. The 1996 White Paper on the development of tourism in South Africa makes the
         ideal of transformation the centerpiece of its agenda. In light of the past inequities which
         have resulted in the under-education of the masses, and which have consequently led to
         lives of unemployment, poverty, hunger and chronic hardship in many local communities,
         the tourism sector is seen as a catalyst for human development and a new frontier of
         opportunity for previously neglected groups. It is also perceived as a sector that is within
         reach of all and therefore most accessible for changing the lives of many in local
         communities.

         But the transformation agenda in tourism, if properly applied, will have some effect on the
         manner in which skills are developed, the places that are targeted for skills development
         and the rate at which skilled people are made available to the economy. Properly applying
         the agenda will mean assigning priority to the development of the skills base in rural and
         poor communities and increasing the availability of skills to tourism businesses in
         depressed areas. Generating new skills in conditions of poverty, unemployment and under-
         education, among others, is not a simple task. But if it must happen its structures and
         programming must be innovative and fresh. Here, efforts will be made to bring opportunity

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                56
         to those who have not had access through the normal routes of education and training
         either because of poor educational preparation, unavailability of funds or the inaccessibility
         of adequate facilities for education and training in areas of need. Special funding packages
         must be developed to render support to learners and institutions; bridging programmes
         must be established so that the educationally deprived can have access to learning and
         skills development; employers will have to lend a hand in creating new opportunities in new
         places for internships, learnerships and work experience programmes; educational
         institutions will have to bend their rules and alter their programming to promote accessibility
         to the non-traditional learner and, among others, community structures must be called to
         render support in building a climate of hope, confidence and personal achievement. For
         communities in crises, one stakeholder cannot meet the demand with a single mode of
         programming. The solution must in the collective effort to make it work.

         Truly transformational programming for skills development in the sector will create a new
         stream of talent in places where the most benefit could be derived both socially and
         economically. It will not come without effort, but the rewards can be immense.

         5.1.8 Industry Practice
         Human capital formation for the tourism sector must take into account the practices by
         businesses in the sector which may either promote or restrict the flow of talent into the
         sector. Then, in spite of the education and training conducted for occupations in the sector,
         if the practices of its businesses deter individuals from entry into those occupations then the
         training will be of no value to the industry and skills deficits in the sector will remain.
         Human capital formation is not a one-sided affair. Allowance must be made and initiatives
         must be taken for properly prepared talent to enter the correct occupational slots.
         Employers must make entry into the sector’s occupations attractive. But, to some extent,
         this is not the case in the tourism sector. In general, the tourism industry is perceived to be
         less attractive, particularly for candidates of BEE. The sector has a low appeal in the
         market in which it competes for labour, and such negative perceptions are beginning to
         define the “nature of the industry”.

         The first issue that arises is the level of wages earned in the sector. In general, wages in
         the tourism industry are perceived to be low. It is perceived that tourism is not able to offer
         the same salaries as other sectors; and, as a result, skilled people who are prepared for the
         sector take up employment elsewhere where earnings are higher. At the level of unskilled
         and semi-skilled jobs in the sector, the culture of low wages and poor working conditions is
         well known, and, unfortunately it is equally well tolerated by those who have no other
         option. It was noted, that even with sectoral wage determination by the Department of
         Labour, the practices in the sector have not changed. Paying low wages is just too
         attractive and profitable for some businesses in the sector when there is a large pool of
         unemployed, poor, generally uneducated and largely deprived individuals who constitute
         the economy’s readily available cheap labour.

         But the low wages and generally inadequate incentive and reward system is not the only
         issue. A variety of HRD deficits arise. Working conditions are noted as poor, and the level
         of benefits in the industry generally unacceptable; entry requirements are sometimes too
         demanding and restrictive and therefore limit entry into the industry; out-sourcing, though
         efficient, builds insecurity about job intention; hiring practices are said to be inappropriate

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  57
         and serve to deny access to many; and among others, there is little upliftment opportunities
         for black staff, especially women. Some believe that businesses in the sector are too
         reliant on practical experiences giving less weight to certificates and other forms of formal
         qualifications. This results from a belief in the sector that the formal education and training
         establishment is unable to prepare people who are “industry ready” and people who can be
         productive from the initial point of hire. Another response of businesses in this regard is to
         focus on in-house training rather then paying external agents for training services.

         But the sector is so diverse and complex that sweeping generalization will rarely be true for
         all businesses. For instance, on the one hand, the sector is said to have a slow response
         to transformational initiatives; but it is also true that many businesses in the sector have
         embraced BEE as the opportunity to transform their business. Yet, if negative perceptions
         persist, the tourism industry could be labeled negatively and the sector will not be
         successful in retaining the talent that other sectors need.

         Industry practices, particularly in relation to HRM, can totally nullify the gains made in
         human capital formation for the sector. In spite of the availability of jobs, some potential
         employees may choose not to seek employment because of low wages and their
         perception of employment conditions. They may then enter other sectors in which they can
         earn more and reach further career-wise. In fact, some contend, that the scarcity of critical
         skills in the sector may not be due to the absence of these critical skills in the economy.
         The chef you need is now employed as a personal assistant and the bar tender is in the
         construction industry. With few exceptions, most of the scarce and critical skills in tourism
         are skills that are needed in other sectors of the economy. This, in fact, may be the core of
         the scarce skills problem. The tourism industry is largely uncompetitive in the open market
         for scarce and critical skills. If undesirable practices prevail, then there will be absence of
         skills in the sector in spite of the availability of the said skills in the economy. There must
         be some concern in the industry that its own practices may have contributed to the
         unavailability of the skilled labour needed to sustain and enhance its performance.

         5.1.9 Policy Leadership and Governance
         Tourism in South Africa is government-led, industry-driven and community-based. Tourism
         strategy, therefore, cannot be driven by industry and orchestrated in communities without
         the leadership to be exercised by government. Government provides leadership through
         policy development and management, through funding support or tax relief as financial
         incentives, through technical support and guidance in support of the implementation of
         strategic initiatives, and through the establishment of appropriate governance and
         administrative structures to ensure accountability and delivery. Although these are only a
         few of the instruments that are generally used, they represent a package of options for
         making things happen. But in its exercise of leadership, all these policy instruments are
         crafted into a cohesive and streamlined programme of intervention that is designed to make
         a difference. This manner of leadership is not a “one shot affair”. The exercise of
         leadership and the crafting and structuring of development interventions for the sector must
         be undertaken from day to day. The performance of the sector is dependent on the quality
         of this leadership. Human capital formation for the sector will be constrained and will
         under-perform without this leadership.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  58
         Currently this manner of leadership is not available to the sector. While the essential policy
         instruments for this leadership are in place, the capacity to craft disparate pieces into a
         cohesive and articulated programme of intervention is not yet in place. Fragmentation in
         the governance of the sector abounds. There is vertical fragmentation in terms of the
         manner in which the activities of the different spheres of government are delinked, and in
         terms of the disconnection between overall strategic priorities in the sector and the
         structures, resources and support that are available to communities to deliver on these
         priorities. There is also some degree of horizontal fragmentation in terms of the lack of an
         adequate level of collaboration between different governmental bodies within each sphere
         of government. For instance, many national departments are involved in tourism and
         collaboration exists among many of them, not all. But such collaboration, when it occurs, is
         generally strategic and not operational. All relevant parties or stakeholders at the national
         level do not generally come to the table. This results in a ripple effect of discord from the
         national level to the level of community structures and organizations.

         Leadership and governance of the sector is as complex as the sector is diverse. It will not
         happen by chance. It must be properly planned and orchestrated so that it will make a
         difference. The critical issue to be resolved here is that of determining how stakeholders
         will share responsibilities in a reconfigured system for integrated delivery of skills
         development in the sector. At all levels of this delivery system industry partners must have
         a role. As a major stakeholder, the industry must determine what responsibility it is willing
         to undertake.

         5.1.10 History and Tradition
         A nation’s history, beliefs and traditions represent the cultural medium within which all its
         other undertakings take effect. What we do as a society is influenced and shaped by who
         we are as a people and whom we have become as a result our unique history and our well-
         embedded traditions. Over time, as the present continues to rewrite our history we reshape
         ourselves and slowly craft a new society and a new people. History and tradition matter in
         many ways. As a result, the process of human capital formation for the economy as a
         whole, and for the sector, in particular, cannot escape the effect of history and the impact of
         the beliefs and traditions we bring to the decisions we take at the workplace. These
         decisions and the resulting behaviour are not without impact on our human resource pool.
         While our strength, vigour and convictions bring solidarity and cohesion in the workplace,
         our prejudices are destructive; and all manner of prejudice affects the many human
         resource decisions we take – whom we hire, who gets promotion, who is retrenched, who
         has access to management training and careers, and so forth. Sometimes, and for some of
         us, it is our culturally derived attitude toward woman and our incorrect perceptions about
         what they could and should do. More often than not it is our racial prejudices and our
         beliefs about who people are and what they can and will do in the workplace as a result of
         their race. Sometimes we hire and promote in order to create organizational environments
         to maintain a sense of safety and psychological security. The effect on our human
         resource pool in the sector is astounding. When race is a factor in where we are employed,
         what position we hold and what careers we have access to, then we cut our pool of
         available talent by two thirds, perhaps. We increase unhappiness and, as a result, labour
         mobility within the sector as people change jobs to find places of greater comfort. The
         complexities created in human capital management are beyond our ability to calculate


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  59
         because so much of our actions are hidden and so many of our decisions are unchallenged
         as victims voluntarily and quietly retreat.

         Behaviour will not change through policy because values cannot be legislated. Behaviour
         will change through the collective social conscience of the sector that will make all reflect
         on what we have done with all that we have been given. As we rewrite our history from day
         to day, perhaps we will learn to find a way.

         5.1.11 Conclusion
         Human capital formation and use is not a multi-channel conduit where skills flow smoothly
         through to places of need. It is a complex and dynamic set of interactions among a myriad
         of factors which result in the level of availability of skills at the right time, in the right place
         and with the right set of qualifications and experience. The complexity in crafting human
         capital management lies, not in the unending provision of training, but in the manner in
         which different aspects of the tourism infrastructure are built, adjusted, shaped and aligned
         so as to ensure all relevant factors work toward a common good for education and training.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                       60
    6. THE CONTEXT OF HRD IN TOURISM
    6.1 Introduction and Purpose

         Human resource development in tourism is a diverse and complex terrain to manoeuvre.
         This stems partly from the complexity of tourism as a sector and partly from the currently
         disconnected structures for skills development. In the wider body of tourism, there are a
         number of actors and stakeholders, an extensive and diverse policy framework, an array of
         intergovernmental bodies and initiatives, and strategic frameworks and priorities to govern
         every aspect of the sector’s undertaking. In respect to HRD, the policy framework is also
         well established, but institutional structures for delivery are still diverse, uncoordinated and
         largely underproductive. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to shed light on the
         structure and context of HRD in the tourism sector and to highlight the issues and
         circumstances which may require strategic intervention. Because of the complexity of the
         sector, the chapter does not seek to be fully comprehensive and detailed. Rather, it seeks
         to present an overall picture so that the mandate for an HRD strategy could be placed in its
         respective context, and the strategic imperatives which emerge from our analysis could be
         more readily understood where possible. The chapter uses available data to statistically
         describe what current circumstances are. Yet, this data is rarely complete and sometimes
         not accurate. As a result, statistical data is supplemented with comments and ideas which
         have emerged from the interviews conducted. In the end, all we seek to do is to present as
         accurate a description as we can of the context and circumstance of HRD in tourism where
         strategic intervention is necessary.

         Organization of the Chapter

         The remaining portion of the chapter is divided into four separate sub-sections as follows:
         the structure of HRD in the tourism, sector; training supply and the availability of skills;
         training demand and the utilization of skills; the infrastructure for delivery. Each sub-section
         will be addressed in turn.

    6.2 Structure of HRD in the Tourism Sector

         HRD in the tourism sector is complex, partly because of the variety of actors and
         stakeholders in the sector, and partly because the sector itself is so diverse, so wide in
         scope and so integrated with other policy spheres and economic activities. But in order to
         plan for HRD in the sector, it is necessary to understand the structure and dynamics of
         education and training operations in the sector. Figure 3 on the next page seeks to sketch
         the essential features of the structure of HRD in the sector. This is not a simple task, and,
         as a result, all the features of its structure may not be represented. The structure, however,
         highlights several critical features of the institutional arrangements for the delivery of HRD
         nationally. Each of these features will be discussed separately as follows: The policy
         framework; the spheres of government; the stakeholders and private bodies and
         associations; frameworks for coordination and inter-governmental relations, and among
         others, consideration for the frontline of delivery – the community. The structure in Figure 3
         seeks to also highlight and comment on the structure through which policy takes effect in
         communities.


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   61
        Figure 3: KEY ELEMENTS OF THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE
        SECTOR

                                                       NATIONAL POLICY FRAMEWORK & STRATEGIC AGENDA                                                                  Stakeholders
                                                                                                                                                                       & Private
                                              Tourism                            Skills Dev                 Economic Dev &                   Public Service            Bodies &
                                                                                                            Transformation                   Transformation          Associations
    SPHERES
                                    White Paper on Tourism;              Skills Dev Act; Skills Dev &       Integrated tourism           Batho Pele White Paper;      influencing
      OF                            Growth Strategy ; GCP2               Services Act; National Skills      entrepreneurship             White Paper on              Development
     GOVT                           study; Tourism Second                Dev Strategy 2; A Nation at        support programme            Transforming the Public       of Sector
                                    Economy Strategy;                    Work – HRD strategy of             TEP; Transformation          Service; White Paper on
                                    Tourism Act, Tourism Trade &         South Africa; HRD Strategy         strategy for SA; BBBEE       New Employment Policy for    Enterprises
                                    Travelers Charter, Tourism           for the Public Service;            Strategy; Tourism BEE        the Public Service;
                                    Airlift Strategy, Tourism Land       White Paper on Public              Charter Council;             Employment Equity Act          Unions
                                    Transport Strategy & others          Service Education &                Tourism Infrastructure
                                                                         Training; SAQA; Higher             Investment Framework
                                                                         Education Act



                                National Institutional Framework and Governance arrangements for Tourism Development e.g.                                              TBCSA
                                                     MIPTEC, MINMEC, National Skills Development Forum                                                                FEDHASA
                                                                                                                                                                       SAAHS
                                                                                                                                                                        HILG
                                                           DEAT                   DOL                  Support                                                          TESA
STAKEHOLDERS
GOVERNMENT &




                                                       • Tourism                                       Depts in                Private                Private          SAACI
  NATIONAL




                                 National              • TEPCO                THETA                      Govt                 Industry                Training         NTTPF
                                 Dept of               • Eco-                 Board                  DTI; Public             Training               Institutions
                                                                             Chamber                    Works                centrally                                 SATSA
                                Education                tourism                                                                                     Centrally
                                                         (Tourism           Committees               DPLG; DoT               coord. by              coordinated
                                                         for                Operations                 SALGA                Head Office                               SACCAWU
                                                         protected          committees                 Foreign                                                         HIAWU
                                                         areas)                                      Affairs; SAT


                                      (Poor performance, inadequate budgets, lack of appropriate policy, structures & strategies)
                                                                                                                                                                      Provincial
                                                                     Housed in                                                                                         Chapters
        STAKEHOLDERS
         AUTHORITIES




                                       Provincial                      units in               Provincial                  Based on                                    of national
          PROVINCIAL




                                        Dept of                       different               Skills Dev                 location of                 Based on        associations
             AND




                                       Education                        Depts                  Forum                      company                    Location
                                                                     • Econ                                                facilities                   of            Provincial
                                            FET                        Affairs                   PGDS                                                facilities      structures of
                                            HEIs                     • Local                     Forum                                                                  unions
                                                                       Gvt



                                                                                                                          Based on                                        Local
        MUNICIPAL & LOCAL




                                                                                               Public &                  location of                   Varied         structures of
         STAKEHOLDERS
          AUTHORITIES &
          GOVERNMENT




                                        Local and                                              Private                    company                     location       organizations
                                        Regional                      Tourism                  Training                   facilitator                                       &
                                        schools &                     Projects                Providers                                               Sparse         Local reps of
                                        institutions                                              No                       Use of                   geographic           national
                                                                                              presence                  geographically               location        association of
                                                                                              of THETA                   distributed                                     Unions
                                                                                                                           private
                                                                                                                          providers




                                             Tourism                    Tourism Facilities                 Tourism Skills                    Tourism Training
        TOURISM AUTHORITIES &
         COMMUNITIES, LOCAL




                                             Products                      & Services                     Supply Dynamics                        Entities             Community
                                                                                                                                                                      Structures
           STAKEHOLDERS




                                       •   Sites as product            • Boards &                        • Will be particular to         •   Intuitions
                                                                                                                                                                      Community
                                       •   People as product             associations                      community and                 •   High Schools            Development
                                       •   Events as product           • Information Centres               occupation                    •   FET                       Workers
                                       •   Safety & security           • Tour Guide                      • Over supply                   •   Technikons
                                           as product                    Operations                      • Scarce skills                 •   University
                                                                       • Hotels, B&Bs                    • Wage structures               •   Private Providers
                                                                       • Restaurants, Night                                              •   Industry training
                                                                         Clubs, Bars & others




                                       Common Principles Governing Training and Service Delivery in the Sector



        HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                  62
    6.2.1     The Policy Framework
              The policy framework for tourism, and hence for HRD in tourism, is the body of rules,
              regulations, planning and strategies which guide and govern the activities taken in the
              sector to manage tourism and effect its growth. HRD in tourism is therefore affected by
              all relevant policies affecting tourism as a sector, and those affecting the public service
              as a whole; this is in addition to the policies which govern skills development and
              education and training. The body of policy considerations here is as wide as the
              number of governmental agencies involved in managing the activities in the sector.

              Because of the scope and diversity of policy influence, the critical issue here is
              rationalization. Rationalization refers to the extent to which the practical implications of
              policy for HRD in the sector are properly interrogated and streamlined into a cohesive
              framework of action. There are two aspects of this. The first is the determination of the
              HRD implication of all related policies; and, the second is the alignment and
              rationalization of policies related to education and training in the sector. In respect to
              the latter, it is necessary to ensure that the Skills Development Act, the Higher
              Education Act, SAQA policies and policies governing other education and training
              undertakings bring coherence and unity in delivery rather than create gaps, duplication
              and inconsistencies.

    6.2.2     The Spheres of Government
              Policy interventions are exercised and are brought into reality through the activities and
              actions of government agencies in the 3 spheres of government – national, provincial
              and local. In respect to tourism, this is a complicated affair. Firstly, because of the
              number of agencies and departments involved in the tourism sector at all levels of
              government. Many are involved in the management of the sector’s business; but, in
              addition, many are involved in education and training for the sector. While the strength
              of this scope of involvement is the adequacy of coverage and the differentiation of
              responsibilities, the inherent weakness is the complexity and cumbersome nature of
              coordination and alignment of activities. This becomes a more critical issue when one
              observes that the role and function of national agencies and departments could define
              the nature and effectiveness of activities in the other spheres of government. Within the
              sector, fragmentation and misalignment at the top sometimes filters right through to
              provincial and local authorities. This is made even more complicated by the fact that
              there is not a well established and streamlined governmental structure in tourism which
              is headed by DEAT and structured for policy implementation down to communities. The
              tourism function is a competence of both national and provincial governments; and,
              while tourism policy and strategy is framed nationally, there are many different bodies
              and institutional arrangements through which implementation take place in the different
              spheres of government.

              The critical consideration here is that structural misalignment and disjunctures
              compromise the effectiveness and efficiency with which policy priorities are affected and
              are eventually realized in communities and the lives of people.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    63
    6.2.3     Stakeholders and Private Bodies
              One of the unique features of tourism as a sector, is not only the number of private
              bodies and associations which exist in the sector, but the critical role these bodies and
              associations play in the governance and operation of the sector’s activities. There is a
              general understanding that tourism is government-led, private sector-driven and
              community-based. The private bodies and associations take leadership in enabling the
              private sector to “drive” tourism and realize our vision of tourism growth and
              development. These bodies are generally associations of employers representing
              different aspects of the sector’s business and association of employees in the sector
              who use their employee organizations to seek redress and generally protect their rights
              and interest as employees. These bodies play a critical role in the operation and
              performance of the sector. Most are well-organized nationally with provincial chapters
              in various provinces. In most cases, national structures are more organized and more
              active than provincial chapters; and, in almost all cases, these bodies are not
              represented at the level of local government. Many of the bodies were conceived for
              the purpose of advancing industry interest in their respective sub-sections and lobbying
              and influencing government in the development of policies which will promote rather
              than constrain the business activities and performance of the sector.

              The issue here is the sheer number of stakeholders who seek to advance their interest
              in the sector. At some point, the independent activity of such a diverse group could
              lead to fragmentation of the sector’s interest in a manner that could be counter-
              productive. However, the critical role played by these bodies and associations in the
              performance of the sector cannot be denied. The challenge faced is blending roles and
              creating linkages which maximize the collective contributions these bodies can make.

    6.2.4     Frameworks for Coordination and Intergovernmental Relations
              With such diverse and complex institutional arrangements, it is necessary to establish
              structures and systems to ensure coordination and to ensure coherence in undertaking
              the business of the sector. In this respect, the roles of the THETA Board, the National
              Skills Development Forum and that of MIPTEC and MINMEC are critical. Even so,
              skills development in the sector is not sufficiently streamlined and coordinated as
              education and training in the sector is managed through two distinctly different centres
              of power, the National Department of Education and the Department of Labour. These
              are in addition to the myriad of other agencies and bodies that are involved in education
              and training in the sector. The issue here is the manner in which the impact of training
              resources is maximized to the benefit of the sector, and the extent to which strategy can
              govern the activities of the sector. This is only possible with effective coordination and
              inter-governmental relations. There is still room for progress in this area.

    6.2.5     The Community - Frontline of Delivery
              Tourism is community-based. This, in effect means that our tourism products are
              located in communities, and, as a result, our delivery strengths should reside with
              communities. Tourism facilities and services, tourism training entities and tourism
              capacity in general should be largely community-based. Understanding possibilities for
              and constraints upon delivery should also be calculated and assessed on the basis of
              circumstances in the community. The social beneficiaries of tourism within our agenda

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  64
              of transformation are based in communities. In effect, most of the capacity for delivery
              in the sector should reside in communities. This, in fact, is not the case. The
              community is institutionally, perhaps, the weakest link in the chain of delivery. Much
              effort must be made to build capacity to deliver in the respective local communities,
              particularly those that are targeted for tourism growth and development.

    6.3 The Supply and Availability of Skills

          The supply of skilled people to the sector comes from a variety of sources. Most come
          from education and training institutions (public and private); but others come from the
          learnerships administered by THETA and other SETAs, from special programmes run by
          government agencies and semi-private bodies such as DEAT, DTI, JIPSA and TEP, and
          from training programmes run by employers in the industry. Foreigners come into the
          market both at higher and managerial jobs, and as lower end operational and unskilled or
          semi-skilled workers. Because of the lack of data, an analysis of the total annual skills
          supply to the sector is currently unavailable. But data available through THETA gives
          some indication of the overall level of supply on an annual basis. Table 15 shows the
          number of learners supplied to the sector by all training providers from 2004 to 2006. The
          highest number of learners is supplied in Hospitality as one of the largest sub-sectors. No
          details are available on the number supplied by occupational categories or by sector-
          related education programmes. And, again, no data is available on the geographic
          dispersion of supply by occupational or educational categories. This, in fact, means that,
          overall, we have not really interrogated the dynamics of skills supply to the sector in
          relation to the sector demand as specified by the respective sub-sectors and by
          geographic regions or zones.

