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					                                        Nuclear Weapons: Non-partisanship leads to non-proliferation progress—Page 15




                                                        EMBASSY                 CANADA’S FOREIGN POLICY NEWSWEEKLY
                                                                                                     OTTAWA, WEDNESDAY, DECE
                                                                                                       TAW WEDNESDAY DECEMBER 15,
                                                                                                                               R        IS
                                                                                                     OTTAWA, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 1 2010 ISSUE 335 • $3.00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AID
                                                                                                          YEAR IN                                                                                                                                         A YEAR OF FROZEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BUDGETS, MUSKOKA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AND KAIROS


                                                                                                          REVIEW                                                                                                                                                  page 12


                                                                                                          FOREIGN                                                                                                                                         TRADE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DEALING WITH LOTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          OF STARTS AND STOPS



                                                                                                          AFFAIRS                                                                                                                                                   page 5




                                                                                                          2010                                                                                                                                            DEFENCE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DND, PMO, UN, Embassy File Photos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A 12-MONTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ROLLERCOASTER RIDE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    page 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          IMMIGRATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A YEAR OF WORKING

                                        Canada’s International Year: The year that wasn’t?                                                                                                                                                                TOGETHER DOWN THE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DRAIN?

                                        Anca Gurzu
                                                                                                     end—or at least Canada could point to signs of prog-         A year later, Melissa Lantsman, director of com-                                                page 14
                                                                                                     ress in reasserting its international influence. After   munication for Foreign Affairs Minister Lawrence
                                                                                                     all, the country was to host the Vancouver Winter        Cannon, says the G8 and G20 summits “were impor-

                                        I n 2004, in advance of then-US president George
                                          W. Bush’s first visit to Canada, the US embassy
                                        drafted a briefing cable designed to familiarize the
                                                                                                     Olympics as well as the G8 and G20 summits, and
                                                                                                     it was in the running for a UN Security Council seat.
                                                                                                         But despite what was portrayed as a year full of
                                                                                                                                                              tant venues by which Canada demonstrated its role
                                                                                                                                                              as an effective and efficient facilitator in finding
                                                                                                                                                              credible solutions to global challenges.”                                                   CLIMATE
                                        American leader with the situation in Ottawa.
                                            While largely uncontroversial, the cable, released
                                                                                                     international opportunities, experts say 2010 was
                                                                                                     far from the clear-cut victory many had been hop-
                                                                                                                                                                  The G8, comprising the world’s richest nations,
                                                                                                                                                              is arguably the most influential grouping that                                              CHANGE
                                        by Wikileaks last week, included a section entitled          ing for—and they predict even more soul-searching        Canada belongs to. As a result, a major objective                                           SECURING SOME
                                        “Seeking Canada’s Place in the World.” In it, then-US        in Canada’s future.                                      for the Harper government was to inject a new                                               SUNSCREEN IN
                                        ambassador to Canada Paul Cellucci correctly noted                                                                    importance into the G8 and to ensure it doesn’t get                                         CANCUN
                                        that there was “a certain amount of soul-searching           Mixed summit success                                     rolled into the G20.
                                        here on Canada’s decline from ‘middle power’ status             In a January press release, Prime Minister                The government launched a number of efforts                                                       page 9
                                        to that of an ‘active observer’ of global affairs, a trend   Stephen Harper said that 2010 was Canada’s year          to redefine the G8 as a grouping of likemind-
                                        which some Canadians believe should be reversed.”            to shine on the world stage. The highlights were to      ed countries that will deal with development
                                            There was some hope that by the time 2010                be the Vancouver Winter Olympics and the G8 and          issues, democracy and international security.
                                        ended, that soul-searching would have come to an             G20 summits in Muskoka and Toronto, respectively.                       Continued on Page 10                                                         HUMAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SMUGGLING
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AUSTRALIA IS NOT THE

                                        Oda: I don’t know who                                                                                            WIKILEAKS ANALYSIS                                                                               ANSWER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  page 15
                                                              Nuclear ambitions, Kosovo
                                        altered KAIROS memo independence and Venezuela
                                                                                     was affixed to it, prompting renewed
                                        Lee Berthiaume                               allegations of political interference—
                                                                                     and possible fraud.                                                                        Meanwhile, there was also some
                                                                                         For her part, Ms. Oda said she           Lee Berthiaume                            interesting revelations that shed light
                                        C    IDA Minister Bev Oda has found
                                             herself under fire after admitting      knew of the decision, and it is ulti-
                                                                                     mately her responsibility and pre-
                                                                                                                                                                            on key Canadian foreign policy deci-
                                                                                                                                                                            sions, including on the Americas and
                                        to a parliamentary committee last
                                        week she does not know who altered           rogative as minister to decide wheth-        T    here was little of direct rele-
                                                                                                                                       vance to Canada in US diplo-         recognizing Kosovo’s independence.
                                        a memo in which CIDA staff strongly
                                        recommended funding for ecumeni-
                                                                                     er projects get approved or not.
                                                                                         Meanwhile, KAIROS itself says
                                                                                                                                  matic cables released by Wikileaks
                                                                                                                                  this past week. However, there were       Higher expectations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GABON
                                                                                                                                                                               In April 2009, US President Barack
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MOVING ONTO
                                        cal group KAIROS.                            the issue isn’t who altered the memo         some mentions of over-ambitious
                                            In fact, the minister said she           or whether the minister signed it,           non-proliferation goals and a tanta-      Obama used a speech in Prague                                                 MULTILATERAL
                                        did not know if she even person-             but getting to the bottom of why the         lizing line about Canadian soldiers       to lay out his vision for a nuclear-                                          THINGS
                                        ally signed the document or whether          decision was made in an effort to            not being interested in governance        weapons-free world.
                                        it was altered before her signature                  Continued on Page 16                 issues in Afghanistan.                            Continued on Page 16                                                          page 19
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—2


Diplomacy This Week

Killing Mariano’s In Memoriam                                                                                                                                    Talking Points
                                                                                                                                                                 Canada backs banned Dahla firm
                                                                                                                                                                     While the US government has decided to
                                                                                                        Amidst all the chaos of the tribal drumming,             ban any contact with an Afghan security firm
AVINASH GAVAI                                                                                        dynamic indigenous dances, and even some
                                                                                                     native food, it did seem that Ottawa’s diplomats
                                                                                                                                                                 linked to the Karzai family, Canada will not
                                                                                                                                                                 do the same, the Toronto Star reported. The
Chatter House                                                                                        were in the mood to make some new friends.                  Watan Group was blacklisted by the Americans
                                                                                                                                                                 as part of an aid-corruption investigation. But
                                                                                                     Demanding a breath of fresh air

A
          classified ad doesn’t generally solic-                                                                                                                 Canadian company SNC-Lavalin uses the firm
          it the same controversy as opin-                                                               On Dec. 9, Asian asbestos victims and                   for security at the Dahla Dam restoration
          ion pieces and news stories. But                                                           activists gathered in Ottawa to demand that                 project in Kandahar and says it has no plans
          the Calgary Herald and Edmonton                                                            Canada’s most deadly export be ceased                       of replacing it unless it comes across evidence
Journal recently refused to publish an                                                               immediately.                                                of illegal behaviour. Diplomatic cables revealed
advertisement aimed at commemorating a                                                                   In spite of long standing health concerns,              recently that the Karzai family controls the
murdered Mexican activist allegedly killed                                                           asbestos continues to be mined in Canada. It                firm as a virtual private militia.
by employees of a Canadian mining firm.                                                              is the second-largest exporter of the mineral
    Mariano Abarca R. was one of the most                                                            after Russia, shipping it mainly to fast-growing            Port-au-Prince mission shut
strident leaders against mining exploration                                                          developing countries such as India and China,                   The Canadian Embassy in the Haitian
by Calgary-based mining company Blackfire                                                            which ostensibly require it as a prime ingredi-             capital of Port-au-Prince was closed on Dec.
Exploration in the hills of Chiapas, Mexico.                                                         ent in cement for infrastructural projects.                 14, Reuters and QMI Agency reported. Riots
    He was shot and killed on Nov. 27, 2009,                                                             Interestingly, unlike countries in the                  and protests there have been occurring
and former employees of Blackfire are present-                                                       European Union, as well as Japan, Australia                 since the result of the presidential election
ly in Mexican jails awaiting court appearances                                                       and Saudi Arabia, Canada has not banned                     on Nov. 28 when a popular candidate failed
related to his murder.                                                                               asbestos. An October 2008 editorial in the                  to quality for an election runoff. Government
    In an effort to remember Mr. Abarca as                                                           Canadian Medical Association Journal criti-                 offices were torched and UN peacekeepers
well as raise awareness on the one-year            Mr. Atleo welcoming Mr. Escobar at the            cizing asbestos exporting called Canada “an                 were implicated in killing two protesters.
anniversary of his death, his family as well as    Assembly of First Nations reception.              avid asbestos cheerleader.”                                 Despite the closure of the embassy, the
NGOs and other activists sought to purchase                                                              “It is absolutely disgraceful that Canada               Foreign Affairs department says there will be
“In Memoriam” ads in major Canadian news-          they hosted at the majestic environs of           now bears the shame of being one of the last                no consular service interruption.
papers across the country.                         the Canadian Museum of Civilization on            places still exporting this deadly stuff,” said
    While the Globe and Mail published it,         Dec. 13. Some of the dignitaries present          New Democrat Natural Resources critic Nathan                Iran suspicious of Canada in death
the Herald and Journal, both owned by Post         included Danish Ambassador Erik Vilstrup          Cullen. “The lives of workers in the developing                The Iranian foreign ministry summoned
Media Network, refused.                            Lorenzen, Finnish Ambassador Risto Ensio          world should be more important than narrow                  the Canadian chargé d’affaires in Tehran
    Strangely, the day before the ad was to        Piipponen, Dutch Ambassador Wilhelms              political posturing by this government.”                    over the death of an Iranian-born student in
run, the Journal had sent back a mock-up           Geerts, Pakistani High Commissioner                   Mr. Cullen has introduced legislation to                Ottawa, Postmedia News reported. Sixteen-
for final approval, requested payment (done        Akbar Zeb, and Panamanian Ambassador              ban the mining and export of asbestos while                 year-old Yazdan Ghiasvand Ghiasi was
via credit card) and then phoned to confirm        Francisco Carlo Escobar Pedreschi.                assisting communities in transitioning to                   shot and killed, and then dumped out of
that the Saturday publication was going                National Chief Shawn Atleo, members           more sustainable economic activities.                       a car into Ottawa’s Chinatown on Dec. 6.
ahead, says Rick Arnold, co-ordinator for          of the national executive and First Nation            Joining the New Democrat MPs were                       The news service, citing wire reports and
advocacy group Common Frontiers-Canada.            leaders from across Canada welcomed               Kazumi Yoshizaki of Japan and Omana                         the Iranian semi-official news agency, said
    “I got a call at 7 pm on Friday from the       these ambassadors at the event, with Mr.          George of India, part of the Solidarity                     Iranian officials are asking Canada to launch
classifieds supervisor for the Journal who told    Atleo proudly acknowledging the Canadian          Delegation from Asia to Quebec consist-                     an investigation into the murder.
me that the ‘In Memoriam’ would not be pub-        endorsement of the United Nations                 ing of asbestos victims and activists from
lished. It was when I asked for some sort of       Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous           four Asian countries demanding an end to                    Ex-Harper aide got CSIS tip
explanation for this sudden reversal that I was    Peoples on Nov. 12 of this year, a pivotal        Canadian asbestos exports.                                     Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s former
told that they didn’t carry ‘propaganda.’”         moment that has been overlooked in the                “We appeal to Prime Minister Harper: You                national security adviser Marie-Lucie Morin
    Chatter House contacted the classifieds sec-   media and the corridors of officialdom.           do not promote asbestos as a safe product                   says Canadian Security Intelligence Service
tion of the Journal and in all-too-brief conver-       Canada had agreed in principle to sup-        in Canada. So please stop promoting it as a                 director Richard Fadden gave her a “heads-
sation was told that there were technicalities     port the declaration in the Throne Speech         safe product for developing countries. Please               up” about foreign influence on elected offi-
involved concerning “the wording” of the piece.    earlier this year—which had been already          care about our lives. We call on you to sup-                cials, Postmedia News reported. Ms. Morin
    A close look at the suggested edits the        supported by allies such as Australia and         port a ban on asbestos,” said Sugio Furuya,                 was commenting in front of the House Public
Journal sent to Mr. Arnold reveals that            New Zealand, but the official announcement        one of the leaders of the group.                            Safety committee on Dec. 8. She said the spy
any mention of “Blackfire Explorations” is         did come as a surprise to a few.                      His colleague Ms. George was keen to                    chief only gave her “generic” information and
required to “be left out in order to publish.”         “In supporting the UN declaration, Canada     fire some shots at the Québec govern-                       no specifics on Mr. Fadden’s allegations.
    Curiously enough, the two publications         took a step forward in its relationship with      ment—which is said to be in the process of
and Blackfire Explorations all share geo-          First Nations,” said an emotional Mr. Atleo.      providing a $58-million loan guarantee to an                Call for visitor visas appeal process
graphical kinship: all are based in Alberta.           There was also some grapevine gossip          asbestos mine known as the Jeffrey mine.                        A new bill that would allow rejected visa
                                                   about the assembly wanting to build inter-        This would supposedly export millions of                    applications to be reviewed and appealed
A First Nations diplomatic outreach                national ties as a way of facilitating invest-    tons of asbestos to Asia.                                   is now at first reading before the House of
    The Assembly of First Nations are known        ment and economic co-operation in their               “The Québec government is not only                      Commons, the Toronto Star reported. NDP
for many things, but most people probably          various projects.                                 exporting asbestos, but engaging in gross                   Immigration critic Olivia Chow introduced
wouldn’t have thought engaging in vigorous             Mr. Atleo also noted that international       misinformation by making claims that                        the private member’s bill on Dec. 13 in an
diplomacy would be on the list.                    backing was a crucial element in obtain-          asbestos can be safely utilized,” she said.                 effort to bring accountability and trans-
    It now appears they are searching for          ing the endorsement, saying: “Many of the         “Québec is, in fact, a key propagandist for                 parency to what some experts have been
some international ties, as evidenced by           representatives of those countries that sup-      the global asbestos trade.”                                 calling “arbitrary decision-making” by
a “reception of cultural exchange” that            ported us are here with us tonight.”                            agavai@embassymag.ca                          Canadian visa officers.


  Happy Holidays                                                                                                       T   he Hill Times will dig into “New Media &
                                                                                                                           Copyright” in this important and timely
                                                                                                                                                                        Bill C-32 is the federal government’s efforts
                                                                                                                                                                        to modernize the outdated Copyright Act
  from the staff of                                  New Media                                                         policy briefing on Jan. 17.                       and update the country’s copyright laws,
                                                                                                                                                                        but it’s one of the most controversial
  Embassy!                                                                                                             In it, we’ll examine, with leading media         bills in Parliament. Artists say the bill will

                                                     & Copyright                                                       experts and policy insiders, the massive
                                                                                                                       issue of the future of Canada’s newspapers
                                                                                                                                                                        give consumers new rights, but will not
                                                                                                                                                                        compensate creators for new uses of their
  Our first print issue in 2011                                                                                         in the digital age.                              work and they want the copyright laws
                                                                                                    POLICY BRIEFING
  will be January 12.                                                                                                                                                   expanded to new technology. We’ll look at
                                                                                                                       As well, we’ll look at one of the hottest        all the issues: digital locks, the creators of
  See you in the new year.                                                                                             issues on the federal scene, Bill C-32, the      intellectual content and the protection of their
                                                                                                                       Copyright Act, also one of the most lobbied      rights, the preservation of cultural material,
                                                                      Publication Date:                                bills in Parliament.                             and how the bill will affect Canadian culture.
                                                                       Jan. 17, 2011
                                                                      Booking Deadline:
                                                                       Jan. 12, 2011                                    For more information or to reserve your government relations
                                                                           (Noon, Ottawa Time)
                                                                                                                            and public affairs advertising space, contact The Hill Times
                                                                                                                             display advertising department at 613-232-5952 ext. 213
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—4


Year in Review

Defence a rollercoaster of highs and lows in 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Meanwhile, at CANSEC, the Harper gov-
Carl Meyer                                                                                                                                                                                                    ernment let loose its national shipbuilding
                                                                                                                                                                                                              procurement strategy, the first of a string of

A    t first glance, the Canadian Forces and the
     Department of National Defence had a year
filled with both new, sometimes unexpected
                                                                                                                                                                                                              big-ticket military announcements over the
                                                                                                                                                                                                              summer that then tumbled into a long fall of
                                                                                                                                                                                                              embarrassing procurement exposés.
developments, as well as old familiar issues.                                                                                                                                                                     They followed up this plan with a July 14
     The new was the Canadian Forces being                                                                                                                                                                    statement that the government would direct
handed a last-minute Afghanistan training mis-                                                                                                                                                                $2.6 billion into two Joint Support Ships, with




