Possible Origin of High Concentrations of Methane Sulfonic Acid (MSA) near Coastal Antarctica: Penguin Feces Jianjun Wang1,2, Liqi Chen1﹡, Liguang Sun2﹡, Xulin Yang1, and Qi Lin1 1. Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry，Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Xiamen, Fujian, China (361005) 2. School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China (230026) * E-mail: email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Abstract: Four-year samples of bulk, high-volume aerosol were collected during the cruises of Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition from Shanghai, China, to the Southern Ocean to Zhongshan Station in the East Antarctica. The results were compared to those from the cruises from China to the Arctic. nss-SO42- peaked near cities (e.g. Shanghai), however, the concentrations of MSA peaked near maritime Antarctica. We suggested the possible sources for MSA, besides phytoplankton, were sea animals (penguins or seals) feces. 30.0 30.0 1999 Antarctica cruise 1999 Antarctica cruise 2001 Antarctica cruise 2001 Antarctica cruise 25.0 25.0 2002 Antarctica cruise 2002 Antarctica cruise nssSO42- (μg/m3) 2004 Antarctica cruise 2004 Antarctica cruise 20.0 20.0 1999 Arctica cruise 1999 Arctica cruise Cl- (μg/m3) 15.0 15.0 10.0 10.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 -15 -30 -45 -60 -75 -90 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 -15 -30 -45 -60 -75 -90 N Latitude S Latitude N S Concentration of Cl- showed no clear Concentration of nssSO42- peaked near trends along latitude. cities (e.g. Shanghai). 0.30 0.36 1999 Antarctica cruise 1999 Antarctica cruise 2001 Antarctica cruise 2001 Antarctica cruise 0.25 0.30 2002 Antarctica cruise Cruise of Chinese Antarctica Exploration 2002 Antarctica cruise 2004 Antarctica cruise MSA/nssSO42- 0.20 2004 Antarctica cruise 0.24 MSA (μg/m3) 1999 Arctica cruise 1999 Arctica cruise 0.15 0.18 0.10 0.12 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.00 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 -15 -30 -45 -60 -75 -90 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 -15 -30 -45 -60 -75 -90 N Latitude S N Latitude S Concentration of MSA slowly increased with MSA/nssSO42- slowly increased with latitude latitude and peaked near coastal Antarctica. and peaked near coastal Antarctica. Aerosols of Antarctica had been found to contain relatively high levels of sulfur. The A: Fresh penguin droppings predominant and continuous source of atmospheric sulfur in this region is understood to be DMTS DMTTS biogenic DMS emissions from the surface waters of the Southern Ocean. Less significant DMPS source is dusts from distant continents and aerosols from the stratospheric reservoir, which is occasionally enhanced by explosive volcanic eruptions. But this cannot explain that why concentrations of MSA increase near coastal Antarctica but not Arctic. We have raised one possible explanation for the abnormal high concentrations of MSA: penguin and seal feces. There were two evidences: B: Aged penguin droppings We analyzed the volatile compounds in the fresh penguin feces and aged penguin sediment core Y2-20cm dropping (sediments from penguin colony). Results showed that dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), dimethyl tetrasulfide (DMTTS), and dimethyl pentasulfide (DMPS) composed more than 12% in the volatile components of fresh penguin feces, but no organosulfur compounds were found in the aged penguin dropping sediments. This indicated that organosulfur compounds had been emitted to the air (Xie et al. 2001). C: Aged penguin droppings Near Dumont D’Urville on Ile des Petrels, with 12,000 penguin living there, the sediment core Y2-35cm concentration of nss-SO42- was 3.77 nmol/m3 for downwind location and 3.11 nmol/m3 for upwind (Legrand et al., 1998). There are now 120 million penguins living densely around the Antarctica, and they might contributed a considerable percentage to the atmospheric sulfur. D: Aged penguin droppings Reference: sediment core Y2-45cm Legrand M, Ducroz F, Wagenbach F et al., 1998., Ammonium in coastal Antarctic aerosol and snow: Role of polar ocean and penguin emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 11,043– 11,056 Xie ZQ, Sun LG, Wang JJ, et al. 2002. A potential source of atmospheric sulfur from penguin colony emissions. J. Geophys. Res., 107: art. no. 4617. Gas chromatograms of gases extracted from penguin excrement Acknowledgements: We thank Prof. Rahn KA and Prof. Xie ZQ for their help in samples. (A): Fresh penguin droppings; (B–D): Aged penguin data analysis and valuable suggestion in the poster, and Chinese Arctic and droppings collected in different depth (20cm, 35cm, and 45cm) of lake sediment core Y2 on Ardley Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Administration for their support in field exploration. We also thank the CAPaBLE program of the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research for their financial support for attending the conference.
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