Table 15: LEARNERS SUPPLIED TO SECTOR


                     SECTOR                                    2004     2005               2006
Hospitality
                                                              14,698    16,566            15,226
Tourism & Travel
                                                               4,260    4,088             4,181
Sport, Recreation & Fitness
                                                               3,172    3,328             3,030
Gaming & Lotteries
                                                              No data    996              1,564
Conservation & Tourist Guiding
                                                               368       997              1,145

Source: Table reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09




          Another valuable piece of learner supply data available is that on enrollment, completion
          and employment rates for learners in the respective sub-sectors of tourism. Table 16
          shows enrolment, completion and employment rates for 2005 and 2006. The data shows
          that the majority of learners who complete programmes in the sector become employed,
          and, the annual production of learners for each sub-sector is not constricted. Again,
          without data on actual areas of training and employment, this data is difficult to interpret
          and can hardly be used as a basis for action.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                65
Table 16: NUMBER OF LEARNERS ENROLLED, COMPLETED AND EMPLOYED

                                                      2005                            2006
        SECTOR                                                   %                                 %
                               ENROLLED         COMPLETED     EMPLOYED   ENROLLED   COMPLETED   EMPLOYED

Hospitality
                                  2,569            2,510        82        2,388       2,307        84
Tourism & Travel
                                   682                618       79         697        632          82
Sport, Recreation &
                                   563                491       95         471        447          93
Fitness
Gaming & Lotteries
                                   398                249        -         306        391           -
Conservation &
                                   178                176       37         204        202          50
Tourist Guiding
Source: Table reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09




    6.4 Skills Demand for the Sector

          Some notion of skills demand in the sector is reflected in Table 17. The table does not
          present the full profile of skills for the sector, but gives some indication of the critical
          occupations in the sector, the occupational needs and the critical skills needed. In each of
          the sub-sectors identified, there are critical skills deficits, and the areas of communication,
          customer and guest relations and languages are the most common areas where generic
          skills are unavailable. The major areas in which generic skills are absent are noted in
          Table 18. There are 4 areas: leadership and management, information technology;
          customer service and languages. The specific skills required in each of these areas are
          noted in the table.

          In light of such skills deficits there are many areas in which positions are difficult to fill in
          each of the respective sub-sectors of the tourism sector. The most notable of these “hard
          to fill” positions are presented in Table 19. Again, the same scenario tends to play out
          between the tables. Areas of critical skills deficit result in critical positions in the sector
          remaining vacant.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     66
Table 17: CRITICAL SKILLS NEEDED

                                                  OCCUPATIONAL       CRITICAL SKILLS NEEDED IN
SECTOR                        OCCUPATIONS            NEEDS                                                 COMMENTS
                                                                              SECTOR
                                                    #      %
                             Chefs & Cooks        24,100   18%
                                                                 • Customer Service                      • Largest sub-
                             Waitrons             23,500   18%   • Foreign Languages                       sector with 67%
                                                                 • Communication Skills                    employers and
                             Managers             8,000    6%    • Service provider management             77% employees
                                                                                                         • Services in
        Hospitality




                                                                 • Outsourcing and procurement
                             Cashiers             7,800    6%      management                              sector generally
                                                                 • Service provider management             outsourced
                             Sales People           -       -    • Customer/guest relations

                             Front of House         -       -
                             Reception
                             Financial Managers     -       -

                             HR/IR                  -       -
                             Professionals
                             Travel Consultants   3,150    35%
                                                                 • Leadership & management               • Skills shortages
                             Bookkeepers           900     30%   • GPS – central reservation training      not a problem in
                                                                 • Negotiation                             this sector
                                                                 • Business management                   • Heavy weight
                                                                 • Financial management
        Tourism & Travel




                             Operations            800     9%                                              given to practical
                             Managers                            • Marketing                               experience
                                                                 • Languages                             • Employers
                             Tour Operators        600     7%    • Communication skills                    provide
                                                                 • Trade craft skills                      induction
                             Supervisors           450     5%    • Ticketing and product knowledge         training
                                                                 • Geographical knowledge                • Trend for
                                                                                                           qualified and
                                                                 • Sales skills
                             Tour Drivers           -                                                      experienced
                                                                 • IT (internet, e-commerce)
                                                                                                           employees to
                                                                 • Writing skills
                             Tour Managers          -                                                      open their own
                                                                 • Stress & time management                establishment
                                                                 • Development of tourism packages       • Fewer black
                                                                 • Product development                     employees

                             Tourist Guides       1,300    7%
                                                                 • Customer service/guest relations      • Sector draws
                                                                 • National resource management            employees who
  Conservation and Tourist




                                                                 • Knowledge of ecological resources       are highly
                             Supervisors/         1,100    6%      and processed                           educated
                             Managers/CGOs                       • Decision making and research skills   • Most people in
                                                                 • Environmental legislation and legal     sector in lower
         Guiding




                                                                   frameworks                              occupational
                                                                 • management and leadership               categories
                             Gaming Rangers       1,000    5%    • Etiquette and protocol
                                                                 • Air quality management
                                                                 • Waste management
                                                                 • Marine and coastal management
                             Sales                  -       -
                                                                 • Languages
                                                                 • Narration & interpretation skills
                                                                 • Environmental assessments
                                                                 • Geographical information systems
                                                                 • Site guiding




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                             67
                                       OCCUPATIONAL             CRITICAL SKILLS NEEDED IN
SECTOR         OCCUPATIONS                NEEDS                                                        COMMENTS
                                                                         SECTOR
                                          #           %
             Taxidermist                  -           -       • Indigenous plan science
                                                              • Wetland scientists and wetland
                                                                management
                                                              • Participatory rural approach

Source: Table reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09


Table 18: GENERIC SKILLS NEEDED


           SKILL AREAS                                SPECIFIC SKILLS                            COMMENTS
                                              • Business Management                   • Many courses now available but
                                              • Financial Management                    scope and content differ.
        Leadership and                        • Coaching and Mentoring                • Management is a priority of all
                                              • Marketing                               levels, and particularly
         Management
                                              • Supervision                             management to government
                                              • Outsourcing and Procurement             officials at all levels.
                                              • Project Management                    • Need is great in the informal
                                              • Industrial Relations                    sector and with SMMEs.
                                              • Service Provider Management
                                              • Negotiation Skills
                                              • Supply Chain Management
                                              • Office Management
                                              • Internet                              • This is fundamental for success
  Information Technology                      • E-mail                                  in the field, and critical at most
                                              • Information Management                  levels in all sectors.
                                              • Specific software used in             • Dynamic field. Need to keep up
                                                various sub-sectors                     with available technology.
                                                                                      • Basis for competitive edge in
                                                                                        the sector.

                                              • Communication                         • Generally personnel to be most
                                              • Etiquette and Protocol                  critical.
       Customer Service                       • Product Awareness                     • Content of training varies but
                                              • Customer/Guest Relations                generally limited.
                                                                                      • Not practiced as core training in
                                                                                        many programmes.
                                                                                      • SA host training not available in
                                                                                        most communities and not
                                                                                        sufficiently comprehensive.
                                              • Related to target markets             • Lack of available facilities.
                                              • English                               • In many cases foreign language
            Languages                         • French                                  offered as part of a full
                                              • Dutch                                   qualification.
                                              • Japanese                              • Lack of access in many
                                              • Chinese                                 provinces and localities.
                                                                                      • Need for courses to be
                                                                                        customised to the sector.
                                                                                      • Generally prioritized for urgent
                                                                                        intervention.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                     68
Table 19: SKILLS GAP - HARD TO FILL POSITIONS


          SECTOR                             POSITION                           SKILLS GAP
Hospitality                        Management               • The full range of communication skills across all
                                   Waiters                    occupational categories
                                   Chefs                    • Broad-spectrum (full range) of customer/guest
                                   Cooks                      relations skills – across all occupational categories
                                   Cashiers                 • Computer skills (usage of various computer
                                                              programmes, including specialised hospitality
                                                              software for some occupational categories) for
                                                              technicians and associate professionals,
                                                              professionals, senior officials/managers and clerks
                                                              in particular
                                                            • Occupationally specific skills for:
                                                                  • Sales people
                                                                  • Front of house reception staff
                                                                  • Cleaners and accommodation service workers
                                                                  • Financial managers
                                                                  • HR/IR professionals
                                                                  • Culinary workers (chefs and cooks)

Travel & Tourism                   Travel Consultants       • GDS/Central reservation training or travel
                                   Managers                   consultants
                                   Tour Drivers             • Developing appropriately skilled tour guides and
                                   Tour Operators             tour operators (full range of occupationally specific
                                   Tour Manager               skills)
                                                            • The full range of critical skills for tour guides and
                                                              tour operators, viz.
                                                                  • Communication
                                                                  • Computer skills (usage of various computer
                                                                    programmes as well as industry-specific
                                                                    programmes)
                                                                  • Guest relations
                                                                  • Security skills

Gaming & Lotteries                 Managers / Supervisors   • Occupationally-specific skills for surveillance and
                                   IT Personnel               security personnel, including monitoring skills and
                                                              equipment operating skills as well as guest relation
                                                              skills
                                                            • Communication skills and HR-specific skills (such
                                                              as implementing the HR needs of an organization
                                                              and knowledge of labour legislation) for HR
                                                              personnel
                                                            • Gaming payout skills for slot operators
                                                            • Communication and computer skills (usage of
                                                              computer programmes) for senior officials and
                                                              managers
                                                            • Communication and computer skills (usage of
                                                              computer programmes) for senior officials and
                                                              managers




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                               69
          SECTOR                             POSITION                                 SKILLS GAP
Sports, Recreation &               Fitness Trainer / Instructor   • Communication and public relations skills for clerks,
Fitness                            Sales Assistant                  security/maintenance personnel, senior
                                   Barman                           managers/officials, professionals and technicians
                                   Aerobics Instructor            • Computer skills (using various computer
                                   Managers / CEO                   programmes) for senior officials and managers and
                                                                    clerks
                                                                  • Management and leadership skills (occupationally-
                                                                    specific) for senior managers and officials
                                                                  • Development of financial managers (all
                                                                    occupationally-specific skills)
                                                                  • Sales, customer handling, sport best practice and
                                                                    office management skills for technicians

Conservation & Tourist             Supervisors / Managers /       • Computer skills (various computer programmes) for
Guiding                            CEO                              technicians, senior officials/managers and
                                   Tour Guides                      elementary workers
                                   Sales                          • Financial management skills for technicians
                                   Taxidermist                    • Communication skills for technicians, clerks, tourist
                                                                    guides and life sciences Professionals/ rangers
                                   Rangers
                                                                  • General supervisory and operations management
                                                                    skills for senior officials and managers
                                                                  • Guest relation skills for technicians, clerks and
                                                                    elementary workers
                                                                  • Office management skills for technicians and clerks
                                                                  • Understanding the importance of nature
                                                                    conservation – field rangers
                                                                  • Supervision and training skills for clerks and senior
                                                                    officials/managers
                                                                  • Occupationally specific cleaning skills for
                                                                    elementary workers
                                                                  • Front of house skills for clerks

Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007


    6.5 Infrastructure for Delivery

          The infrastructure for delivery is constituted of public and private schools and colleges,
          special programmes, learnerships in industry training and the availability of qualified
          training providers and adequate training facilities. An effort was made to map the
          availability of training opportunities geographically, and thereby determine by geographic
          zones the capacity of the system to produce skilled individuals in areas of need. The
          exercise could not be completed because of the unavailability of data. But the general
          indication is that there is a bias toward urban areas in the availability of education and
          training opportunities in the sector.

          One indication of this is reflected in the distribution of accredited training providers as
          reflected in Table 20. The picture is clear. First, there are too few accredited training
          providers available; and secondly, there are significant gaps in the availability of providers
          geographically, where many provinces and geographic areas do not have accredited
          providers within reach. Table 21 provides a unique illustration of the problem by noting the
          ratio of training demand vs. training provision. Again the level of disadvantage of some
          provinces in some sub-sectors is quite notable. The distribution of training opportunities
          geographically is very biased toward urban centres and more urbanized and advanced
          provinces. Rural areas, even those with significant tourism assets and products, are at a

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                   70
           significant disadvantage. Some supplemental interventions are provided in the special
           programmes of DEAT, TEP and JIPSA. But these interventions are not nearly enough to
           make a significant difference.




Table 20: TRAINING PROVIDER STATUS PER PROVINCE AND PER CHAMBER

                   CONSERVATION         GAMBLING          HOSPITALITY               TRAVEL              SPORT               TOTAL
PROVINCE
                    Full     Provis    Full     Provis    Full        Provis   Full     Provis   Full       Provis   Full       Provis

Eastern
                     1         -        -         -           1         -       1            2    1             -     4             2
Cape
Free State
                     1         -        -         -           1         -       -            -    -             -     2              -

Gauteng
                     3         -        3         -           17        4       6            4    1             1    30             9

KwaZulu-
                     -         1        -         -           2         2       4            1    -             1     6             5
Natal
Mpumalanga
                     3         1        -         -           -         -       -            1    1             -     4             2

Northern
                     -         -        -         -           -         -       -            -    -             -     -              -
Cape
Limpopo
                     1         1        -         -           1         1       -            1    -             -     2             3

North West
                     1         -        -         -           2         0       2            0    -             -     5             1

Western
                     1         1        -         -           3         2       1            -    1             -     6             3
Cape

TOTAL               11         4        3         -           27        9      14            9    4             2    59             25

Source: Table reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09


Table 21: TRAINING DEMAND (EMPLOYMENT) VS PROVISION (TRAINING PROVIDERS)

             PROVINCE                       NUMBER OF             NUMBER OF     NUMBER OF         EMPLOYEE           EMPLOYER
                                            EMPLOYEES             BRANCHES       TRAINING           RATIO              RATIO
                                                                                PROVIDERS
Eastern Cape                                   5,720                 939                2               1:2860               1:470
Free State                                     3,617                 294                1               1:3617              1:3617
Gauteng                                       43,832                4,613              21               1:2087               1:220
KwaZulu-Natal                                 21,447                1,868              10               1:2144               1:187
Mpumalanga                                     7,685                 641                3               1:2561               1:214
Northern Cape                                  1,324                 126                0                  0                   0
Limpopo                                        4,333                 224                2               1:2166               1:112
North West                                     7,018                 232                3               1:2339               1:77
Western cape                                  27,613                1,079               6               1:4602               1:180

TOTAL                                         122,589               10,016             58               1:2553              1:209
Source: Table reconstructed from Sector Skills Plan 2008/09




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                      71
          In the end, there are a variety of issues arise which undermine the effectiveness of the
          HRD delivery infrastructure in the tourism sector. Among them are the following:

                    1. Unavailability and inaccessibility of training opportunities to many because of
                       the poor geographic spread of training providers.

                    2. Fragmentation and incoherence in the existing structures for the delivery of
                       training in the sector.

                    3. Preponderance of accredited training as many employers do not see the need
                       for accreditation and many training providers find accreditation too difficult to
                       attain.

                    4. Poor articulation between the different levels of the education system.

                    5. Lack of an effective and efficient body for planning for managing skills
                       development for the sector as a whole. THETA is not seen as a torch bearer in
                       this regard, and the sector needs strong skills development coordination in
                       order to bring more coherence and more uniformity in standards. In this regard
                       many critical items are not available. There is no comprehensive catalogue of
                       tourism training with notation of quality; no national registry for certified trainers
                       in tourism; no national registry of approved tourism training facilities; and,
                       among others, no mechanism in place for ensuring the articulation of training
                       between levels of the education system.

                    6. Tourism training in higher education institutions is assessed as having little
                       industry relevance, thus producing graduates who are unable to immediately
                       take up responsibilities in the workplace. Links between education and industry
                       in this regard are generally poor.

                    7. Learning materials are said to vary widely in content and quality, and, as a
                       result, people with the same qualifications may have vastly different levels of
                       competence. This reduces the confidence of employers in the overall output
                       from the education and training system.

                    8. Training in the sector is not demand-led but supply-driven. As a result, there is
                       significant oversupply of skills in some areas with notable scarcity of skills in
                       other areas.

                    9. There is a general lack of competency profiling for occupations, and curricula
                       materials are not generally based on occupational competency profiles.

                    10. There are many special projects in the sector in relation to training and skills
                        development, but in general, these projects are not sufficiently coordinated to
                        result in a concerted programme of action which will have the overall impact
                        desired.

    6.6 Conclusion

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                       72
          The context of HRD in the sector seems to highlight the need for a strategy which will bring
          more coherence and synergy to its skills development efforts. The gaps which exist do not
          exist only in terms of skills deficits and the absence of training opportunities to fill these
          gaps. There are structural and organizational gaps as well, in addition to areas where
          policy interventions may be required. An HRD strategy for the sector must be seen as a
          comprehensive and integrated programme of action that will simultaneously respond to the
          wide range of issues which undermine the performance of education and training in the
          sector. If skills development must add value to tourism growth, then structures and
          systems must be re-engineered at all levels.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  73
    7. STRATEGIC IMPERATIVES FOR HRD IN TOURISM

    7.1 Introduction and Purpose

          Strategy is goal-oriented and driven by purpose. The goal of the HRD strategy for the
          tourism sector is to ensure that skills development in the sector adds value and contributes
          to the strategic business priorities in tourism as reflected in the 1996 White Paper on
          Tourism and most recently, in the Tourism Growth Strategy 2008-2010. In this regard, the
          strategic orientation for HRD in the sector is to resolve the problems and issues in skills
          development which have created an inherent inability in the sector to produce and sustain
          the skills and talent it needs to sustain growth. It is hardly possible to solve all the
          problems which exist in the short term. Some of the problems are complex and enduring;
          and, though they affect the skills development enterprise, they are not issues related to
          education and training. Many are organizational issues, and some are distinctly
          concerned with management and governance in the public sector.

          In presenting the HRD strategy, therefore, the priority first of all, is to identify a minimal and
          core set of focus areas in which one can intervene so as to create the change that is
          necessary for transforming skills development. These areas of focus are referred to as
          strategic imperatives for HRD. These are not solutions in themselves, but areas in which
          possible solutions must be explored. It is imperative that interventions be made in all of
          these areas if progress must be made. These areas are inter-dependent, no one area can
          be left unattended; all must be addressed in a cohesive and integrated manner to create
          the difference desired. Below, 19 strategic imperatives are listed and discussed briefly.
          The strategy presented in the following chapter is based on these strategic areas of focus.

         1. A Service Ethos and Tourism Culture
            It is necessary to create in South Africa tourism a public culture and ethos of service. It
            is understood that the employees in the sector should be oriented to customer service,
            and efforts in this regard are being undertaken and are laudable. But service
            orientation is not a subject to be studied in school and practiced when one has an
            encounter with a visitor. Service orientation is a way of life. In cultures where tourist
            are showered with good customer service, that sense of service does not begin in the
            school, but at home and in communities and in one’s daily interaction with people. A
            service ethos here refers to the initiatives to be undertaken so as to ensure that the
            people in South Africa constitute the core of its tourism success by inculcating a sense
            and spirit of service. This sense of service must extend into the tourism industry, and
            must be reinforced through training so that the employees in the sector are able to
            render services, naturally, to the people they encounter. A memorable tourist
            experience comes, not only from the people who serve tourists, but from the attitude of
            the people whom they meet in the general public.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                      74
         2. Strengthening the Educational Foundation or Building Human Capital in the
            Sector
            A poor educational foundation has “knock on” effects on all the subsequent educational
            experiences and efforts of learners. Thus skills development in tourism is constrained
            by the poor level of education held by school leavers who enter into the sector. Many
            do not have prerequisite skills to participate in and benefit from tourism training
            provided by the employer. Efforts must be made to strengthen the basic education of
            those in the sector who are not well prepared educationally so that they can be
            capacitated to undertake their responsibilities. Ensuring sound basic education in
            entrants and employees assists in creating the foundation for a consistent supply of
            capable employees for the sector.

         3. Promoting Quality and Consistency in Training
            The effectiveness of training in the sector is comprised by the vast differences in the
            quality and content of training materials. Similar courses in the sector can vary widely
            in terms of content covered, depth of coverage, length of training, course entry
            requirements and qualifications or certificates conferred upon completion. As a result,
            learners who are certified with the same course title from different providers may have
            vastly different competencies, and many may not be able to undertake the
            responsibilities they are assigned. This undermines the confidence of employers in the
            skills development structure for the sector. While on the surface this may appear to be
            an easily resolved issue, the problem is more complex than it appears. The problem
            results because of the perceived inability of THETA to effectively manage quality in
            skills development. There are huge bottlenecks in accreditation; many trainers are not
            appropriately qualified, and they are not certified as assessors and moderators; the
            SGB for Tourism in SAQA are said to exclude practitioners from industry; there is no
            national registry for trainers; no comprehensive assessment of training facilities; and no
            national registry of properly certified courses in the field. There is little articulation
            between different levels of education, and the field of skills development in the sector is
            flooded with unaccredited training organizations and unqualified trainers.            The
            promotion of quality and consistency in training will be constituted of an integrated set
            of strategic interventions to resolve the problems which exist.

         4. Facilitating the Availability of Courseware for Tourism
            DEAT’s intervention is necessary to facilitate the development of courseware in areas
            of training that are highly critical for enabling excellence in the performance of the
            tourism sector. One reason for the wide variation in the quality of tourism courses is the
            overall scarcity of course designers and course developers in the sector. As a result,
            poorly constructed courseware is being developed. Since many training organizations
            do not have THETA accreditation, and since most of the existing courseware does not
            undergo scrutiny, poor quality results. A set of freely accessible, but high quality
            courseware should be available to the public for use. This will ensure that courses that
            are critical to the performance of the sector are of the highest quality, and it will ensure
            a high degree of consistency in the content taught and the competency of graduating
            learners. Again, the quality control to be exercised by THETA is undermined by
            bottlenecks which the industry believes are created by excessive bureaucracy, the
            inconsistent application of policy provisions and the lack of internal capacity to fast track
            the processing of accreditation applications.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   75
         5. Commitment, Collaboration and Joint Action to Minimize Fragmentation
            One of the most well referenced and discussed characteristics of the tourism sector are
            its fragmentation, lack of articulation and ineffective coordination. The fragmented
            nature of the sector was not by design and did not arise through any inherent structural
            weaknesses. The sector is fragmented as a result of the manner in which it evolved.
            The sector emerged as a private sector driven enterprise where establishments sought
            to advance their own interest. This pattern of behaviour continued through their
            respective associations and still exist today, to some extent, as policy frameworks are
            created to foster a more integrated and aligned sector. Fragmentation will not be
            eliminated through policy, but through building among all entities a spirit of “joint action
            in the interest of the sector”. Stakeholders in the sector must mobilize around a
            common set of values, perspectives and principles, and they must confront
            fragmentation with their individual commitment and act in cohesion. There must be a
            sense in the sector that collaboration and joint action in the general interest will benefit
            all as the sector moves to a higher level of performance and competitiveness.

         6. Training Interventions Designed to Foster Transformation
            The process of transformation in the sector is slow. All the transformational initiatives
            which have been undertaken have not borne fruit as anticipated in changing the
            structural inequities in the sector. Training for transformation is not training as usual. It
            is not limited to the routine programming and availability of courses to build the capacity
            of those who are given access to ownership and more lucrative positions in the sector.
            Transformation targeted training should be more integrated. In addition to technical
            courses, programmes should combine awareness training with other training and
            support interventions such as assertiveness training, self confidence and personal
            motivation. While technical courses in all aspects of business management are
            necessary, success sometimes does not depend on technical “know how”, but on self
            efficacy, networking, building partnerships and detecting niches and business
            opportunities. A new entrepreneurial cadre will not be built with the dispensation of
            technical “know how” without building self efficacy and business intelligence. Training
            and programming for transformation must be properly crafted and executed to make a
            difference. In addition to this, we should not assume that all the owners of
            establishments are aware of how to promote transformation within their organizations.
            While many in the industry know how this is done and are taking initiatives in this
            regard, and while some know how to but are unwilling to do so, some are not fully
            aware of what must be done and are not sure of the effect on their organizations. In all
            these cases, training interventions can assist. Those who try should be supported,
            those who are reluctant should be encouraged and those who do not know should be
            trained to do so.

         7. Private Sector Partnerships and Participation in Policy
            The critical expertise in tourism is resident in the private sector. While this may be a
            consequence of history, it is a fact which cannot be understated or overlooked. The
            future viability of the sector will depend on the extent to which the hidden and untapped
            expertise in the private sector could be mobilized, as necessary, to contribute to and
            strengthen initiatives in training. Such initiatives will include the development of
            standards, the development of curriculum materials and courseware, assistance in

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   76
              coaching and mentoring, facilitating experiential learning, exchange programmes, policy
              development and programming for the sector, the development of appropriate systems
              and structures for training delivery, outsourcing some aspects of training and quality
              management, and, among others, involvement in training facility design and
              management. A significant amount of capacity in the private sector is left untapped.
              The tourism sector will accelerate its growth and performance if it is efficient in tapping
              into its own strengths and inherent capabilities.

         8. Consolidating and Streamlining Disparate Initiatives into more Coherent and
            Articulated Structures
            The tourism sector is replete with special initiatives and innovative programmes to build
            the sector and enhance its performance.             These initiatives reside in different
            departments, boards and associations; and they are sometimes duplicated, in conflict or
            isolated to the extent that they are ineffective and without impact. While these
            initiatives all arise and are undertaken with good intent, they, most of all, sometimes
            serve to fragment and build confusion in the sector. Some of these initiatives are short
            term and only benefit a few; some of them are long term, but not adequately
            incorporated into the mainstream of activities in the sector. Some are terminated or
            finalized without any follow up support, and as a result, all the benefits initially derived
            are made to slowly wither away. Some natural initiatives are not properly coordinated
            provincially or locally because prior arrangements have not been made, or because
            inter-institutional linkages are weak. Disparate and isolated initiatives weaken the
            infrastructure for delivery, disrupt the smooth flow of the sector’s business and result in
            the wastage of valuable resources. This should be overcome with interventions to
            consolidate and align projects and efforts to build structures which integrate rather than
            separate.