                                                                                                                                                                        DND Photo Corporal Pierre Thériault
sion, as well as providing security for the                                                                                                                                                                   the option to produce a third. The long-awaited
Olympics in Vancouver and the G8 and G20                                                                                                                                                                      shipbuilding announcement was the third time
summits in Huntsville and Toronto. It also                                                                                                                                                                    the government said it would kick the shipbuild-
rapidly and unexpectedly deployed to Haiti in                                                                                                                                                                 ing industry up a notch, but this time, the price
response to January’s earthquake, and had to                                                                                                                                                                  had increased with fewer ships guaranteed—a
deal with the fallout from the very-public trial                                                                                                                                                              fact shipbuilding critics seized upon.
of a cold-blooded murderous Air Force colonel.                                                                                                                                                                    But the criticism didn’t deter the govern-
It was promised shiny new toys, and kicked out                                                                                                                                                                ment from pressing forward with its military
of its not-so-secret base near Dubai.                                                                                                                                                                         hardware wish list. Two days later, the Harper
     Yet just as in 2009, the military continued        such an extension was going to happen, no big                 With the quick wrap-up, DND and govern-                                                 government revealed that it was committing
its battles in Kandahar, its slow ramp-up of            surprise when it happened, and no major politi-           ment officials considered Operation HESTIA—                                                 to spending $9 billion on 65 F-35s, the plane of
operations in the Arctic to promote sover-              cal fallout.                                              its name for the armed forces component                                                     choice in the Pentagon-led international Joint
eignty and test its high North deployment,                  Meanwhile, throughout the year, the                   of the government-wide response—to be an                                                    Strike Fighter program, to replace its aging
and its withstanding of public and bureau-              Harper government continued to hide as                    incredible success. Any time a major military                                               CF-18s, which are due to retire in 2017.
cratic backlash over messy procurement                  much as possible any military participation               official was interviewed throughout the year,                                                   When it was first announced, the num-
issues and the Afghan detainee scandal.                 in the detainee scandal that was exposed                  they would point to the “readiness” of the CF                                               ber being bounced around, including mainte-
     And digging deeper, the “new” items begin          by Globe and Mail reporter Graeme Smith in                as the backbone of why Canadians were able                                                  nance, was $16 billion. Defence Minister Peter
to feel old as well. American political dramas          2007 and then blown wide open by Canadian                 to treat thousands of Haitian patients, deliver                                             MacKay said $14 billion. But in December, the
demonstrated that Canadian hard power con-              diplomat Richard Colvin in November 2009.                 millions of pounds of cargo and treat millions                                              Ottawa Citizen unearthed a 2009 presentation
tinues to be led by the nose by Uncle Sam,                  The multi-party committee that was set up             of litres of water in so little time.                                                       by DND procurement official Jake Jacobson to
both in terms of military procurement and               in the summer of 2010—which the NDP has                       Before you could even say “game-changer,”                                               US industry representatives that said mainte-
deployment. And the experiment with rapid               boycotted—has only recently said it is ready to           talking heads were all chattering about “quick-                                             nance would push the cost to $21 billion.
deployment in Haiti was startlingly short-              release documents in January 2011, a full year            in, quick-out” as coming to define the future of                                                In any case, this was the biggest single
lived, meaning the decade-old Afghanistan               after the House of Commons demanded the                   the Canadian Forces. Lt.-Gen. Andrew Leslie                                                 military purchase in Canadian history, a wet
mission will continue to be centre stage.               notes. In this instance, the Bloc Quebecois is the        said rapid deployment was an integral part                                                  dream and strategic win for DND and the Air
     The bottom line is that with the Canadian          wild card, especially since the documents date            of the CF strategy. The idea made it into the                                               Force. Even though Canada had initially com-
Forces, the more things change, the more                back to the previous Liberal government.                  government’s spring Throne Speech. It was                                                   mitted to the JSF program almost a decade
they stay the same.                                         In addition, while Canada has promised to             on the lips of everyone at a spring defence                                                 ago, its unprecedented scope coupled with
                                                        stay in Afghanistan past 2011—much to the                 policy conference near Parliament Hill. It even                                             the Conservative government’s ownership of
The Afghanistan switch                                  applause of NATO allies—it will have to do so             dovetailed nicely with the emerging NATO                                                    the decision meant it was destined to become
    The past 12 months were not a good year             without the United Arab Emirates base outside             strategy of counter-terrorist “special teams”                                               the number one defence issue of the year.
for Afghanistan. The situation on the ground            Dubai that it has been using as a staging area            rather than bulky, long-term deployments.                                                       Former defence officials like Alan Williams
is clearly worsening: there was a 69 per cent           since 2001. The actual impact of this diplomatic              Afghanistan felt farther and farther away                                               came out of the woodwork to denounce the
increase of “security incidents” over 2009; a rise      incident, revolving around Canada’s refusal to            that spring. By the end of 2010, the military’s                                             decision to select the F-35 without competition.
of civilian casualties by 53 per cent; and well over    grant two UAE airlines more direct flights to the         future seemed to be in operations like Haiti:                                               Reporters and columnists raised questions
1,000 incidents of child abuse documented just          country, is difficult to discern, but doubtless           quick, effective, politically-viable. Win-win.                                              about the process, pointing to the delayed
in the first half of 2010, according to a fall report   there is one, and opposition members, media—                  But as it turns out, rapid deployment was                                               F-35 development process in the United States,
from the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan.          and probably airline staff—are busy digging it up.        harder than it looked. In the rush to get to                                                as well as sagging defence budgets worldwide
    In addition, the UN says there has been a mas-          Finally, US diplomatic cables released by             Haiti, DART troops were deployed without                                                    putting orders of the planes in danger.
sive 82 per cent increase in IED attacks over the       Wikileaks indicate that Western diplomats con-            guns, ammunition or body armour, and logis-                                                     Many wondered why Canada, a shrink-
previous year. And according to the Brookings           sider the Afghan government to be hopelessly              tical priorities were screwed up as report-                                                 ing middle power in a post-Cold War world
Institution, coalition soldier deaths and the num-      corrupt and distrust President Hamid Karzai as            ers got onto planes before security person-                                                 under the shadow of an aging superpower,
ber of IED attacks have both risen every year           much as he distrusts the West. This has given             nel. And defence experts pointed out that                                                   would need to sink its gold into dozens of
since 2003, with 2010 being no exception.               the mission a darker tone that, while it hasn’t           the light battalion sent into Haiti could be                                                top-of-the-line stealth fighter jets.
    At the time of publishing, 15 Canadian sol-         caught much attention yet, has the potential to           mobilized because it had not yet proceeded                                                      Seeing all this, pollsters predicted that “stick-
diers had died this year, a decline from 2009,          erupt as more information comes out.                      deeper into its Afghanistan training.                                                       er shock” would keep the F-35 debate on the
but most likely reflecting the reduced field                                                                          Not only that, but the operation exposed the                                            front pages through the fall. They were right.
exposure due Canadians taking on less danger-           The rise and fall of rapid deployment                     military’s severe hardware shortfall. The HMCS                                                  The Conservatives fought back hard. They
ous missions in anticipation of a 2011 pullout              On Jan. 12, a 7.3-magnitude earthquake                Protecteur, the Navy’s replenishment ship, was in                                           sent out phalanxes of ministers across the
and more American boots on the ground. The              ravaged the tiny Caribbean nation of Haiti. The           a one-year refit when the quake struck. It would                                            country to defend the deal on multiple fronts,
numbers of wounded are harder to assess;                quake was followed by over 50 aftershocks,                have been much better suited than the frigate,                                              and even got chief of the air staff Lt.-Gen. André
DND decided in March to only release statis-            reducing most of the already-impoverished                 the destroyer and the civilian-chartered freighter.                                         Deschamps in on the game. When Russian
tics on how many troops have been injured               landscape into little more than rubble. The epi-              The government, not wanting to lose its                                                 bombers flew routine sorties near Canadian
once per year. There are now nearly 3,000               centre of the quake was just a few kilometres             momentum on the issue, shifted its focus to a                                               airspace at the end of July, Mr. Soudas took to
Canadian soldiers receiving disability benefits         away outside capital of Port-au-Prince, mean-             decade-long commitment and higher levels of                                                 the airwaves to say they were a threat and said
related to their service in Afghanistan.                ing many of the country’s few structures of               aid. Suddenly, everything after Haiti seemed to                                             that’s why Canada needed new fighters.
    Perhaps most telling of the military’s chal-        authority, such as the presidential palace, the           scream “long-term” rather than “quick-in, quick-                                                But the government isn’t out of the woods
lenge is that insurgent techniques are getting          national government, the jail, most hospitals             out.” And by June, no one was talking about Haiti                                           yet. One of the biggest problems that isn’t
more complex and continue to target civil-              and the UN headquarters, were destroyed.                  at CANSEC, a military technology showcase in                                                going away is the issue of how much Canada
ians as much as possible. “Suicide attacks                  Haitians suffered enormously from the disas-          midtown Ottawa. Instead, defence sector CEOs                                                will be able to benefit from the lucrative indus-
involving multiple bombers doubled from the             ter: More than 200,000 would be declared dead,            were fretting about government budget cutbacks                                              trial contracts that are handed out by the
previous period to a rate of four per month             making the January quake one of the deadliest             and the lack of a prolonged Canadian military                                               billions to participating countries in the inter-
and continued to target the guesthouses and             in history. Fifty-eight Canadians working or liv-         industrial procurement strategy.                                                            national JSF program for creation and mainte-
offices of international civilian development           ing in the country also died, hundreds more                                                                                                           nance of the jets.
agencies,” the UN report continued.                     went missing and thousands were evacuated.                The summer blockbuster season                                                                   The military had to withstand other
    Still, despite being bound by their com-            The Canadian government sprang into action to                The government spent heavily during 2010                                                 attacks on its military procurement sys-
mitment to a House of Commons motion that               help its Americas partner, leaning on its military        as the second part to its stimulus program                                                  tem. In Ms. Fraser’s fall report, she identi-
said combat operations would end in 2011,               to help carry out much of its plans.                      was carried out. This meant that in 2011, it                                                fied significant problems in the procurement
the government announced on Nov. 16 that it                 Initially, there was lots of talk about Haiti being   would have to curtail federal spending and                                                  process of the Air Force’s new Chinook and
had opted instead to keep approximately 1,000           Canada’s next major mission after Afghanistan.            start to chip away at its new federal deficit in                                            Cyclone helicopters, already the subject of
troops as trainers to be centered around Kabul.         Foreign affairs heavyweights like former prime            order to eventually balance the budget. While                                               years-long delays. As well, the Close Combat
    Analysts say the decision allowed the govern-       minister Joe Clark and former foreign affairs             DND lucked out as one of the few depart-                                                    Vehicle, marred by years of program delays,
ment to placate the Americans. Prime Minister           minister Lloyd Axworthy said Haiti could be a             ments to see its budget continue increasing,                                                suspiciously does not appear on the latest
Stephen Harper’s spokesperson Dimitri Soudas            prototype for the military’s future. Talk turned to       the rate of growth has been cut in half.                                                    Treasury Board list of major procurements.
admitted as much when he said the decision to           hazy-eyed memories of Canadian peacekeeping.                 As well, early in the year, the government                                                   With the Liberals promising to scrap the
launch a new mission brings Canada in line with             But the military and government down-                 told DND to cut five per cent of its spend-                                                 program and the Conservatives continuing
its allies. And with key Liberal Party members          played a prolonged humanitarian mission for               ing. Everything was on the table, from big                                                  their trips outside Ottawa to promote it, the
indicating their support for such a training mis-       the military, and in the end the troops were              procurements to tiny but high-performing                                                    F-35 debacle will drag on into 2011, possibly
sion as early as June, there was no real chance         pulling out by mid-March.                                 defence research grants.                                                                    over as an election issue. This fight isn’t over.
                                                                                                                                                      EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—5


                                                                                                                                                                                          Year in Review

Starting new deals much easier than finishing
                                                                                                                                                                                       billion in 2008 to $19 billion in 2009, one of
Carl Meyer                                                                                                                                                                             the worst hits of any developed nation. The
                                                                                                                                                                                       UN trade office says Canada ranks 18th out
                                                                                                                                                                                       of the top-20 host economies in terms of
W      hen International Trade Minister Peter Van
       Loan took over his current profile on Jan.
19, Ottawa was filled with skepticism. Could he
                                                                                                                                                                                       actual dollar figures.
                                                                                                                                                                                           These reports are not a glowing endorse-
fill the big shoes left by Stockwell Day?                                                                                                                                              ment on the Harper government’s foreign
      The latter was seen as a numbers man, an                                                                                                                                         investment liberalization agenda. Over its
energetic social butterfly and an enthusiastic                                                                                                                                         five years in power, the government has
cheerleader, perfect for the job of flying to                                                                                                                                          taken a series of steps to begin changing
the far-flung corners of the globe, charming                                                                                                                                           the rules surrounding foreign investment
trade officials and sealing deals. On top of                                                                                                                                           into the country, like the 2009 budget that
that, he was in charge of the Asia Pacific                                                                                                                                             amended the Investment Canada Act and
Gateway, an area the government knew it                                                                                                                                                the Competition Act, that has provoked the




                                                                                                                                                           Embassy Photo: Sam Garcia
desperately needed to get into.                                                                                                                                                        question of whether these changes are hav-
      Mr. Day left his mark on the portfolio                                                                                                                                           ing any positive effect.
by taking the first steps towards two of                                                                                                                                                   In the 2010 budget, the government contin-
Canada’s biggest potential trade deals since                                                                                                                                           ued its alterations to the foreign investment
NAFTA: the launch of exploratory talks with                                                                                                                                            structure, removing foreign investment restric-
the European Union; and a Comprehensive                                                                                                                                                tions on Canadian satellites and uranium min-
Economic Partnership Agreement with India.                                                                                                                                             ing by amending the Telecommunications Act
He also got the ball rolling on the controver-        US Trade Representative Ron Kirk and Trade Minister Peter Van Loan in Ottawa in July.                                            and by removing the threshold for inspec-
sial but monumental Canada-US deal on gov-                                                                                                                                             tions of foreign investments into uranium. It
ernment procurement.                                      They reached a deal on Feb. 5 that had              Then there was the revelation that the EU                                also examined the rules governing telecom
      Meanwhile, Mr. Van Loan was a public safety     three parts. The first was Canadian company         wanted total access to $86-billion worth of                                  and book publishing.
minister who had Cabinet experience but dealt         access to seven US stimulus projects, which         procurement competitions in Canadian cities,                                     Another move was that it pulled out
mostly with Canada-US relations. That was             had to be ready to proceed to construction          utilities and Crown corporations. And that                                   a significant portion of the tax code that
good for keeping Canada’s biggest trade rela-         within 12 months of February 2008, and for          wasn’t all it wanted access to: more docu-                                   required participants in aggregated foreign
tionship humming, but Ottawa circles winced           the 37 US states subject to the WTO general         ments revealed the EU was targeting Canada                                   venture capital to complete separate tax
at the prospect of Mr. Van Loan—who report-           procurement agreement. In exchange, all prov-       Post, provincial liquor boards across the                                    forms, something experts pointed out repre-
edly rubbed more than one American official           inces and territories signed on to the World        country and Ontario’s new Green Energy Act.                                  sented a watershed moment.
the wrong way with an abrasive style—waltz-           Trade Organization’s General Procurement                As well, the Canada-EU trade sustainability                                  Yet many have criticized the government
ing into overseas trade situations unaware of         Agreement, allowing American companies to           impact assessment released in August pointed                                 for approaching investment rules ideologi-
the locale’s social and cultural nuances.             bid on provincial and municipal procurement         to problems with greenhouse gas emissions                                    cally. The country’s different regulatory and
      But Mr. Van Loan did strive exceptionally       contracts. The third part of the deal, which the    from the oil sands, water management and                                     ownership rules were crafted for a reason,
hard to prove his detractors wrong by under-          government said was its real strength, was an       consumption, and First Nations’ way of life.                                 they said, and chucking everything out the
going a hectic arm-pumping schedule all over          agreement to enter into negotiations within the         There are still the thorny issues of supply                              window will only lead to chaos and confu-
the world: South Africa and Kenya in March;           year to set up a permanent procurement deal.        management, sub-federal procurement, labour                                  sion rather than spurring investment.
Washington in April and May; Sweden, Belgium              The US-Canada deal was hailed by many as        mobility and intellectual property to deal with.                                 Others said foreign investment flows into
and Spain in May; China and Japan in June;            a strong move by the Canadian government,           Cheerleaders are looking for a spring 2011                                   Canada were as much dependent on the
Russia, Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia and      but critics called it a weak stop-gap measure       wrap-up, but this one has far to go still.                                   country’s history and the current global
Slovakia in July; Chile, Argentina, Colombia and      because most of the US stimulus money had                                                                                        economy as they have been on the attrac-
Costa Rica in August; Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia,   already been spent while Canada had given up        Let’s make a deal                                                            tiveness of the Canadian investment picture.
Kuwait and Qatar in October; Japan and India in       permanent access to provincial procurement.             With a GDP of $1.16 trillion, an increasingly                                As well, Cabinet began a review of invest-
November; Turkey and Greece in December.                  Questions lingered throughout 2010 about        affluent population of over a billion people and a                           ments the government considers threats to
      And there were successes: new free trade        the agreement. While it initially looked like       familiar culture and language, India has become                              national security, which some say was actually
negotiations with India and Turkey; an updat-         more Buy American-style protectionist mea-          the most sought-after free trade target after the                            a move toward greater protectionist measures.
ed agreement with Costa Rica; progress on the         sures would be coming down the pipeline,            EU. A joint feasibility study was delivered to
EU; and completed foreign investment protec-          they took all year to wind their way through        leaders on both sides but not made public, rais-                             Trade disputes
tion talks with Madagascar and Bahrain.               Congress. Meanwhile, a permanent Canada-US          ing questions about its result. However, official                                The government appeared to fulfil the
      But taking stock as 2010 comes to a close,      procurement deal has not been negotiated yet.       talks were announced in November, meaning                                    wildest expectations of those who suspect-
the past year has literally been one of starts            At the end of the year, Canada and the          things are set to move ahead.                                                ed them of ideology when it blocked BHP
and stops: the start of new trade negotiations        US began negotiating a border security deal             Even so, the feasibility study highlighted                               Billiton’s hostile bid for Saskatchewan’s
and the continued stalling of numerous others.        that was rumoured to establish the bureau-          several lingering problems. The report does                                  Potash Corp. on Nov. 3. The government had
This applied to foreign investment flows as           cratic means to increase commercial traffic         not actually suggest killing off most tariffs—                               been considering the bid for any “net ben-
well. Meanwhile, a number of trade disputes           between the two economies.                          although Canadian business and experts said it                               efit” to Canada as part of its legal obligations
erupted—and one big deal was rejected.                    The draft document is expected to be            is unthinkable that negotiators would actually                               under the Investment Canada act.
                                                      released in January 2011, but US Secretary          decide not to touch them. Still, while it says the                               Another trade dispute was several for-
The US factor                                         of State Hillary Clinton said in a conference       agreement will aim to cover “substantially all                               eign governments attempting to get Ontario-
    The year started out with some high-              north of Ottawa on Dec. 13 that the deal will       trade,” government procurement appears to be                                 based Research In Motion, makers of the
flying drama across the 49th parallel. The            address “trade and commercial activity, busi-       off the table, as are labour issues, environmen-                             BlackBerry, to release private information
Americans, just beginning to emerge from              ness connections, people-to-people travel,          tal provisions, taxation, and trade with the bur-                            for national security purposes.
the smoldering wreckage of their economy,             recreation, [and] tourism.”                         geoning Indian defence sector. Canada has also                                   The government dealt with the BlackBerry
shifted to protectionist measures for politi-             Yet it is also rumoured to give Washington      not worked out a foreign investment protection                               issue for months. Saudi Arabia was close to ban-
cal and economic gain.                                more control over how Canada runs its bor-          agreement with the South Asian country. Finally,                             ning the device until August when the company
    Throughout the years, pieces of US legisla-       der security, a fact that is already bringing       India is also engaged in an EU deal which may                                reached a last-minute deal, but at that point,
tion have tried to force government agencies          up bad memories of the now-defunct Security         be sucking up most of its bureaucrats’ time.                                 the United Arab Emirates had announced a ban.
to purchase American goods, like the Buy              and Prosperity Partnership, and anti-North          These negotiations could drag on.                                            That one came within days until it backed off in
American Act of 1933, which Canada is largely         American integration advocates will no doubt            Meanwhile, very little was actually finished                             October. India came dangerously close too until
exempt from under NAFTA, and certain Buy              make their voices heard in the new year.            this year. One big success, at least for the                                 September when Mr. Van Loan negotiated a deal
America requirements in US Department of                                                                  government, was the Colombia free trade deal                                 with his Indian counterpart.
Transportation programs that require the              The EU factor                                       receiving Royal Assent after years of parliamen-                                 Yet another issue was the European
purchase of American iron, steel and manu-                 All indications are that negotiations with     tary fighting. However, negotiations with Korea,                             Union implementing a ban on the import of
factured goods, of which Canada has been              the European Union have taken over as the           the Central America Four, Singapore, CARICOM,                                seal products. Canada has filed a complaint
blocked.                                              big focus within the Trade department. With         the Dominican Republic and Morocco remained                                  with the World Trade Organization dispute
    Then in 2009 came the American Recovery           a combined GDP of $16 trillion, the largest in      stalled. Concerns that Panama is a tax haven                                 settlement panel and the Inuit have a case
and Reinvestment Act, a gargantuan $787-bil-          the world, $35 billion in goods exports and $70     have slowed its progress in the House.                                       filed with the European General Court.
lion piece of legislation that would foster the       billion in conventional imports, the EU deal was        In addition, the Trans-Pacific Partnership                                   Finally, it is worth noting that Ontario’s
creation of public works, and which had a             already framed as the holy grail going into 2010.   continued to be a problem for Canada. The                                    Green Energy Act, which created a feed-in tariff
“Buy American” provision inside it requiring               Perhaps this is why it has been the source     government’s steadfast refusal to budge on                                   program requiring that a certain percentage of
that “all iron, steel and manufactured goods”         of so many political exposés throughout 2010.       its dairy supply management meant there’s a                                  the project include provincially-made goods
used in the construction or repair of public          First there was the highly critical internal EU     sense that Canada missed the boat on joining                                 and labour, is exploding in terms of popular-
works be produced in the US.                          strategy document that called for beefed-up         earlier, and now will pay the price as getting                               ity but is also making as many enemies as
    Mr. Day had begun the process of trying           intellectual property laws in Canada. While         in becomes more and more difficult.                                          friends. First in February, the European Union
to get Canada into the Recovery Act, but Mr.          the US had been calling for stronger IP laws                                                                                     targeted the Act in the Canada-EU talks, some-
Van Loan would have to finish the job. The            already, the EU asking for it gave it new blood.    Investment                                                                   thing Canadian negotiators had to deal with
government frantically negotiated with the            The government has been trying to push its            A 2010 UN report showed that capital                                       throughout 2010. Then in September, Japan
US, seeking some sort of out.                         amendments to the copyright law all year.           movement into Canada dropped from $55                                        complained about the act to the WTO .
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—6


