Sentences by sdsdfqw21

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									  English                                                           Teacher Guide

  Sentences                                                                            Teacher Guide



     Series overview
This series of eight lessons deals with creating and editing sentences. Different word order and sentence
structures are examined, and the effects of these are discussed. The aim of the series is to help learners to edit
their writing in order to create grammatically correct sentences and to vary the sentence types that they use.

     Curriculum links
The lessons in this series link to the following Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards of the National
Curriculum statement:
Learning Outcome 4: Language
• use structurally sound sentences in a meaningful and functional manner
Learning Outcome 3: Writing and Presenting
•	 reflect	on,	analyse	and	evaluate	own	work,	considering	the	opinion	of	others,	and	present	final	draft

 E Educational approach
Learners often don’t see the value of learning about grammatical structures. This resistance to grammar is
compounded when the focus of language lessons is on being able to identify and label grammatical structures
without	first	understanding	how	these	are	used	in	real	texts.	Learners	also	need	to	know	how	to	use	these	
structures to improve their own writing. In these lessons we attempt to explain the value of knowing how
sentences are structured. This will enable learners to edit their writing for grammatical correctness and to
improve their writing by using a variety of sentences.
It is essential that learners become critical of their own style. They need to move beyond grammatical
correctness to being able to use style effectively for different purposes. This series of lessons focuses on
sentence structure as an important component of style.




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English                                                 Teacher Guide

Sentences                                                                   Teacher Guide



  Series at a glance

                          Lesson Outcomes
Lesson title              By the end of this lesson learners should be able to:

Lesson 1                  •	 define	a	sentence
What is a sentence?       • identify the components of a simple sentence

Lesson 2
                          •	 define	active	and	passive	voice
Active and passive        • explain how the order of words affects the meaning of a sentence
voice

Lesson 3
                              write a variety of sentence types
Different types of        •
                          •   explain the effect of the placement of the main clause
sentences

Lesson 4
                              comment on the effect created by altering the order of words in a
Word order alters         •
                              sentence
meaning

Lesson 5                  •   identify different sentence structures
Structuring the clauses   •   use a variety of sentence structures

Lesson 6
                          •   use appropriate sentences for the type of writing
Sentence variety

Lesson 7                  •   identify adverbial and adjectival clauses
Subordinate clauses?      •   state the uses of these subordinate clauses

Lesson 8
Sentences for clear       •   use techniques to make writing clearer
communication




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  English                                                              Teacher Guide

  Sentences                                                                                Teacher Guide


 G Lesson framework and teaching guidelines
Lesson 1: What is a sentence?
In this lesson, the elements of a sentence are discussed. Prior to showing this lesson, you could write the
groups of words given in the task on the black-board and ask your learners whether or not they are full
sentences. After viewing this lesson, they can decide whether or not their original answers are correct.
Task 1
The task for this lesson requires learners to state whether or not a group of words is a sentence and to correct
it if necessary. This task will help to equip learners with the skills required to edit their own sentences. As an
extension	to	this	task	you	could	ask	each	learner	to	devise	five	examples	similar	to	those	given	in	this	lesson.	
They could give them to a friend to complete and then discuss the corrections.

Lesson 2: Active and passive voice
This lesson differentiates between active and passive voice and gives examples of how the position of words
in a sentence can alter meaning. Prior to showing this lesson, you may want to ask learners to make a list of
instances where the passive voice could be used. After viewing this lesson and having a class discussion, they
could add more examples to their lists.
Task 2
This task requires learners to state why a writer has used the passive voice in three different sentences.
This task helps to reinforce the uses of the passive voice that were given in the lesson. To extend this task,
learners	could	find	examples	of	other	uses	of	the	passive	voice	in	the	newspaper.		You	could	make	this	a	group	
challenge, where each group is given a newspaper and has to cut out as many examples of the passive voice
as possible within a set time limit.

Lesson 3: Different types of sentences
In	this	lesson,	different	types	of	sentences	are	defined	depending	on	where	the	main	clause	is	placed	in	the	
sentence.	Sentences	can	also	be	classified	according	to	how	many	main	and	subordinate	clauses	there	are,	
for example compound and complex sentences. When you are setting a task for your learners, be sure to say
what criteria they should use to determine the type of sentence, otherwise they may give a valid answer to the
question, but not the answer you were expecting.
Task 3
For this task various sentences were extracted from a newspaper article. Learners are required to state what
type of sentence is used and the effect that this creates. It is worth setting other, similar tasks to help reinforce
the	idea	that	sentence	types	create	different	effects	and	that	it	is	not	sufficient	only	to	be	able	to	identify	
what type of sentence has been used. This type of task will also encourage learners to use different types
of sentences in their own writing, because they will be more aware of how the placement of the main clause
creates different effects.

Lesson 4: Word order alters meaning
In this lesson, we look at how placing words in different parts of sentences can alter the meaning and create
ambiguity. A few examples are given in the lesson, However, more examples can be sourced from English
textbooks or the jokes sections of magazines.
Task 4
This task requires learners to explain and correct ambiguities in sentences. When assessing this task,
remember that each sentence could have been corrected in more than one way, depending on which meaning
the learner chose as the intended meaning. After completing this task, you could ask your learners to create
their own ambiguous sentences for their friends to correct.

Lesson 5: Structuring the clauses
In this lesson, we learn about the different types of sentences that can be created through the use of different
clause	structures.	The	terminology	used	in	this	lesson	can	be	quite	difficult	for	learners	to	master.	To	ensure	
that learners understand the terminology, and can differentiate between the sentence types, get them to label a
range of sentences taken from real texts such as magazines or newspapers.




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  English                                                            Teacher Guide

  Sentences                                                                              Teacher Guide


Task 5
This task requires learners to state what types of sentences have been used in an extract from a newspaper. It
is worth setting more, similar tasks, as learners sometimes battle to work on sentences taken from real texts.

Lesson 6: Sentence variety
This lesson encourages learners to use a variety of sentences in their own writing and gives suggestions for
avoiding	common	errors.	You	could	show	this	lesson	to	your	class	when	they	are	busy	drafting	essays.	They	
could then use the lesson as a basis for editing the sentences they have used in their writing.
Task 6
This task requires learners to join a number of sentences to create a cohesive paragraph. Many learners who
are studying English as an additional language tend to use only simple sentences in their writing. This task
shows how the style of a paragraph can be improved by combining sentences.

Lesson 7: Subordinate clauses
In	this	lesson	the	various	types	of	subordinate	clauses	are	listed	and	suggestions	are	given	for	how	to	find	
these in sentences. After viewing this lesson you may need to explain to learners that it is more important to use
subordinate clauses to add detail to their writing than to learn lists of the names of different types of subordinate
clauses.
Task 7
This task requires learners to add a range of subordinate clauses to a simple sentence. This task helps to
illustrate the role that subordinate clauses play in adding detail and variety to writing.

Lesson 8: Sentences for clear communication
This lesson gives suggestions for learners who wish to write in a clear, unambiguous manner. This lesson
could be used as the basis for helping learners to develop an editing checklist which they can use to edit the
sentences they have used in their writing.
Task 8
This task requires that learners write a paragraph using the guidelines given in the lesson. The paragraphs that
learners write in response to this task could be used for peer assessment. This also enables learners to check
someone else’s writing against a list of criteria.




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