         9. HRD Targeting to Strategic Priorities
            The tourism sector is complex and dynamic with a variety of labour markets, each with
            widely varying characteristics. A strategy of predicting demand and training needs of
            the whole tourism sector is not helpful. At best, such predictions are general and weak
            estimates of what skills are really needed. It is true that there are scarce and critical
            skills in the sector, and, to some extent if individuals are trained they will obtain
            employment. But there are geographic differences in relation to these needs. The
            Panoramic Route may not need chefs, but the Garden Route may. It may be necessary
            to begin HRD targeting to strategic priorities. Here, we will begin to interrogate the
            training implications of the strategic decisions we take in the sector. The training
            implications of building the tourism infrastructure of East London and the Wild Coast
            may well be different to training needed to build tourism in central Limpopo. HRD
            targeting seeks to be a bit more precise about training needs. This precision is
            necessary. With targeting training could be provided for the specific purpose. Training
            for SMMEs, for instance, may require a degree of multi-skilling because of the generally
            small staff and low margins for employing specialists. Training to capacitate local
            government may vary slightly according to the tourism products and infrastructure
            within the local jurisdiction. It also depends on the training capacity of the geographic
            area. If the country needs more trained consultants and reservations agents and
            training is rendered, these will be produced in Cape Town and Johannesburg because
            the training facilities are in these areas. Yet, the need for these skills may be in East

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   77
              London or Port Elizabeth. There are structural variations in the need for skills and
              these must be taken into account.

         10. The Public as Human Resource Asset in Tourism
             This extends the notion of service ethos and tourism culture to the general public. In
             tourism, efforts should be made to create a welcoming and service-oriented public.
             This will ensure that the experiences of tourists are memorable and lasting. The most
             valued asset of the tourism industry is its people. The industry can extend its asset
             value through the wide availability of service and tourism-oriented courses for public
             consumption. The vehicle for training can vary, and the method of interventions will
             have to be creative and unique. But some form of public education is essential. There
             are many citizens who are not aware of the tourism products and assets in their
             geographic area. As a result, these are not explored or utilized when they have visitors
             or when asked for advice on leisure-related activities. Apart from the welcoming spirit
             and the orientation to service, there must be more awareness among the general public
             regarding what South Africa offers, region by region, in terms of tourism products.

         11. Streamlining Organizational Structures for Delivery
             Much of the complexity of the tourism industry results from the complexity and
             fragmentation in its governance. There are a variety of national departments that are
             involved in some aspect of tourism. Each has provincial counterparts, and some have
             agencies or units at the local level. Each department has strategies, initiatives and
             programmes, and each has a distinct regulatory framework for which it operates.
             Provinces and municipalities develop their own initiatives, programmes and strategies,
             sometimes without reference to national strategic priorities. As a result, varying
             components of the tourism enterprise are managed through DEAT, Department of
             Labour, Department of Education, DTI, Department of Foreign Affairs, Department of
             Home Affairs and the Department of Local Government, among others. There must be
             structures for ongoing collaboration which work to prevent duplication and to overcome
             the prospect of overburdening an already complicated and unarticulated sector. One
             aspect of this streamlining is the policy linkages and articulation between the different
             spheres of government from national, to provincial, municipal and local communities. In
             tourism, for instance, provincial counterparts are housed in different departments and
             are constituted of very small units embedded within their departmental homes. The
             flavour and priorities in tourism in the respective province is likely to be tainted by the
             existing priorities of their departmental home. It may be Agriculture; it may be Housing;
             or it may be Arts and Culture or Environmental Affairs. Sometimes there are no
             linkages to local communities except through authorities, associations and boards.
             There is no established protocol or structures for smooth inter-provincial relations which
             reaches communities and no mandate in place for strategic alignment. This is
             especially so on matters related to training in tourism. Any national priorities for skills
             development are not certain to be adopted or undertaken in local jurisdictions. There
             must be structures in place to streamline and align strategy interventions so that they
             can have impact to the sector as a whole.

         12. Information-Based Management
             Even more than the shortage of skills in the sector, the performance of the sector is
             constrained by the lack of information for the strategic management of the sector’s

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  78
              growth and development. While a lot of information is available, and while, in some
              cases, the performance of the sector is effectively monitored through the ongoing
              compilation of statistics, in many cases the information available is not structured in a
              manner to maximize its use in decision making. Projections may be technically flawed
              and may be inaccurate; time serves data may have gaps; the data sampling frames
              may limit generalizations; and, among others, sweeping and invalid assumptions may
              be made in estimating critical statistics. Much effort has been made to correct this, and
              the data available from WTO and other bodies are quite helpful. But the scope of data
              available is not sufficient for the range of decisions to be made. This affects skills
              development since there is a training response to business priorities which have been
              derived from this data. The quality of information related to skills development is very
              inadequate. THETA statistics, for instance, are largely based on the levy pay firms in
              the THETA database, and, in particular, those which submit WSPs. But only a small
              fraction of those enterprises submit WSPs. As observed earlier in this document,
              statistical estimates vary according to the source from which it is derived. The growth
              and development of the sector cannot be effectively managed without a reliable body of
              data that is collected consistently over time. But data is not information. The data must
              be processed and interrogated for decision making. There must be ongoing research
              capacity and technical support to ensure that decision makers are well informed to
              make policy decisions.

         13. Building Competence in Tourism Management and Leadership in all Spheres of
             Government
             “Tourism is government-led…”. This is critical. Leadership must be provided in the
             tourism sector to sustain its growth, viability and its competitiveness. There are
             complaints from the industry about the quality of leadership provided in some sectors
             and spheres of government. Good and effective governance is critical. Government
             agencies have a bird’s eye view of the sector, they develop and manage the legal and
             regulatory frameworks, they develop and implement the strategies and they monitor
             and report on performance. By virtue of their role, they are in the best position to
             exercise leadership and, in partnership with the private sector, guide the sector into
             competitive success. But in many areas this manner of leadership is not exercised.
             THETA, for instance, is an example. Some in the industry believe that THETA is a
             hindrance rather than a facilitator of skills development in the sector. Some believe that
             their bureaucratic blockage stifles growth, undermines quality and limits performance.
             At the local level, those who manage tourism (generally LED officials) do not
             understand the field, and those who understand sometimes do not have access to the
             authorities. Training in leadership and management in the sector is essential. The
             scope, content and structure of this type of training are negotiable. But it may vary by
             the sphere of government targeted; the nature of the leadership role undertaken; and
             the performance expectations of the governmental authority. Without capacity in
             government the sector will be run, by proxy, outside the realm of government authority.
             It should be noted, however, that while benefit may accrue to selected stakeholders
             from the neglect of government, overall, such neglect is destructive to the sector as a
             whole. The sector will never rise to its potential for excellence without government
             leadership and coordination. The most critical imperative of the HRD strategy is that of
             giving government the capacity to lead and communities the capacity to manage the
             assets that are placed in their charge.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 79
         14. Incentive-Driven Promotion of HRD for the Sector
             Much of the intervention in HRD in the sector is corrective. Corrective in the sense of
             breaking trends, traditions and well entrenched practices in the field. This manner of
             intervention is inherently difficult. In many cases, stakeholders will not willingly reverse
             those practices which are detrimental to the growth and viability of the sector. For
             instance, training providers may continue to maximize the number of participants per
             class and sustain the over-supply of graduates; employers may continue the trend of
             casualization instead of career-pathing in order to maximize profits and limit industrial
             relations challenges; accreditation success may still be biased towards organizations in
             urban centres; enterprises may still choose to release instead of employ learners when
             they have completed their learnerships; the many associations in the sector may still
             choose to advocate in their own interest even when their positions may be detrimental
             to the sector as a whole. In order to manage success with a “win-win” disposition, what
             will it take to reverse trends that are detrimental to HRD in the sector? There must be
             incentives which motivate and encourage stakeholders to embark on the journey of
             renewal, sometimes to their own detriment. Incentive-driven promotion of corrective
             HRD interventions is essential.

         15. Integration of Plans, Strategies and Programmes
             As noted in item 11 above, the complexity of the sector resides largely in the complexity
             of its governance. One aspect of this complexity is the wide variety of plans, strategies
             and programmes which sometimes operate independently of each other. The result is
             fragmentation and implementation uncertainties. Plans, strategies and programmes
             must be integrated in two ways. First of all, there must be horizontal integration where
             sister departments in government at all spheres construct their plans with reference to
             each other. The same is necessary for strategies and programmes. Two different
             departments may identify the same gap in the tourism sector and both may initiate
             similar programmes to serve the same audience; and, each will operate without
             reference to the other. In one instance, two national departments provided the same
             local organization with funding for the identical project. IDPs, for instance, should not
             be independent to LED strategies and to the strategic provisions of provincial growth
             and development strategies. When these matters are handled by different agencies,
             gaps in coordination are likely.

              Vertical integration is also essential in order to preserve and sustain selected strategic
              thrusts from the national sphere of government to that of municipalities and
              communities. Here again, problems arise because of structural gaps in the realm of
              inter-governmental organizational arrangements. Structures must be put in place to
              create more synergy. This is pertinent to the sector as a whole, but it is particularly
              relevant to HRD within the sector.

         16. Articulated Policy Frameworks for Delivery
             The point being made here is similar to the cases made in item 11 and 15 above. The
             problem is similar. Policy and regulatory frameworks are set nationally without
             reference, sometimes to the organizational arrangements that are needed for
             implementation through to localities. In this regard, responsibilities and expectations
             are sometimes not properly disaggregated to the provincial and local levels.
             Sometimes there is a structure and staff to manage the matter nationally, but no one to

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   80
              whom the matter could be assigned for follow through in other spheres of government.
              Sometimes policy adoptions and expectations may be required in order to effectively
              implement in another sphere of government.            The need for policy articulation is
              essential to the HRD strategy. Both DEAT and THETA must have counterparts in each
              province so that essential mandates and strategic provisions could be administered
              provincially and locally. The tourism act makes provision for this in allotting tourism as
              both a national and provincial competence. There must be efforts made to enable
              national and provincial structures to work in unison.

         17. Building Core and Generic Competencies as a Stimulus for Change
             One stakeholder enquired “where do we start?” Because of the urgency of skills
             development interventions to grow the sector, many different activities are occurring, all
             at the same time, throughout the sector. Each intervention is important in its own right,
             but together, they are worth much less if a more coherent strategy is not undertaken. It
             seems that the place to begin to rebuild HRD in the sector is to strengthen the delivery
             of core and generic competencies. This seems to constitute the foundation upon which
             the capacity in the sector can be strengthened. If core and generic competencies are
             delivered effectively, a momentum can be built to transform HRD in the sector.

         18. Demand-Led Planning in Skills Development
             While there are scarce and critical skills in the sector, there is even more of an over
             supply of some of the basic skills needed in tourism. Some argue that because of the
             dynamic nature of the sector it is necessary to have an over-supply so that it becomes
             easier to fill vacant jobs when they arise. But this position may be less acceptable to
             the unemployed graduate. The sector must take account of the manner in which its
             training resources are allocated and used. Significant over-supply should not exist in
             the presence of severe and critical shortages of labour. There is need therefore for a
             more concerted effort at demand-led planning and delivery of training. This requires a
             significant investment in research and information so that there is more data available
             for programming skills development.

         19. Building Capacity in Communities to Assess, Value and Manage Tourism Assets
             Local communities are, perhaps, the most disadvantaged stakeholders in the tourism
             sector; this, in spite of the fact that tourism is “… community-based”. In general
             communities are said to be essentially without capacity. Most depend on consultants
             who sometimes advance their own interest in providing strategic advice and rendering
             technical assistance. If the point at which the actual tourism services are rendered is
             without capacity, then there is little hope of true competitiveness globally. There is a
             natural limit to which the strategic interventions at higher levels of government can add
             value and bear fruit in building the tourism sector. Beyond some point, efforts are being
             wasted if communities are not capacitated to follow through and develop and manage
             tourism assets within their jurisdiction.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  81
    8. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM
       SECTOR
    8.1 Introduction and Purpose

          The tourism sector is complex, multi-faceted and dynamic. This complexity adds
          significantly to the challenge of deriving a comprehensive solution for the skills
          development dilemma the sector faces. But such a comprehensive solution will be a major
          leap forward – from preparation, inconsistent standards and unevenness in supply, to a
          well articulated system of education and training which can support and sustain the
          competitive performance of the sector into the future. The challenge is to put the correct
          components of action into a development programme that makes sense.

          In light of the imperatives explained in the previous chapter, the purpose of this chapter is
          to present the critical components of an action programme that could build a more viable
          infrastructure for skills development in tourism. The chapter will present the conceptual
          framework or the key features of this action programme. Its purpose is to sketch an
          overall approach to HRD which could overcome the problems currently being confronted
          and simultaneously lay a sound foundation for HRD in the sector. The framework
          represents a structure and selected items of action which are likely to have the highest
          impact on the sector in the shortest time period. While comprehensive in its approach, the
          structure does not address all possibilities of action necessary, nor does it attempt to
          resolve all the problems which currently exist. It seeks only to identify a programme of
          action which could add the highest value in strengthening human capital formation in the
          sector.

    8.2 Key Components of the Conceptual Framework

          The conceptual framework is presented in Figure 4. The conceptual framework is lodged
          within the legislative and strategic framework of government in the tourism sector, and it is
          framed upon the rich and diverse organizational arrangements which currently typify the
          sector. In this sense, the conceptual framework is not decontextualized. It is intended to
          bring coherence to the sector, both organizationally and in respect to policy and legislative
          mandates. This coherence is realized through three areas of action as follows:

         i.        The articulation of a vision for HRD which could unify perspectives and aspirations
                   for human capital formation in the sector.
         ii.       The identification of a comprehensive programme of interventions which can
                   address the issues that affect all stakeholders in the sector, all which can build a
                   sound foundation for HRD in the sector.
         iii.      The derivation of a set of core principles to which all in the sector can subscribe in
                   promoting unity and in fostering coherence in action.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                   82
                 Figure 4: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR HRD STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS IN THE TOURISM SECTOR


                                                                                                 A
                                                                                         Vision for HRD in
                                                                                        the Tourism Sector
                                                                          Sustained and efficient human capital formation
                                                                   to grow a service-oriented and world class tourism enterprise


                                                  Human Capital Formation and Utilization for a World Class Tourism Enterprise

                                                                           Structural Arrangements in                                                            Develop & Implement a                                           Strategic Mobilization of
        Management and                                                     DEAT to enable Integrative                                                           Framework for Monitoring,                                             Geographically
     Leadership Development                                                  Planning in Support of                                                                Evaluation & Impact                                           Representative Group of
                                                                             Tourism (environment,                                                              Assessment of HRD in the                                        Employees in the Sector to
                                                                           conservation, biodiversity,                                                                   Sector                                                    Maximize Access to
                                                                                       etc)                                                                                                                                      Economic Development
                                                                                                                                                                      Adoption of a                                               Priority Programmes
            Skills Development                                                                                                                                  Comprehensive Stakeholder                                           (ASGISA, EPWP)
           Packaging for SMMEs                                           Adoption of an Integrated &                                                            Engagement Programme to
                                                                         Coordinated Programme for                                                              Consolidate HRD Efforts in
                                                                         Accelerating Transformation                                                                    the Sector                                                 Promoting Integrated &
      Promoting Access to                                                       in the Sector                                                                                                                                  Inter-Sectoral Approaches in
    Education and Training in                                                                                                                                                                                                      Responding to Tourism
           the Sector                                                                                                                                               Streamlining the                                            Training Initiatives Targeted
                                                                                                                                                                Administration of the Sector                                     to Economic Development
                                                                                       Assessing the HRD
   Strengthening Workplace                                                           Implications of Strategic
   Learning through Effective                                                         Priorities in the Sector                                                                                                                      Promote Capacity
     Training Management                                                                                                                                        Developing & Streamlining                                          Development for the
                                                                                                                                                                    Policy and Policy                                             Integration of Tourism
                                                                                                                                                                   Framework for the                                             Priorities in the Strategic
                                                                                                                                                                  Management of HRD                                               Plans and Priorities of
 Building Core and Generic                                                              Streamlining the                                                                                                                        Government (PGDP, IDPs,
Competencies for the Sector                                                           Management of HRD in                                                                                                                                   etc)
                                                                                             DEAT
                                                                                                                                                                    Tourism Education                                           Embark upon Awareness
                                                                                                                                                                 Database & Information                                        Promotion of Government’s
  Growing a Tourism Culture                                                                                                                                     System for the Demand-led                                         Economic Growth &
      through Training                                                                                                                                            Management of Skills                                           Development Initiatives
                                                                         Enhanced Human Resource                                                                 Development (as part of
                                                                          Planning for the Tourism                                                                   clearing house)
                                                                                  Sector
              Building Tourism
             Competency in Local                                                                                                                                Alignment and Streamlining                                        Adoption of a Targeting
                Government                                                                                                                                       of Tourism HRD Strategies                                     Strategy in Training for GCP
                                                                                                                                                                 to Consolidate Efforts with                                   in JIPSA and ASGISA in the
                                                                           Improved HRM practices in                                                            the Private Sector & Across                                           Tourism Sector
                                                                                support of HRD                                                                     Spheres of Government
    Strengthening the Role of
       Industry in Training

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Expansion of Programme
                                                                          Knowledge and Information                                                             Alignment of Tourism Plans                                         Initiatives to Link Skill
 Promoting Effectiveness in                                                  Management for the                                                                     & Strategies within a                                        Development to Economic
the Delivery & Management                                                      Tourism Sector                                                                   National and Inter-Provincial                                      Development (JIPSA,
  of Training in the Sector                                                                                                                                         Framework of Action                                                    ASGISA)


         CAPACITY                                                            ORGANIZATIONAL                                                                          GOVERNANCE                                                 ECONOMIC GROWTH &
DEVELOPMENT Initiatives                                                            SUPPORT                                                                             Initiatives to                                               DEVELOPMENT
  to strengthen capacity                                                  Initiatives to ensure that                                                            strengthen governance of                                       HRD initiatives to support
 development structures,                                                 organizations are ready to                                                                     HRD in the                                                & sustain economic
 systems and services in                                                 adequately sustain & use                                                                          Sector                                              growth & development &
         the Sector                                                        their human resources                                                                                                                                 related interventions


                 4 Key pillars for enhancing human capital formation & utilization in order to attain & sustain a world class tourism enterprise
                                                                         Enriching Delivery in




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Consolidating efforts
                                                                                                                                                                                                         through Stakeholder
                                                                                                 Articulation between




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             to maximize impact
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Promoting Strength
                                                     Grow and Succeed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Shared Information
                                                                                                                                         Opportunities to All




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Common Brand in
                                                                                                                                                                  Transformation in




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HRD for Tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Subscribing to a
                                                      Opportunities to




                                                                                                                                                                                      Articulation and
                                                                                                                                          Accessibility of
                                                                                                                        Coordination &
Public Private




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 as a basis for
                                                                            Communities




                                                                                                                                                                                       Programmes
Partnerships



                      Uniformity in




                                                                                                                                                                                       Continuity in
                                                                                                      Governance




                                                                                                                                                                                       Education &




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Intelligence
                                      Relevance




                                                                                                                                                                     the Sector
                                                                                                                                                                     Promoting
                       Standards




                                                                                                                          Alignment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Collective
                                                                                                       Levels of
                                                         Equity in




                                                                                                                           Strategy




                                                                                                                                                                                          Training
                                       Industry




                                                                                                                                                                                                                Unity




                                                   Core principles for informing, guiding and strengthening HRD strategic interventions


                                                  National structure of Tourism Boards, Associations, Enterprises & Training Institutions

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                                                                     83
                                     National legislative and Strategic Frameworks of Government
HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008   84
         Each of these is addressed separately in the sub-sections to follow.

         8.2.1 A Vision for HRD in the Tourism Sector
         The vision for South African tourism has been articulated as “that of a dynamic, innovative,
         sustainable and highly regarded sector offering overseas and domestic tourists a positive
         and memorable experience beyond their expectations”. A vision for HRD in the sector must
         be in support of this overall vision. There are three main features of a possible vision for
         HRD in the sector: the sustainability of human capital formation; the dependence of the
         sector on people for its success; and the importance of partnerships in building skills in the
         tourism sector. A vision for HRD is proposed as “partnerships for sustained and efficient
         human capital formation to grow a service-oriented and world class tourism enterprise”.
         This vision highlights the fact that, in light of the history of skills development in the sector,
         successful human capital formation in the industry will not occur without viable and multi-
         dimensional partnerships with the private sector. This should not focus only on short term
         solutions, but on long term viability in terms of sustained sources of a reliable supply of
         talent. The notion here is the sentiment and expectations that such a vision creates and
         inculcates in stakeholders over time. This vision must commit to the following:

              i.        Long term and sustainable solutions rather than “quick fixes”.
              ii.       Building human capital for the viability of the sector as a whole rather than for
                        self or for particular sub-sectors.
              iii.      Joining forces, complementing resources and combining inherent advantages in
                        producing skills rather than in pursuit of individual interests.
              iv.       Investment in people as the single most viable source of the sector’s success.
              v.        The commitment to build a world class sector together.
              vi.       The production of talented people in the most efficient way possible.
              vii.      The mainstream of the highest standards in human capital formation.

         To the extent that all stakeholders can subscribe to the same vision, the fundamentals will
         be in place to establish coherence in skills development in the sector.

         8.2.2 A Comprehensive Programme of Interventions
         The comprehensive programme of interventions refers to the particular actions which will
         be taken to restore the infrastructure for building human capital. There are four categories
         of interventions that are required. These are itemized and briefly discussed below:

         i.   Capacity Development Interventions: Capacity development interventions are those
              which result in the development of skills in people to undertake varied responsibilities in
              the sector. Capacity development refers to either these efforts which result directly in
              the production of skilled people, or those interventions which build quality in the system
              and processes through which these skills are produced. Management training for
              example, is an example of the former, and materials development is an example of the
              latter. These, together, can build a sound infrastructure for HRD. Under capacity
              development, there are 9 selected areas of focus; each area representing a core
              objective or a major area of focus. Figure 5. presents the strategic intent for each
              strategic area of focus, and Table 22 presents the rationale and intended outcomes for
              each area. Table 23. presents the sub-objectives associated with each of the 9 areas of
              strategic focus.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     85
  Figure 5: STRATEGIC FOCUS ON CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES


                                      STRATEGIC FOCUS AREAS                       STRATEGIC INTENT


                                                 1.1                        To build capacity to manage planning and
                                        Management & Leadership            policy in the sector; to bring transformation in
                                                                          the management of the sector; and to prepare
                                             Development
                                                                                 managers to respond to changing
                                                                                      requirements in the sector.



                                                    1.2
                                      Skills Development Packaging         To prepare a comprehensive programme of
                                                                          training which is responsive to the needs and
                                                for SMMEs
                                                                                  circumstances of the SMMEs.




                                                      1.3                 To ensure that all in the sector have access to
                                         Promoting Areas to Education                 high quality training.
                                            & Training in the Sector
  CAPACITY
DEVELOPMENT

                                                   1.4                     To create opportunities for more practice-
                                        Strengthening Workplace           based training and more effective workplace
                                                                                           learning.
                                        Learning through Effective
                                          Training Management



                                                    1.5                      To enhance the quality and availability of
                                                                           training in areas that are fundamental to the
                                          Building Core & Generic
                                                                               successful performance of the sector.
                                        Competencies for the Sector




                                                    1.6
                                         Growing a Tourism Culture        To foster a strong sense of service excellence
                                                                                     in South African Tourism
                                             through Training



                                                       1.7
                                        Building Tourism Competency in                           .
                                               Local Government              To build capacity of local government to
                                                                                 manage their tourism resources




                                                    1.8
                                         Strengthening the Role of
                                                                              To promote consistency and industry
                                            Industry in Training
                                                                                     relevance in training.