Editorial Page
               WHERE DID THE YEAR GO?                                                                                                      The accusations against Assange
T
           hree days into 2010, Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s office sent out a press                                                                                                                               victions for rape as they did 20 years ago.
           release calling this “an International Year for Canada.” This was appropri-                                                                                                                                If Assange ever faced a Swedish court, he
           ate enough as over the next 12 months the country was to host the Winter                                                                                                                                   would almost certainly be found not guilty.
           Olympics in Vancouver and numerous ministerial G8 and G20 meetings before                                                                                                                                      According to a Swedish police leak and
the big leaders’ summits in June. It was also campaigning hard for a UN Security Council
seat, with the vote to be held in September.                                                                                                                           GWYNNE                                         an interview given by one of the two Swedish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      women who brought the accusations,
    Many saw this rare converging of international attention on Canada as a vital oppor-
tunity to bolster its diminishing global presence and really re-emerge as a key player                                                                                 DYER                                           Assange was the house-guest last August of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Anna Ardin, an academic and an official with
after what even former US ambassador Paul Cellucci described as “Canada’s decline                                                                                                                                     the Social Democratic Party who had orga-
from ‘middle power’ status to that of an ‘active observer of global affairs.’”
    “The world will turn its gaze on Canada in 2010,” Mr. Harper said in the statement,
later adding that the G8 and G20 summits in particular would “provide unique opportu-
                                                                                                                                           T    he US government is doing all it can
                                                                                                                                                to silence the Wikileaks organization,
                                                                                                                                           including starving it of funds by getting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      nized various lectures for him around the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      country. They had consensual sex on the day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      they met in person, and at some point in the
nities for Canada to exercise its leadership on the world stage, while enabling it to pro-                                                 PayPal, Visa and Mastercard to freeze its                                  proceedings a condom split.
mote Canadian values such as human rights, democracy and the rule of law.”                                                                 accounts. But has it also persuaded the                                        On the following day, she hosted a party
    As the sun sets on this year and a new one dawns, it’s important to look back and assess                                               Swedes to accuse Julian Assange, the                                       for Assange at her home, and still seemed
whether Canada provided the global leadership the government promised and whether it is                                                    Wikileaks founder and chief whistle-blow-                                  quite happy about his presence in Sweden.
further ahead in terms of influence and prestige than it was 12 months ago.                                                                er, of raping two women in order to shut                                   “Sitting outside nearly freezing with the
    Aside from a few early glitches—and a few moments of pure kitsch during both the                                                       him up?                                                                    world’s coolest people,” she tweeted. “It’s
opening and closing ceremonies—there can be little doubt that the Olympics were a                                                              The fact that they were first made                                     pretty amazing.”
stellar success.                                                                                                                           after Assange released documents about                                         At lunch that same day, however,
    But it didn’t take long for things to start snowballing from there—and for the worse.                                                  the American war in Afghanistan last                                       Assange met another woman, Sofia Wilen. A
The Harper government’s maternal and child health initiative got bogged down over its                                                      summer, and were then revived after he                                     few days later they travelled to her home in
decision to exclude abortion; US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and officials from sev-                                                began releasing a quarter-million State                                    Enkoping, where they too had consensual
eral European countries blasted Canada for excluding several countries from a meeting                                                      Department confidential messages last                                      sex. The following morning, she claims, he
of Arctic Ocean states; and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, European Commission                                                          month, is certainly a striking coincidence,                                had sex with her again while she was still
President Jose Manuel Barroso and Mexican President Felipe Calderon publicly called                                                        but coincidences really do happen.                                         asleep, and this time he did not use a con-
out Canada on its climate change policies.                                                                                                     It is possible that a man might be a                                   dom. Only after the two women (who did
    In addition, Canada actively lobbied against including the environment on the G8 and G20                                               dedicated campaigner for truth and justice                                 not previously know each other) discov-
summit agendas, refused to hold a G8 environment ministers’ meeting for the first time since                                               (or whatever) by day, and a serial rapist by                               ered that he had slept with both of them
2004, and railed against a financial transaction tax being proposed by several European coun-                                              night. So what are the odds that the accusa-                               did they go to the police.
tries. It continued to offer Israel unblinking support, used common Russian training flights in                                            tions that have been made against Julian                                       Assange enjoys his rock-star status and
the Arctic as a foil for buying new fighter jets, and, above all, failed to secure a seat on the UN                                        Assange in Sweden were brought in good                                     the access to women that it brings, and it
Security Council for the first time in the world body’s 60-year existence.                                                                 faith and without American influence?                                      has made him arrogant. However, although
    It was this last defeat on Oct. 12, with Portugal and Germany winning out, that really                                                     There are no actual charges against                                    a file was opened after the two women’s
hurt. Granted, there were a large range of factors in Canada’s defeat at the United Nations,                                               Assange. The accusations against him                                       complaints, Sweden’s chief prosecutor
including its completely understandable refusal to support permanent Security Council                                                      were first made last summer, and Assange                                   refused to lay charges against him. He then
membership for countries like Germany, Brazil and Japan. And, truth be told, if that was                                                   voluntarily remained in Sweden until the                                   left Sweden.
the deciding factor, then perhaps the UN is more broken than originally thought.                                                           investigation was closed. He claims that the                                   So far, no hidden American hand. But
    The reality is that the Security Council vote represented the world passing judgment on                                                file has now been re-opened (by a different                                another, more junior Swedish prosecutor re-
Canada’s recent foreign policy—and the result was a decisive rejection. To be fair, key mem-                                               prosecutor) for political reasons, and refus-                              opened the file on Assange last month and
bers of the Harper government stridently believe that the course they have set for the coun-                                               es to go back to Sweden for further ques-                                  demanded his extradition for further ques-
try on the world stage has protected Canada’s national interests while refusing to bend on its                                             tions, though he offered to be interviewed at                              tioning. The man who asked the prosecu-
“principles”—that statement though becomes increasingly nonsensical the more it is used.                                                   the Swedish embassy in London. So he has                                   tor to do that is Claes Borgstrom, the two
    But protecting one’s own self-interests and refusing to compromise or bend on a couple                                                 been sent to jail in Britain.                                              women’s new lawyer.
of key issues don’t comprise leadership. In fact, they represent the opposite. The Olympics                                                    This came as a surprise to him, since                                      Bergstrom denies any US ties, and you
aside, Canada’s “international year” offered the world a chance to peek in the windows and                                                 people who are resisting extradition nor-                                  can probably believe him: he was gender
realize what the country has become. We probably would have been better off without it.                                                    mally get bail in Britain. Unless an appeal                                equality minister in the former Social
                                                                                                                                           succeeds, he will be in jail for at least three                            Democratic-led government of Sweden until
                                                                                                                                           weeks, and perhaps for months, while his                                   he returned to the law in 2008. Neither are
                                                                                                                                           case makes its way through the courts. Yet                                 Anna Ardin and Sofia Wilen likely to lend
                                                                                                                                           the allegations against him, even if true,                                 themselves to an American sting opera-
                                                                                                                                           would not normally lead to a rape charge in                                tion. Indeed, both women say that they still
                                                                                                                                           Britain or most other jurisdictions.                                       admire Assange’s actions in bringing so
                                                                                                                                               The definition of rape in Sweden is no                                 many secrets to light.
                                                                                                                                           longer restricted to coercion, but includes                                    What we have here, therefore, is a man
                                                                                                                                           any infringement of another person’s “sexual                               who assumes too much, and two wronged
                                                                                                                                           integrity.” Accusations of rape have conse-                                women, but probably not enough evidence
                                                                                                                                           quently increased fourfold in the past 20                                  for the law in most countries to treat his
                                                                                                                                           years, and Sweden now has the highest per                                  actions as rape. Even in Sweden it prob-
                                                                                                                                           capita rate of reported rapes in Europe. But                               ably wouldn’t, and it’s unlikely that Assange
                                                                                                                                           does anybody really believe that there are                                 would be in jail now if he had just gone back
                                                                                                                                           more rapists in Sweden than anywhere else?                                 to Sweden and answered more questions. Not
                                                                                                                                               Swedish courts are clearly unhappy                                     that the British judge’s decision to imprison
                                                                                                                                           about the politicians’ meddling with the law:                              him was sensible, or even defensible.
                                                                                                                                           they are only delivering about as many con-                                             editor@embassymag.ca

                                                                                                                                                                                                  THE OLD FEDERAL SERVANT TWO-STEP
                                                                                                                                          Quote           of the
                                                                                                                                                                                        “To be quite frank, I feel like I’m being managed. I feel very strongly
                                                                                                                                                                                        that there is an exercise going on in regard to lowballing the impact
                                                                                                                                                                                        of these changes when we should be very concerned about them.”


                                                                                                                                            Week                                        —NDP MP Irene Mathyssen to the Status of Women Committee
                                                                                                                                                                                              in reaction to statements from civil servants dismissing the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  importance of recent changes to foreign policy language.

                                                                    www.embassymag.ca


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                                                                                                                                                       EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—7


                                                                                                                                                                                                                Opinion

Military procurement and MacKay’s divine intuition
                                                                                                                                                                                       from DND, the Treasury Board, Public Works
                                                                                                                                                                                       and Government Services Canada—in other
                                                                                                                                                                                       words, all the agencies involved in initial
               SCOTT TAYLOR                                                                                                                                                            procurement and support services. These offi-
                                                                                                                                                                                       cials would have known the audit results long
                                                                                                                                                                                       before Fraser published her report on Oct. 26
                         Inside Defence                                                                                                                                                and they would have had ample opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                       to refute or redirect her findings. Certainly all
                                                                                                                                                                                       in attendance last week were well versed in
                                                                                                                                                                                       the details revealed in the final audit.



O
           n Dec. 8, Defence Minister Peter                                                                                                                                                While all the representatives professed
           MacKay took a brief junket to                                                                                                                                               their pleasure at being brought before the par-
           Texas where he put on a hard hat                                                                                                                                            liamentary committee, their body language
           and did a little factory tour of the                                                                                                                                        suggested otherwise. On the hot seat for fail-
Lockheed Martin aircraft assembly plant.                                                                                                                                               ing to properly assess the future maintenance
    Following that dog-and-pony show and                                                                                                                                               costs of the Cyclone and Chinook fleets was
some brief discussions with American indus-                                                                                                                                            Dan Ross, the reclusive assistant deputy min-
try officials, MacKay held a teleconference                                                                                                                                            ister (materiel). In straight layman’s terms,
with Canadian journalists. Along with his                                                                                                                                              Ross is the senior purchasing official at DND.
counterpart, Industry Minister Tony Clement,                                                                                                                                               With the largest discretionary budget
MacKay told his selected reporters that the                                                                                                                                            for procurement of any government depart-




                                                                                                                                                                The Hill Times Photo
Conservative government is convinced the                                                                                                                                               ment, Ross is one of the most influential
planned acquisition of 65 F-35 Joint Strike                                                                                                                                            and powerful public servants in Ottawa.
Fighters will be both on time and on budget.                                                                                                                                           However, given his aversion to the public
    Such a ridiculous claim would be laugh-                                                                                                                                            spotlight and insistence upon keeping all
able were it not for the fact that, with an                                                                                                                                            media commentary anonymous, Ross oper-
initial price tag of $9 billion and another         Auditor General Sheila Fraser’s most recent report found major problems with the military’s years-                                 ates well below the radar screen on even
estimated $7 billion in lifetime maintenance        long effort to acquire helicopters.                                                                                                such high-profile purchases as the F-35.
costs, the JSF project will be the most expen-                                                                                                                                             When questioned about the cost over-
sive military purchase in our nation’s history.     ongoing acquisition of Cyclone and Chinook             costing Canadians 70 per cent more than initial-                            runs with the Cyclones and Chinooks, Ross
    Without even venturing into whether or          helicopters. In addition to noting that the            ly announced). And with the Cyclone delivery                                admitted only that “in-service support esti-
not the F-35 is the right aircraft for Canada       Department of National Defence did not fol-            delayed by seven years and the Chinooks by                                  mation is very hard.” To support this argu-
to invest in for protecting our airspace until      low its “own rules governing the management            five, Canada will not have a single one of these                            ment, Ross pointed out to parliamentarians:
2050, one has to challenge MacKay’s creden-         and oversight of acquisition projects,” the            helicopters in service before 2012. Even after all                          “We all drive cars…but who can tell me
tials for making such unsustainable predic-         key finding in Sheila Fraser’s report was that         the airframes are built and delivered, the audi-                            what the cost of gas will be next week?”
tions regarding production and costs.               DND “underestimated and understated the                tor general fears the cost overruns will continue.                              Apparently, Peter MacKay can. In fact,
    As a natural-born politician and a lawyer       complexity and developmental nature” of the                “National Defence still has not completely                              MacKay can assure us that the JSF, a develop-
by training and profession, MacKay has no           helicopters it intended to buy.                        estimated what it will cost to operate these                                mental aircraft that is experiencing all sorts of
private-sector experience in such matters.              “Consequently, project risks were incorrectly      helicopters. Nor has it put in place all the ele-                           technical teething troubles—one which we will
Therefore, we must rely upon his track              assessed. Significant modifications were made          ments, such as personnel, needed to maintain                                not officially contract to purchase until 2013 at
record as defence minister when it comes to         to the basic models, which contributed to con-         them over the long term,” Fraser said in her                                the earliest, which we will not take delivery of
purchasing fleets of aircraft.                      siderable project delays and cost increases,”          press release. “This is cause for concern.”                                 until 2016, and which we plan to fly until 2050,
    Ironically, it was only the previous day that   said the Office of the Auditor General’s press             Yet these revelations did not really seem to                            will absolutely be on time and on budget.
the House of Commons Standing Committee             release summarizing the report.                        concern those responsible for the collective                                    That’s unbelievable!
on Public Accounts had met to examine the               To put this in perspective, the total com-         boondoggle who were called upon to answer                                       Scott Taylor is editor and publisher of
disturbing findings of the fall 2010 report from    bined cost of these two helicopter acquisitions        to the parliamentary committee last week.                                   Esprit de Corps magazine.
the auditor general pertaining to the military’s    now stands at $11 billion (the Chinooks alone          Those in attendance included representatives                                              editor@embassymag.ca




Time to come clean on Afghan corruption
                                                    sages. International community members                 creates a nightmarish situation making                                          Several decades of war in Afghanistan
NIPA BANERJEE                                       have failed to deliver transparent messages
                                                    to the public in their respective countries
                                                                                                           accountability increasingly vague and dif-
                                                                                                           fused at every contracting level.
                                                                                                                                                                                       destroyed the institutions of governance and
                                                                                                                                                                                       rule of law that are so essential to arrest the
                                                    about the real state of affairs in Afghanistan.            Besides, the high administration fees                                   expansion and escalation of corruption and
                                                        The international community consistent-            charged at every level ultimately result in minis-                          prevent establishment of a regime of impunity.