                                                       1.9
                                         Promoting Effectiveness in the       To ensure standards, consistency and
                                           Delivery & Management of                  articulation in training
                                             Training in the Sector




  HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                         86
Table 22: RATIONALE & INTENDED OUTCOMES FOR CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT


                                                       PILLAR ONE

       AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                      SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                      INTENDED OUTCOMES
      CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT

               1.1                           Capacity to manage is a critical         • More consistent and
     Management and Leadership               consideration for the sector. On           standardised leadership in the
           Development                       the one hand there is need for             sector
                                             more effective policy leadership         • More blacks in the management
                                             and management in the sector. On           of enterprises in the sector
                                             the other hand there is an urgent        • Greater capacity to respond to
                                             need to transform the management           the changing demands of the
                                             of enterprises. Without focused            sector
                                             skills development in management,
                                             the performance of the sector will
                                             not be enhanced.


                  1.2                        More than 80% of the sector is           • Higher capacity of service
          Skills Development                 constituted of SMMEs. The needs            excellence in SMMEs
         Packaging for SMMEs                 of SMMEs are different; and their        • More participation of SMMEs in
                                             circumstances do not always allow          training
                                             benefit from the traditional modes       • Greater accessibility of training
                                             of training.    There is need to           to SMMEs
                                             consider what training will most
                                             benefit SMMEs in terms of content,
                                             mode        and      training  and
                                             accessibility.    SMMEs do not
                                             generally invest in training.


                1.3                          Access to high quality of education      • Equality in opportunity to
       Promoting Access to                   and training in the sector is              participate in training
    Education and Training in the            inequitable,     either     through      • Career ladders to management
                                             geography, or because of race or           for the talented at entrance level
               Sector                        other prejudices. Efforts must be        • More accredited providers in all
                                             made to improve access so that             sub-sectors that are widely
                                             opportunities can be available to          dispersed geographically.
                                             all.




                  1.4                        In many cases the content of             • More industry relevant training
       Strengthening Workplace               training     programmes      is    not   • More effective methods of
      Learning through Effective             sufficiently relevant to industry. As      practical learning
                                             a result, people who are trained
         Training Management                 cannot perform well at their jobs.
                                             In some cases, the infrastructure
                                             for workplace learning is not
                                             adequate.




                 1.5                         One of the issues in the sector is       • Sound foundation for continued
      Building Core and Generic              the level of preparation of entrants       learning in the sector
     Competencies for the Sector             to be properly prepared for jobs, or     • More effective supervision in the
                                             to perform effectively. As a result,       sector
                                             the skills development in the sector
                                             suffers from the lack of basic skills
                                             in the people who enter. There is
                                             also     a    significant  lack    of
                                             supervision skills.


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                          87
                                                       PILLAR ONE

       AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                      SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                     INTENDED OUTCOMES
      CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT


                 1.6                         One of the complaints in the sector     • Steering service excellence
      Growing a Tourism Culture              is the absence of service               • More public knowledge about
          through Training                   excellence.     Even beyond this,         tourism
                                             there is lack of a culture in tourism   • Higher participation of the
                                             in terms of public knowledge,             community in the success of
                                             attitude,        interests        and     tourism
                                             understanding of responsibilities for
                                             promoting excellence in the sector.



                 1.7                         Local government are at the coal        • Tourism assets more effectively
          Building Tourism                   face in terms of developing and           developed and managed
         Competency in Local                 managing        tourism     assets.     • More competence in tourism
                                             Generally, they do not have the           among local government
            Government
                                             capacity to do so, and most depend        officials
                                             on external technical assistance.
                                             Even with external assistance they
                                             must be able to manage their
                                             assets.


                  1.8                        Issues have been raised about the       • High practical relevance in
       Strengthening the Role of             industry relevance of training.           training
          Industry in Training               There is not enough collaboration       • Trained individuals who are
                                             between the public sector and             sufficiently competent to take up
                                             private industry to maintain a high       jobs in the industry
                                             level of practical competence
                                             among employees.




                  1.9                        Effectiveness in the development of     • Greater consistency in the
     Promoting Effectiveness in              training is related to the quality of     quality of training
    the Delivery and Management              training in terms of materials;         • Wider availability of high quality
                                             methods used; the level of trainers;      materials
       of Training in the Sector             the nature of facilities; and the       • Greater articulation in courses
                                             planning and policy frameworks,           between levels
                                             among others.            Quality is
                                             inconsistent and standards are not
                                             adhered to.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                         88
Table 23: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - OBJECTIVES & SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE
TOURISM SECTOR: CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT


                                                                                                                                                       PILLAR ONE

      CRITICAL
    COMPONENTS                                                     CORE OBJECTIVES AND                                                                                                 SUB-OBJECTIVES
     OF THE HRD                                                   CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
     STRATEGY                                                          REFERENCE
                                                                                                                                                                      • Adopt a management development programme in
                                            effectively trained and are ready with the necessary practical skills to take up employment in


                                                                                                                                                     1.1                policy leadership and strategic management in the
                                                                                                                                                                        sector that is specially targeted to senior officials in
                                               Capacity development refers to the efforts that are undertaken to ensure that people are




                                                                                                                                                Management &            the public sector to include coaching and mentoring
                                                                                                                                                  Leadership          • Provide incentives and a comprehensive
                                                                                                                                                 Development            programme for accelerated progression of talented
                                                     the sector and contribute to the sector’s competitiveness and performance.




                                                                                                                                                                        blacks into management positions
                                                                                                                                                                      • Develop and implement a sector-specific training
                                                                                                                                                                        programme for managers in outsourcing to include
                                                                                                                                                                        procurement, project management and contracting

                                                                                                                                                                      • Establish skills development programming that is
        PILLAR ONE – CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT




                                                                                                                                                      1.2               specially targeted to SMMEs
                                                                                                                                                                      • Provide incentives for training providers who serve
                                                                                                                                              Skills Development        SMMEs
                                                                                                                                                Packaging for         • Adopt a programme for multi-skilling people
                                                                                                                                                     SMMEs              particularly for small enterprises
                                                                                                                                                                      • Provide incentives for training partnerships which
                                                                                                                                                                        monitor, coach or develop operational skills for staff
                                                                                                                                                                        in SMMEs

                                                                                                                                                                      • Rationalizing the training environment and supply
                                                                                                                                                       1.3              stream for human resources in tourism
                                                                                                                                                                      • Institute a programme of e-learning or e-training to
                                                                                                                                             Promoting Access to        be accessed by public and private enterprises
                                                                                                                                                Education and         • Establishment of a coordinated training network
                                                                                                                                             Training in the Sector     nationally with selected core providers to ensure
                                                                                                                                                                        representativity of training opportunities in all
                                                                                                                                                                        sectors
                                                                                                                                                                      • Identification of geographic areas with gaps in
                                                                                                                                                                        training delivery and institute a development
                                                                                                                                                                        programme
                                                                                                                                                                      • Adoption of RPL in enterprises in order to enable
                                                                                                                                                                        greater access and enhance promotability
                                                                                                                                                                      • Institute and strengthen policy measures and
                                                                                                                                                                        support structures to ensure that access is not
                                                                                                                                                                        denied through affordability

                                                                                                                                                                      • Implement incentives and a programme for
                                                                                                                                                     1.4                enterprises to include investment in people
                                                                                                                                                                      • Provide incentives to create opportunities for
                                                                                                                                                Strengthening           experiential learning for trainees
                                                                                                                                             Workplace Learning       • Establish policy guidelines and protocols for career
                                                                                                                                              through Effective         pathing in enterprises to begin with induction
                                                                                                                                                   Training           • Establish protocols and policy guidelines for scarce
                                                                                                                                                                        skills retention management
                                                                                                                                                Management




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                                89
                                                                                                                           PILLAR ONE

      CRITICAL
    COMPONENTS                                          CORE OBJECTIVES AND                                                                              SUB-OBJECTIVES
     OF THE HRD                                        CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
     STRATEGY                                               REFERENCE
                                                                                                                                        • Strengthen ABET provision in the tourism sector
                                                                                                                         1.5            • Establishment of a common format and structure for
                                                                                                                                          induction in various aspects of tourism
                                                                                                                  Building Core and     • Implement a national training programme on core
                                                                                                                       Generic            competencies for the tourism sector to be adopted
                                                                                                                 Competencies for the     by training entities and tourism enterprises –
                                                                                                                        Sector            communication, maths literacy, service excellence –
                                                                                                                                          and used as bridging courses for tourism training
                                                                                                                                        • Structure a basic supervision course targeted at
                                                                                                                                          supervisors in the sector
                                                                                                                                        • Ensure the availability of relevant and basic IT
                                                                                                                                          courses for workers in the sector


                                                                                                                                        • Public training and tourism drive on “Tourism and
                                                                                                                         1.6              You”
                                            necessary practical skills to take up employment in the sector and




                                                                                                                                        • Developing and marketing a structured and multi-
                                             Capacity development refers to the efforts that are undertaken to
                                             ensure that people are effectively trained and are ready with the




                                                                                                                  Growing a Tourism       level training programme in tourism awareness to
                                               contribute to the sector’s competitiveness and performance.




                                                                                                                   Culture through        promote local and national tourism knowledge
                                                                                                                      Training          • Promote experiential learning in all schools to
        PILLAR ONE – CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT




                                                                                                                                          introduce learners to the tourism sector
                                                                                                                                        • Implement a training programme on the roles and
                                                                                                                                          responsibilities of stakeholders in tourism
                                                                                                                                        • Develop and promote a national service excellence
                                                                                                                                          training programme
                                                                                                                                        • Develop and promote a national training programme
                                                                                                                                          on community participation for tourism enterprises
                                                                                                                                        • Expand the reach of tourism ambassador
                                                                                                                                          programme
                                                                                                                                        • Ensure training priorities are in line with destination,
                                                                                                                                          positioning and branding

                                                                                                                                        • Expanding reach of local government toolkit
                                                                                                                         1.7            • Developing guidelines for HRD strategy
                                                                                                                                          development and implementation for local
                                                                                                                  Building Tourism        government
                                                                                                                 Competency in Local    • Developing a tourism management training
                                                                                                                    Government            programme for relevant local government and
                                                                                                                                          community officials


                                                                                                                                        • Promote incentives for industry to offer internships,
                                                                                                                          1.8             learnerships and various forms of experiential
                                                                                                                                          learning
                                                                                                                  Strengthening the     • Incentives for industry involvement in curriculum
                                                                                                                  Role of Industry in     development
                                                                                                                       Training         • Outsourcing some publicly funded training to private
                                                                                                                                          and business entities
                                                                                                                                        • Enhancing industry participation in policy and
                                                                                                                                          strategic bodies




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                  90
                                                      PILLAR ONE

      CRITICAL
    COMPONENTS                 CORE OBJECTIVES AND                                   SUB-OBJECTIVES
     OF THE HRD               CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
     STRATEGY                      REFERENCE
                                                                     • Promoting and enforcing standards and
                                                      1.9              competitiveness for trainees in tourism
                                                                     • Fostering the availability of high quality training
                                                  Promoting            materials that are easily accessible
                                             Effectiveness in the    • Development of skills profiles for all occupations in
                                                 Delivery and          the sector
                                               Management of         • Articulation of courses in the sector by levels from
                                                                       basic and generic core competencies to specialized
                                            Training in the Sector     and managerial skills
                                                                     • Developing and enforcing standards for training
                                                                       facilities and programmes
                                                                     • Developing and enforcing standards for learning
                                                                       materials
                                                                     • Policy intervention to bridge differences in course
                                                                       quality, standards and contact




         ii. Organizational Support Interventions:          The first pillar, capacity development
             interventions, cannot stand alone. In this respect, organizational support interventions
             refer to those activities that are undertaken in order to ensure that organizations are
             ready to support, sustain and effectively utilize their human resources. Skills and
             capacity development is therefore only one of the many considerations for enhancing
             human performance and enterprise effectiveness in the sector.

              It is likely that improved skills development in the sector will contribute little to the
              performance of the sector unless these skills can be properly utilized in a manner that
              could add value to the performance of enterprises and the relevant services delivered.
              What then complements skills and capacity development in order to make the sector
              globally competitive? In this regard, seven critical areas of focus are recommended.
              These focus areas point to the major organizational weaknesses which have in the past
              plagued the performance of the sector. Among these weaknesses are: the overall lack
              of good HR information for planning; HRM practices which undermine the performance
              of staff; the lack of communication in the leadership of HRD initiatives in DEAT; and the
              general inability in assessing the HR implementation of major strategic priorities in the
              sector. The focus areas selected seek to remedy these weaknesses. The strategic
              intent of each of these focus areas is highlighted in Figure 6, and the rationale and
              intended outcomes of each area is presented in Table 24. Table 25 presents a list of
              the sub-objectives associated with each focus area or core objective.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                            91
                   Figure 6: STRATEGIC FOCUS ON ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT INITIATIVES

                                        STRATEGIC FOCUS AREAS                           STRATEGIC INTENT



                                                           2.1
                                                        Structural                 To ensure that there is a cohesive and
                                            Arrangements in DEAT to enable         integrative approach to planning which
                                            Integrative Planning in support of   takes advantage of the value of all aspects
                                                 Tourism (environment,            of DEAT’s mandate to the tourism sector
                                              conservation, biodiversity etc)




                                                          2.2
                                             Adoption of an Integrated and            To ensure that all transformational
                                              Coordinated Programme for          initiatives and programmes for the sector
                                           Accelerating Transformation in the         are properly integrated in order to
                                                         Sector                     complement and support each other.



ORGANIZATIONAL
   SUPPORT                                                2.3
                                           Assessing the HRD Implications            To ensure proper assessment and
                                             of Strategic Priorities in the       targeting of HRD resources in relation to
                                                        Sector                                strategic priorities




    HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                        92
                                                        2.4
                                         Streamlining the Management of             To bring consistency and focus to HRD in
                                                  HRD in DEAT                        the sector, and to ensure effective and
                                                                                       efficient programmatic coordination




                                                      2.5
                                         Enhanced human resource                                         .
                                      planning for the Tourism Sector –            To ensure that the HR needs of the sector
                                      Supply & Demand Assessment &                    are effectively determined in order to
                                                Management                            enable a more demand-driven human
                                                                                    resource development and management




                                                    2.6                            To ensure that HRM practices in the sector
                                      Improved HRM Practices in Support              support the most effective and efficient
                                                  of HRD                             utilization of labour and minimizes the
                                                                                     constant withdrawal of labour from the
                                                                                                     labour pool




                                                                                          To ensure that valid and reliable
                                                      2.7                                information is available to support
                                           Knowledge and Information                 information-based decision making and
                                        Management for the Tourism Sector             thereby promote greater efficiency and
                                                                                    strategic focus in the management of the
                                                                                                        sector




Table 24: RATIONALE AND INTENDED OUTCOMES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT INITIATIVES


                                                        PILLAR TWO

   AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                          SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                           INTENDED OUTCOMES
     ORGANIZATIONAL
   SUPPORT INITIATIVES

             2.1                          Tourism planning in DEAT does not accrue         • The tourism sector is
 Structural Arrangements in                 full benefit from the various aspects of         strengthened through the more
 DEAT to enable Integrative               DEAT’s mandate which relates to tourism.           strategic integration of
                                          As a result the tourism sector is not able to      environmental concerns on the
   Planning in support of                 properly integrate aspects of environment,         tourism agenda
   Tourism (environment,                  conservation and biodiversity in building a      • Integration of environment,
 conservation, biodiversity                      world class tourism enterprise.             conservation and biodiversity
             etc)                                                                            into tourism planning and
                                                                                             management



            2.2                         There is a rarity of worthwhile transformation     • More visible gains in the
 Adoption of an Integrated               initiatives which are intended to benefit the       realization of the
and Coordinated Programme                 sector. These initiatives are not properly         transformation agenda for the
                                        coordinated and streamlined, and, as a result        sector
      for Accelerating                   the full impact of transformation efforts are     • Greater programme
Transformation in the Sector               not fully realised. These initiatives must        coordination and delivery
                                          complement each other in order to realise          efficiency
                                                          their full effect.



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                             93
                                                        PILLAR TWO

   AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                          SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                              INTENDED OUTCOMES
     ORGANIZATIONAL
   SUPPORT INITIATIVES




               2.3                       Planning is undertaken for the sector without        • More targeted approach to HR
     Assessing the HRD                          full assessment or realization of the           planning in respect to strategic
   Implications of Strategic                 associated human resources required to             priorities
    Priorities in the Sector
                                              bring plans into effect. As a result, the       • Prioritization of HRD in relation
                                           complexity of plans and strategic priorities         to strategic priorities
                                            place a strain on the capacity to build the
                                           necessary skills in the sector. In fact, the
                                         assessment of HR needs is so general, that
                                         little can be done to ensure the HR capacity
                                            is in place to advance particular strategic
                                                             priorities.


           2.4                              There are several units in DEAT which             • A more streamlined and
     Streamlining the                    manage some aspect of HRD for the sector.              focussed approach to HRD
Management of HRD in DEAT                     Each unit runs its own programmes,                thus providing more effective
                                         sometimes without reference to the other or            leadership to the sector
                                         without reference to other skills development        • Greater programmatic
                                         efforts in the sector. Subsequent duplication          consistency
                                                             results.



             2.5                              The viability of the tourism sector is          • A demand-driven systems for
Enhanced Human Resource                  compromised by the ineffectiveness of skills           preparing HR for the sector
  Planning for the Tourism                 development. Part of this ineffectiveness          • Greater consistency and less
                                          relates to the absence of a demand-driven             strategies in the supply of
Sector – Supply and Demand               training infrastructure and the level of proper        labour for the sector
      Assessment and                      management of sources of HR supply. The             • Greater geographic
        Management                      result is a variety of structural inefficiencies in     representation in the
                                                    the tourism labour market                   availability of talent


           2.6                             Many HRM issues affect the nature and              • Greater stability of labour in the
 Improved HRM Practices in              utilization of talent in the sector. Issues such        sector
                                           as compensation, promotability, working            • Improved climate for investing
      Support of HRD
                                        conditions, work initiatives and lack of training       in HRD
                                        affect the quality and mobility of labour in the
                                        sector. Sound HRD in the sector is reliant on
                                                  the nature of HRM practices



          2.7                           The sector is plagued by the absence of high          • More information-based
Knowledge and Information                  quality information for decision making.             decision making
Management for the Tourism               While research and data exists in the field,         • Greater effectiveness and
                                        there is no central point for processing data,          efficiency in the management
        Sector                          no legitimate means to assure quality and no            of the sector
                                        discipline and thoroughness in the manner in          • More effective management of
                                        which data is manipulated and processed for             HR supply and demand
                                        making decisions. Many critical decisions are
                                           therefore made based upon data that is
                                                         inadequate.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                             94
                                                      PILLAR TWO

   AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                          SUMMARY OF RATIONALE      INTENDED OUTCOMES
     ORGANIZATIONAL
   SUPPORT INITIATIVES




Table 25: OBJECTIVES & SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR:
ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT INITIATIVES


                                                      PILLAR TWO

   CRITICAL
 COMPONENTS            CORE OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPTUAL                 SUB-OBJECTIVES
  OF THE HRD               FRAMEWORK REFERENCE
  STRATEGY




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                          95
                                                                                                                                                                                PILLAR TWO

   CRITICAL
 COMPONENTS                               CORE OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPTUAL                                                                                                                                          SUB-OBJECTIVES
  OF THE HRD                                  FRAMEWORK REFERENCE
  STRATEGY


                                                                                                                                                                                 2.1            • Assess tourism implications of each element of
                                           Organizational Support refers to those activities that are undertaken in order to ensure that organizations are ready so

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DEAT’s mandate
                                                                                                                                                                             Structural         • Develop an integrative tourism operational plan which
                                                                                                                                                                         Arrangements in          embodies considerations related to environment
                                                                                                                                                                          DEAT to enable        • Isolate and effect collaboration on joint HRD initiatives
                                                                                                                                                                       Integrative Planning
                                                                                                                                                                      in support of Tourism
                                                                                                                                                                           (environment,
                                                                                                                                                                           conservation,
                                                                                                                                                                         biodiversity etc)


                                                                                                                                                                               2.2              • Create an organizational focal point for all
                                                                                                                                                                                                  transformation initiatives
                                                                       support, sustain and effectively utilize their human resources




                                                                                                                                                                         Adoption of an         • Prepare a comprehensive transformation acceleration
                                                                                                                                                                         Integrated and
    PILLAR TWO – ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT




                                                                                                                                                                                                  strategy that is inter-departmental and inter-sectional
                                                                                                                                                                          Coordinated           • Establish a monitoring and evaluation structure for
                                                                                                                                                                         Programme for            tracking progress in transformation
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Consolidate incentives for accelerating transformation
                                                                                                                                                                          Accelerating            in private enterprises
                                                                                                                                                                      Transformation in the
                                                                                                                                                                             Sector


                                                                                                                                                                                2.3             • HRD targeting strategy to add value to critical
                                                                                                                                                                                                  business priorities
                                                                                                                                                                       Assessing the HRD        • Develop guidelines for assessing and outlining the
                                                                                                                                                                         Implications of          HRD implications of strategic initiatives
                                                                                                                                                                      Strategic Priorities in   • Assess human resource gaps and needs in respect to
                                                                                                                                                                            the Sector            strategic priorities
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Adopt and nurture an HRD targeting support function
                                                                                                                                                                                                  at DEAT
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Assess response capacity for HRD in relation to
                                                                                                                                                                                                  strategic targets and according to levels of delivery
                                                                                                                                                                                                  where HR is used
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Assess the training implications of alternative tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                  growth paths



                                                                                                                                                                              2.4               • Assess the incidence in DEAT of HRD assignments
                                                                                                                                                                                                  related to the sector
                                                                                                                                                                       Streamlining the         • Develop structures and policies for internal
                                                                                                                                                                      Management of HRD           coordination on HRD matters related to the sector
                                                                                                                                                                           in DEAT              • Reflect inter-unit HRD initiatives in operational and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  business plans



                                                                                                                                                                                2.5             • Comprehensive assessment of human resource
                                                                                                                                                                                                  supply for the sector by sub-sector and GCP focus
                                                                                                                                                                       Enhanced Human             areas (public and private)
                                                                                                                                                                       Resource Planning        • Comprehensive assessment of human resource
                                                                                                                                                                         for the Tourism          demand by sub-sector and GCP focus areas
                                                                                                                                                                      Sector – Supply and       • Comprehensive assessment of HR gaps by sub-sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                  and by GCP focus areas
                                                                                                                                                                      Demand Assessment         • Adopt programmes to address the structural
                                                                                                                                                                        and Management            anomalies of HR allocation in the sector (seasonality,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  over-supply in geographic areas; etc.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Creating dependable supply streams of talent for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  tourism sector




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                                                       96
                                                      PILLAR TWO

   CRITICAL
 COMPONENTS            CORE OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPTUAL                                SUB-OBJECTIVES
  OF THE HRD               FRAMEWORK REFERENCE
  STRATEGY


                                                    2.6            • Facilitating and monitoring compliance to DoL sectoral
                                                                     determination 14
                                             Improved HRM          • Developing and adopting skills retention policy,
                                           Practices in Support      strategy and programme for scarce and critical skills
                                                  of HRD           • Effective management of employee health and
                                                                     wellness
                                                                   • Promoting move effective career planning and talent
                                                                     management in enterprises
                                                                   • Constitution and support of an HRM “best practices”
                                                                     forum for the sector



                                                    2.7            • Information clearing house or research centre for
                                                                     tourism and skills development research and
                                             Knowledge and           information management
                                               Information         • Ongoing tracer studies in learners
                                            Management for the     • Regular publication of critical information to inform
                                             Tourism Sector          stakeholders in sector of findings and developments in
                                                                     the sector
                                                                   • Comprehensive baseline information on service
                                                                     providers in tourism
                                                                   • Comprehensive monitoring of training standards
                                                                     compliance
                                                                   • Ongoing publication of best practice research
                                                                   • Comprehensive tourism research and statistics with
                                                                     implications for policy and practice (including training)




         iii. Governance: Governance here refers to the manner in which leadership in the sector
              is orchestrated and exercised in order to promote coherence, consistency and
              collaboration in meeting the strategic priorities of the sector. Good governance is seen
              as an essential response to the fragmentation, misalignment, inconsistency and
              diversity which are noted to exist and it is seen as a measure to fill the gaps in
              leadership which affect coherence in the sector. This concept of governance is not
              restricted to the public sector, it is not isolated to particular geographic regions which
              will become the centre of administrative activity and, it is not focused on administration
              and rigid compliance. This concept of governance must involve the private sector and
              its respective bodies and associations; it must encompass all levels and spheres of
              government; and it must seek the long term interest of the sector as a whole.
              Governance here refers to the manner in which the sector collaboratively manages itself
              to excellence and global competitiveness.

              Governance is the third pillar of the strategic framework for rebuilding HRD in the
              sector. As the third pillar, it recognizes the role and value of capacity development and
              it notes the importance of selected organizational variables for making HRD work. But
              all the initiatives of the strategic framework will not cohere into a productive course of
              action unless governance structures and arrangements are in place.

              To this end, seven areas of focus are identified for enhancing governance in the sector
              to the ultimate benefit and performance of HRD. These areas of focus are detailed in

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                        97
              Figure 7 with the associated strategic intent; and the rationale and intended outcomes
              are noted in Table 26. In addition, Table 27 presents the sub-objectives related to each
              focus area or core objective. The intent of Table 26 is to specify in more detail the
              strategic direction to which some of the core objectives point.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                98
   Figure 7: STRATEGIC FOCUS ON GOVERNANCE


                                         STRATEGIC FOCUS AREAS                          STRATEGIC INTENT


                                                          3.1
                                              Develop and Implement a            To begin to take stock of developments in
                                              Framework for Monitoring,           HRD and to chart its progress in adding
                                           Evaluation & Impact Assessment                    value to the sector
                                                 of HRD in the Sector




                                                           3.2
                                            Adoption of a Comprehensive            To establish more adequate lines of
                                              Stakeholder Engagement            communication and engagement in order to
                                           Programme to Consolidate HRD            establish coherence in action among
                                                 Efforts in the Sector           stakeholders for the benefit of the sector




                                                          3.3                   To establish a coherent and unified sector
                                           Streamlining the Administration of     with streamlined governance down to
                                                      the Sector                communities so that strategic priorities for
                                                                                the sector are adopted appropriately and
                                                                                     consistently across jurisdictions



GOVERNANCE
                                                           3.4
                                             Developing and Streamlining         To establish a unified and coherent policy
                                            Policy and Policy Framework for      framework within and through which HRD
                                                the Management of HRD                  in the sector can be governed




                                                         3.5
                                           Tourism Education Database and        To establish a more efficient and demand-
                                         Information System for the Demand-     driven training system in order to ensure an
                                               led Management of Skills         appropriate and consistent supply of talent
                                           Development (as part of clearing                      to the sector
                                                       house)




                                                         3.6
                                       Alignment & Streamlining of Tourism       To promote HRD strategy development in
                                       HRD Strategies to Consolidate Efforts    the sector as common practice and to align
                                        with the Private Sector and Across        all strategies with the focus and thrust of
                                              Spheres of Government               the national HRD strategy for the sector




                                                           3.7                   Establishing a framework for ensuring that
                                            Alignment of Tourism Plans and        strategic obligations are coordinated and
                                            Strategies within a National and    streamlined in the manner in which they are
                                         Inter-Provincial Framework of Action        planned, undertaken and assessed.




   HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                          99
Table 26: SUMMARY OF RATIONALE AND INTENDED OUTCOMES

                                                      PILLAR THREE

   AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                         SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                           INTENDED OUTCOMES
      GOVERNANCE

            3.1                          Human resource development is not seen           • A unified national plan and
 Develop and Implement a                as one cohesive and integrated function for         tracking system for tracking HRD
 Framework for Monitoring,                the sector as a whole. THETA defines its          in the sector.
                                             role narrowly, DEAT relies on a few
    Evaluation & Impact
                                        fragmented and uncoordinated projects and
 Assessment of HRD in the                 other government entities participate and
          Sector                         seek to add value as appropriate. There is
                                              no national plan or system for the
                                         governance and monitoring of HRD. As a
                                             result, there are extensive gaps and
                                           shortfalls in the national system for skills
                                                  development in the sector.


           3.2                             All stakeholders are aware of the skills       • Mobilization of stakeholders into
      Adoption of a                     development shortfalls of the sector and all        a concerted momentum of action
Comprehensive Stakeholder                     are committed to some means of              • Collaborative and integrated
                                        strengthening the performance of the sector         efforts for skills development
Engagement Programme to
                                        through skills development. Unfortunately,
Consolidate HRD Efforts in               there is no viable platform from which this
       the Sector                          could be done. There is need to bring
                                         stakeholders together in a unified thrust in
                                         order to build a more productive system of
                                                     skills development.


            3.3                          HRD in the sector is currently fragmented        • More coordinated and integrated
     Streamlining the                    and inefficient as a result of uncoordinated       efforts to build skills for the
Administration of the Sector              governance structures and planning and            sector
                                         delivery mechanisms which do effectively         • Greater consistency and follow-
                                         link national practices with the initiative of     through in the administrative
                                                         communities.                       priorities.



            3.4                         Except for the national HRD strategy for the      • A coherent policy framework for
Developing and Streamlining              public service, the NSDS and the national          HRD in the sector within which
Policy and Policy Framework                   HRD strategy, there is no national            all HRD efforts can be
                                         framework for HRD in the tourism sector.           embodied.
for the Management of HRD                 The SSP of THETA does not provide an
                                          adequate plan or framework, and other
                                            initiatives of the various government
                                         departments, although worthwhile, do not
                                        cohere into a unified programme. There is
                                             need therefore for a coherent policy
                                                      framework for HRD.



              3.5                       There is no reliable and comprehensive data       • Education and training database
Tourism Education Database                on HRD in the tourism sector. Available           for the tourism sector
 and Information System for                data represents only a small number of         • Customised data and reports on
                                          establishments, and data is not properly          the status of skills supply and
       the Demand-led                     processed and manipulated for decision            demand on labour market
   Management of Skills                  making. Skills development in the sector is        dynamics
  Development (as part of               therefore compromised through the absence
       clearing house)                   of a comprehensive body of data related to
                                                          education.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                       100
                                                      PILLAR THREE

   AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                         SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                          INTENDED OUTCOMES
      GOVERNANCE


             3.6                           There is little coordination of tourism       • More streamlined development
Alignment and Streamlining                 business and HRD strategies across              of HRD strategies in line with
of Tourism HRD Strategies                 spheres of government. IDPs and LED              core principles and a common
                                            strategies of local government are             strategic direction
to Consolidate Efforts with
                                        sometimes not coordinated with national or
   the Private Sector and                            regional priorities.
     Across Spheres of
        Government



             3.7                           Although governmental structures are in       • More collaboration between
Alignment of Tourism Plans              place to coordinate plans and strategies, the      spheres of government in
   and Strategies within a                roles and responsibilities for coordination      meeting business and strategic
                                          are not clear. As a result, there are gaps       priorities in HRD
National and Inter-Provincial
                                        and shortfalls in coordination which result in
    Framework of Action                   fragmentation and adherence to multiple
                                                   and conflicting priorities.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                     101
Table 27: OBJECTIVES AND SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR


                                                                                                                                                    PILLAR THREE

   CRITICAL
 COMPONENTS                                     CORE OBJECTIVES AND                                                                                                                 SUB-OBJECTIVES
  OF THE HRD                                   CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  STRATEGY                                          REFERENCE
                                order to promote coherence, consistency and collaboration in meeting the strategic priorities of the



                                                                                                                                                                • Establish framework and system for monitoring of compliance
                                Governance refers to the manner in which leadership in the sector is orchestrated and exercised in




                                                                                                                                                3.1
                                                                                                                                            Develop and           with strategic initiatives
                                                                                                                                            Implement a         • Establish plan structure and guidelines for promoting and
                                                                                                                                                                  monitoring the impact of training on service delivery
                                                                                                                                           Framework for
                                                                                                                                                                • Convene annual conferences to report on status and
                                                                                                                                       Monitoring, Evaluation     progress with HRD in the sector in line with specified targets
                                                                                                                                       & Impact Assessment
                                                                                                                                        of HRD in the Sector


                                                                                                                                                 3.2            • Promoting HRD learning networks in the sector
                                                                                                                                           Adoption of a        • Adoption of an exchange programme between the private
                                                                                                                                          Comprehensive           sector and HRD management in the public sector
                                                                                                                                            Stakeholder         • Ensure a comprehensive communication programme in the
                                                                                                                                                                  sector for streamlining tourist developments between public
                                                                                                                                            Engagement
    PILLAR THREE – GOVERNANCE




                                                                                                                                                                  and private entities
                                                                                                                                           Programme to         • Prepare guidelines and protocols on stakeholder engagement
                                                                                                                                         Consolidate HRD          to be used by local municipalities and communities
                                                                                                                                        Efforts in the Sector   • Preparing of a skills development charter based on core
                                                                                                                                                                  principles for the adherence of all stakeholders in the sector


                                                                                                                                               3.3              • Assess administrative and performance blockages to sector
                                                                                                                                                                  performance and replace with uncomplicated admin systems
                                                                            sector.




                                                                                                                                         Streamlining the
                                                                                                                                                                  and procedures.
                                                                                                                                       Administration of the
                                                                                                                                                                • Clarifying, strengthening and aligning governance roles in
                                                                                                                                              Sector              HRD
                                                                                                                                                                • Outlining roles for the management of HRD down to
                                                                                                                                                                  communities with associated policy guidelines for compliance
                                                                                                                                                                • Provide incentives for the consolidating and streamlining of
                                                                                                                                                                  private bodies involved in tourism.
                                                                                                                                                                • Alignment and integration of programmes and initiatives of all
                                                                                                                                                                  stakeholders (public & private)
                                                                                                                                                                • Strengthen the authority and impact of the HRD coordination
                                                                                                                                                                  forum
                                                                                                                                                                • Formalise and strengthen the inter-sector forum on skills
                                                                                                                                                                  development for the tourism sector
                                                                                                                                                                • Establish objectives and targets for HRD for the sector as a
                                                                                                                                                                  whole (public private; national local)


                                                                                                                                                 3.4            • Consolidate HRD policies into one operational and strategic
                                                                                                                                           Developing and         framework for the sector
                                                                                                                                         Streamlining Policy    • Develop and adopt a system to ensure policy articulation
                                                                                                                                                                  between spheres of government so that the national and local
                                                                                                                                       and Policy Framework
                                                                                                                                                                  strategic priorities are met
                                                                                                                                       for the Management of    • Use current integrated structures to lead and manage HRD
                                                                                                                                                HRD               policy implementation across spheres of government
                                                                                                                                                                • Develop initiatives and incentives to align private sector
                                                                                                                                                                  priorities with the national agenda for HRD




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                         102
                                                      PILLAR THREE

   CRITICAL
 COMPONENTS                 CORE OBJECTIVES AND                                        SUB-OBJECTIVES
  OF THE HRD               CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  STRATEGY                      REFERENCE

                                                  3.5             • Compile national registers to maintain and manage quality
                                         Tourism Education          and overall capacity development in HRD (trainers,
                                            Database and            programmes by institutions, guides)
                                                                  • Registry of available courses by institution, province and
                                         Information System
                                                                    quality designation
                                         for the Demand-led       • Registry of learnership sites in the sector
                                        Management of Skills      • Performance statistics in respect to institutional output and
                                        Development (as part        success in national assessment and examinations
                                          of clearing house)



                                                  3.6             • Preparation of an implementation guide to be used by
                                            Alignment and           stakeholders in implementing the national HRD strategy
                                            Streamlining of       • Guidance and promotion of HRD strategies for boards and
                                                                    associations in line with national strategy
                                             Tourism HRD
                                                                  • The preparation of sub-sector level HRD strategies in line
                                             Strategies to          with national strategy
                                         Consolidate Efforts      • Encouragement of enterprise level HRD strategies through
                                        with the Private Sector     technical assistance and incentives
                                         and Across Spheres
                                            of Government


                                                  3.7             • Preparation of guidelines for aligning plans and strategies
                                        Alignment of Tourism      • Detailing of HRD strategic obligations down to community
                                        Plans and Strategies        level
                                                                  • Detailing of HRD strategic obligations within an integrated
                                        within a National and
                                                                    framework
                                           Inter-Provincial
                                                                  • Put structures in place for the preparation of an annual report
                                        Framework of Action         on implementation progress nationally




         iv. Strengthening Linkages to Economic Growth & Development Initiatives: The
             fourth pillar of performance is that of strengthening linkages with the economic growth
             and development initiatives of government, particularly as these relate to the promotion
             of skills development for global competitiveness in the tourism sector. Its role or the
             fourth pillar of performance is well established. Tourism is one of the priority areas for
             economic growth and development in South Africa, and it is considered as a most fertile
             terrain for the advancement of the government’s transformational initiatives. As a result,
             many government initiatives in this regard target the tourism sector as an environment
             where programme interventions such as JIPSA, ASGISA and EPWP could accrue
             significant benefits to the economy. But significant benefits will not accrue from these
             programmes for the sector as a whole if they are not properly coordinated, and if they
             are not orchestrated in a manner where geographic representativity and potential for
             economic impact are assured. Strengthening linkages to economic growth and
             development, there fore, refers to the efforts which will be undertaken to ensure that
             there is an added boost to the performance of the sector through special programme
             interventions. In this manner, such programmes cannot be mere appendages to the
             routine and sometimes non-productive skills development operations which currently
             exist. Such programmes must be made to add value. They must fill gaps, but they must
             simultaneously transform; they must also serve as the catalyst for generating new

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                             103
                 structures and promoting creative approaches; and, not least of all, they must highlight,
                 foster and promote economic relevance and impact.

                 Priorities for establishing linkages to economic growth and development initiatives are
                 illustrated in Figure 8. Six strategic focus areas or core objectives are identified, and,
                 for each, the strategic intent is noted. Further details on this pillar are provided in
                 Tables 28 and 29.

   Figure 8: LINKAGE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES



                                           STRATEGIC FOCUS AREAS                            STRATEGIC INTENT


                                                         4.1
                                                                                     Expand the reach of ASGISA and other
                                              Strategic mobilization of a
                                                                                     programmes through the mobilization of
                                         geographically representative group
                                                                                    more employers from different geographic
                                            of employers in the sector to
                                                                                                     areas
                                           maximize geographic access to
                                           economic development priority
                                           programmes (ASGISA, EPWP)




                                                          4.2
                                           Promoting integrated and inter-              Establishing structures which could
                                         sectoral approaches in responding            facilitate integrated and inter-sectional
                                             to tourism training initiatives             responses on government priority
                                         targeted to economic development                     programmes for the sector




                                                           4.3
                                          Promote Capacity Development for             Greater capacity among planners and
                                         the integration of tourism priorities in    public officials to integrate and streamline
 LINKAGE TO                               the strategic plans and priorities of     tourism priorities in development plans and
                                            government (PGDP, IDPs, LED                                documents
 ECONOMIC                                           strategies, etc)
GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
 INITIATIVES

                                                         4.4
                                         Embark upon awareness promotion                Promoting awareness of government
                                          of government’s economic growth            priority programmes in the sector in order
                                              and development initiatives           to mobilize the support and participation of
                                                                                                    stakeholders




                                                         4.5                                            .
                                         Adoption of a targeting strategy in            Enable strategic focus on priority
                                          training for GCP in JIPSA and                geographic areas in respect to skills
                                          ASGISA in the Tourism Sector                   development needs and options




                                                          4.6
                                             Expansion of programme
                                                initiatives to link skill           More effective management of government
                                             development to economic                 priority programmes (JIPSA) within the
                                           development (JIPSA, ASGISA)                             tourism sector

   HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                             104
HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008   105
         Table 28 presents a summary of the rationale and intended outcomes of each focus area,
         and Table 29 provides a detailed listing of all the sub-objectives associated with each of the
         strategic focus areas.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                106
Table 28: SUMMARY OF RATIONALE AND INTENDED OUTCOMES


                                                       PILLAR FOUR

    AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                         SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                          INTENDED OUTCOMES
   LINKAGE TO ECONOMIC
  GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
        INITIATIVES

              4.1                             The benefits of government priority       • Greater geographic representativity
  Strategic mobilization of a               programmes are not fully exploited in         in the distribution of government
geographically representative               many geographic areas. As a result,           priority programmes
  group of employers in the
                                             there is little representation of many     • Greater representativity of
                                               geographic areas on the map of             individuals from depressed
sector to maximize geographic               JIPSA initiatives in the sector. Some         economic backgrounds
     access to economic                        geographic areas are therefore
     development priority                     disadvantaged in this respect and
programmes (ASGISA, EPWP)                   potential for skills development for the
                                                    sector is compromised



                4.2                           The tourism sector will benefit most      • Greater cohesion in government
Promoting integrated and inter-             from inter-sectoral approaches in light       programmes related to the sector
     sectoral approaches in                   of the scope and complexity of the
                                                sector; and in light of the many
 responding to tourism training              government agencies which seek to
initiatives targeted to economic               have impact on the sector. While
           development                       inter-sectoral approaches exist, they
                                            are generally not well coordinated and
                                                     strategically aligned.


                4.3                            Many of the strategic documents          • More competent and able local
Promote Capacity Development                  related to tourism are prepared by          government officials who can
 for the integration of tourism             external consultants without the level        provide guidance in the preparation
                                              of strategic input from government          of tourism related strategies and
priorities in the strategic plans           officials that is necessary. It is noted      plans
 and priorities of government               that local officials are not sufficiently   • More effective and relevant tourism
        (PGDP, IDPs, etc)                       competent in matters related to           plans and strategies that are more
                                               tourism to provide the necessary           effectively coordinated and
                                             guidance. Capacity development is            administered
                                                            necessary.


              4.4                           Many in the sector are not fully aware      • Wider participation of stakeholders,
    Embark upon awareness                    of government priority programmes            particularly private enterprises, in
   promotion of government’s                 and the manner in which they may             government priority programmes
                                                  participate and contribute.
      economic growth and
     development initiatives




               4.5                                There is no comprehensive             • A well focussed HRD strategy for
Adoption of a targeting strategy                 programme to mobilize HRD                GCP areas with government
 in training for GCP in JIPSA                 resources in the development and            participating as part of the delivery
                                             service of GCP areas. A concerted            infrastructure
  and ASGISA in the Tourism                    effort is necessary to assess and
             Sector                         mobilize these resources. JIPSA and
                                            other programmes must be part of this
                                                         overall strategy.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                         107
                                                       PILLAR FOUR

    AREAS OF FOCUS FOR                         SUMMARY OF RATIONALE                           INTENDED OUTCOMES
   LINKAGE TO ECONOMIC
  GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
        INITIATIVES


               4.6                           JIPSA is managed as an appendage            • A unified structure for the
   Expansion of programme                   to the overall skills development thrust       management of government
     initiatives to link skill              of the sector. It is essential, therefore,     priority programmes in tourism
                                             to adopt an integrated management             which is part of the overall SSP
   development to economic                    structure which will see JIPSA and
 development (JIPSA, ASGISA)                    other programmes as part of the
                                              overall skills development planning
                                                   framework for the sector.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                           108
Table 29: OBJECTIVES AND SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR HRD IN THE TOURISM SECTOR


                                                                                                                                                                                                          PILLAR FOUR

   CRITICAL
 COMPONENTS                                                              CORE OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPTUAL                                                                                                                                     SUB-OBJECTIVES
  OF THE HRD                                                                 FRAMEWORK REFERENCE
  STRATEGY
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.1           • Assessment of geographic representativity of economic
                                                                          Economic growth and development refers to efforts undertaken to ensure that the tourism sector accrues benefit from


                                                                                                                                                                                                Strategic mobilization      growth and development training initiatives in the sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Noting gaps in geographic representativity, conduct
                                                                                                                                                                                                  of a geographically       capacity assessment in designated areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                 representative group     • Adopt a mobilization campaign for employers to
                                                                                                                                                                                                  of employers in the       participate in designated areas
    PILLAR FOUR – LINKAGE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES




                                                                                                                                                                                                  sector to maximize
                                                                                                                                                                                                geographic access to
                                                                                                                                                                                                        economic
                                                                                                                                                                                                 development priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                      programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                   (ASGISA, EPWP)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.2           • Assess inter-sectoral potential of current initiatives
                                                                                                                                                                                                Promoting integrated      • Develop strategy for inter-sectoral engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Put in place a unified management structure for inter-
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and inter-sectoral       sectoral programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                     approaches in
                                                                                                        the economic growth and development initiatives




                                                                                                                                                                                                     responding to
                                                                                                                                                                                                    tourism training
                                                                                                                                                                                                initiatives targeted to
                                                                                                                                                                                                        economic
                                                                                                                                                                                                      development
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.3           • Guidelines on the integration and incorporation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Promote Capacity         tourism priorities in development planning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Workshops for provinces and municipalities on tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Development for the        alignment in development planning
                                                                                                                                                                                                integration of tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                     priorities in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  strategic plans and
                                                                                                                                                                                                       priorities of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  government (PGDP,
                                                                                                                                                                                                        IDPs, etc)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.4           • Guidance in the promotion of economic growth and
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Embark upon           development initiatives on DEAT and THETA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            operational planning processes
                                                                                                                                                                                                awareness promotion       • Internal workshop for staff on operational planning in
                                                                                                                                                                                                    of government’s         response to the ASGISA initiatives
                                                                                                                                                                                                economic growth and       • Reporting protocols, structures and requirements on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                      development           success of initiatives in response to ASGISA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Establishment of ASGISA targets in sub-sectors of
                                                                                                                                                                                                        initiatives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            tourism in different geographic zones in training
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.5           • Establish ASGISA training targets in response to GCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Adoption of a          focus areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Incorporation of ASGISA targets in national targeting
                                                                                                                                                                                                 targeting strategy in      strategy for HRD
                                                                                                                                                                                                  training for GCP in
                                                                                                                                                                                                JIPSA and ASGISA in
                                                                                                                                                                                                  the Tourism Sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.6           • Establish a unified structure for the management of
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Expansion of          ASGISA initiatives in tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Integrate ASGISA initiatives within overall HR supply
                                                                                                                                                                                                programme initiatives       strategy in the sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                       to link skill
                                                                                                                                                                                                    development to
                                                                                                                                                                                                        economic
                                                                                                                                                                                                development (JIPSA,
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ASGISA)



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                                                                              109
         8.2.3 Core Principles for Informing, Guiding and Strengthening Strategic
         Interventions
         One other component for establishing coherence in the sector is a body of principles or a
         set of “common understandings” to which all stakeholders in the sector can subscribe. In
         spite of the regulatory frameworks which exist, and in spite of the values upon which these
         frameworks are founded, there is still no common set of clear and fully endorsed values or
         operational perspectives which can be used in the sector as a base from which all can act.
         While there are common beliefs and values shared by some in the sector, and while, in
         general, most in the sector do align themselves to the trends and expectations defined in
         policy, the sector is still disconnected and in discord through its diverse and multiple
         interests. As a result, some of the more common beliefs among stakeholders actually have
         little force on their actions and engagements. Although policy frameworks and guidelines
         are important, these will not, of themselves, establish the level of coherence needed.
         Policy sets the direction, but cannot ensure the level of commitment and internalization
         needed to bring the coherence and synergy needed. As part of the HRD strategy,
         therefore, a set of core principles are proposed. These core principles are the essential
         “core lines of action” which will permeate the sector, from government to the private sector,
         within all spheres of government and among all enterprises and entities which represent the
         sector. These lines of action will represent the basic understandings of all in the sector to
         act in coherence with the whole. Each entity, could, in its own way, play its part by aligning
         its activities to particular set core beliefs and thereby conform to a generally held body of
         operating principles.

         A sum total of 14 principles are recommended for establishing the coherence necessary.
         But these 14 principles do not represent the sum total of principles which may be
         necessary, nor do they represent the body of principles upon which the industry may agree.
         In this regard, they are only illustrative of the “basic understandings” upon which the
         industry can invest its collective effort. As noted, these principles are areas for concerted
         actions which have been selected based on the circumstances which now inhibit the
         performance of the sector. To the extent all can subscribe to these principles, and to the
         extent that they can become the operational values around which the industry can rally,
         these principles can bring a degree of coherence to the sector.