A
            s WikiLeaks continues to roll out
            confidential cables at a dizzying       ly and deliberately maintains a rosy public            cule amounts going to the beneficiaries, which                                  International-community promises to deliv-
            speed, sending the international        picture of progress in Afghanistan when, in            promotes a perception in the Afghan public that                             er on institutional capacity building remain
            community and its Afghan partners       reality, little transparent dialogue with the          aid funds are being gulped by corrupt officials.                            at rhetorical levels. As an Afghan high-level
reeling, it is important to examine the impact      Afghan government has been undertaken                  This is damaging for the Afghan government,                                 official quite rightly asked in a donor meeting
of the leaks and provide some insight into          about governance and rule of law, which are            especially since Afghanistan being ranked as the                            prior to the 2010 Kabul conference, if issues
those memos dealing with Afghanistan.               at the base of any accountable government.             third-most corrupt country by Transparency                                  of “governance” are popular with the donor
    The leaked cables bring little fresh news.          An Afghan ex-minister openly interpreted           International is “perception” based.                                        community, what have the donors been doing
The issue of alleged corruption has been            the international community’s silence on                   On the other hand, the fact the Afghan                                  over the last 10 years? Dead silence in the
raised by journalists over several months,          alleged corruption in his country as virtual           public has to bribe government staff to                                     meeting room provided the answer.
although Afghan leaders rejected such               collusion with corruption. Yet the donor               access public services, reflected in Integrity                                  As a Canadian envoy proposes, instead
allegations on grounds of lack of evidence.         community remained mostly passive.                     Watch surveys, is extremely disconcerting.                                  of engaging in a blame game, let us learn
Some are now arguing that the recent rev-               The international community cannot absolve             Corruption is prevalent, in various degrees,                            from our past experiences and devote our
elations of high-level Afghan statements on         itself of all responsibility for the corruption that   in most developing countries. Issues of pilfer-                             energies and attention to activities that will
corruption—financial, ethical and moral—            has escalated and expanded because of their            ing aid funds, vote rigging, ballot-box stuffing,                           strengthen the institutions of a sovereign
are equivalent to evidence.                         complacency, the aid delivery mechanisms               nepotism as well as bribes for employment,                                  state to meet good governance needs and
    One may argue that WikiLeaks has made           they use, and their failures in addressing critical    contracts and licenses are common.                                          promote and protect Afghan public interest.
nurturing international diplomatic relations        issues of institution building for the promotion           At the root of such corruption lies weak gov-                               Provision of aid through mechanisms
hard; and in the specific case of Afghanistan,      of better governance in Afghanistan.                   ernance and rule of law, weaknesses that post-                              parallel to that of the Afghan government
the released cables can be quite damaging.              The donor community’s practice of                  conflict and in-conflict countries endure. That                             will not overcome problems emanating from
    It is essential for the international commu-    avoiding aid delivery through Afghan gov-              with strong institutions and better governance,                             weak governance. In fact, the problems
nity to maintain and strengthen its relation-       ernment channels is indicative of interna-             corruption can be brought under control, if not                             might be exacerbated. The only way to
ship with the top levels of the Afghan govern-      tional concerns that taxpayers’ funds will             totally eliminated, is evident in some develop-                             address the issues raised in the Wikileaks
ment. Yet the very candid nature of the leaks       go astray through corruption. One might                ing countries. India, a post-colonial non-fragile                           cables is to work with the Afghans to
in effect contribute to making the relationship     empathize with these concerns.                         democracy, is often cited as an example.                                    strengthen the country’s institutions.
more tenuous, which is bound to impact                  However, the donor practice of con-                    One of the primary tasks of peace-build-                                    Nipa Banerjee served as Canada’s head
negatively on the international community’s         tracting agencies external to the Afghan               ing missions in fragile countries is to estab-                              of aid in Afghanistan from 2003-06. She now
(including Canada’s) Afghan mission.                government is not necessarily corruption-              lish and strengthen institutions which not                                  teaches international development at the
    Regardless, the leaks reveal the discrep-       free either. In fact, the long vertical line           only deliver services to the citizenry, but                                 University of Ottawa and visits frequently
ancy between what diplomats really feel             that involves a single contract being sub-             also protect public goods and services from                                 Afghanistan frequently.
about Afghanistan and their public mes-             contracted and further sub-sub-contracted              being exploited by interest groups.                                                      editor@embassymag.ca
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—8


Opinion

Unfinished business: The IPS in retrospective               could make a real difference in the world         important strategic and operational deci-              proving to be more effective and cheaper.
DAVID CARMENT AND                                           through “smart power.”                            sions including budgetary matters.                         The IPS showed Canada the way to move
                                                                 In reviewing the success of the IPS, the         As one observer noted, so lopsided                 from a reactive stance to a more preventive one
YIAGADEESEN SAMY                                            Department of National Defence, whose             has Canada’s spending on the Afghanistan               through a pooling of resources and a deeper
                                                            generals previously had gone begging for          Task Force become that there should be a               understanding of state failure. Such changes
                                                            lift capacity and equipment, has emerged          department for Afghanistan and a depart-


P
         aul Martin’s International Policy                                                                                                                           were supposed to save Canada money, help
         Statement, released almost six years               as a clear winner.                                ment for everything else.                              stabilize countries before they collapsed into vio-
         ago, was a considerable contribution                    Today, DND is both capable and reli-             Similarly, as soon as Afghanistan became           lence and trim down deep-rooted bureaucracies.
         to Canadian foreign-policy making.                 able. All of the structural prior-                               our top recipient of aid, ques-             Regrettably, considerable resources and
    For the first time, a leader of Canada rec-             ity areas within the defence                                     tions of CIDA’s accountability and      lives are still being invested in rebuilding
ognized that a pooling of resources and capa-               portion of the IPS have been                                     effectiveness emerged—not just          failed states such as Afghanistan without
bilities served as the best and most cost-                  satisfied, including the need                                    in Afghanistan, but elsewhere.          clear and tangible results, our bureaucracies
effective approach to tackling the complex                  for long-term funding commit-                                    Many critics cite the lack of proper    remain entrenched, and our foreign policy
and interrelated problems facing the world.                 ments, comprehensive reliable                                    monitoring tools as a key reason for    remains reactive rather than preventive.
Such thinking was not unique. The UK and                    intelligence, rapid mobility,                                    the organization’s ineffectiveness.     Defence remains our largest discretionary
the US, as well as the World Bank, the UN                   self-sufficient command and                                      Today, CIDA still lags behind other     expense and Haiti is on the verge of a cholera
and other OECD countries, have released                     interoperability.                                                development agencies such as the        epidemic despite all the international atten-
similar strategy papers.                                         The deployment of Canada’s                                  UK’s DfID when it comes to the          tion it has received since the earthquake.
    Their main focal points are the threats                 Dart team to Sri Lanka and Haiti                                 evaluation and monitoring of its aid        Given the millions of dollars Canadians
emerging from fragile and failed states, the                stand as exemplars of the kind                                   programs.                               have contributed alongside the billions the
rationalization and harmonization of develop-               of rapid forward response envi-                                      The IPS called for a doubling of    international community has invested in
ment assistance programs, and co-ordination                 sioned in the IPS.                   Former prime minister       aid by 2010 from its 2001 level, an     these countries over the last 10 years, they
between all relevant arms of government.                         In contrast, the chronically    Paul Martin.                increased sectoral focus and a dou-     are right to ask if we are on the right track.
    There was also agreement to better                      underfunded Department of                                        bling of aid to Africa, though none         We believe the time has come once again
use the intelligence that underpins efforts                 Foreign Affairs was saddled with an unfund-       of these targets have been fully met. Its list of 25   for Canada to conduct a thorough foreign
to engage failed and fragile states and to                  ed structure known as the Stabilization and       development partners, with the likes of Indonesia      policy review. The IPS was an excellent
provide a more flexible operational capac-                  Reconstruction Task Force, also known as          and Ukraine on it, was not an easy sell.               start but there remains unfinished business.
ity for emerging crises through prevention                  START.                                                The recent policy announcement in 2009             Complacency is not an option.
and diplomacy.                                                   Like its US counterpart the Office of        focusing 80 per cent of our bilateral aid in               David Carment is editor of Canadian
    In straightforward terms, it was assumed                the Co-ordinator for Reconstruction and           20 countries was met with equal criticism. In          Foreign Policy Journal and a CDFAI fellow.
that departments would share a common                       Stabilization, START has not fared well.          particular, it was seen as a clear move away           Yiagadeesen (Teddy) Samy is an associate
analysis of problems, co-ordinate their                     The organization has been unable to with-         from Africa in favor of Latin America                  professor of International Affairs and Research
efforts and decide who would take the lead                  stand irrepressible stove piping within the           In 2010, the IPS remains a valid benchmark to      Associate at the North-South Institute. Their
in mounting a response. With co-ordination                  Canadian government on three of its largest       measure Canada’s performance on the foreign-           most recent book is Security, Development,
would come a clear understanding of where                   files, namely Afghanistan, Haiti and Sudan,       policy front. Questions remain, however. Chief         and the Fragile State: Bridging the Gap
Canada should engage and where it was                       all of which had, at one time or another,         among these is whether “whole-of-government”           between Theory and Policy. Their research
best to let others show the way.                            dedicated task forces answering directly to       approaches have met with success and whether           project can be found here www.carleton./cifp.
    In brief, the IPS showed Canada how it                  Cabinet, taking responsibility for most of the    a more focused and rationalized aid program is                      editor@embassymag.ca




  Canada’s Strategic Resources                                                                                                                 THANKS TO YOU...



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  Saskatechewan Premier                                                           comprehensive and in-depth
  Brad Wall invoked a new                                                         look at the importance these
                                                                                                                     Heidi Bonnell, Event Chair            Linda Kristal                     Cyrus Reporter
  buzzphrase that has since                                                       resources have to the country,     Liz Ellwood - Becksted                Jacqueline LaRocque               Jodean Tobin
  taken on a life of its own:           AN EMBASSY                                how to reconcile protecting        Joseph Galimberti                     Velma McColl                      Lynn van der Linde
  strategic resource. In the            POLICY BRIEFING                           them for Canadians in an open      Debbie Healey                         Farah Mohamed                     Nicole Watts
  end, the federal government                                                     market economy that puts           Tracey Hubley                         Shawna Newbery
  rejected BHP Billiton’s bid, but       Publication Date:                        a premium on encouraging           Goldy Hyder                           Seamus O’Regan
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  the role things like uranium,                                                   other countries stack up and
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                                                                                                                                                    EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—9


                                                                                                             Climate Change & Development

Discovering some
                                                                                                                                                                                way for these to be raised so they keep up
                                                                                                                                                                                with the science.
                                                                                                                                                                                    If Canada is to come in out of the dark,
                                                                                                                                                                                the federal government must adopt a pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                gressive cap on emissions—much as the bill


sunscreen in Cancun                                                                                                                                                             killed last month by Conservatives in the
                                                                                                                                                                                Senate would have done.
                                                                                                                                                                                    The Kyoto Protocol, brutally battered dur-
                                                                                                                                                                                ing the past two weeks, has survived. Just. We
                                                    wave in Russia led to wildfires that destroyed                                                                              now have a baseline that emissions cuts must
MARK FRIED                                          over one-fourth of the wheat crop.
                                                        Closer to home, Arctic sea ice fell to its
                                                                                                                                                                                be relative to 1990, not 2005 as Prime Minister
                                                                                                                                                                                Stephen Harper would have it, and therefore
                                                    third-lowest level ever. This year is on track                                                                              they are more ambitious. Canada again must



T
          he beaches of Cancun were perhaps         to become the hottest on record. And during                                                                                 pay heed. Developing countries now have
          not the best choice of venue for          the summit itself, Colombia endured its worst                                                                               more confidence that richer nations will sup-
          conveying a sense of urgency about        downpours in decades, which left 1.5 million                                                                                port a post-2012 commitment period.
          climate change. But they did the          homeless from flooding and landslides.                                                                                          Early on, there was hope that the agree-
trick to overcome the hangover from the                 In Cancun, vulnerable countries like the                                                                                ments would acknowledge the great burden
cold grey shambles of Copenhagen.                   Philippines, Uganda, Bangladesh, Malawi,                                                                                    that women living in poverty bear due to
    While jaded reporters kept asking, “Why




                                                                                                                                                           Embassy File Photo
                                                    Mozambique and the Pacific island nation                                                                                    the changing climate. Sadly, a proposed
bother?” negotiators proceeded to lay the           Tuvalu fielded top-notch teams of negotiators,                                                                              stipulation that women be represented on
building blocks for the ultimate prize of a fair,   their briefcases stuffed with positive proposals.                                                                           the new climate fund’s board, essential
ambitious, legally-binding deal, perhaps as             They refused to be deterred by obfusca-                                                                                 to ensure women actually benefit, was
soon as this time next year when the world’s        tors like Canada, Australia and the United                                                                                  dropped and women are again invisible.
governments next meet in South Africa.              States, who showed their own doggedness by           Environment Minister John Baird.                                           The kind of progress made in Cancun
    The deal struck in Cancun won’t tackle          coming up with a problem for every solution.                                                                                is not the makings of front-page news. But
global climate change on its own, but life-             Canada mostly kept its head down, hav-               Yet despite Canada, reason prevailed. And                          ironically, far more was achieved than in
saving decisions have been made. And life-          ing challenged and bested Saudi Arabia last          in the final hours, a deal was struck.                                 last year’s hype-fest.
saving is the urgent question for much of           year for the title of most retrograde country            The cornerstone achievement of Cancun                                  Who knows if enough trust has been
the world because the changing climate has          on climate change. But Environment Minister          was setting up a new one-stop climate fund                             rebuilt to achieve an overall agreement
already begun to bite, and bite badly.              John Baird, ebullient as ever, couldn’t help         to help poor countries adapt to climate                                next year? But if countries view Cancun as
    Twenty-one thousand people lost their           crowing about Canada’s “action plan,” which          change and work toward a low-carbon econ-                              a turning point from which to build, there
lives in the first nine months of this year due     everybody knows is all plan and no action.           omy. It will replace the current confusion of                          is hope for the world’s poorest people, who
to extreme weather (compared to 10,000 in               Having done nothing to reduce our out-           overlapping funding mechanisms that seems                              are reeling from climate disasters they had
all of last year). Pakistan logged the high-        sized greenhouse gas emissions, and pos-             incapable of getting money out the door.                               no part in causing.
est temperature ever recorded in Asia, at           ing obstacles at every turn, Canada pulled               The woefully inadequate emission-cut                                   Mark Fried is policy co-ordinator for Oxfam
53.7 degrees Celsius. Flooding in China and         down its fourth consecutive “Fossil of the           pledges made after Copenhagen have now                                 Canada.
Pakistan affected 160 million people. A heat        Year” award.                                         been set as a minimum, and there is a path-                                         editor@embassymag.ca


                                                                                                             Especially since the Industrial
                                                                                                                                                                                        LETTERS TO
Changes to NGO                                                                                          Co-operation Program was moved from CIDA
                                                                                                        to Foreign Affairs, the private sector has felt,
                                                                                                        and been treated, increasingly as persona non
                                                                                                        grata by most of CIDA. There seems to be
                                                                                                                                                                                        THE EDITOR

funding good on one
                                                                                                        little recognition that not only is the private
                                                                                                        sector a valuable repository of development                             Canada has a
                                                                                                        knowledge and experience, but that the
                                                                                                        for-profit part of the Canadian development                             climate plan, vision
                                                                                                        delivery sector also establishes long-term


                                                                                                                                                                                R
                                                                                                                                                                                         E: “No plan, no vision, no leadership


hand, not the other
                                                                                                        partnerships with entities in developing                                         on climate,” Dec. 8) The Government
                                                                                                        countries and many of these partnerships                                         of Canada is committed to an
                                                                                                        continue long after CIDA funding has ended.                                      approach to combating climate
                                                                                                             On a second and more important level, the                          change that achieves real environmental and
                                                                                                        process as it appears to be working now does                            economic benefits for all Canadians.
                                                    based on merit when they submit a proposal.         not link up to specific countries (and CIDA’s                               Canada signed onto the Copenhagen
RICHARD BEATTIE                                         Over the years, experienced CIDA-
                                                    watchers have had many questions about the
                                                                                                        specific country development frameworks); it is
                                                                                                        rather a process of seeking proposals within a
                                                                                                                                                                                Accord almost a year ago and, since then,
                                                                                                                                                                                has been working constructively to imple-
                                                    clarity and application of the criteria CIDA        fairly narrowly-defined set of parameters. This                         ment it. We inscribed under the accord an



I
     n devising the new processes for allocation    uses in deciding its funding to not-for-profit      means that CIDA is only going to put its money                          ambitious, yet realistic, emissions reduction
     of aid dollars, CIDA appears to have adopt-    organizations, including: Why do some orga-         within those parameters, which in turn seems                            target of 17 per cent below 2005 levels by
     ed, at least in part, one of the recommen-     nizations qualify for long-term program fund-       to mean that the NGO community has access                               2020 that is fully aligned with that of the US.
     dations contained in the report Reinventing    ing while others are eligible only for funding      to government funding only in those areas.                                  To meet this target, we are putting in
CIDA, released by the Canadian Defence and          of “one-off” projects? What determines the               This may fit superficially with the pur-                           place a series of sector-by-sector initiatives
Foreign Affairs Institute in May 2010.              amount of funding an organization receives?         suit of the holy grail of “focus” that has                              in areas where we can achieve real results.
     In that report, authors Gordon Smith           How is performance monitored and evalu-             been hammered into CIDA in recent years,                                Take, for example, the transportation sector.
and Barry Carin suggested that “CIDA must           ated? How do “new” organizations break in?          but it is a focus on the priorities of the day                          This year, we finalized standards for regulat-
introduce proper incentives and the use of          Are long-term partners ever “graduated” from        and not necessarily on the long-term nature                             ing emissions from passenger vehicles and
competition for scarce resources,” includ-          CIDA funding or do they have allocations            of development. As a result, NGOs and                                   light trucks that are aligned with those of
ing a competitive grants program of the             reduced? There is a sense that “partners”           recipient countries could be all the more                               the US, and are now working towards doing
sort that the Partnership with Canadians            that become partners for life come to depend        susceptible to the frequent and disruptive                              the same for heavy-duty vehicles.
Branch appears to be instituting.                   in an unhealthy way on eternal CIDA funding.        changes of direction that were criticized in                                We are also taking action to reduce emis-
     The private sector is familiar with and            There appears to be a real lack of clarity      the auditor general’s 2009 report.                                      sions in the electricity sector by moving for-
has no objection to the use of competition          surrounding the nature of the relationship               At the same time, it also has the poten-                           ward with regulations on coal-fired electricity
and the elements that go into a competi-            between CIDA and the not-for-profit sector,         tial to move Partnership with Canadians                                 generation, making one of the cleanest elec-
tive process—as long as the playing field is        to which an element of competition could            funding even farther away from carefully                                tricity systems in the world even cleaner.
level and the “rules of the game” are clearly       add a measure of transparency. For attempt-         considered (and politically approved)                                       As well, we are providing our fair share
explained and fairly applied.                       ing to do this, CIDA should be congratulated.       country-level strategies, resulting in a loss                           of fast-start financing to support developing
     Indeed, each and every time a private-             On the other hand, it’s not entirely clear      of development focus, not an improvement.                               countries’ efforts to reduce greenhouse gas
sector entity wishes to be involved in a devel-     that the process—including the criteria,                 While there are signs of progress, there                           emissions and adapt to the adverse impacts
opment program or project, it must submit an        terms and conditions—that CIDA is putting           remains much to do. CIDA still has many willing                         of climate change. Our first instalment of
exhaustive competition which includes evalua-       in place will achieve the kind of develop-          and able partners in Canada who are prepared                            $400 million represents Canada’s largest-
tion of its track record, how it would carry out    ment results that Canadians and the coun-           to offer their expertise and experience to help                         ever contribution to support international
the job, the people it proposes, the outcomes       tries who benefit from Canadian develop-            the agency fulfil its mandate in a meaningful                           efforts to address climate change.
it is committed to achieve and its costs.           ment assistance should expect.                      and efficient way. It needs to take advantage                               At the Cancun conference, Canada contin-
     In CIDA’s hands, the process for selecting         For one thing, in designing these new           of the opportunity for systematic and regular                           ued to be a constructive player in the climate
and contracting with private-sector partners        criteria, CIDA has missed an opportunity to         consultation with these partners—private sec-                           change negotiations and we will keep work-
has become over the years heavily bureau-           broaden the range of eligible organizations         tor and NGOs alike—to make Canada’s develop-                            ing diligently to implement the Copenhagen
cratic, slow, nit-picky and extremely costly for    to include non-fundraising development              ment programming the best it can be.                                    Accord as the basis for a single, legally-bind-
the bidders. It does, however, have a generally     organizations who are capable of matching                Richard Beattie is chair of the Canadian                           ing, post-2012 climate change agreement.
satisfactory degree of transparency and open-       CIDA’s contributions from their own resourc-        Association of International Development                                                                 Mark Warawa
ness; bidders on CIDA projects usually feel that    es or even the private sector, in concert with      Consultants.                                                                 Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister
they are given an equal opportunity for success     other development organizations.                                 editor@embassymag.ca                                                                  of the Environment
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—11