         Each principle is itemised and briefly discussed below:

              i.        Public-Private Partnerships:
                        The notion of public-private partnerships is now a commonly held view and a
                        well endorsed practise for building capacity to deliver in the public sector; for
                        enabling the transfer of knowledge; and, among others, for accelerating
                        development by capitalizing on comparative advantage.               Public private
                        partnerships are widely practiced in the sector, but it is not a core consideration
                        which serves as a first principle of action. As a result many areas in which
                        private participation could add value to public practice are not properly explored.
                        As a principle of action, each party would explore the benefits to be accrued
                        through the participation of the other. The industry can continue to make
                        significant contributions to policy; and the industry can benefit as well from
                        participation in government programmes. The advantage here is the promotion


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    110
                        of joint solutions and collaborative action which tap into the unique strengths
                        brought by each party.

              ii.       Uniformity in Standards
                        Standards are not uniform in the sector. Whether these standards pertain to
                        material, facilities and equipment, programmes, the capacity of trainers or the
                        quality of information, the standards in the field vary. If uniformity of standards is
                        an operational principle, then the first issues of practice in each area will
                        become the standards to which all could conform, in each area of performance.
                        Impact comes not from the existence of the standard, but from the commitment
                        of all parties to abide by the standards which govern practice in the field. In this
                        sense, the sector will not be transformed from the top, but from within the
                        conscience of its diverse structures and entities. As with all other principles,
                        promoting the uniformity of standards is to promote enrichment and
                        transformation from within.

              iii.      Industry Relevance
                        One of the most pervasive complaints about skills development in the sector is
                        the lack of industry relevance, and the subsequent inability of graduates to
                        properly undertake the responsibilities they are assigned in the workplace. But
                        industry relevance is not a one-sided affair. Education and industry must join
                        forces in order to promote and sustain the industry relevance of training. The
                        realization of industry relevance is expensive and demanding, and it requires a
                        high level of commitment in order to make it work. As an operational principle,
                        all parties in the sector will commit to play its part in promoting industry
                        relevance in the interest of service excellence and competitiveness in the sector.
                        In this manner, the action and processes of educators and trainers as well as
                        the level of cooperation of employers will be transformed, so that trainees could
                        have access to industry relevant content and facilities. On the part of educators,
                        the new level of collaboration will be reflected in the participation of industry in
                        the design and delivery of educational programmes, and in the design and
                        accessibility of places of employment in the sector as workplace learning
                        environments that are properly equipped and managed.

              iv.       Equalizing Opportunities to Grow and Succeed
                        Available evidence seems to suggest there are significant inequities in the
                        opportunities that are available for employees it the sector to nurture and pursue
                        career paths. In light of the low entry level skills required, and because of the
                        relative oversupply of labour at entry level occupations, there is little interest in
                        the sector, as a whole, in properly inducting and developing entry level
                        employees. In most sub-sectors, particularly in the hospitality sub-sector, those
                        who enter at low level wages are likely to remain at those levels for most of their
                        career in the industry. Many employees are therefore fleeting entrants who
                        enter the sector without intending to stay. But if the sector must grow into its
                        aspired excellence, then it is necessary to build a viable labour pool “from the
                        bottom up” moving entrants into careers as their potential and performance will
                        allow. As a core principle each entity will strive to make their level of
                        promotability a reality, and each will establish practices which will enable people

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                       111
                        to move into careers. This must also be facilitated in the government sector as it
                        would therefore seek to build some of its talent from within. The major
                        advantage here is the wide breadth of sector related knowledge that is
                        established as a foundation for good performance.

              v.        Enhancing Delivery in Communities
                        Any commitment to this principle seeks to ensure that there is capacity at the
                        point where the tourism product is to be delivered. Community here refers to the
                        many local communities or establishments which are sometimes isolated from
                        centre stage and from the source of policy direction; communities also refer to
                        those segments or units within organizations or associations which may not be
                        informed or kept up to date with policy thrusts and directions. The consequent
                        lack of alignment between policy and action, and the resulting inability of the
                        “local community” to engage and deliver services in a manner which is in accord
                        with a larger programmatic agenda, sometimes result in lack of focus,
                        fragmented delivery and the under-utilization of valuable resources. The
                        principle to which all should commit, therefore, is that of streamlining policy and
                        action so that strategic considerations at the top reach those who function at the
                        point of delivery. Those who deliver services should be capacitated to act in a
                        manner that is compliant with a valid programme of action.

              vi.       Articulation between Levels of Governance
                        In this regard, the articulation between levels of governance is essential. This is
                        important in both the public and private sectors. There must be synergy
                        between levels of governance in order to establish consistency, continuity and
                        potential for impact. The principle is particularly important in the role and
                        function of DEAT and other national departments. The synergy and articulation
                        with provinces, local boards and associations and with local communities are
                        essential to effective delivery.      In DEAT, as with some other national
                        departments, there is little organizational capacity to delivery “down to
                        communities”; and, this, too, affects representativity and performance. As a
                        principle, therefore, synergy between levels of operation is essential.

              vii.      Strategy Coordination and Alignment
                        The principle of strategy, coordination and alignment refers to the need to build
                        an integrated system of delivery based on the alignment of strategic priorities.
                        The principle entreats all to act in accord with the strategic priorities and
                        obligations to which the sector commits. This means that these strategic
                        priorities should be clear, and that their implications upon all stakeholders
                        should be properly understood. Strategy coordination and alignment therefore
                        refers to the extent to which strategy for the sector infiltrates the plans and
                        strategies of department, boards and associations, enterprises and private
                        entities in the sector. If, for example, transformation is a strategic priority, then
                        its requirements and obligations on all should be clear, and the plans and
                        strategic documents of all public and private entities in the sector should seek, in
                        their own way, to address these transformational priorities. Subscription to the
                        principle says that, as a body in the sector “our action” will be aligned to the
                        sector’s strategic priorities.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                      112
              viii.     Accessibility of Opportunity to All
                        Accessibility to opportunity to all is a fundamental principle which ensures equity
                        of access to the opportunities provided for growth and development in the
                        sector. As a principle, it does not only refer to opportunities for employees to
                        advance in careers within the organization and the sector. It refers to all
                        opportunities provided in the sector to grow and develop as employees, as
                        business owners and managers, as policy leaders in front and as industry
                        leaders in the respective bodies and associations. Accessibility of opportunity
                        means equalising the accessibility of opportunity for people in the sector to grow
                        into positions of influence, into wealth and economic wellbeing or into levels of
                        professional growth and development which propels their career in the sector.
                        Tourism is labelled as one of the most untransformed sectors in the economy,
                        and much of the delay in progress in this regard relates to history, tradition and
                        accepted practices in the sector which systematically denies opportunities to
                        some and promotes and advances others who are sometimes less well
                        prepared. Subscribing to this principle will mean that each party has a duty to
                        act in a manner that will give access to all. In this way, the policy structures
                        must in place, but the ensuing practices must be consistently applied.

              ix.       Promoting Transformation
                        Transformation is very high on the policy and strategic agenda of the country.
                        Many of the policy and programmatic initiatives now being undertaken have
                        transformational components which are intended to benefit the sector. But
                        transformation must have meaning. It cannot be driven by policy without
                        practical substance and meaning for those who would accrue benefit. While due
                        regard and recognition must be given to the many initiatives which have
                        transformation as an end result, note must be made of the slow pace of
                        transformation in the sector, and the sometimes superficial evidence of
                        transformation is without any true and definable proof of transformation having
                        taken place. No individual or entity can be forced to transform. They can be
                        forced to change; but transformation is more fundamental than change, and
                        requires a higher level of commitment and internalization about what is being
                        adopted. This factor as a core principle seeks to enlist the commitment and
                        internalization of the amount of transformation so that stakeholders are
                        committed to function rather than form, and to results rather then statistics and
                        other superficial evidence of change.

              x.        Articulation and Continuity in Educational Programmes
                        Articulation and continuity in education and training programmes refer to the
                        smooth professional and developmental nature of training which builds deep and
                        valued competence over time rather than ad hoc, intermittent and random
                        programmes of training which are unrelated and which do not contribute to
                        career development. A commitment to this principle is evident in many ways in
                        ensuring practice. All stakeholders will be conscious about the prerequisites to
                        training and about the necessary follow up courses that will be appropriate after
                        training. There will be greater commitment to inter-institutional articulation of
                        courses so that trainees in the sector can pursue smooth and consistent paths
                        of self development over time. More emphasis will be given to preparing

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    113
                        employees for careers and for career growth over time, rather than preparation
                        for a series of responsibilities. Such a commitment from all stakeholders places
                        quality control in the hands of all its users and embeds core values deep within
                        the practice and norms of the sector.

              xi.       Promoting Strength through Stakeholder Unity
                        There are many private bodies and associations within the sector each seeking
                        to advance its own ends, and each seeking to meet the needs of its own
                        stakeholder community. The result is a fragmented and fractured sector where
                        result is a fragmented and fractured sector where the true benefits of the
                        inherent capacity of the sector cannot be realised. The more communities,
                        organizations and associations continue to act independently, the more the
                        sector will under perform and the more it will deviate from realising its true
                        potential. The solution, perhaps, is that of building a culture of stakeholder unity
                        in the sector where all act in a shared and common interest, and where all is
                        prepared to make some degree of personal sacrifices for ends that, in the long
                        term, benefit the sector as a whole. The key consideration here is the level of
                        mobilization that is necessary for the sector to formulate the bond of common
                        purpose. Adherence to this principle will be manifested in the willingness of
                        stakeholders to share resources and work together, their willingness to establish
                        collaborative ties and forge unified associations representing a larger frame of
                        interest and among others, a higher degree of self governance where all parties
                        take responsibility for the welfare of the sector as a whole.

              xii.      Shared Information as a basis for Collective Intelligence
                        The principle of collective intelligence is the critical feature of an organism or
                        sector that must act in unison. The report here is that all must be equally
                        informed about developments and requirements so that all have the opportunity
                        to respond, adapt, or adjust as appropriate. While unshared intelligence may
                        accrue advantages to some, in general, it does not solicit the best response
                        from the sector as a whole. A commitment to share information for collective
                        intelligence in the sector will mean that efforts will be made by all stakeholders
                        to ensure that the right data on prospects and the performance of the sector are
                        equally available to all. This means that in addition to official structures for
                        information sharing, there must be viable Learning networks and other avenues
                        of knowing in the sector. Each party must take some responsibility for the
                        availability and the integrity of data.

              xiii.     Subscribing to a Common Brand in HRD for Tourism
                        HRD in the sector must be branded. A common brand means that all
                        stakeholders in the sector will subscribe to and promote this brand. Whether it
                        is “competing through people”, “building a skills partnership”, or “our people are
                        our greatest asset” there should be some logo and brand that mobilizes and
                        excites development in the sector. The notion of branding is core to the agenda
                        of establishing coherence in the sector. There must be some statement, logo or
                        jingle that reminds us all that we must believe, first of all in our people because
                        they are the faces of the products we market. The business of tourism is a
                        business about people …. people securing people with pride and diligence.

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     114
              xiv.      Consolidating Efforts to Maximize Impact.
                        In societies where tourism has had accelerated success, the key factor was
                        mobilization and consolidation of effort toward a single purpose. All sectors and
                        all related parties focussed on a commonly endorsed agenda with minimal
                        difference where possible. This intensity of focus builds momentum and adds
                        value beyond the contribution of its participants. The principle of consolidating
                        efforts means that, even in communities, efforts must be consolidated to specific
                        objectives with a degree of single mindedness that will accrue quick results and
                        have significant spillover in terms of teamwork, momentum and “breakthrough
                        force” where and when it is necessary. Commitment to this principle is
                        essentially commitment to, in effect, “join the party” when it is necessary to take
                        action that will make a difference.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                    115
    9. A PLAN OF ACTION FOR IMPLEMENTING THE HRD STRATEGY
       FOR THE TOURISM SECTOR

    9.1 Introduction and Purpose

          The previous chapters have outlined, in detail, the various components of the HRD
          strategy for the sector. The objectives and sub-objectives listed have been raised in
          response to the context and circumstances which limit or impede the value that skills
          development can add to the sector’s viability and performance. Together, when
          undertaken, these objectives can assist in recreating a more viable skills development
          infrastructure for the sector. The issue to be raised, however, is the manner in which
          these objectives will be executed so as to preserve a sense of order and integrity in
          implementation. Certainly, it will not be possible to undertake all these initiatives at the
          same time. A sense of order must be preserved. In preserving this sense of order,
          interventions must be properly phased so that each can build on the other and each can
          be incorporated into policy and organizational environments that are receptive and
          appropriate. The purpose of this chapter is to present the basic features of an
          implementation-focused action plan. The intent here is to reflect on what will be necessary
          to bring the strategic framework into effect.

          The approach used in designing an action plan is a project approach. In this sense, the
          strategy is formulated into a series of projects which can be implemented over time. The
          value of the project approach is that it clusters strategic activities into groups of related
          tasks which can be reasonably accomplished as a whole. In addition, this approach
          makes it easier to mobilize and allocate funding; easier to target and align the correct
          stakeholder support; more convenient to identify the most appropriate structures and
          frameworks for implementation, and among others, easier to track and monitor progress
          and achievements

          This chapter is therefore divided into four sections. The first section describes the
          recommended structure for the implementation projects. The second section describes
          the project framework and seeks to relate the series of projects identified to the focus
          areas of the conceptual framework in the previous chapter. The third section seeks to
          outline basic considerations for the development of each project, and the fourth section
          seeks to sketch the manner in which each project may unfold according to a five-year time
          table.

          It should be noted here that neither the projects themselves nor the associated timelines
          are “set in stone” and confined approaches or dates for execution. The chapter, at this
          time, is only illustrative of the manner in which the strategic framework may unfold.
          Changes may be appropriate as structures for implementation are set in motion.

    9.2 The Structure for Project Implementation

          Figure 9 presents the recommended structure for project implementation.      It is
          recommended that the HRD strategy be driven from DEAT, through an integrated HRD

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                116
          team which is comprised of all HRD officials in DEAT. The team should be chaired by
          DDG Tourism and should have a specially designated secretariat and mandate to oversee
          the implementation of the HRD strategy. The team may also have an advisory group
          which it may be use for advice and technical support. The first mandate of the team is the
          implementation of the strategy. A director for this team should be selected by DEAT from
          its internal staff.

          This internal group will oversee three cabinet appointed task forces that will take
          responsibility for separate aspects of the strategy as follows: Management; Governance
          and Administration; and Promotion and Advocacy. Each group will have its own mandate
          and an established set of projects to design, implement and monitor. As noted, each
          group will be allocated 5 projects as discussed in the next section of this chapter. Each
          project will have project advisory teams constituted of government and industry
          representatives.

Figure 9: RECOMMENDED STRUCTURE FOR PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION



                                                               DEAT
                                                      (contracted HRD team)




                 Training                                Governance &             Promotion &
                Management                               Administration            Advocacy
                Task Force                                 Task Force              Task Force

                     A                                        B                         C
                   Projects                                 Projects                Projects




             Project Oversight                         Project Oversight        Project Oversight
                  Teams                                     Teams                    Teams


               Government &                              Government &            Government &
                 Industry                                  Industry                Industry
               Stakeholders                              Stakeholders            Stakeholders




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                 117
    9.3 The Project Framework

          The project framework is presented in Figure 10. The HRD strategy is constituted of 15
          projects with each task force being assigned 5 projects for management and execution.
          Each task force has a distant set of project responsibilities as described briefly below:

              i.        The Training Management Task Force
                        The training management task force will take responsibility for all projects
                        related to capacity development. The role of the task force is to ensure that the
                        projects are designed and executed in a manner that will contribute to skills
                        development effectiveness and eventuality to the performance of the sector. It
                        is recommended that the skills development task force be a newly constituted
                        body with a readily appointed profile of government and industry stakeholders so
                        that a new and fresh look could be taken on the structures and processes for
                        skills development in the sector. As a task force the mandate of the body will
                        not be permanent but transitional. The body may evolve into or be the basis for
                        the creation of whatever supplemental structures are viewed desirable for skills
                        development in the sector.

Figure 10: PROJECT FRAMEWORK FOR IMPLEMENTING THE HRD STRATEGY FOR THE TOURISM
SECTOR


                                                PROJECT TASK TEAMS


                   A.                                       B.                          C.
 TRAINING MANAGEMENT                                  GOVERNANCE &             PROMOTION & ADVOCACY
                                                      ADMINISTRATION


                   1.                                       1.                              1.
  Promoting Accessibility in                     Knowledge & Information        Building a Tourism Culture
          Training                                    Management

                   2.                                       2.                              2.
   Strengthening Workplace                     Plan and Strategy Integration   An HRD Charter for the Sector
           Learning

                   3.                                       3.                              3.
  Local Government Capacity                     Strengthening Structure for    Promoting Tourism Education
   Development in Tourism                           HRD Management

                   4.                                       4.                              4.
Leadership Development for the                 Coordination Unit for Sector    An Employment Charter for the
       Tourism Sector                               Transformation                       Sector

                   5.                                       5.                              5.
         Back to Basics                       Advancing a Code of Practice       Stakeholder Engagement
                                                                                       Programme




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                       118
                 Figure 11: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK WITH REFERENCE TO PROJECTS

                                                                                                 A
                                                                                         Vision for HRD in
                                                                                        the Tourism Sector
                                                                          Sustained and efficient human capital formation
                                                                   to grow a service-oriented and world class tourism enterprise


                                                  Human Capital Formation and Utilization for a World Class Tourism Enterprise

                                                                           Structural Arrangements in                                                              Develop & Implement a                                           Strategic Mobilization of
        Management and                                                     DEAT to enable Integrative                                                             Framework for Monitoring,                                             Geographically
     Leadership Development                                                  Planning in Support of                                                                  Evaluation & Impact                                           Representative Group of
          (Project A4)                                                        Tourism (environment,                                                               Assessment of HRD in the                                        Employees in the Sector to
                                                                             conservation, biodiversity, etc)                                                        Sector (Project B1)                                             Maximize Access to
                                                                                                 (Project B2)                                                                                                                      Economic Development
                                                                                                                                                                         Adoption of a                                              Priority Programmes
            Skills Development                                                                                                                                    Comprehensive Stakeholder                                           (ASGISA, EPWP)
           Packaging for SMMEs                                           Adoption of an Integrated &                                                              Engagement Programme to                                                (Project A1)
               (Project A4)                                              Coordinated Programme for                                                                Consolidate HRD Efforts in
                                                                         Accelerating Transformation                                                                the Sector (Project C5)                                          Promoting Integrated &
      Promoting Access to                                                       in the Sector                                                                                                                                    Inter-Sectoral Approaches in
    Education and Training in                                                   (Project B4)                                                                                                                                         Responding to Tourism
           the Sector                                                                                                                                                 Streamlining the                                            Training Initiatives Targeted
         (Project A1)                                                                                                                                             Administration of the Sector                                     to Economic Development
                                                                                       Assessing the HRD                                                                 (Project B3)                                                     (Project A1)
   Strengthening Workplace                                                           Implications of Strategic
   Learning through Effective                                                         Priorities in the Sector                                                                                                                         Promote Capacity
     Training Management                                                                   (Project B2)                                                           Developing & Streamlining                                           Development for the
          (Project A2)                                                                                                                                                Policy and Policy                                              Integration of Tourism
                                                                                                                                                                     Framework for the                                              Priorities in the Strategic
                                                                                                                                                                    Management of HRD                                                Plans and Priorities of
 Building Core and Generic                                                              Streamlining the                                                                (Project B2)                                                Government (PGDP, IDPs)
Competencies for the Sector                                                           Management of HRD in                                                                                                                                 (Project B2)
        (Project A5)                                                                         DEAT
                                                                                          (Project B3)                                                                Tourism Education                                           Embark upon Awareness
                                                                                                                                                                   Database & Information                                        Promotion of Government’s
  Growing a Tourism Culture                                                                                                                                       System for the Demand-led                                         Economic Growth &
      through Training                                                                                                                                              Management of Skills                                           Development Initiatives
        (Project C1)                                                     Enhanced Human Resource                                                                   Development (as part of                                             (Project C5)
                                                                          Planning for the Tourism                                                                     clearing house)
                                                                                  Sector                                                                                 (Project B1)
              Building Tourism                                                 (Project B1)
             Competency in Local                                                                                                                                  Alignment and Streamlining                                        Adoption of a Targeting
                Government                                                                                                                                         of Tourism HRD Strategies                                     Strategy in Training for GCP
                (Project A3)                                                                                                                                       to Consolidate Efforts with                                   in JIPSA and ASGISA in the
                                                                           Improved HRM practices in                                                              the Private Sector & Across                                           Tourism Sector
                                                                                support of HRD                                                                       Spheres of Government                                               (Project A1)
    Strengthening the Role of                                                    (Project B5)                                                                             (Project B2)
       Industry in Training
          (Project A2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Expansion of Programme
                                                                          Knowledge and Information                                                               Alignment of Tourism Plans                                         Initiatives to Link Skill
 Promoting Effectiveness in                                                  Management for the                                                                       & Strategies within a                                        Development to Economic
the Delivery & Management                                                      Tourism Sector                                                                     National and Inter-Provincial                                      Development (JIPSA,
  of Training in the Sector                                                     (Project B1)                                                                          Framework of Action                                                    ASGISA)
        (Project A1)                                                                                                                                                      (Project B2)                                                     (Project A1)

         CAPACITY                                                            ORGANIZATIONAL                                                                            GOVERNANCE                                                 ECONOMIC GROWTH &
DEVELOPMENT Initiatives                                                            SUPPORT                                                                               Initiatives to                                               DEVELOPMENT
  to strengthen capacity                                                  Initiatives to ensure that                                                              strengthen governance of                                       HRD initiatives to support
 development structures,                                                 organizations are ready to                                                                       HRD in the                                                & sustain economic
 systems and services in                                                 adequately sustain & use                                                                            Sector                                              growth & development &
         the Sector                                                        their human resources                                                                                                                                   related interventions


                 4 Key pillars for enhancing human capital formation & utilization in order to attain & sustain a world class tourism enterprise
                                                                         Enriching Delivery in




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Consolidating efforts
                                                                                                                                                                                                           through Stakeholder
                                                                                                   Articulation between




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to maximize impact
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Promoting Strength
                                                     Grow and Succeed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Shared Information
                                                                                                                                           Opportunities to All




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Common Brand in
                                                                                                                                                                    Transformation in




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HRD for Tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Subscribing to a
                                                      Opportunities to




                                                                                                                                                                                        Articulation and
                                                                                                                                            Accessibility of
                                                                                                                          Coordination &
Public Private




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   as a basis for
                                                                            Communities




                                                                                                                                                                                         Programmes
Partnerships



                      Uniformity in




                                                                                                                                                                                         Continuity in
                                                                                                        Governance




                                                                                                                                                                                         Education &




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Intelligence
                                      Relevance




                                                                                                                                                                       the Sector
                                                                                                                                                                       Promoting
                       Standards




                                                                                                                            Alignment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Collective
                                                                                                         Levels of
                                                         Equity in




                                                                                                                             Strategy




                                                                                                                                                                                            Training
                                       Industry




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unity




                                                   Core principles for informing, guiding and strengthening HRD strategic interventions


                       National structure of Tourism
HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008 Boards, Associations, Enterprises & Training Institutions                                                                                                                                                       119

                                                                         National legislative and Strategic Frameworks of Government
HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008   120
         As shown above, the training management task force is assigned five projects. Table 30
         presents an itemization of each project with a summary of the content and focus areas of
         each project. The projects assigned to the Training Management Task Force are itemized
         in the table below:

Table 30: TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT TASK FORCE INTERPRETATION OF PROJECTS WITH
ASSOCIATED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS

     PROJECTS IN                                 RECOMMENDED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS
       TRAINING
     MANAGEMENT
                                • Rationalizing the training environment and supply stream for human resources in tourism
           1.                   • Institute a programme of e-learning or e-training to be accessed by public and private
       Promoting                  enterprises
     Accessibility in           • Establishment of a coordinated training network nationally with selected core providers
        Training                  to ensure representativity of training opportunities in all sectors
                                • Identification of geographic areas with gaps in training delivery and institute a
                                  development programme
                                • Adoption of RPL in enterprises in order to enable greater access and enhance
                                  promotability
                                • Institute and strengthen policy measures and support structures to ensure that access is
                                  not denied through affordability
                                • Promoting and enforcing standards and competitiveness for trainees in tourism
                                • Fostering the availability of high quality training materials that are easily accessible
                                • Development of skills profiles for all occupations in the sector
                                • Articulation of courses in the sector by levels from basic and generic core competencies
                                  to specialized and managerial skills
                                • Developing and enforcing standards for training facilities and programmes
                                • Developing and enforcing standards for learning materials
                                • Policy intervention to bridge differences in course quality, standards and contact
                                • Assessment of geographic representativity of economic growth and development training
                                  initiatives in the sector
                                • Noting gaps in geographic representativity, conduct capacity assessment in designated
                                  areas
                                • Adopt a mobilization campaign for employers to participate in designated areas
                                • Assess inter-sectoral potential of current initiatives
                                • Develop strategy for inter-sectoral engagement
                                • Put in place a unified management structure for inter-sectoral programmes
                                • Establish ASGISA training targets in response to GCP focus areas
                                • Incorporation of ASGISA targets in national targeting strategy for HRD
                                • Establish a unified structure for the management of ASGISA initiatives in tourism
                                • Integrate ASGISA initiatives within overall HR supply strategy in the sector

                                • Implement incentives and a programme for enterprises to include investment in people
          2.                    • Provide incentives to create opportunities for experiential learning for trainees
    Strengthening               • Establish policy guidelines and protocols for career pathing in enterprises to begin with
  Workplace Learning              induction
                                • Establish protocols and policy guidelines for scarce skills retention management
                                • Promote incentives for industry to offer internships, learnerships and various forms of
                                  experiential learning
                                • Incentives for industry involvement in curriculum development
                                • Outsourcing some publicly funded training to private and business entities
                                • Enhancing industry participation in policy and strategic bodies


                                • Expanding reach of local government toolkit
          3.                    • Developing guidelines for HRD strategy development and implementation for local
 Local Government                 government
Capacity Development            • Developing a tourism management training programme for relevant local government
     in Tourism                   and community officials




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                      121
     PROJECTS IN                                 RECOMMENDED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS
       TRAINING
     MANAGEMENT
                                • Adopt a management development programme in policy leadership and strategic
         4.                       management in the sector that is specially targeted to senior officials in the public sector
     Leadership                   to include coaching and mentoring
 Development for the            • Provide incentives and a comprehensive programme for accelerated progression of
   Tourism Sector                 talented blacks into management positions
                                • Develop and implement a sector-specific training programme for managers in
                                  outsourcing to include procurement, project management and contracting
                                • Establish skills development programming that is specially targeted to SMMEs
                                • Provide incentives for training providers who serve SMMEs
                                • Adopt a programme for multi-skilling people particularly for small enterprises
                                • Provide incentives for training partnerships which monitor, coach or develop operational
                                  skills for staff in SMMEs


                                • Strengthen ABET provision in the tourism sector
           5.                   • Establishment of a common format and structure for induction in various aspects of
     Back to Basics               tourism
                                • Implement a national training programme on core competencies for the tourism sector to
                                  be adopted by training entities and tourism enterprises – communication, maths literacy,
                                  service excellence – and used as bridging courses for tourism training
                                • Structure a basic supervision course targeted at supervisors in the sector
                                • Ensure the availability of relevant and basic IT courses for workers in the sector




         ii.            The Governance and Administration Task Force
                        The Governance and Administration Task Force will take responsibility for all
                        organizational and structural initiatives which are essential for the
                        implementation of the strategy. These initiatives are essentially concerned with
                        issues related to governance and organizational support for HRD. Again, here,
                        the task force will plan a special but transitional role in the structure for
                        implementation. It will also be constituted of government officials and industry
                        representatives, and will be given whatever authority is required to “make a
                        difference” in the manner in which the sector’s business is conducted. The work
                        of the Governance and Administration Task Force is critical to the success of the
                        strategy. Unless the unsettling matters related to structures and governance are
                        confronted and overcome, the prospects of the success of the strategy will be
                        significantly compromised. Here, it is expected that there will be extensive
                        industry leadership in crafting structures and processes which strengthens the
                        performance of the sector. Table 31 presents an itemization of the projects
                        associated with the Governance and Administration Task Force with the
                        associated content and focus area for project execution.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                       122
Table 31: GOVERNANCE & ADMINISTRATION TASK FORCE INTERPRETATION OF PROJECTS WITH
ASSOCIATED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS

PROJECTS IN GOVERNANCE                                RECOMMENDED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS
  AND ADMINISTRATION
                                          • Comprehensive assessment of human resource supply for the sector by sub-
             1                              sector and GCP focus areas (public and private)
  Knowledge and Information               • Comprehensive assessment of human resource demand by sub-sector and
        Management                          GCP focus areas
                                          • Comprehensive assessment of HR gaps by sub-sector and by GCP focus
                                            areas
                                          • Adopt programmes to address the structural anomalies of HR allocation in the
                                            sector (seasonality, over-supply in geographic areas; etc.)
                                          • Creating dependable supply streams of talent for the tourism sector
                                          • Information clearing house or research centre for tourism and skills
                                            development research and information management
                                          • Ongoing tracer studies in learners
                                          • Regular publication of critical information to inform stakeholders in sector of
                                            findings and developments in the sector
                                          • Comprehensive baseline information on service providers in tourism
                                          • Comprehensive monitoring of training standards compliance
                                          • Ongoing publication of best practice research
                                          • Comprehensive tourism research and statistics with implications for policy and
                                            practice (including training)
                                          • Establish framework and system for monitoring of compliance with strategic
                                            initiatives
                                          • Establish plan structure and guidelines for promoting and monitoring the impact
                                            of training on service delivery
                                          • Convene annual conferences to report on status and progress with HRD in the
                                            sector in line with specified targets
                                          • Compile national registers to maintain and manage quality and overall capacity
                                            development in HRD (trainers, programmes by institutions, guides)
                                          • Registry of available courses by institution, province and quality designation
                                          • Registry of learnership sites in the sector
                                          • Performance statistics in respect to institutional output and success in national
                                            assessment and examinations

                                          • Assess tourism implications of each element of DEAT’s mandate
               2                          • Develop an integrative tourism operational plan which embodies considerations
 Plan and Strategy Integration              related to environment
                                          • Isolate and effect collaboration on joint HRD initiatives
                                          • HRD targeting strategy to add value to critical business priorities
                                          • Develop guidelines for assessing and outlining the HRD implications of
                                            strategic initiatives
                                          • Assess human resource gaps and needs in respect to strategic priorities
                                          • Adopt and nurture an HRD targeting support function at DEAT
                                          • Assess response capacity for HRD in relation to strategic targets and according
                                            to levels of delivery where HR is used
                                          • Assess the training implications of alternative tourism growth paths
                                          • Consolidate HRD policies into one operational and strategic framework for the
                                            sector
                                          • Develop and adopt a system to ensure policy articulation between spheres of
                                            government so that the national and local strategic priorities are met
                                          • Use current integrated structures to lead and manage HRD policy
                                            implementation across spheres of government
                                          • Develop initiatives and incentives to align private sector priorities with the
                                            national agenda for HRD
                                          • Preparation of an implementation guide to be used by stakeholders in
                                            implementing the national HRD strategy
                                          • Guidance and promotion of HRD strategies for boards and associations in line
                                            with national strategy
                                          • The preparation of sub-sector level HRD strategies in line with national strategy
                                          • Encouragement of enterprise level HRD strategies through technical assistance


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                      123
PROJECTS IN GOVERNANCE                                RECOMMENDED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS
  AND ADMINISTRATION
                                            and incentives
                                          • Preparation of guidelines for aligning plans and strategies
                                          • Detailing of HRD strategic obligations down to community level
                                          • Detailing of HRD strategic obligations within an integrated framework
                                          • Put structures in place for the preparation of an annual report on
                                            implementation progress nationally


                                          • Assess the incidence in DEAT of HRD assignments related to the sector
              3                           • Develop structures and policies for internal coordination on HRD matters
  Strengthening Structure for                related to the sector
                                          • Reflect inter-unit HRD initiatives in operational and business plans
       HRD Management
                                          • Assess administrative and performance blockages to sector performance and
                                             replace with uncomplicated admin systems and procedures.
                                          • Clarifying, strengthening and aligning governance roles in HRD
                                          • Outlining roles for the management of HRD down to communities with
                                             associated policy guidelines for compliance
                                          • Provide incentives for the consolidating and streamlining of private bodies
                                             involved in tourism.
                                          • Alignment and integration of programmes and initiatives of all stakeholders
                                             (public & private)
                                          • Strengthen the authority and impact of the HRD coordination forum
                                          • Formalise and strengthen the inter-sector forum on skills development for the
                                             tourism sector
                                          • Establish objectives and targets for HRD for the sector as a whole (public
                                             private; national local)


                                          • Create an organizational focal point for all transformation initiatives
              4                           • Prepare a comprehensive transformation acceleration strategy that is inter-
 Coordination Unit for Sector                departmental and inter-sectional
                                          • Establish a monitoring and evaluation structure for tracking progress in
      Transformation
                                             transformation
                                          • Consolidate incentives for accelerating transformation in private enterprises

                                          • Facilitating and monitoring compliance to DoL sectoral determination 14
             5                            • Developing and adopting skills retention policy, strategy and programme for
Advancing a Code of Practice                 scarce and critical skills
                                          • Effective management of employee health and wellness
                                          • Promoting move effective career planning and talent management in
                                             enterprises
                                          • Constitution and support of an HRM “best practices” forum for the sector




              iii.      The Promotion and Advocacy Task Force
                        The Promotion and Advocacy Task Force will undertake the responsibility of
                        facilitating a communication and awareness within the sector in order to create
                        an environment for success. The work of this task force is that of mobilizing
                        support and building positive sentiments which will ensure the success of the
                        strategy. The assignment is subtle, but critical. The task force will run five
                        promotional and public relations programmes which will be in effect the five
                        projects that are assigned to the body. These projects are both public relations
                        and education programmes and will serve as mass communication instruments
                        that could build unity of vision and coherence in the sector. The role of this task
                        force is to extend the reach of the other task forces, and to thereby create an
                        environment for their success. As a result, this task force must work in
                        collaboration with both the training management and Governance and
                        Administration Task Forces

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                       124
                        Table 32 presents a listing of the projects assigned to the promotion and
                        Advocacy Task Force with the associated content and focus areas for project
                        execution.

Table 32: PROMOTION AND ADVOCACY TASK FORCE INTERPRETATION OF PROJECTS WITH
ASSOCIATED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS

  PROJECTS IN PROMOTION                               RECOMMENDED CONTENT AND FOCUS AREAS
      AND ADVOCACY
                                          • Public training and tourism drive on “Tourism and You”
               1                          • Developing and marketing a structured and multi-level training programme in
  Building a Tourism Culture                tourism awareness to promote local and national tourism knowledge
                                          • Promote experiential learning in all schools to introduce learners to the tourism
                                            sector
                                          • Implement a training programme on the roles and responsibilities of
                                            stakeholders in tourism
                                          • Develop and promote a national service excellence training programme
                                          • Develop and promote a national training programme on community participation
                                            for tourism enterprises
                                          • Expand the reach of tourism ambassador programme
                                          • Ensure training priorities are in line with destination, positioning and branding


                                          • Core principles for strengthening HRD at the enterprise level to which all can
            2                               subscribe
An HRD Charter for the Sector             • Incentives for adoption of the HRD organizational charter
                                          • Guidelines for the adoption of the HRD charter
                                          • Demand-led education and training
                                          • HRD strategy development


                                          • Rationalization of tourism education in primary and secondary schools
             3                            • Career guidance for the tourism industry
Promoting Tourism Education               • Tourism mentorship programmes
                                          • Corporate citizenship in public education in tourism


                                          • HRM best practices which sustain HR in the sector
              4                           • HRM charter guidelines and incentives
  An Employment Charter for               • Promoting policy frameworks for employment and conditions of employment in
         the Sector                         the sector


                                          • Promoting HRD learning networks in the sector
              5                           • Adoption of an exchange programme between the private sector and HRD
   Stakeholder Engagement                   management in the public sector
         Programme                        • Ensure a comprehensive communication programme in the sector for
                                            streamlining tourist developments between public and private entities
                                          • Prepare guidelines and protocols on stakeholder engagement to be used by
                                            local municipalities and communities
                                          • Preparing of a skills development charter based on core principles for the
                                            adherence of all stakeholders in the sector
                                          • Wider participation of stakeholders, particularly private enterprises, in
                                            government priority programmes
                                          • Promoting HRD learning networks in the sector
                                          • Adoption of an exchange programme between the private sector and HRD
                                            management in the public sector
                                          • Ensure a comprehensive communication programme in the sector for
                                            streamlining tourist developments between public and private entities
                                          • Prepare guidelines and protocols on stakeholder engagement to be used by
                                            local municipalities and communities
                                          • Preparing of a skills development charter based on core principles for the


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                      125
                                           adherence of all stakeholders in the sector


    9.4 Basic Considerations for the Development of Projects

          A specification sheet is prepared for each project in order to assist in its conception,
          design and development. The purpose of the specification sheet is to make note of basic
          considerations which may serve as a guide in project planning. Table 33 presents a
          summary of each of the content areas of the specification sheet with a brief description of
          each of the areas. Following this table, a project specification sheet is prepared for each
          of the 15 projects identified.

Table 33: SUMMARY OF CONTENT OF PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEETS

           CONTENT AREA                                                     DESCRIPTION

                   Title                       This is a recommended title for the project. It is intended to embody
                                               the spirit and content of the project and be easily recognizable for its
                                               intent and focus.


                Rationale                      This is a brief justification for the project, and a general outline of the
                                               project’s significance.


     Content and Focus Areas                   This section itemizes the varied areas of focus of the project or the
                                               multiple objectives the project seeks to accomplish. The content and
                                               focus areas may well be individual projects in themselves. The
                                               overall project will be framed on these content areas.


          Overall Approach                     This is a recommendation of the approach which should be taken
                                               with the project. It is intended to provide guidance on the process of
                                               project formulation.


         Intended Outcomes                     This is a listing of what the project intends to accomplish.




  Implementation Considerations                This is a listing of a set of random ideas and considerations which
                                               may assist in implementation.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                   126
                                      PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Promoting Accessibility in Training

Rationale:

Access to training in the sector is inequitable. The geographic distribution of training opportunities varies
considerably, with many areas not having accredited providers. In addition, access is limited to management
training and positions in some sub-sectors, and access is limited to opportunities for practical training and
work experience in the industry.

Content & Focus Areas:                                                                       Intended Outcomes:

• Rationalizing the training environment and supply stream for human resources in            • Equality in opportunity to participate in
  tourism                                                                                      training
• Institute a programme of e-learning or e-training to be accessed by public and             • Career ladders to management for the
  private enterprises
                                                                                               talented at entrance level
• Establishment of a coordinated training network nationally with selected core
  providers to ensure representativity of training opportunities in all sectors              • More accredited providers in all sub-
• Identification of geographic areas with gaps in training delivery and institute a            sectors that are widely dispersed
  development programme                                                                        geographically.
• Adoption of RPL in enterprises in order to enable greater access and enhance
  promotability
• Institute and strengthen policy measures and support structures to ensure that
  access is not denied through affordability
• Promoting and enforcing standards and competitiveness for trainees in tourism
• Fostering the availability of high quality training materials that are easily accessible
• Development of skills profiles for all occupations in the sector
• Articulation of courses in the sector by levels from basic and generic core
  competencies to specialized and managerial skills
• Developing and enforcing standards for training facilities and programmes
• Developing and enforcing standards for learning materials
• Policy intervention to bridge differences in course quality, standards and contact
• Assessment of geographic representativity of economic growth and development
  training initiatives in the sector
• Noting gaps in geographic representativity, conduct capacity assessment in
  designated areas
• Adopt a mobilization campaign for employers to participate in designated areas
• Assess inter-sectoral potential of current initiatives
• Develop strategy for inter-sectoral engagement
• Put in place a unified management structure for inter-sectoral programmes
• Establish ASGISA training targets in response to GCP focus areas
• Incorporation of ASGISA targets in national targeting strategy for HRD
• Establish a unified structure for the management of ASGISA initiatives in tourism
• Integrate ASGISA initiatives within overall HR supply strategy in the sector

Overall Approach:
The overall approach to this project will be first a comprehensive assessment and then embarking upon
initiatives by geographic areas to improve access where access is unavailable. Among the projects could be
development programmes for accredited providers in areas where providers are unavailable; the
development of a network of training facilities linked through common standards and materials; the provision
of incentives for industry to create access and open their facilities; the sponsorship of management training
programmes for the industry to create access for young and talented employees.

Implementation Considerations:
• Must have the endorsement and cooperation of the industry
• Must be geographically zoned and specific to the needs and market dynamics of the particular areas
• The programme must be centrally coordinated, but managed and run by the selected geographic zones
• Programme must be based on research and there must be targets and success indicators which are

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                                  127
  monitored and evaluated periodically
• Must establish set policies and guidelines to manage effectively.




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Strengthening Workplace Learning

Rationale:

The key factor here is the lack of "the know" of industry relevant training that is required to ensure adequate
performance of trainees. The promoting of workplace learning is an attempt to strengthen the practical
components of the skills development process. But we cannot assume that all training on the job is effective
workplace learning. In many cases the processes and infrastructure for workplace learning are not
adequate, and, as a result the appropriate skills are not developed.


Content & Focus Areas:                                    Intended Outcomes:

• Implement incentives and a programme for                •   More industry relevant training
  enterprises to include investment in people             •   More effective methods of practical learning
• Provide incentives to create opportunities for          •   High practical relevance in training
  experiential learning for trainees                      •   Trained individuals who are sufficiently competent
• Establish policy guidelines and protocols for career        to take up jobs in the industry
  pathing in enterprises to begin with induction
• Establish protocols and policy guidelines for scarce
  skills retention management
• Promote incentives for industry to offer internships,
  learnerships and various forms of experiential
  learning
• Incentives for industry involvement in curriculum
  development
• Outsourcing some publicly funded training to
  private and business entities
• Enhancing industry participation in policy and
  strategic bodies


Overall Approach:

This project could be a package of related interventions. There could be incentives for employers to invest in
training facilities and open these facilities for the use of training institutions; there could be guidelines and
training materials and training in workplace learning; there could be coordinating centres for placing learners
in workplaces for practical experience; among the other possibilities are job shadowing; mentorship and
coaching; the continued promotion of learnerships which are a viable means of training; exchange
programmes between the industry and the education and training sector. The key here is that the
programme is well promoted and properly coordinated.

Implementation Considerations:

• There must be a single vision and a comprehensive and integrated programme with many options available
• Again the programme must be centrally coordinated
• Must capitalize on best practice internationally for exploring options for excellence in this area
• The participation of employers is essential
• The result is that education and training can be shifted to a practice-based approach


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                          128
• The project must be heavily promoted to secure wide interest and participation
• There must be government incentives to promote participation beyond some of the incentives which
  already exist




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Local Government Capacity Development in Tourism

Rationale:

Local government are at the coal face in terms of developing and managing tourism assets. Generally, they
do not have the capacity to do so, and most depend on external technical assistance. Even with external
assistance they must be able to manage their assets.




Content & Focus Areas:                                  Intended Outcomes:

• Expanding reach of local government toolkit           • Tourism assets more effectively developed and
• Developing guidelines for HRD strategy                   managed
  development and implementation for local              • More competence in tourism among local
  government                                               government officials
• Developing a tourism management training
  programme for relevant local government and
  community officials




Overall Approach:

This programme should be constituted on a special management programme for local government officials.
A set of relevant courses should be designed for the purpose and made available as a certified programme
in tourism management for local government officials. Among the topics to be considered are the
assessment and development of tourism assets; tourism policies, plans and strategy; integrated planning for
tourism sector; and facilitating public-private partnerships, among others. The critical consideration here is
that there is one national programme of training.




Implementation Considerations:

• There may be slight variation in the content of training according to markets and geographic area.
  However, the core content of training must be the same.
• Training must be accredited and widely endorsed as appropriate, relevant and useful.


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                        129
• It is critical to select the type of official who should participate. In effect, the participants in the programme
  should be those who manage responsibilities in the sector on behalf of local government.
• Must be linked to IDP and LED planning processes.




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Leadership Development for the Tourism Sector

Rationale:

There are concerns from industry that, in some cases, the performance of the sector is not properly
managed. There seems to be greater expectations for leadership on behalf of government, especially in
respect to the work of THETA and DEAT. A programme of management development and leadership for
selected government officials is essential if the sector must be truly “government-led”.




Content & Focus Areas:                                       Intended Outcomes:

• Adopt a management development programme in                • More visionary and respected leadership
  policy leadership and strategic management in the          • More gains in the performance and global
  sector that is specially targeted to senior officials in    competitiveness of the sector
  the public sector to include coaching and mentoring        • More value added in terms of the contribution of
• Provide incentives and a comprehensive                      skills development
  programme for accelerated progression of talented          • A higher degree of service excellence
  blacks into management positions                           • More effective contribution of government
• Develop and implement a sector-specific training            programmes
  programme for managers in outsourcing to include           • More integrated approaches to development
  procurement, project management and contracting            • Greater strategy alignment throughout the sector
• Establish skills development programming that is
  specially targeted to SMMEs
• Provide incentives for training providers who serve
  SMMEs
• Adopt a programme for multi-skilling people
  particularly for small enterprises
• Provide incentives for training partnerships which
  monitor, coach or develop operational skills for staff
  in SMMEs


Overall Approach:

The approach here is a wide variety of training engagements for specially targeted public officials whose
roles are critical to the performance of the sector. The first decision to be made is the type of public officials
to be targeted for this programme. The second decision is the nature of the programme and the type of
training options that are available. Options may include mentors and coaches; study tours; policy
management training; training in sector strategy and the management and implementation of strategy; basic
supervision and leadership training; and training in interpersonal and human relations. Exchanges with
industry will also be a useful and viable option.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                               130
Implementation Considerations:

• Programmes should be specially targeted programmes and not general or generic training programmes
• The training should be targeted to those who have the capacity and potential for making a difference
• Training should be linked to performance assessment in order to monitor gains in leadership competence
• Process should allow for the transfer of skills and for ongoing self renewal
• Appropriate environments should be created in the workplace to encourage management growth and
  development.



                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Back to Basics Programme

Rationale:

The performance of the sector is compromised by what some call a culture of mediocrity. Basic skills are
lacking throughout the sector. Not only basic skills in numeracy, literacy and communication, but basic skills
in some of the fundamentals of the trade such as service excellence, interpersonal relations and computer
literacy. The result is absence of a sound foundation for human capital formation. That foundation must be
created within the sector if education and training must add value in the future.


Content & Focus Areas:                                  Intended Outcomes:

• Strengthen ABET provision in the tourism sector       • Creating a sound educational foundation so that a
• Establishment of a common format and structure          skills base can be built
  for induction in various aspects of tourism           • Growth in service excellence and more alertness
• Implement a national training programme on core         among employees
  competencies for the tourism sector to be adopted     • More employees who are prepared to move into
  by training entities and tourism enterprises –          management
  communication, maths literacy, service excellence     • More labour stability as people move into careers in
  – and used as bridging courses for tourism training     the sector
• Structure a basic supervision course targeted at
  supervisors in the sector
• Ensure the availability of relevant and basic IT
  courses for workers in the sector




Overall Approach:

The overall approach here is publicly supported and widely available education programmes in the sector in
the basics. Here, ABET training in the sector could be better promoted and more widespread. Incentives
could even be provided for ABET. But in addition to this, free basic courses should be provided to build
competence in areas such as service excellence, communication and tourism awareness. These courses
should have a set national curriculum and standards and well prepared materials, and they should be made
available at a variety of institutions and locations throughout the country so as to ensure access. Private
employers could also be mobilized to participate in the programme.



Implementation Considerations:

• Must be a widely promoted programme so as to maximize access
• Course materials should be thorough and should be well designed to be pitched at multiple levels

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                        131
• Trainers in these materials should be well prepared and should be placed on a national register
• Some of these courses could be made available through ABET programmes, community centres and
  private training institutions
• The key here is that these courses are subsidized




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Knowledge and Information Management

Rationale:
The sector is plagued by the absence of high quality information for decision making. While research and
data exists in the field, there is no central point for processing data, no legitimate means to assure quality
and no discipline and thoroughness in the manner in which data is manipulated and processed for making
decisions. Many critical decisions are therefore made based upon data that is inadequate.

There is no reliable and comprehensive data on HRD in the tourism sector. Available data represents only a
small number of establishments, and data is not properly processed and manipulated for decision making.
Skills development in the sector is therefore compromised through the absence of a comprehensive body of
data related to education.

Content & Focus Areas:                                                                Intended Outcomes:
• Comprehensive assessment of human resource supply for the sector by sub-            • More information-based
  sector and GCP focus areas (public and private)                                        decision making
• Comprehensive assessment of human resource demand by sub-sector and                 • Greater effectiveness and
  GCP focus areas                                                                        efficiency in the management
• Comprehensive assessment of HR gaps by sub-sector and by GCP focus areas               of the sector
• Adopt programmes to address the structural anomalies of HR allocation in the        • More effective management
  sector (seasonality, over-supply in geographic areas; etc.)
                                                                                         of HR supply and demand
• Creating dependable supply streams of talent for the tourism sector
                                                                                      • Education and training
• Information clearing house or research centre for tourism and skills development
  research and information management                                                    database for the tourism
• Ongoing tracer studies in learners                                                     sector
• Regular publication of critical information to inform stakeholders in sector of     • Customised data and reports
  findings and developments in the sector                                                on the status of skills supply
• Comprehensive baseline information on service providers in tourism                     and demand on labour
• Comprehensive monitoring of training standards compliance                              market dynamics
• Ongoing publication of best practice research
• Comprehensive tourism research and statistics with implications for policy and
  practice (including training)
• Establish framework and system for monitoring of compliance with strategic
  initiatives
• Establish plan structure and guidelines for promoting and monitoring the impact
  of training on service delivery
• Convene annual conferences to report on status and progress with HRD in the
  sector in line with specified targets
• Compile national registers to maintain and manage quality and overall capacity
  development in HRD (trainers, programmes by institutions, guides)
• Registry of available courses by institution, province and quality designation
• Registry of learnership sites in the sector
• Performance statistics in respect to institutional output and success in national
  assessment and examinations

Overall Approach:


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                132
The overall approach here is the establishment of a central point for tourism planning information for
business development and for education and training. This will essentially be a research centre and clearing
house on tourism information. The roles and functions of this centre could be thoroughly defined to include:
research, training, service in terms of consultancies, technical support seminars and strategy development
and assessment.