Year in Review                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Year in Review


CanadaÕ s International Year: A year that wasnÕ t?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Still, results at the UN showed “the unani-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           mous judgment of the international commu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           nity over us,” Mr. Heinbecker said.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               In the wake of the loss, Mr. Harper said
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Canada’s foreign policy is based on principles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           such as freedom, democracy, human rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and the rule of law, and the government
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           wouldn’t budge on them, even if it means los-
           Continued from Page 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   its climate policies in accordance with US poli-        ing a seat on the council.
Special focus was put on co-ordinating                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cies and regulations.                                       But as Embassy found out throughout sev-
responses to failed and failing states, calling                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aside from the aforementioned effort to have        eral interviews in October, that righteousness
out rogue nations like North Korea and Iran,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       climate change absent from the G8 and G20               has experts warning that the government’s
and leading the charge on aid issues. This                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         agendas, news broke during this month’s UN cli-         adherence to its principles has moved beyond
last effort came in the form of the Muskoka                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mate change conference in Cancun that Canada,           lofty inspirational rhetoric toward a danger-
Initiative on Maternal and Child Health.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           along with Russia and Japan, have aligned them-         ous abandonment of the core elements of
    John Kirton, director of the G8 Research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       selves to stop an extension of the Kyoto Protocol       diplomacy, putting Canada’s future global inte-
Group at the University of Toronto, says the G8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    beyond 2012. Canadian officials said the agree-         gration in jeopardy if the government refuses
summit was a “striking success,” particularly the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ment is ineffective because it does not include big     to learn its lesson in time to mend relations.
Muskoka Initiative raising nearly US$5 billion for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 emitters such as the US and China.                          No matter why Canada lost, it was a dark
maternal and child health and injecting new rel-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Meanwhile, Canada has not adapted a                 way to end Canada’s “international year.”
evance into the Millennium Development Goals.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions—
    “In one weekend, in the wake of the worst                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      including a failure to impose reduction targets         Lessons learned
global recession since the great depression,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       on industries like the oil sands—meaning                    Mr. Kinsman said that although other
leaders still reached into their pockets to say                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    emissions are continuing to increase.                   countries are also pursuing self-interested
‘yes’ to Mr. Harper,” he said. “That’s an histori-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The government says it is protecting                policies and are worried about domestic
cal accomplishment.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Canada’s economic well-being, and that doing            politicking, “Canada was known for its long-
    However, NGOs and others say fellow G8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         more than the US would only hurt the coun-              standing effort in parallel to be a helpful con-
members, struggling to cut record budget defi-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     try without having any noticeable effect on             tributor to better international governance
cits, largely left Canada holding the hat, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     climate change. But there is no doubt the               and co-operation in peace and security, and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DND, PMO, Embassy Photos
that $30 billion is needed to tackle maternal and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  country’s reputation took another hit on this           to be a mediatory influence.”
child health.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      file—widely considered the most important                   Mr. Hampson says that, at the end of the
    In addition, Fen Hampson, director of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      issue facing the world—this year.                       day, it is unclear how much Canadians care
Norman Paterson School of International Affairs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            about the UNSC loss, or about foreign policy
at Carleton University, says the massive riots that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Security Council                                        files in general, since other issues like the
erupted on the Toronto streets and controversy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         On Oct. 12, UN member states voted over-            economy have more tangible effects on the
over the $1-billion G8/G20 price tag, and over-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    whelmingly in favour of giving Portugal and             public.
shadowed nearly everything else. So did the G8        the communiqués,” he said. “You have to see            By staying in Afghanistan, Canada remains           “Our policy towards Israel does not allow             But controversy erupted when news broke         Lagging on climate change                                                   Germany seats on the UN Security Council                    “Foreign policy is always an issue that is
division over whether to include abortion in the      how people will behave in the following years.”    at the table with NATO allies and can’t be said     for the possibility that Palestinians also have       that the other three permanent members of the           Environmental experts have long said                                    next year, leaving Canada as the odd man out            important to foreign policy elites, but the fact
child and maternal health initiative, other experts      At least the Vancouver Olympics were suc-       to have let its partners down. Domestically, the    rights and are suffering,” he said.                   Arctic Council—Sweden, Finland and Iceland—         Canada is a laggard in terms of climate change                              for the first time in the world body’s 60-year          is that foreign policy issues don’t put a dent in
say. Europeans were also angry Canada didn’t do       cessful.                                           Liberal Party’s support of the extension and the        Over the past year, the government                had not been not invited to the Chelsea confer-     policies, but 2010 seemed to have intensified                               history. Experts say the vote represents the            the government’s overall record and percep-
more to put climate change on the agenda.                “We showed we can both win medals and           apparent lack of a response from voters helped.     refused to call for a lifting of the Gaza             ence, ostensibly because they do not possess        that criticism as two major world leaders                                   world’s rejection of the Harper government’s            tion among Canadians,” he said.
    The G20 also saw a great deal of division.        put events on,” Mr. Heinbecker said.                   Canada also stood shoulder-to-shoulder with     blockade after Israeli forces raided a flo-           coastlines with the Arctic Ocean.                   called the country out publicly.                                            foreign policy decisions.                                   But experts believe there are a few things
There was major disagreement over whether                                                                its allies in condemning Iran, Burma and North      tilla headed to the Palestinian territory, it             Officials from Sweden, Iceland and Finland          During a short visit to Ottawa in May, UN                                   “At the end of the day, when member                 the government should pay attention to in the
countries needed to stop stimulus funding and         International gains                                Korea, provided humanitarian support to flood-      continued its support for Israel in the UN,           all said they were concerned about Canada’s         Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon said in a speech                              states looked at Canada, they saw no reason             future.
start cutting deficits, or whether more money             Then if the G8 and G20 summits weren’t         ravaged Pakistan and opened new diplomatic          and it changed the way it funds the UN                decision to exclude them from the conference        that “Canada has a special role and a special                               to vote for Canada,” says NDP Foreign Affairs               “What I think we can learn from this past
was needed. Canada opposed putting climate            the clear-cut boons that many were hoping for,     missions in Qatar, Turkey and the Americas.         agency that support Palestinian refugees.             and, most importantly, were not given a clear       responsibility to play” as president of the G8 and                          critic Paul Dewar said. “We have a government           year is that by just coming out against certain
change and adaptation and mitigation funding          where was the Canadian leadership that had                                                             The Canadian government, in contrast with             explanation of what issues Canada was plan-         should include climate change on the agenda                                 that undermined our traditional reputation of           countries and certain issues…just undermines
for developing countries on the agenda. And           been promised?                                     Domestic foreign policies                           other Western governments, has not been               ning to discuss. But the biggest blow came          before urging its Kyoto commitments.                                        being a good partner as a middle power, in              our ability to be a player on world stage,” Mr.
there was a fierce argument between members               One area where the government received             In March, former UN ambassador Robert           very critical about Israel’s continued settle-        from US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who         Mr. Ban’s statement came only days after                                conflict resolutions, peacekeeping, innovators          Dewar said, in reference to the UAE dispute
who were in favour of a global bank tax and           significant praise was for its response to the     Fowler, recently released from four months of       ment expansion into Gaza and the West                 publicly criticized the Canadian government         the president of the European Commission,                                   in terms of arms control and human security.            and climate change policies.
those, like Canada, which were opposed.               earthquake in Haiti. After a massive earth-        captivity at the hands of al-Qaeda, was asked       Bank, Mr. Heinbecker said. All of these have          for choosing to exclude the three countries         Jose Manuel Barroso, criticized Canada’s                                        “Now we are just seen as someone who sits               Ms. Lantsman said that “Canada will stand
    The Harper government sought to use its           quake hit the country on Jan. 12, leaving tens     to address a “thinkers” conference organized        been noticed internationally.                         from the conference, saying that international      repeated rhetoric of waiting for other major                                on the sidelines while cheering the players on          by its democratic allies and friends around the
position as host to its advantage. It launched a      of thousands of people dead and millions           by the Liberal Party. What emerged was com-             Overall, Mr. Heinbecker said it is not            discussions on the Arctic should include “those     countries to come on board before fully tack-                               the field. But we are not the players on the field.”    world, including South Korea and Israel, be
concerted global campaign to shoot the bank tax       homeless and without basic services, Canada        pletely unexpected as Mr. Fowler took aim at        uncommon for governments to court ethnic              who have legitimate interests in the region.”       ling climate change.                                                            Mr. Heinbecker echoed that, saying Canada’s         actively engaged diplomatically and apply a
down before the G20 summit by sending ministers       was one of the first to spring into action.        both the Liberals and Conservatives.                groups, “but the Conservative government                  Canada has also been involved in a diplomatic       Earlier in the year, Canada had weakened                                disengagement with the UN has been evident              principled foreign policy.”
around the world. Mr. Harper instead strongly             Only two weeks after the earthquake, it            “The world does not need more of the kind       has taken it to another level.”                       spat with the United Arab Emirates, an incident     its already controversially lax greenhouse gas                              over the years. That, coupled with Canada’s                 But Mr. Heinbecker said if Canada wants to
pushed for a stronger regulatory system for banks.    hosted a conference in Montreal on Jan. 25         of Canada they have been getting,” he said.                                                               experts say put Canada is a negative light.         emission reduction targets to 17 per cent from                              exclusively pro-Israel policy stance of climate         have a principled foreign policy, “it has to be
    “The G20 summit in Toronto enabled our            that saw foreign ministers from more than a        “Canadian governments have turned inward            ‘Always in someone’s face’                                In October, the Middle Eastern nation           2005 levels by 2020—the same level as the                                   change and this country’s downgraded efforts            based on international law, not on who your
government to showcase its positive eco-              dozen countries come together with represen-       and adopted ‘me first’ stances across the               Over the summer, the government released          abruptly ended years of collaboration with the      US. Canadian government officials repeatedly                                in Africa and recent embassies closures there,          friends are.”
nomic track record as Canada’s advocacy of            tatives of other international bodies, including   international agenda; and Canada’s reputation       an official—and arguably confusing—Arctic             Canadian government, asking the Canadian            stated before that Canada would harmonize                                   all contributed to the UNSC loss.                                    agurzu@embassymag.ca
free international markets and strong fiscal          development banks and NGOs, in an effort to        and proud international traditions have been        foreign policy.                                       Forces to evacuate Camp Mirage, which had
and banking policies which have been recog-           shape the roadmap for Haiti’s reconstruction.      diminished as a result.”                                “Co-operation, diplomacy and respect for          been used as a supply base and stopover to
nized by others and which have led to a rapid             This showed that Canadian leadership               For many observers, Mr. Fowler’s tirade         international law have always been Canada’s           Afghanistan. This came after the Harper gov-
economic recovery amidst the international
economic crises,” Ms. Lantsman said.
                                                      is defined by actions, Ms. Lantsman said.
                                                      The government matched the $220 million
                                                                                                         was timely and completely accurate: Canadian
                                                                                                         foreign policy has been turned into a tool for
                                                                                                                                                             preferred approach in the Arctic,” the document
                                                                                                                                                             reads. “At the same time, we will never waver in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ernment refused the UAE’s request for more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   flight landings to the Gulf country’s national             100% bilingual.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 40 participants per cohort.
    Indeed, the government could look at the          Canadians donated to NGOs in support of Haiti.     domestic political gain. And the past year,         our commitment to protect our North.”                 carriers Emirates Airlines and Etihad Airways,
G20 summit as successful. The final G20 com-          At the International Donors’ Conference at the     they argue, was no exception.                           Mr. Harper was also quoted as saying that         over fear this could negatively impact Air
muniqué called on countries to halve deficits         UN on March 31, it announced $400 million for          “The events staged as part of the ‘inter-       Canada will work with its partners “where             Canada’s business.
by 2013 and stabilize government debt-to-GDP
ratios by 2016, a position the Harper govern-
                                                      humanitarian and reconstruction programs in
                                                      Haiti—over and above the $550 million already
                                                                                                         national year,’” says Jeremy Kinsman, former
                                                                                                         Canadian ambassador to the European Union
                                                                                                                                                             appropriate,” but called the protection and
                                                                                                                                                             promotion of Canada’s sovereignty in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The Camp Mirage closure left the govern-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ment scrambling to find an alternative base and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 22 different industries represented.
ment had advocated. And the bank tax was
largely dead on arrival.
                                                      pledged from 2006 to 2011.
                                                          “The government responded pretty well to
                                                                                                         and former high commissioner to the United
                                                                                                         Kingdom, “were not meant achieve substan-
                                                                                                                                                             Arctic “non-negotiable.”
                                                                                                                                                                 Ms. Lantsman said Canada is “taking its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   complicating the Forces’ exit from Afghanistan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   in 2011. Not only that, but the UAE Embassy                  3/2 men to women ratio.
    But as soon as the ink dried, there were          Haiti and continues to treat Haiti pretty seri-    tive results internationally, but to project back   fair place amongst Arctic nations on the world        in Ottawa announced at the beginning of
doubts that the deficit pledge would be fol-
lowed by all countries, prompting questions
                                                      ously,” Mr. Heinbecker said.
                                                          Meanwhile, last month’s announcement
                                                                                                         to a politically selective Canadian audience.”
                                                                                                             One example of such “electoral arithmetic,”
                                                                                                                                                             scene” and “building a strong Canadian North
                                                                                                                                                             is an essential part of our nation, an expres-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   November that Canadians will need a visa to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   travel to the country starting January.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 42 is the average age of the participant.                                                                     www.embamcgillhec.ca
about the summit’s value.
    “It was a summit that came too early to be
                                                      that Canada will maintain a military training
                                                      mission in Afghanistan after 2011 couldn’t
                                                                                                         he said, was when Canadian jets intercepted
                                                                                                         two Russian bombers that were approaching
                                                                                                                                                             sion of our deepest aspirations.”
                                                                                                                                                                 While it remains unclear what substantial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Experts have been very critical of Canada’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   attitude towards its largest trading partner in             57% are presidents, vice-presidents or GMs.
                                                      have been anything but an international win        Canadian airspace during the prime minister’s       effect the government’s announced Arctic for-         the Middle East, saying the government is jeop-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 18 years of work experience per participant.
able to do too much with the continuing after-
math of economic shock in Europe and fiscal           for the government.                                summer Arctic tour in August.                       eign policy had on Canada’s international repu-       ardizing an important bilateral relationship.
imbalances in trade between the US and China,             On Nov. 16, Defence Minister Peter                 The opposition criticized the government        tation, experts say the government is trying              “It was totally blown out of proportion,”                                                                                                                               Dial 1-514-340-6500 to reserve your seat for the
as well as the exchange rates,” Mr. Hampson said.
    In addition, while the government worked
                                                      MacKay, Mr. Cannon and CIDA Minister Bev
                                                      Oda announced that 950 troops will remain in
                                                                                                         for exaggerating the magnitude of the event
                                                                                                         and for trying to frighten Canadians, evoking
                                                                                                                                                             to gain points with the electorate by invoking
                                                                                                                                                             nationalism in sovereignty rhetoric.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   said Mr. Hampson. “It is something that should
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   have never escalated to what it became.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                720 years of cumulative experience per cohort.                                                                 upcoming information session near you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ottawa                Montreal
hard to keep development and climate change
off the G20 agenda, both issues figured promi-
                                                      Afghanistan until 2014 as part of a non-combat
                                                      military training mission in Kabul.
                                                                                                         a Cold War mentality.
                                                                                                             Mr. Heinbecker echoed these thoughts,
                                                                                                                                                                 Months before the release of the Arctic foreign
                                                                                                                                                             policy, Canada was involved in another Arctic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The main reason behind these events,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mr. Kinsman said, is that Canada has been                     40 world-renowned professors involved.                                                                        February 15     th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     January 18th
nently on the Seoul G20 itinerary. Some saw               Already a workhorse for NATO and the mis-      saying the government has “a continuing             controversy. The government decided to hold           displaying a relative lack of interest in inter-
this as an indication that the government
largely failed in having any lasting influence—
                                                      sion in Afghanistan, the announcement ended
                                                      months of speculation about the Conservative
                                                                                                         instinct to make wedge issues” and “to play to
                                                                                                         the wishes of various diasporas.” In the case
                                                                                                                                                             a conference with the foreign ministers of the
                                                                                                                                                             five Arctic coastal states (Canada, US, Denmark,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   nationalism.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The UAE dispute, the fight against the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 15 months program.                                                                                            Quebec City
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               March 30   th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Virtual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     January 12th
and may have, in fact, wasted some of the
country’s lagging political capital.
                                                      government’s post-2011 plans for the war-torn
                                                      country and was well-received by allies and
                                                                                                         of Russia, there is clearly a focus on Ukrainian-
                                                                                                         Canadians.
                                                                                                                                                             Norway and Russia) just hours before the open-
                                                                                                                                                             ing of a G8 foreign ministers meeting just outside
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   financial transaction tax at the G20, as well
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   as the Arctic controversy over the Russian                   650 hours of knowledge sharing.
    So were the G8 and G20 summits successes          the Afghan government.                                 Another example, Mr. Heinbecker said,           Ottawa in March. Those five countries are part of     bombers flight highlight Canadian positions
or failures? Difficult to tell, says former UN
ambassador Paul Heinbecker.
                                                          Both US officials and NATO Secretary-General
                                                      Anders Fogh Rasmussen praised Canada’s deci-
                                                                                                         is this government’s exclusively pro-Israel
                                                                                                         policy—a position largely echoed by the
                                                                                                                                                             the Arctic Council, an international forum created
                                                                                                                                                             in 1996 to foster co-operation amongst Arctic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   that “are almost always in someone else’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   face,” Mr. Kinsman said. This is particularly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1080 hours of self-development.
    “G8 and G20 meetings can’t be judged on           sion. So did other NATO members.                   Liberal Party.                                      states and indigenous populations.                    true of climate change.
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—12


Year in Review

A year of frozen aid, Muskoka and KAIROS
Lee Berthiaume                                                                                                                    If it hadn’t been for Mr. Kenney’s com-           Afghanistan and Haiti
                                                                                                                              ments, it’s likely the KAIROS story would have            On Nov. 16, CIDA Minister Bev Oda joined
                                                                                                                              died. The group had been informed weeks               her defence counterpart Peter MacKay and

I n a speech to state and business leaders
  in Davos, Switzerland, on Jan. 28, Prime
Minister Stephen Harper outlined his goals
                                                                                                                              earlier that its proposal for $7.1 million in new
                                                                                                                              program funding had been rejected by CIDA
                                                                                                                              without an explanation, prompting allegations
                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Minister Lawrence Cannon to reveal
                                                                                                                                                                                    the details of Canada’s post-2011 mission in
                                                                                                                                                                                    Afghanistan.
and priorities for Canada’s presidency of the                                                                                 of political interference. But without a smok-            While light on details, Ms. Oda said the
G8. Top of the list was championing maternal                                                                                  ing gun, it was fading into the background.           new effort will include Afghan children and
and child health.                                                                                                                 Mr. Kenney’s comments not only linked the         youth education and health needs as well
    The announcement was initially met with                                                                                   decision to the government’s controversial pro-       as provide humanitarian assistance and
applause, but it didn’t take long for red flags to                                                                            Israel policies, but also raised the spectre of       improving the rule of law and human rights.
go up. After much grilling and obfuscating, the                                                                               political retribution.                                    What Ms. Oda didn’t reveal was that
government revealed that it was excluding any                                                                                     Depending on what actually happened, the          Canadian support to the South Asian coun-
mention of abortion from the initiative. For a                                                                                potential ramifications of this story are fairly      try, which has been the top aid recipient for
time, even family planning was a question mark.                                                                               significant. Over the past year, Canada’s aid         years, will be cut in half.
    Meanwhile, there were allegations the ini-                                                                                agency has dramatically overhauled the way                As for current development efforts, the
tiative was an election tactic, while various                                                                                 it funds NGOs doing international develop-            $50-million Dahla Dam refurbishment is set
parts of the international development commu-                                                                                 ment work. CIDA will no longer be providing           to come under increased controversy. There
nity were pitted against each other. Then, at the                                                                             core funding, and instead has started a pro-          were already questions about a security
end of the day, other G8 members largely left                                                                                 cess of having NGOs bid on project proposals          firm with connections to the Karzai family



                                                                                                         Embassy File Photo
Canada holding the hat.                                                                                                       put forward by the agency.                            that won a huge contract associated with
    In many ways, the story of the Muskoka                                                                                        Going hand in hand with this, the government      Canada’s largest-ever aid project.
Initiative on Maternal and Child Health is reflec-                                                                            has largely severed all relations with organiza-          Those questions increased after US diplo-
tive of the past year in Canadian international                                                                               tions that do advocacy work, at least those like      matic cables released by Wikileaks showed
development: high hopes and some successes                                                                                    KAIROS and the Canadian Council of International      the project has the potential to stoke inter-
colliding with confusion, behind-the-scenes          CIDA Minister Bev Oda.                                                   Co-operation, which has been critical of the gov-     tribal animosity in the region. Now that firm
changes and questionable political motives.                                                                                   ernment’s recent aid policy changes.                  has been blacklisted by the US.
                                                     capped at 2010/11 levels, but “will be reas-                                 The government believes Canadian aid                  With Canada set to quit Kandahar at the
Muskoka Initiative eruption                          sessed alongside all other government pri-                               spending should fall in line with government          end of next year, it’s unclear what will hap-
    Shortly after announcing Canada would            orities on a year-by-year basis.”                                        priorities and policies, and that vaccinating chil-   pen to the project. Meanwhile, an effort to
champion maternal and child health at the                 In the budget lock-up, Finance Department                           dren, getting students into vocational schools        build or refurbish 50 schools has made only
G8, the inevitable follow-up question arrived:       officials indicated Official Development                                 so they can get jobs, providing food aid and sup-     slow progress, while Canada failed to eradi-
Nearly 15 per cent maternal deaths in develop-       Assistance levels as a percentage of GDP                                 porting small-scale farmers is the best use of its    cate polio in the country by the end of 2009.
ing countries are attributed to unsafe abortion,     will drop from 0.32 to 0.26 over the next few                            dollars. It also believes in competitive bidding.     For those keeping track, those were Canada’s
and up to 40 per cent of maternal deaths can be      years. That would put Canada behind almost                                   The fear is that the government is trying         three “signature projects” for Afghanistan.
prevented with access to family planning, yet        every other OECD country in terms of per-                                to turn NGOs into tools for its foreign poli-             As Afghanistan begins to fade from the
the Conservative government’s base strongly          centage of GDP spent on aid.                                             cy, as instruments for eliminating poverty,           limelight, Haiti appears ready to break into
opposes abortion and, to a lesser degree, con-            The government has stated that its focus                            improving human rights and proposing new,             the forefront. That, at least, was the predic-
traception. So would the maternal and child          is on improving the use of Canadian aid, not                             better ways of doing aid.                             tion at the beginning of the year when Canada
health initiative include those two aspects?         simply throwing more money at the problem.                                   Either way, the past year has seen a sig-         was one of the first to help in the aftermath of
    After dancing around the question for            It says simply measuring inputs and not out-                             nificant shake-up in the relationship between         the devastating Jan. 12 earthquake.
weeks, Ms. Oda and Foreign Affairs Minister          puts—which has admittedly been a major                                   Canadian NGOs and CIDA.                                   The Canadian military was deployed with-
Lawrence Cannon confirmed separately                 problem for CIDA over the decades—is a                                                                                         in hours, a donors’ conference was orga-
that neither would be part of the initiative—        terrible way to operate.                                                 Israel and Palestinian refugees                       nized in Montreal, and the Canadian public
prompting an outcry of massive proportions.               The argument from others is that Canada                                 In January, then-Treasury Board presi-            pledged $220 million. This was matched by
In less than a week, the government, led by the      can and should be doing both at the same                                 dent Vic Toews surprised many when he                 the government, which threw in some more
prime minister, was saying family planning was       time, especially as there are only five                                  announced during a trip to Jerusalem that             immediate humanitarian aid money, bringing
on the table. But the Conservatives refused to       years left to 2015, when the Millennium                                  Canada was no longer going to provide core            Canada’s contribution after the earthquake
budge on abortion, even after a public rebuke        Development Goals are to be achieved.                                    budget support to the UN agency that sup-             to $400 million, which was in addition to the
from US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.               Meanwhile, there are indications the gov-                           ports Palestinian refugees.                           $550 million already pledged.
    Meanwhile, the NGO community in Canada           ernment’s decision to direct the majority                                    In practical terms, that meant Canada was             Yet since then, there has been mounting
was split between those organizations poised         of CIDA’s bilateral—and now NGO—funding                                  no longer giving money on an ongoing basis            anger and concern over the slow pace of
to benefit from the Muskoka Initiative and           on 20 focus countries has started moving                                 to help UNRWA pay the salaries of its 30,000          funding distribution and progress in rebuild-
those who were going to be excluded from             ahead, though with mixed results.                                        staff members, build schools and health clin-         ing the Caribbean nation.
such a major focus of Canadian aid. There                 Money has certainly been largely pulled                             ics, and provide text books, medical equip-               Canada is far from the only culprit, but as
were also some groups that argued going after        from Kenya, Rwanda and a number of other                                 ment and other necessary supplies.                    the second-largest donor after the US, home
the government over abortion would hurt its          countries that were dropped as aid partners.                                 Those familiar with the organization, how-        to a large Haitian diaspora, and purportedly
enthusiasm for supporting the initiative.            And some countries, such as Mozambique,                                  ever, felt the move was a deliberate first step       trying to take a leadership role on the file,
    By the time the actual G8 summit rolled          Mali, Bolivia, Haiti and Afghanistan, have cer-                          towards disengaging from UNRWA and, by                many feel the government’s words haven’t
around, things had settled down in the face of       tainly benefitted from this increased focus.                             default, the Palestinian cause.                       been followed by sufficient action.
the government’s refusal to budge, and there              However, other “focus countries,” such as                               Around the same time, Rights & Democracy
were high hopes that billions would be pledged.      Peru, Colombia and Ukraine, have only seen                               president Rémy Beauregard died suddenly of            Revamp models
But aside from Canada’s $1.1 billion, most of        incremental increases in aid. It’s possible that                         a heart attack following an acrimonious meet-             The Harper government’s treatment of
the other G8 members, struggling to cut their        the next year will see more programming as                               ing in which several internationally-renowned         Canadian international development—and
recession-accumulated debts, gave sparingly.         projects in non-focus countries run their course,                        board members resigned. The tragedy opened            CIDA in particular—was credited for a sudden
    Unperturbed, Canada has moved ahead              but there’s no guarantee, especially given that                          the door onto a battle that was being fought          proliferation of plans on revamping the coun-
with implementing the initiative largely on its      these countries are largely middle-income econ-                          at the federally-funded organization.                 try’s aid agency through the year.
own. It has said 80 per cent of the money will be    omies that have very different needs from                                    Amidst allegations former staff members               First, former Canadian ambassadors Gordon
directed to 10 sub-Saharan African countries.        sub-Saharan Africa, where food security efforts                          had used funding improperly were charges that         Smith and Barry Carin presented a new report,
Ms. Oda has visited several of those nations,        and the maternal and child health initiative are                         Harper-appointed board members were trying to         then another was produced for the Walter
and the first calls for proposal have come out.      expected to be implemented.                                              turn the organization into a vehicle for their neo-   and Duncan Gordon Foundation. In it, author
                                                          At the same time, a number of potential                             conservative views, particularly when it came to      Nilima Gulrajani looked at recent reforms
Commitments and demands                              trade partners have sought to predicate eco-                             Israel. Senior staff members were fired, lawsuits     undertaken by the British and Norwegian gov-
    When April 1, 2009 rang in the 2009/10 fis-      nomic pacts on receiving assistance, be it devel-                        have been launched and are still in works, and        ernments to revamp their own aid efforts, then
cal year, the Conservative government proudly        opmental or technical. Mongolia, Morocco and                             the board has dragged its feet on a promise to        applied those lessons to Canada.
stated that it had fulfilled a pledge made by the    the 15-nation Caribbean Community have made                              come clean on what actually happened.                     The McLeod Group put together a 15-point
previous Paul Martin government in 2005 to           intonations in this regard. As Canada continues                              Meanwhile, the International Development          proposal that focused on a full-fledged interna-
double aid to Africa. It has repeated that boast     to pursue free trade and foreign investment pro-                         Research Centre was caught up in its own              tional development department with a legislat-
for nearly a year and a half now, but repeatedly     tection agreements with developing countries,                            lawsuit early this year after abruptly termi-         ed mandate and a minister at the Cabinet table.
refused to set out its long-term plan for Africa.    it’s likely this trend will continue.                                    nating two projects with an Israeli-based             Finally, Liberal CIDA critic Glen Pearson com-
    However, the government did lay out its                                                                                   NGO doing work on Palestinian rights. In the          pleted an extensive 16-month study with the
plans for overall Canadian aid levels in this        The KAIROS example                                                       end, IDRC reached a settlement with Mada              idea of creating a new, revitalized aid agency.
year’s budget, which was released in March. The          During an anti-semitism conference on Dec.                           al-Carmel, which was covered by a gag order.              What was particularly telling was that while
government promised to put another $364 mil-         16, 2009, Immigration Minister Jason Kenney                                  When taken with Mr. Kenney’s statement            there was increasing debate about revamping
lion into the International Assistance Envelope      linked the government’s decision to cut ties                             about KAIROS, a definite pattern has emerged.         CIDA and finding a model that would be more
to meet the Liberal-era commitment to double         between CIDA and the ecumenical NGO KAIROS                               If nothing else, it’s clear that Canada has largely   efficient, accountable and dynamic, the govern-
Canadian aid from 2001/02 levels to $5 billion.      with its purported support for a boycott, divest-                        detached itself from what many saw as its lead-       ment was not part of the conversation.
    However, aid spending will not only be           ment and sanctions campaign targeting Israel.                            ership position on Palestinian refugee issues.                       lee@embassymag.ca
                                                                                                                                                                        EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—13


                                                                                                                                   Year in Review

Missing the energy, climate balance
                                                                                                                                    With that in mind, the question of
Carl Meyer




                                                                                                                                                                                  Breathe
                                                                                                                                whether the government protects its larg-
                                                                                                                                est export, crude oil, above all other policy
                                                                                                                                considerations, seems, at the end of 2010,
‘A    good neighbour lends you a cup of
      sugar. A great neighbour supplies you
with 1.4 million barrels of oil per day.”
                                                                                                                                to be a strong “yes,” starting with the fact it
                                                                                                                                has no regulations in place to curb oil-sand
   That is the quote of 2010 when it comes                                                                                      emissions growth.



                                                                                                                                                                                         better.
to the intersection of environment, natural                                                                                         The government did make several envi-
resources and Canadian foreign policy. The                                                                                      ronmental protection decisions throughout
phrase was part of an Alberta ad blitz in                                                                                       the year. Then-environment minister Jim
the US over the summer that promoted the                                                                                        Prentice expanded the national parks sys-
province’s oil sands; it is also indicative of                                                                                  tem. House Leader John Baird announced an




                                                                                                                                                                                         Live
Canadian lobbying efforts in the United States                                                                                  Arctic marine park in Lancaster Sound.
and around the world. At its essence, it raises                                                                                     As well, Canada aligned itself with the
the question: How much of the Harper gov-                                                                                       US on establishing progressively stronger
ernment’s policies are focused on promoting                                                                                     tailpipe emission standards for passenger
and protecting Canada’s oil and gas sector?                                                                                     cards and light trucks through to 2016, and
   As it turns out, a lot. Canada spent 2010                                                                                    is looking to regulate heavy trucks. It has