Implementation Considerations:
• It is essential that this is located in one organizational entity. While they may be satellite centres and varied
  contributors, the function should be undertaken by one centre as a government sponsored endeavour.
• Information produced by the centre should be vetted to ensure credibility.
• The centre could be a clearing house for best practice and innovative developments internationally.
• The centre may have sub-sectoral specializations and provide both leadership and stimulus to the field.


                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Plan and Strategy Integration

Rationale:

Although governmental structures are in place to coordinate plans and strategies, the roles and
responsibilities for coordination are not clear. As a result, there are gaps and shortfalls in coordination which
result in fragmentation and adherence to multiple and conflicting priorities.

Content & Focus Areas:                                                             Intended Outcomes:
• Assess tourism implications of each element of DEAT’s mandate                    • More collaboration between
• Develop an integrative tourism operational plan which embodies                      spheres of government in meeting
  considerations related to environment                                               business and strategic priorities in
• Isolate and effect collaboration on joint HRD initiatives                           HRD
• HRD targeting strategy to add value to critical business priorities
• Develop guidelines for assessing and outlining the HRD implications of
  strategic initiatives
• Assess human resource gaps and needs in respect to strategic priorities
• Adopt and nurture an HRD targeting support function at DEAT
• Assess response capacity for HRD in relation to strategic targets and
  according to levels of delivery where HR is used
• Assess the training implications of alternative tourism growth paths
• Consolidate HRD policies into one operational and strategic framework
  for the sector
• Develop and adopt a system to ensure policy articulation between
  spheres of government so that the national and local strategic priorities
  are met
• Use current integrated structures to lead and manage HRD policy
  implementation across spheres of government
• Develop initiatives and incentives to align private sector priorities with the
  national agenda for HRD
• Preparation of an implementation guide to be used by stakeholders in
  implementing the national HRD strategy
• Guidance and promotion of HRD strategies for boards and associations in
  line with national strategy
• The preparation of sub-sector level HRD strategies in line with national
  strategy
• Encouragement of enterprise level HRD strategies through technical
  assistance and incentives
• Preparation of guidelines for aligning plans and strategies
• Detailing of HRD strategic obligations down to community level
• Detailing of HRD strategic obligations within an integrated framework
• Put structures in place for the preparation of an annual report on
  implementation progress nationally




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                                     133
Overall Approach:
The overall approach here will be that of policy leadership and collaborative management. National
guidelines must be prepared for the proper integration and coordination of strategic initiatives so that
expectations are clear and anticipated outcomes well specified. In addition, the strategic planning and
accountability frameworks of government should be applied in ensuring this integration. A variety of sub-
programmes could be considered. These are itemized in the content and focus section above.

Implementation Considerations:
• The first requirement here is that all are encouraged to have plans and strategies in place
• These could be annually defined areas of strategic focus and emphasis which will be promoted, facilitated
  and supported each year.
• There is need for training in strategic planning and management.



                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Strengthening Structures for HRD Management

Rationale:

HRD in the sector is currently fragmented and inefficient as a result of uncoordinated governance structures
and planning and delivery mechanisms which do effectively link national practices with the initiative of
communities.

Except for the national HRD strategy for the public service, the NSDS and the national HRD strategy, there is
no national framework for HRD in the tourism sector. The SSP of THETA does not provide an adequate plan
or framework, and other initiatives of the various government departments, although worthwhile, do not
cohere into a unified programme. There is need therefore for a coherent policy framework for HRD.

Content & Focus Areas:                                               Intended Outcomes:

•   Assess the incidence in DEAT of HRD assignments related          • More coordinated and integrated efforts
    to the sector                                                      to build skills for the sector
•   Develop structures and policies for internal coordination on     • Greater consistency and follow-through
    HRD matters related to the sector                                  in the administrative priorities.
•   Reflect inter-unit HRD initiatives in operational and business   • A coherent policy framework for HRD in
    plans                                                              the sector within which all HRD efforts
•   Assess administrative and performance blockages to sector          can be embodied.
    performance and replace with uncomplicated admin systems         • A more streamlined and focussed
    and procedures.                                                    approach to HRD thus providing more
•   Clarifying, strengthening and aligning governance roles in         effective leadership to the sector
    HRD                                                              • Greater programmatic consistency
•   Outlining roles for the management of HRD down to
    communities with associated policy guidelines for compliance
•   Provide incentives for the consolidating and streamlining of
    private bodies involved in tourism.
•   Alignment and integration of programmes and initiatives of all
    stakeholders (public & private)
•   Strengthen the authority and impact of the HRD coordination
    forum
•   Formalise and strengthen the inter-sector forum on skills
    development for the tourism sector
•   Establish objectives and targets for HRD for the sector as a
    whole (public private; national local)

Overall Approach:



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                         134
Strengthening structures for HRD management must begin within DEAT, and an overall structure for the
sector must be managed through DEAT. While THETA plays a key role, the body’s credibility and reach in
the field may not allow it to coordinate HRD in the sector. The structures will be strengthened through policy
guidelines, the establishment of administrative linkages through to communities through partnerships with
industry and through the effective management of strategic HRD priorities. The HRD strategy task team will
assist immeasurably.

Implementation Considerations:

• There must be a thorough reassessment of existing establishments for HRD within the government sector.
  In this regard, DEAT must rationalize its internal HRD structures.
• Structures must be strengthened in all spheres of government, and these structures should be linked and
  should work in synergy.
• Due attention must be given to the role of private bodies and associations in the overall structure for HRD
  management.


                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Coordination Unit for Sector Transformation

Rationale:

Transformation of the sector is slow in every respect. While some transformation has taken place, still many
areas remain untransformed. In spite of the many programmes which are in place to aid transformation,
change in the sector is slow. Part of the problem is that the initiatives undertaken by government are
sometimes not sufficiently wide in scope to create the momentum necessary, and sometimes these
programmes are hijacked and used in a manner which does not have transformation results in the end. In
spite of the efforts, therefore, prospects for change remain daunting. Gains in transformation are not
properly tracked and the use of resources is sometimes not monitored to ensure they accrue the desired
benefits.


Content & Focus Areas:                                    Intended Outcomes:

•   Create an organizational focal point for all          • More visible gains in the realization of the
    transformation initiatives                              transformation agenda for the sector
•   Prepare a comprehensive transformation                • Greater programme coordination and delivery
    acceleration strategy that is inter-departmental        efficiency
    and inter-sectional
•   Establish a monitoring and evaluation structure for
    tracking progress in transformation
•   Consolidate incentives for accelerating
    transformation in private enterprises




Overall Approach:

There is a rarity of worthwhile transformation initiatives which are intended to benefit the sector. These
initiatives are not properly coordinated and streamlined, and, as a result the full impact of transformation


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                            135
efforts are not fully realised. These initiatives must complement each other in order to realise their full effect.

One way of ensuring that these initiatives complement each other is through the development of a
transformation coordination unit for the sector which puts in place an overall strategy on transformation in the
sector and manages the strategy through its collaboration with special projects and initiatives.



Implementation Considerations:

• The unit should have coordination oversight to plan, track and report. The unit should not run these
  programmes and initiatives.
• The unit could take responsibility for awareness promotion and training.
• The unit should be a small unit, but with senior staff and overarching authority to act
• The unit should be positioned so that it maintains good relations and support from industry.




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Advancing a Code of Practice in the Sector

Rationale:

Cohesiveness in the sector is established on the basis of a common set of beliefs and principles to which all
in the sector agree to abide. The fragmentation in the sector cannot be fully remedied through policies,
structures and funding incentives. There must be something that is much more fundamental. This project
suggests the advancement of a code of practice which specifies the principles by which all will abide. While
this exists for some of the private associations, they do not exist for the sector as a whole.



Content & Focus Areas:                                     Intended Outcomes:

•   Facilitating and monitoring compliance to DoL          • Coherence in action
    sectoral determination 14                              • A sound basis for quality management
•   Developing and adopting skills retention policy,
    strategy and programme for scarce and critical
    skills
•   Effective management of employee health and
    wellness
•   Promoting move effective career planning and
    talent management in enterprises
•   Constitution and support of an HRM “best
    practices” forum for the sector




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                            136
Overall Approach:

The overall approach here is one of promotion and advocacy. The codes will have to be developed based
upon principles upon which all can agree. The implications of these codes for the actions and activities of
stakeholders should be clear. There must be some insignia associated with the endorsement and
adherence to this code of practice. Extensive training will be necessary.


Implementation Considerations:

• Code should not conflict with but should embody other codes of practice in the field
• Codes should not be too extensive so that it may become cumbersome
• Codes should be widely promoted and publicized
• Educational institutions should advance these codes in their curriculum



                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Building a Tourism Culture

Rationale:

One of the complaints in the sector is the absence of service excellence. Even beyond this, there is lack of a
culture in tourism in terms of public knowledge, attitude, interests and understanding of responsibilities for
promoting excellence in the sector.

Growing a tourism culture is a long term endeavour and it is largely an advocacy programme. It is about
setting the right public values and attitudes in place to embrace tourism.


Content & Focus Areas:                                       Intended Outcomes:

• Public training and tourism drive on “Tourism and          • Steering service excellence
  You”                                                       • More public knowledge about tourism
• Developing and marketing a structured and multi-           • Higher participation of the community in the
  level training programme in tourism awareness to             success of tourism
  promote local and national tourism knowledge
• Promote experiential learning in all schools to
  introduce learners to the tourism sector
• Implement a training programme on the roles and
  responsibilities of stakeholders in tourism
• Develop and promote a national service excellence
  training programme
• Develop and promote a national training
  programme on community participation for tourism
  enterprises
• Expand the reach of tourism ambassador
  programme
• Ensure training priorities are in line with destination,
  positioning and branding




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                           137
Overall Approach:

The approach here is multi-faceted, but it is fundamentally a public communication programme of promotion
and advocacy. While some aspects of the programme will be brochures, ads, information sheets, slogans
and posters; another dimension of the programme will be public education through training that is available
through public institutions and community centres, libraries and other facilities. The overall approach here is
to educate the public and reinforce the education of those who work in the sector.



Implementation Considerations:

• There must be a role for parents, families and faith-based organizations
• While the programme may have a research body of core content, it should also have some level of
  geographic targeting so that it is sustainable to the cultural tone of particular jurisdictions
• A culture of tourism is related to a culture of work in tourism




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

An HRD Charter for the Sector

Rationale:

Here again, the objective is establishing coherence through the subscription to a core set of principles of
action which can guide practice in the field. Commitment and approaches to HRD vary considerably among
stakeholders. As a result, each stakeholder tends to act in a manner which advances their immediate
priorities and interests. Evens o, there is a common framework of expectation about how the business of
HRD should be conducted.



Content & Focus Areas:                                    Intended Outcomes:

• A set of principles to which all are willing to abide   • Coherence in the field in respect to HRD
• Guidelines in relation to these principles              • Uniformity of standards and quality
• Training in relation to these principles                • Professionalism in practice among practitioners
• A public relations programme in relation to these
  principles




Overall Approach:

Here, a charter will be constituted of a set of rules or general agreements regarding mutual expectations.
The charter may include the following:

    1.   HRD delivery through plans and strategies
    2.   Adherence to sector priorities and strategies
    3.   Demand-led training interventions
    4.   Training for careers and promotability


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                           138
    5.   Accredited courseware and materials
    6.   Quality in training facilities
    7.   Industry relevance of training
    8.   Advancing public awareness in tourism




Implementation Considerations:

• Principles must be properly endorsed by stakeholders
• Principles and codes must have practical relevance and meaning which must be understood
• HRD charter should be promoted widely in the industry and adhered to by public and private sector
  organizations




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

Promoting Tourism Education

Rationale:

The supply stream for tourism talent is weak in many of the areas where skills are needed. While there is an
over supply in some areas there are skills deficit in many other areas. The sector competes with other
sectors for the talented youth produced by the education system. The intent here is to build interest in
tourism as a career or a field of study.




Content & Focus Areas:                                 Intended Outcomes:

• Tourism education in high schools                    • More talented youth entering the tourism industry
• Career guidance interventions in tourism             • Wider base of skills for human capital formation
• Tourist sector mentorship programmes                 • Filling gaps in scarce and critical skills
• Extension of special programmes such as the
  tourism ambassador programme




Overall Approach:

The overall approach here, again, is that of public communication through advocacy and promotion. The


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                      139
emphasis is on building interest in tourism as a field of study and cultivating a culture of pride and service
excellence in those who whish to enter the field.




Implementation Considerations:

• Here there should be a focus on making more opportunities available so that more people can be exposed
  to the field
• The curriculum should be well established, and should be common across jurisdictions
• Teachers should be well prepared to teach and administer the curriculum




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

An Employment Charter for the Sector

Rationale:

The notion of an employment charter for the sector is based on the need for all to engage in HRM practices
that are desirable, which do not undermine the level of satisfaction people have working in the industry. The
employment charter seeks to create stability in the labour pool, and enlist loyalty and commitment to the
industry and it its employers.


Content & Focus Areas:                                    Intended Outcomes:

• Compensation and compensation management                • Labour stability in the sector
• Working conditions                                      • Creating a sound foundation for human capital
• Support for health, security and safety                   formation
• Guidelines and training on the employment charter       • Greater uniformity in positive practices
                                                          • More satisfied workers, more satisfied customers




Overall Approach:

The approach here is to develop a set of principles or agreements to which all in the field can abide. The
charter must be properly marketed, and there should be some recognition and incentives for those who
abide by the charter.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                              140
Implementation Considerations:

• Cannot be too extensive so that it becomes cumbersome to manage and to adhere to
• There must be full industry endorsement of the provisions of the charter
• Provisions must be consistent with existing laws and regulations
• Provisions should not give some competitive advantage to the detriment of others




                                 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Project Title:

A Stakeholder Engagement Programme

Rationale:

This programme seeks to bridge the gaps which sometimes exist between government and industry, and
between employers and training institutions. This programme is another effort in establishing coherence
where each party can have more opportunities to make a contribution.




Content & Focus Areas:                                Intended Outcomes:

• Awareness programme on government initiatives       • Stakeholder awareness
• Participation of industry representatives in        • Coherence in the industry
  education and training initiatives                  • Greater sharing of wisdom, talent and resources
• Mentorship programmes                               • Greater solidarity on critical issues and blockages
• Sharing resources and facilities                      in the field




Overall Approach:


HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                       141
This will be a comprehensive programme which is intended to stimulate all areas of stakeholder
engagement. It is a programme which is intended to accrue benefits to all other programmes in the package
of HRD projects recommended in the strategy.




Implementation Considerations:

• Engagement must be properly planned and orchestrated so as to minimize confusion and to ensure that
  value is added through intended engagements
• Must ensure geographic and sub-sectoral representativity
• Engagement must take place within the framework of the law




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                     142
    10.            PROMOTING SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION
    9.1 Introduction and Purpose

         Implementation is the ultimate challenge in public policy. Policies, like plans, programmes
         and strategies, are not automatically implemented. Implementers must design and devise
         ways to manage all the challenges which arise in brining policies into effect. In the tourisms
         sector, implementation of the HRD strategy could be confronted with a variety of practical
         challenges which can derail its success.

         The sector is complex and diverse with entrenched interests and set ways of undertaking
         its business. Centres of influence are well established, a framework of policy expectations
         have become firmly set, and established routines exist for conducting a wide variety of
         tasks that are essential to the performance of the sector. In essence, a basic infrastructure
         for delivery is in place and most of it works well. But success of the HRD strategy will
         require a review of some of the established structures, policies and ways of conducting the
         sector’s business. This review must clear blockages and create opportunities for renewal.
         Fragmentation must be overcome; there must be greater alignment between spheres of
         government; there must be more representativity in training opportunities; and among
         others, there must be closer and more information-based management of skills
         development in the sector. Successful implementation will depend on five critical areas of
         action. These are itemized and discussed briefly below.

    9.2 Communication and Advocacy

         The point of departure for implementing the strategy must be communication within the
         sector in order to promote awareness, select input and seek the endorsement of
         stakeholders. The essential focus here is whether the strategy meets the needs of the
         sector, whether it’s viable in terms of resolving some of the issues faced by the sector and
         whether it is an instrument around which all can mobilize for taking action. The process of
         communication and advocacy must be a participative process whose stakeholders will be
         allowed to shape and drive the process of implementation.

    9.3 Stakeholder Participation and Engagement

         The base of stakeholder participants should be wide enough so as to maximize input and
         stakeholder representativity. There should be geographic representation, as well as
         representation from all sectors of the industry and all the related government agencies
         (departments, boards, associations, etc.). The roles and obligations of stakeholders in the
         process of implementation must be carefully negotiated and properly managed.
         Stakeholder engagement is essentially a process of creating an environment that will
         support and facilitate implementation.

    9.4 Committed Leadership

         The process of strategy implementation must be led through government, but it must be
         supported and driven by all stakeholders in the sector. Because the path may be strewn

HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                143
         with challenges and obstacles to be overcome, much guidance and committed leadership is
         required. Avenues for enabling success must be created through patience, ingenuity and
         persistence. Leadership at all levels must be committed.

    9.5 Programming Support

         Among the factors which will promote success is the level of support and guidance
         provided to the sector in implementing the provisions of the strategy. The sector is large
         and diverse. This support must be carefully planned and systematically orchestrated so that
         services and opportunities can reach all in the sector.

    9.6 Consistent Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting

         Progress in attaining the provisions of the strategy must be properly tracked and monitored,
         over time. The systems and processes for monitoring and evaluation must be set in place,
         and there must be accountability for the obligation undertaken by the various parties in the
         process of implementation.

         These are only a few of the most basic requirements for implementation success. In
         addition to these there must be an overall implementation plan and guide which can be
         used in rolling out the strategy.

         The implementation plan and guide will accompany the HRD strategy upon completion.




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                              144
                                            APPENDIX A
                                   LIST OF DOCUMENTS REVIEWED

     1.      Tourism & Sports Skills Audit : 30 June 2007


     2.      The Higher Education Qualifications Framework Matrix Revised (No 928 Gazetted 5 October
             2007)
     3.      Buffalo City Municipality Tourism Master Plan Phase 9, 10 and 12 : Skills Development
             Framework and Enterprise Development Support Programme
     4.      Domestic Tourism Growth Strategy 2004 to 2007


     5.      The Higher Education Qualifications Framework : Higher Education Act (Act No 101 of 1997)
             (Gazetted 5 October 2007)
     6.      National Qualifications Framework Impact Study Report 2005


     7.      Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997 : Sectoral Determination 14 : Hospitality Sector
             South Africa
     8.      Customized Sector Programme : Tourism Sector Strategy


     9.      Evaluation Report on the Impact of the Tiered Support Programmes on Tourism Small Business
             Development in the Western Cape
     10.     A Framework/Model to Benchmark Tourism GDP in South Africa


     11.     THETA Sector Skills Plan 31 August 2007


     12.     Annual Tourism Conference 19-20 October 2006 : Conference Briefing Presentation,
             Conference Paper and Conference Report


     13.     An HR Development Strategy for Irish Tourism 2005-2010


     14.     National Business Initiative Research Report 30 June 2007


     15.     South African Tourism : Tourism Growth Strategy 2008-2010


     16.     White Paper : Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa Jun 1996


     17.     Strategic Plan : Environment & Tourism 01 April 2005 to 31 March 2010




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                      145
                                          APPENDIX B
                               LIST OF PARTICIPANTS INTERVIEWED

                 NAME & SURNAME                                          ORGANIZATION

DEAT Officials                                        DEAT
Ms Nthabiseng Monyapelo & Mr. Motlatsi                Tourism Enterprise Programme (TEP)
Mr. Thabo Mahlangu                                    Organized Labour Rep – SACCAWU / THETA Board
                                                      Member

Ms Jacqui McKnight                                    Chairperson of the THETA Tourism & Travel Chamber
                                                      Committee

Ms Nikki Akannbi                                      FEDHASA
Ms Simone Lobetti                                     Hospitality Chamber Committee Member
Mr. William Chuene                                    THETA
Prof Jane Spowart                                     University of Johannesburg (UJ) & SA Association for
                                                      Hotel Schools (SAAHS)
Ms Jacqui Obando                                      Tourism Business Council SA (TBCSA)
Ms Darryn von Maltitz /Ms Makano/ Ms Nkileng          JIPSA Secretariat (National Business Initiative – NBI)


THETA Board Members (Caleb Mr. Mabaso &               THETA Offices
Others)
Mr. Sadha Naidoo                                      National Tourism Training Providers Forum (NTTPF)
Mr Dimitri Tassiopoulos                               Chairperson of Tourism Educators of SA (TESA) /
                                                      THETA SGB & Chamber Committee Member
Mr. Mike Tatalias                                     South African Tourism Service Association (SATSA)

                                                      SAT
                                                      SANPARKS
Ms Skhumsa Mancotywa                                  Biodiversity & Conservation Branch (DEAT)

Mr. Edward Moeketsi                                   Intergovernmental Planning & Co-ordination (DEAT)
Ms Nomfundiso Giqwa                                   SRPP Chief Directorate, DEAT
Mr. Blessing Manale
SACI
Mr. Helder Perreira                                   Southern Sun
Mr. Brett Dungan                                      FEDHASA National
Mr. Clifford Ross                                     City Lodge Group
Mr. Tigler                                            Protea Hotels Group




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                        146
                          APPENDIX C
        INDUSTRIAL COMPONENTS OF THE TOURISM SUB-SECTORS

                           INDUSTRIAL COMPONENTS OF TOURISM SUB-SECTORS

                                                                                                   SECTOR
    SUB-SECTOR                    COMPONENTS OF INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION                         INDUSTRY
                                                                                               CLASSIFICATION
                                                                                                 (SIC) CODES
                             Hotels, motels, boatels and inns not registered                   64101
                             Hotels, motels, boatels and inns registered                       64104
                             Caravan parks and camping sites                                   64102
                             Guesthouses and guest farms                                       64103
                             Bed and Breakfast                                                 64105
                             Restaurant or tearoom with liquor licence                         64201
                             Restaurant or tearoom with liquor licence                         64202
                             Take-away counters, take-away restaurants, fast food              64203
                             establishments                                                    64205
                                                                                               64206
     Hospitality             Caterers (including private clinics)                              64204
                             Other catering services n.e.c. including pubs, taverns, night
                                                                                               64207
                             clubs
                             Timesharing (resorts and parks, self-catering
                                                                                               84111
                             apartments/cottages)
                             Bioscope cafes                                                    88994
                             Control of undertaking that sells liquor to the public            91308
                             Licensing and control of undertakings that sell food to the
                                                                                               9130A
                             public
                             Operation and management of convention centres                    96195
                             Manage a operation of game lodges                                 64106
                             Tour operators (inbound and outbound tour operators)              71214
                             Safaris and sightseeing trip operators                            71223
                             Inbound international flights                                     73002
     Travel and              Travel agency and related activities                              74140
      Tourism                Renting of land transport equipment including car rentals         85111
                             Tourist information centres                                       96336
                             Tourism authorities including but not limited to tourism
                                                                                               99048
                             marketing, tourist information centres, publicity associations
                             Car hire                                                          99028
   Conservation              Museum activities and preservation of historical sites and
                                                                                               96320
   and Tourism               buildings
                             Provision for management and operation of monuments,
     Guiding                 historical sites and buildings
                                                                                               96322
                             Management and operation of museum, cultural and heritage
                                                                                               96323
                             activities
                             Game parks, reserves including but not limited to wildlife,
                                                                                               96333
                             parks, zoological or animal parks and botanical gardens
                             Activities of conservation bodies                                 96334

                             Wildlife conservation including wildlife, parks, game reserves,
                                                                                               96335
                             zoological establishments, botanical gardens



HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                       147
                              Hunting and trapping including related services                11520

                              Guides including tourist river, mountain etc                   99049

Source: Table Reconstructed from Tourism and Sports Skills Audit Final Report 30 June 2007




HRD Strategy for the Tourism Sector : 31 March 2008                                                  148

				
DOCUMENT INFO