                                                                                                                                                                                         better.
lobbying Americans to buy its oil. It built a                                                                                   also established a renewable fuel content
network in the US and devised a communica-                                                                                      requirement of five per cent in gasoline
tions strategy. It promoted itself as a “clean                                                                                  that will come into effect this month and
energy superpower” whenever it could.                                                                                           jacked up regulations on coal-fired electric-
   The government says it is a responsible                                                                                      ity generation.
                                                                                                           Embassy File Photo
steward of the economy, expanding fed-                                                                                              Then Mr. Prentice left political life on a
eral parks, establishing tailpipe emission                                                                                      high note in November, moving to the ano-
standards, regulating renewable fuel con-                                                                                       nymity and fabulous wealth of a Toronto           Green Eye Home Cleaning offers:
tent, and shutting down coal-fired electricity.                                                                                 Bay Street boardroom. The decision came
But environmentalists continued to hammer                                                                                       weeks before the Cancun climate change            Q   Carpet & upholstery cleaning
                                                     Former environment minister Jim Prentice.                                  conference. Mr. Baird, who was environment
away at the country while foreign govern-
ments held their tongues barely in check.                                                                                       minister in 2007 and 2008, took over the job,     Q   Regular home cleaning
   In 2010, the environmental minister quit,             In a way, none of this is surprising: A                                but continues to serve as House leader.
the climate change negotiator was absent             search on the communications logs of the                                       That the government did not consider the
for almost half a year, departmental climate         lobbyist registry shows that the top petro-                                file important enough to immediately name
change work was kept quiet, and Environment          leum companies by market capitalization                                    a permanent minister smacked of another           Q
Canada did not act on its own recommenda-            in Canada have been in the politicians’ ears
                                                     all of 2010. Together the companies have
                                                                                                                                refusal to name an environmental player for
                                                                                                                                months. Canada did not have a climate change
                                                                                                                                                                                  Q
tions. And Canada was again given Fossil
Awards at a UN climate change conference.            hundreds of registrations in the database                                  negotiator until well into 2010, as Michael       Q   Office cleaning
   It’s worth keeping in mind that projec-           meeting with top federal officials, ministers                              Martin, who had been Canada’s negotiator
tions of oil production in Canada are about          and even the Prime Minister.                                               since 2008, got internally promoted in March.     Q
to launch into space as more and more oil                In 2010, the government liked to call itself a                             An Environment Canada assistant dep-
sands projects come online, with no plan to          “clean energy superpower,” a tagline that was                              uty minister temporarily filled his job for
curb their emissions in sight.                       often repeated, but was lost on confused CEOs                              five months until the government found US
                                                     at the September World Energy Conference in                                Embassy diplomat Guy Saint-Jacques.
Thirsty customers                                    Montreal—demonstrating to critics that the                                     Canada also endured another year of
    All through 2010, there was clear evi-           line was more hype than substance.                                         naming and shaming by global leaders on
dence the government was directly lobbying               Despite this, the Canadian lobbying efforts                            the world stage for Canada. Scientific com-
America to continue buying Canadian oil, that        appear to be paying off, with several US politi-                           munities and NGOs chastised Canada again
it was suppressing departmental information          cians travelling to the oil sands in 2010 and                              for its “obstructionist” approach to global
on climate change, and that it was command-          proclaiming their importance to the US and                                 climate treaty talks. Canada won first, sec-
ing its federal bureaucracy to avoid making          appreciation for their continued exports to                                ond and third prize in the Fossil Awards
any big moves on the environmental front.            the US, and with the American Petroleum                                    at Cancun, this year’s UN climate change
    In August, Embassy examined the                  Institute now preparing an ad campaign to                                  conference. The Conservative-controlled
extensive natural resources network that             support a controversial Keystone XL pipeline                               Senate of Canada dumped a climate change
Canadian Ambassador to the US Gary Doer              next year that would run from Alberta to                                   accountability bill that had been approved
and Alberta provincial representative Gary           Texas.                                                                     by the House, an unprecedented move.
Mar had built. In 2010, the US hosted a large            What is less clear is the effect the lobby-                                And at Cancun, Canada linked with Russia
number of talks on climate change and ener-          ing has had in Europe. At the World Energy                                 and Japan in opposing the binding targets
gy, and Mr. Mar and Mr. Doer were there the          Conference, the presentations made by                                      of Kyoto in favour of the non-binding over-
whole time. Some suggested the energy file is        European scientists and officials contrasted                               tones of the Copenhagen Accord, a move
by far the biggest issue the Canadian-US dip-        sharply to what global energy companies                                    critics derided as shirking the country’s own
lomatic network deals with, and consumes             and CEOs were saying.                                                      responsibilities. But the government claimed
the most personnel and resources.                        It’s clear Europeans look at the oil sands as                          the adoption of Copenhagen a success, say-
    The strongest evidence of this network came      dirty. The EU has some of the most stringent                               ing unlike Kyoto, it was the only agreement
in November, when the Climate Action Network         environmental regulations in the world and                                 able to pull in large emitters like the US.
provided documents to the media obtained             half a billion people to hold their governments                                There were more environmental questions
through Access to Information that demonstrat-       to account. It was close to slapping emissions                             raised. An analysis by Embassy near the end
ed Environment Canada, Natural Resources             regulations on oil from the oil sands until a                              of the year demonstrated that departmental
Canada and the Department of Foreign Affairs         last-ditch lobbying effort prolonged the effort                            climate change work is being kept under the
co-ordinated with Alberta officials and the oil      until next year. The EU oil sands fight isn’t over.                        radar by the federal government. Behind the
and gas sector to lobby Americans to promote                                                                                    scenes, federal public servants and the aca-
the oil sands and play down environmental            Climate change cad?                                                        demic researchers who aid them study and
protection—and have been doing so for years.             Canada has the world’s second-largest                                  prepare for climate change eventualities, but
    The documents show the government devel-         proven reserves after Saudi Arabia. Crude oil                              the government says these reports are not
oped a communications strategy and briefed           is the biggest Canadian export. A fifth of US                              official policy and rarely champions them—
ministers to gird for a fight against “media         oil is Canadian. Energy makes up a quarter of                              nor does it have a coherent strategy in the
campaigns” and foreign legislation that would        Alberta’s economy.                                                         upper echelons of power to tie it all together.
label oil sands as dirty. A Natural Resources            Those are telling statistics when compared                                 As well, the environment commission-
policy adviser even wrote in an email that the       against the environmental ones. Emissions                                  er tabled a report in December chastising
oil sands were “one of the high priority files for   from the oil sands have tripled since 1990,                                Environment Canada for not acting on its own
the federal government.”                             even though a federal poll showed a majority                               recommendations to increase the monitor-
    The main thrust of the strategy was              of Canadians want to shut down the projects                                ing of oil sands pollution in nearby national
to counter what the government saw as                until the question of emissions can be figured                             parks. A departmental monitoring program
a growing tide of environmental concerns             out. The government continued to be unable
                                                     or unwilling to stop the growth of green-
                                                                                                                                was still being considered. The report served
                                                                                                                                to demonstrate the glacial pace of environ-
                                                                                                                                                                                     Office (613) 435-0589
from US legislators and even the public.
The documents make clear the government              house gas emissions, which have risen by 30                                ment work in the federal government.               Emergencies (613) 263-2069
understands that most Canadians dislike the          per cent since 1990. Its commitments under                                     Canada ends 2010 by burying its environ-
oil sands and want to limit its pollution in         Kyoto were to reduce Canadian emissions by                                 ment file even deeper beneath its natural         greeneyehomecleaning.com
the country.                                         six per cent.                                                              resources file. Will 2011 bring change?
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—14


Year in Review

Immigration, refugees systems get overhaul
                                                                                                                                                                          sultants to charge a fee for their services
Anca Gurzu                                                                                                                                                                before a person files their application with
                                                                                                                                                                          Citizenship and Immigration Canada—
                                                                                                                                                                          which is when most problems occur. Unlike
I mmigrants and refugees were a contentious
  debate topic on Parliament Hill in 2010.
The year ends with the passing of major
                                                                                                                                                                          lawyers and certified immigration consul-
                                                                                                                                                                          tants, the current law allows individuals
reforms to Canada’s refugee system, while a                                                                                                                               to give advice and help prepare immigra-
controversial human smuggling bill remains                                                                                                                                tion applications for a fee without being
in limbo. On the immigration side, the gov-                                                                                                                               regulated.
ernment brought in significant changes to                                                                                                                                     Experts considered this to be a major
the temporary foreign workers program,                                                                                                                                    loophole in Canada’s immigration system,
while a bill that would close the loophole                                                                                                                                which saw the so-called “ghost” consultants
for crooked immigration consultants is now                                                                                                                                charging prospective immigrants thousands
before the Senate.                                                                                                                                                        of dollars to fill out applications, which
                                                                                                                                                                          sometimes includes misleading or even false
Reformed refugee system                                                                                                                                                   information.
    It is safe to say that passing Bill C-11 is                                                                                                                               Bill C-35 would also give the minister
Immigration Minister Jason Kenney’s biggest                                                                                                                               the authority to designate a body to
win this year. Although experts had been call-                                                                                                                            govern immigration consultants. In 2004,
ing for reforms to Canada’s refugee system for                                                                                                                            the government created the indepen-
years, the changes did not come easily and                                                                                                                                dent, not-for-profit Canadian Society of
were mired in expected political drama.                                                                                                                                   Immigration Consultants, but that orga-
    Just a day before introducing C-11 in                                                                                                                                 nization has been criticized by a House
March, Mr. Kenney announced the govern-                                                                                                                                   Immigration committee, the Canadian Bar
ment’s intention to help resettle 2,500 more                                                                                                                              Association and many other groups for
UN-selected refugees living in camps per year.                                                                                                                            failing to regulate its own membership.
But a statement released that day made it clear                                                                                                                           By making it a federal entity, the new
the good news story would only come true                                                                                                                                  body will be more accountable to its
once Parliament passed the proposed refugee                                                                                                                               members and the public.
reforms. Opposition critics and refugee experts                                                                                                                               But despite bringing in these much-await-
quickly accused Mr. Kenney of blackmail.                                                                                                                                  ed changes to the regulation of immigra-
    Initially, opposition critics, refugee advo-                                                                                                                          tion consultants, critics noted that many
cates and even the UN High Commission                                                                                                                                     unscrupulous consultants operate outside




                                                                                                                                                     Embassy File Photo
for Refugees expressed concern with C-11.                                                                                                                                 Canada’s border where this government has
There were a number of reasons for this.                                                                                                                                  no authority. Trying to convey that this
    One of the most significant elements of                                                                                                                               is also a concern for the government, Mr.
the new legislation was the creation of the                                                                                                                               Kenney travelled to India this year, aiming
Refugee Appeal Division at the Immigration                                                                                                                                to increase information sharing on the issue
and Refugee Board, which would allow failed        day-by-day coverage of the incoming MV          countries at the end of that period if condi-                          with officials.
refugee claimants to appeal a negative deci-       Sun Sea, with both Mr. Kenney and Public        tions there permit.                                                        Although C-35 will not eliminate all the
sion. This was long called for by advocates.       Safety Minister Vic Toews repeatedly warn-          The Liberals have said they will vote                              issues around fraudulent immigration con-
    However, the most contentious element          ing Canadians that the migrants might           against the bill at Second Reading as they                             sultants, many observers say it is a step in
was that claimants coming from so-called           represent a serious security concern and        are concerned it contravenes international                             the right direction.
“designated countries of origin” would go          accusing the Tamils of exploiting Canada’s      law and the Canadian Charter of Rights
through an accelerated determination pro-          generous refugee system—an argument Mr.         and Freedoms. This followed a similar argu-                            New foreign workers regulations
cess. These are “safe” countries that have a       Kenney also often made in the debate            ment that had been made by numerous refu-                                  The government announced at the end
robust human rights record and offer strong        about claimants coming from the so-called       gee groups and experts over what quickly                               of August new regulations to shield foreign
state protection. The purpose of the list was      safe countries.                                 became a very controversial bill.                                      workers from exploitation. Although this is
to address massive spikes of refugee claims            Talk of human smuggling, and later human        Opposition critics have gone so far as to                          the first set of regulations that could hold
from countries that do not normally produce        trafficking, became a daily occurrence—with     accuse the government of trying to reverse                             employers accountable for their treatment
refugees.                                          some observers accusing the government          the efficiency of the newly-reformed refugee                           of foreign employees, the announcement was
    Initially, there were concerns that such       of creating an unnecessary panic among the      system through this proposed legislation.                              not controversy-free.
claimants would not have the right to appeal.      population to push through more draconian           As was the case with C-11, refugees soon                               Employers who are “found to have pro-
In addition, the original bill did not contain     refugee laws.                                   became the apparent targets of political                               vided wages, working conditions or an occu-
any clear description of what designated               In the aftermath, Mr. Kenney took a trip    gains. Mr. Kenney said the government needs                            pation that was not substantially the same
countries would be.                                to Australia, which has been struggling         to act to see the public regain its confidence                         as what was offered” in the original job
    Mr. Kenney managed to find some com-           with its own boats of smuggled refugees         in Canada’s immigration and refugee sys-                               offer will be banned from hiring any foreign
promises, such as allowing claimants from          at its shores, to see what lessons Canada       tems—a confidence, he said took a tumble                               workers for two years. While a provision
safe countries the right to appeal, and provid-    could draw from that country’s policies.        after the Tamil boat’s arrival. Mr. Kenney                             is also included that allows employers to
ing a definition of what those safe countries      The thought that Canada could copy some         accused the Liberals of putting ideology                               justify any wage changes, immigration law-
would be. At one point, news broke the gov-        their policies created panic among refugee      ahead of common sense in their decision to                             yers worried those justification are highly
ernment had reached a deal on C-11 with the        advocates here since Australia has been         vote against the bill.                                                 interpretable, putting a lot of discretion in
Liberal opposition critic behind the scenes.       known for its controversial asylum-seeker           The Liberals, for their part, have accused                         the hands of officials. Specific regulations
But then the Liberals announced they would         detention policies.                             Mr. Kenney of trying to create a wedge issue                           are yet to be drafted.
vote against the bill. In a show of compro-            In September, a month after the Sun         for political gain and for purposely mislead-                              Besides the two-year ban, employers who
mise, Mr. Kenney pushed through, securing          Sea’s arrival, government officials             ing the public. At the time Embassy went to                            are found to have breached their commit-
the support of the NDP and Bloc Québécois          announced that former Canadian spy chief        press, the future of C-49 remained in limbo,                           ment to foreign workers will also be placed
instead by fine-tuning the reforms. As a           Ward Elcock would travel on a special mis-      since no date had been set for the vote and                            on a list that will be publicly available on the
result, Bill C-11 received Royal Assent at the     sion to Sri Lanka, Thailand and other coun-     the House was set to rise soon.                                        Citizenship and Immigration Canada website.
end of June. Mr. Kenney repeatedly said the        tries in the region to share information and        Nevertheless, Mr. Kenney said he is sure                               Lawyers have quickly termed this a
final version of C-11 is an example that com-      try to co-ordinate efforts to combat human      human smuggling will be a key issue in the                             “blacklist,” which they say could easily lead
promise is indeed attainable on the Hill.          smuggling.                                      next federal election, prompting some to                               to legal actions against the government. This
    The new legislation will only come into            At the end of October, after months of      speculate whether the expected vote will be                            is the first time the department has imple-
force at the end of 2011. Mexican and Czech        speculation, the government finally took the    a no-confidence one.                                                   mented such a list.
officials are hoping once that happens,            plunge and introduced Bill C-49, which it                                                                                  The second major change in the regula-
Canada will lift visa requirements it imposed      described as an effort to clamp down on         ‘Ghost’ consultants                                                    tions introduces a four-year limit on work
on them in July 2009 in light of a surge of        human smuggling. Critics, however, say it is       On the immigration side, Mr. Kenney                                 permits, followed by another period of four
refugee claims from those countries . The          an attempt to clamp down refugees.              announced early in the year plans to resolve                           years during which foreign employees will
two countries, as well as Hungary, were in             Under the proposed legislation, smug-       a long-standing issue plaguing newcomers                               not be allowed to work in Canada. Experts
fact been at the centre of Mr. Kenney’s jus-       glers will face increased minimum fines         to Canada: Fraudulent immigration consul-                              say the four-year limit unfairly favours high-
tification for the need of a safe country list.    and jail terms. However, the bill will also     tants. The year ends with Bill C-35 before the                         skilled foreign workers who apply for perma-
                                                   see claimants falling under the so-called       Senate. This is a piece of proposed legisla-                           nent residency.
Human smuggling                                    “irregular arrival” category spend up to a      tion that casts a wider net of regulations over                            Since the regulations come into force only
   Not long after the refugee reforms              year in detention while officials process       the profession, but also seeks to replace the                          in April 2011, next year will highlight both
passed, news broke that a boat carrying            their claims, and accepted refugees in the      highly-criticized body governing immigra-                              whether the new measures will be followed
almost 500 Tamil refugee claimants was             category would remain under temporary           tion consultants.                                                      by increased efficiency or whether the crit-
heading to Canada as part of a complex             protection in Canada for five years, with the      One of the main provisions of the bill                              ics’ fears were justifiable.
human-smuggling operation. There was a             possibility of being returned to their home     is to make it illegal for unregulated con-                                         agurzu@embassymag.ca
                                                                                                                                                   EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—15


                                                                                                                                                                                       Opinion

Smuggling rhetoric masks security priority
                                                     host asylum seekers as part of Australia’s       on security—have delegitimized humanitar-               sions of offshore processing and interception
HEATHER L. JOHNSON                                   border-security strategy.                        ian concerns in policy discussions. Indeed,             measures are reported to have begun. Jason
                                                         These offshore agreements have been          humanitarian concerns are presented as                  Kenney, Canada’s immigration minister, has
                                                     complemented by provisions for interception      undermining security considerations by mak-             announced increased co-operation with



T
         he MV Sun Sea entered Canadian ter-         within Australia’s regional security strategy.   ing unauthorized migration “attractive.”                states in East Asia designed to pre-empt
         ritorial waters off the coast of British    To stop unauthorized migration before asylum         Further, by crossing borders without permis-        human smuggling to Canada. This co-opera-
         Columbia on Aug. 13. The arrival of the     seekers arrive, a series of regional initiatives sion, undocumented migrants are seen to be              tion has seemingly resulted in the arrest of
         ship and its “human cargo” of 490 Tamil     aimed at human smuggling have been initiated, evading “legal” selection processes and are there-         more than 150 Tamil migrants in Thailand.
asylum seekers ended a gruelling, months-long        both bilaterally and in regional fora.           fore cast as potential terrorist or criminal threats.       Both here in Canada and in Australia,
journey from Sri Lanka and sparked a fierce              Of particular importance is Australia’s          This shift towards an evasion of responsibil-       much of the rhetoric that surrounds restric-
debate about the effectiveness, and appropriate-     relationship with Indonesia, wherein asylum      ity and an emphasis on control is becoming              tive “anti-smuggling” measures is justified in
ness, of Canadian refugee policy.                    seekers are to be prevented from Indonesian      more present in both Canadian public debate             terms of “protecting” the asylum seeker from
    Comparisons with Australia were almost           shores. Instead they are intercepted and pro-    and in policy discussions.                              exploitation by smuggling. This discourse
immediate after the arrival of the Sun Sea           vided with food, accommodation and emergen-          Bill C-49, the Preventing Human Smugglers           allows border security to find apparent justi-
as both commentators and public officials            cy care by the International Organization for    from Abusing Canada’s Immigration System                fication in humanitarian considerations.
asked whether Canada should look towards             Migration at Australia’s expense.                                 Act parallels many Australian              However, it fails entirely to recognize
Australia as a policy model.                             Australia also returns inter-                                 policy initiatives designed to         that tightened border security, and the
    However, I argue that Australia’s pursuit        cepted boats to Indonesian                                        emphasize deterrence and               resulting diminishing access to asylum pro-
of offshore processing and interception, facil-      territorial waters. Although                                      prevention. Introduced on Oct.         cedures, is often what compels migrants to
itated by both bilateral and regional relation-      Indonesia views this as a viola-                                  21, the bill allows the minister       turn to smuggling in the first place.
ships, has undermined the international refu-        tion of Australia’s obligations, the                              to designate as “irregular” the            These policies represent what legal
gee regime. The Australian model focuses on          Australian claim is that Indonesia                                arrival of a group of persons,         scholar Savitri Taylor characterizes as the
the criminalization of human smuggling and           is the first country of asylum to                                 who would then be subject to           “problematic objective of not providing pro-
emphasizes border control and security over          any undocumented migrant seek- The MV Sun Sea.                    special rules.                         tection to any asylum seeker except when
humanitarian considerations.                         ing protection, thereby deflecting                                    Of particular note is the man-     no other alternative exists.” This fundamen-
    The consequence is criminalization of the        any Australian responsibility.                   datory detention of designated persons without          tally undermines the provisions of interna-
migrants themselves, with their asylum claims            The Pacific Solution and bilateral rela-     review for 12 months. Rights to appeal are              tional refugee law, casting asylum seekers
delegitimized based on their mode of travel          tionships cultivated by Australia reflect an     extremely limited, and individuals cannot make          as criminals and prioritizing border security
rather than by the substantive facts of their        unbalanced relationship, characterized by        an application for either permanent residence           over protection obligations.
case, as is required by international refugee law.   Australia’s provision of needed assistance in    or for a humanitarian and compassionate visa                Framing the debate as we have been
    Migration control is the overwhelming            exchange for containment and interception of     for five years. These measures parallel the strict      masks the erosion of humanitarian law and
objective of Australian policy, and neighbour-       undocumented migrants.                           provisions within Australian policy, and crimi-         responsibility in the name of a vaguely deter-
ing states are expected to co-operate as active          The Rudd Labour government cancelled         nalize and punish the migrants themselves.              mined threat, and punishes asylum seekers.
partners in preventing unauthorized migration.       the Pacific Solution in 2007, but increased          The Canadian Council for Refugees and                   Heather Johnson is a PhD candidate at
    After 2001, under the so-called “Pacific         boat arrivals in the winter of 2010 has led      other agencies have all expressed deep con-             McMaster University. This op-ed is based on the
Solution,” asylum seekers were relocated to          Rudd’s successor, Julia Gillard, to announce     cern that the new legislation punishes refu-            latest Canada-Asia Agenda Intercepting boat
offshore detention and processing centres            that she will be revitalizing certain (as yet    gees and unconstitutionally limits access to            arrivals: What the Australian policy model
in “declared countries” such as Papua New            undefined) aspects of the policy.                Canada’s asylum system.                                 means for Canadian Asylum Policy, published
Guinea and Nauru. In exchange for develop-               The ideas that underscore the Australian         There have also been increased efforts in           by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada.
ment assistance, these countries agreed to           model—control, deterrence and an emphasis        interception and prevention. Quiet discus-                           editor@embassymag.ca




Non-proliferation meets non-partisanship
                                                         The idea is strongly supported by               similar meetings with Michael Ignatieff, Jack        world. In May 2010, the Non-Proliferation
DOUGLAS ROCHE                                        UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, the               Layton and Gilles Duceppe.                           Treaty Review Conference put a Nuclear
                                                     European Parliament and Mayors for Peace,               Senator Segal’s motion, introduced               Weapons Convention on the international
                                                     which includes 4,000 mayors around the              on March 23, started moving through the              agenda and affirmed that “all states need to



H
           ansard recorded the event in the          world. Three-quarters of the states at the          Senate and debate was concluded on June              make special efforts to establish the neces-
           House of Commons under “Routine           UN have already voted for negotiations to           2. There the matter rested over the sum-             sary framework to achieve and maintain a
           Proceedings,” but there was noth-         commence, but the nuclear powers and                mer. Thomson decided that to ask an MP to            world without nuclear weapons.” Also, the
           ing routine about it. For the first       Western states have largely been opposed.           introduce the item in the House as a private         latest NATO strategic document pledged
time in the history of Canada’s Parliament,              Thomson, who enlisted the aid of Nobel          member’s motion risked burial in House               support for nuclear disarmament and stat-
both the House of Commons and Senate                 laureate John Polanyi and myself, was               machinery. Opting to try the unanimous               ed: “We are resolved to seek a safer world
united in a motion calling on the Canadian           surprised at the strong support from the            consent route, he enlisted the support of            for all and to create the conditions for a
government to engage in negotiations for a           Order of Canada recipients. Soon he had             Conservative MP Scott Armstrong, who                 world without nuclear weapons.”
legal ban on all nuclear weapons.                    100 signatures, then it jumped to 200, and          had shown interest in the nuclear disarma-               Canada so far has been sluggish in nuclear
    At 4.50 p.m. on Dec. 7, NDP MP Bill Siksay       early in 2010, the number soared above 500.         ment subject, to secure a meeting with               disarmament work and has never yet voted
sought the unanimous consent of the House            Celebrities galore joined: Jean Vanier, Karen       Conservative House Leader John Baird.                at the UN for negotiations on a legal ban on
for a five-part motion, which had at its heart:      Kain, John Turner, Margot Franssen, Michel               On Nov. 24, Thomson brought fellow              nuclear weapons to begin. The joint motion,
“encourage the Government of Canada                  Bastarache, Margaret Atwood, Roméo                  Order of Canada members Ernie Regehr and             which also urged a major Canadian diplomatic
to engage in negotiations for a Nuclear              Dallaire, Pierre Jeanniot, Colette Boky,            Laurent Isabelle with him to seek Baird’s sup-       initiative, has at least got the government’s
Weapons Convention as proposed by the                Norman Jewison, Avie Bennett, Alex Colville,        port for the government to accede to unani-          attention. An expert seminar in Ottawa next
United Nations Secretary-General.” In less           Frédéric Back, Christopher Plummer, Alanis          mous consent. Baird promised to take up the          spring, led by the nuclear abolitionist leader
than 30 seconds, the motion was adopted.             Obamsawin, Jock Murray, Angela Hewitt, A.J          issue with his Cabinet colleagues and indicat-       Bev Delong, will provide the government with
    On June 2, the Senate had unanimously            Diamond, Liona Boyd.                                ed Armstrong would introduce the motion.             substantive ideas for progress.
adopted the same motion, introduced in that              On April 9, Thomson, Polanyi and I                  But at the last minute, the motion got               The Commons-Senate joint action lays the
body by Conservative Senator Hugh Segal, and         brought the statement to Prime Minister             caught up in House leaders’ trading, and             groundwork for a national debate. There are
sent it to the House for similar action. Joint       Stephen Harper, who received us cordially in        Siksay, who is himself Canadian leader of            still many obstacles to overcome on the road
motions in both chambers occur from time to          his Langevin Building office. Thomson pre-          the global Parliamentarians for Nuclear              to zero nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons
time, but never has there been one that so sub-      sented the prime minister with the Order of         Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, was               are about power, and governments have
stantively addressed one of the world’s over-        Canada signatures, and he seemed impressed          instructed to introduce the motion.                  never given up that which they perceive as
arching problems: how to get rid of all 22,600       with the scope of the list. I then handed him           The ways of Parliament are admittedly            giving them strength. The powerful military-
nuclear weapons still in existence.                  a three-page aide-memoire, which concluded          arcane, but that can hardly be an excuse             industrial complexes are still trading on a
    Despite the speed of passage in the House,       by suggesting, “It is a realizable and support-     for the mainline media to have ignored this          fear that has been driven into the public.
this was by no means a hasty action. In early        able goal for Canada to couple its existing         signal event. Though the motion is not bind-             Despite these obstacles, the tide is turn-
2009, Murray Thomson, a Second World War             work on the Non-Proliferation Treaty with a         ing on the government, it is evident that            ing. Thanks to Murray Thomson, who is
pilot who became a seasoned campaigner for           commitment to support preparatory work              the Cabinet cannot dismiss the expressed             both a visionary and an impresario, the abo-
peace, started writing to fellow members of the      on a convention or framework agreement              view of both the House of Commons and the            lition of nuclear weapons is on the central
Order of Canada to secure their support for a        providing a legal basis for the elimination of      Senate, backed by 535 members of the Order           stage in Ottawa.
statement calling on Canada to join a new world-     nuclear weapons.”                                   of Canada, which by definition is composed               A former senator and former ambassador
wide campaign for international negotiations to          Polanyi suggested ways for Canada to            of Canada’s most prestigious citizens.               for disarmament, Douglas Roche’s newest
achieve a Nuclear Weapons Convention. Such a         send surplus enriched uranium back to the               Nor is the joint motion only of transi-          book, How We Stopped Loving the Bomb,
convention would be a verifiable treaty on the       US, which Harper immediately accepted. We           tory interest. President Barack Obama has            will be published in early 2011.
prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons.      followed up the meeting with Harper with            set out a vision of a nuclear-weapons-free                        editor@embassymag.ca
EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—16


News

We need a conversation: KAIROS                          “I do not know,” Ms. Oda replied.                  sideration, to not accept the department’s
            Continued from Page 1
provide clarity for all NGOs and their inter-           That evoked a stunned silence in the West          advice. This is quite normal and I certainly
national partners.                                   Block committee room before Mr. McKay                 was aware of her decision and the inclusion
    The document in question was unearthed by        said: “That’s a remarkable statement.”                of the word ‘not’ is just a simple reflection
Embassy in October. In early 2009, KAIROS, which        Bloc Québécois member Jean Dorion fol-             of what her decision was, of which she has
has been a CIDA NGO partner for decades, pro-        lowed by asking Ms. Biggs whether the “NOT”           been clear. So that’s quite normal.”
posed to undertake projects with local groups in     was on the document when she signed it.                    Ms. Biggs said the agency has changed
nine countries across three regions.                    “No, it wasn’t, sir,” the CIDA president           the format for project approval memos so
    After soliciting feedback from CIDA sec-         replied, acknowledging that the agency did            the minister has a clearer place to indicate
tions and embassies in the relevant countries,       recommend the KAIROS proposal.                        she doesn’t accept the advice being given,
a number of memos and background docu-                  Near the end of the hearing, Liberal               “which is her prerogative.”
ments were prepared for Ms. Oda in advance           Foreign Affairs critic Bob Rae asked Ms. Oda               When asked what was wrong with the KAIROS
of approving the $7.1-million KAIROS proposal.       whether the “NOT” was on the document                 proposal, however, Ms. Oda would only say that
    The final memorandum has three signatures        when she signed it.                                   “it’s not the minister’s responsibility necessarily
                                                        “I did not put the ‘not’ in,” the minister said,   to find what’s wrong, it’s to find the best projects




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Embassy Photo: Lee Berthiaume
on it. Two are from Sept. 25, 2009, when CIDA
acting vice-president Naresh Singh and the aid       before adding: “I did not sign the document.”         for the utilization of the public funds.”
agency’s president, Margaret Biggs, signed the          Confused, Mr. Rae noted that Ms. Oda’s                  Opposition MPs, citing comments made by
document. Ms. Oda herself signed the docu-           signature was on the memo, to which the               Ms. Oda and her parliamentary secretary, Jim
ment two months later, on Nov. 27, 2009.             minister said it may have been signed by a            Abbott, in the House of Commons and the way
    However, while the entire memo recom-            machine known as an automatic pen.                    the memo was altered, alleged the memo was
mends the project, a hand-written notation              “I, personally, did not sign that docu-            changed in a seemingly amateurish attempt to
has added “NOT” into the final sentence,             ment,” she said. “It’s my signature, which is         make it appear the aid agency was ultimately
which as a result reads: “RECOMMENDATION             either a pen-signed or a personal-signed. I do        responsible for rejecting KAIROS’s proposal.           CIDA president Margaret Biggs talks to Minister
— That you sign below to indicate you NOT            not sign, as any minister does not sign, every             “If you put ‘not’ in front of a cheque or if      Bev Oda before testifying to the committee.
approve the contribution of $7,098,758.”             document required to be signed.”                      you put ‘not’ in front of a number on a cheque,
    While the government has largely main-                                                                 it is called fraud,” Mr. Rae told reporters on         it lines up with the aid agency’s priorities.
tained that the KAIROS proposal did not              Minister’s prerogative                                Dec. 10. “This is tampering with a document            However, she says the fact is that CIDA staff
meet the aid agency’s priorities, the altered            Throughout the committee meeting, Ms.             which leaves a completely misleading impres-           recommended the original proposal, and
memo has reinforced allegations that the             Oda and Ms. Biggs downplayed the significance         sion as to what was really taking place.”              there’s been no clear indication why it was
decision was entirely political.                     of the memo change, arguing that whether CIDA                                                                rejected at the political.
    During an appearance with CIDA president         recommended the project or not, the minister          Not who, but why                                           “We’re not lying awake wondering who
Margaret Biggs before the Commons’ Foreign           knew of the final decision and approved it.               In an interview on Dec. 14, KAIROS execu-          wrote that ‘NOT’ because it won’t change
Affairs committee on Dec. 9, Ms. Oda was                 “I would say that CIDA staff in the department    tive director Mary Corkery said that while             anything,” Ms. Corkery said. “What we need
grilled by opposition MPs about the change.          certainly did its job,” Ms. Oda said. However,        opposition parliamentarians are looking for            to have a conversation about, openly, is
The result was more questions than answers.          “the ultimate decision is made by the minister,       accountability in the parliamentary process,           something very important was in the minds
    “You were the one who wrote the ‘not,’”          and the minister does have that responsibility,       her organization—as well as other NGOs that            of whoever said ‘No.’
Liberal committee member John McKay said             not only just to endorse recommendations com-         have worked with CIDA—are looking for an                   “We aren’t looking for someone to blame.
at one point.                                        ing out of any department, but also has to use        explanation so they can get back to work.              It’s about the relationship between CIDA and
    “I did not say I was the one who wrote the       their own judgment in every case.”                        KAIROS submitted a new funding propos-             the NGO community. We just need to get
‘not,’” Ms. Oda replied.                                 Ms. Biggs echoed that statement, saying:          al in March, and has had feedback from CIDA            things on track.”
    “Who did then?” Mr. McKay asked.                 “It was [Ms. Oda’s] decision, after due con-          officials on how to make it better and ensure                       lee@embassymag.ca




Afghan governance absent from DND dialogue?
            Continued from Page 1                        “Chavez’ agenda is about expanding his            ‘I don’t know how could explain to my nation           This move prompted criticism and debate within
    The address was widely hailed as the start       influence and power, using the ‘Bolivarian            and the international community why the                the country. It also raised questions: Why?
of a new era in the proliferation movement, and      Revolution’ as his vehicle,” reads the June           best friend of the US was not granted’” a free            While the US diplomatic cables don’t
commentators and activists encouraged Canada         2007 cable. “This rubs a lot of the region’s          trade agreement, Mr. Uribe said.                       explain Canada’s decision, one from
to jump on board and give Mr. Obama a boost.         governmental and non-governmental leader                  In 2010, US officials were told that the           February 2009 does indicate that, at least
    Later on, some criticized the Canadian govern-   and opinion makers the wrong way”                     failure to ratify the Colombia-US agreement            from the American perspective, Kosovo “is
ment for not being more forceful and supportive          The document lays out a strategy that             was hurting Canadian and EU ratification of            a responsible member of the international
of the president’s vision. But it appears Canada’s   says the US has “to play to that resentment by        similar deals, and also putting Colombia at            community and an eager aspirant for even-
encouragement was present—and not as helpful         strengthening ties with these leaders, praising       a disadvantage to neighbours like Chile and            tual inclusion in Euro-Atlantic institutions.”
as some would imagine.                               their governance and fostering broad public           Peru, which had their own deals with the US.              “Kosovo has a modern constitution, has
    “President Obama has set out the pros-           respect for the progressive models they are           Other cables say that with a strong economy,           passed laws to protect its minorities, and is
pect of elimination of such weapons,” reads          seeking to build within their societies.”             Colombia can stand on its own two feet in              looking to build a sustainable economic base
a cable from August 2009, “but we need                   Interestingly, during a stop in Santiago          the face of the Venezuelan threat.                     through development of its energy sector and
to control the unreasonable expectations             during his Latin American trip in 2007, Mr.               Interestingly, other cables state that Mr.         other private investment,” the cable reads.
of other countries, including Canada, the            Harper said Canada and Chile represent pro-           Chavez gets a boost from his anti-American
Netherlands, Sweden and the European                 gressive models that are different from the           rhetoric, and that his alliance with Iran,             Wherefore is the governance?
Union in general.”                                   US and, without naming it, Venezuela.                 as an example, is based expressly on anti-                 There can be no doubt that Canadian
                                                         The strategy also discusses, among other          Americanism. To that end, it appears there             soldiers handed detained Afghan civilians
The Americas                                         things, the importance of bringing likemind-          is a fear that Mr. Chavez’s rise constitutes a         to local security forces in Kandahar in 2005
    In July 2007, Prime Minister Stephen Harper      ed nations into the global economy with free          threat to US influence in the region.                  and 2006 despite concerns they would be
toured Latin America and the Caribbean, dur-         trade agreements and other tools.                         “We must convince not only government              tortured.
ing which he announced his government’s                  In that regard, there were several cables         leaders but civil society—the person on the                One unanswered question, however, is
intention to re-engage with the region. Since        released about Colombia, in which then-               street—that we are committed to a progres-             whether the military knew what it had got-
then, there has been a great deal of specula-        president Alvaro Uribe thanks the US for              sive and democratic vision for the Americas            ten itself into. Parliamentarians from three
tion about the motives, with few answers.            helping pull the Latin American country back          and to helping our neighbors meet their chal-          parties are now sifting through hundreds
    While the Wikileaks cables do not actually       from the brink of being a failed state.               lenges,” reads the June 2007 strategy cable. “If       of documents in secret to determine the
address Canada’s shift, they do lay out US               It is clear from the cables that Colombia         we can, we will make quick inroads to margin-          answer to that question.
thinking on Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba and a          is, in many ways, the epicentre of the fight          alizing Chavez’ influence, bolster democracy               On Dec. 7, 2006, Russian special presiden-
number of other countries which seem to hit          against Venezuela, which is supporting the            and reassert our own leadership in the region.”        tial representative Anatoliy Safonov met with
very close to the mark on Canadian thinking.         FARC guerrillas waging war against the gov-                                                                  US ambassador-at-large Henry Crumpton in
    For example, after having read a number          ernment in Bogota. The country’s economic             Kosovo independence                                    Paris to talk about a range of issues. During
of cables, there can be little doubt that the        well-being, it seems, is essential to success.           On Feb. 18, 2008, Kosovo unilaterally               the conversation, Afghanistan came up.
US considers Venezuelan President Hugo                   During a meeting with US Congressmen in           declared itself independent from Serbia.                   “On Afghanistan,” the post-meeting cable
Chavez a threat.                                     December 2007, Mr. Uribe said that the free           While widely expected, the move nonethe-               reads, “Safonov said that British and Canadian
    One cable dated from June 2007—a month           trade agreement between his country and               less prompted a divergent international                soldiers were well regarded, but Dutch sol-
before Mr. Harper’s announcement—says Mr.            the US would increase foreign investment,             response, with several dozen countries rec-            diers were causing problems by posing ‘con-
Chavez “has a vision, however distorted, and         making Colombia’s export sectors develop              ognizing the breakaway state, while others             stant questions about governance.’”
he is taking calculated measures to advance it.”     to be more competitive in US markets.”                refused to acknowledge it.                                 While it is only one line in a cable from
Another from June 2009 describes his move-               He went on to say that the FTA “was also             Despite fears of setting a precedent that           four years ago, it does raise some important
ment as “Socialism in the 21st Century” that is a    important for political reasons, since it would       Quebec could eventually follow, Canada recog-          questions.
threat to the entire Latin American region.          show US support for its best ally in the region.      nized the independent Kosovo a few weeks later.                      lee@embassymag.ca
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—17



                                                                       EMBASSY Classifieds
                                                                   INFORMATION AND ADVERTISEMENT PLACEMENT: TEL. 613-232-2922, FAX 613-232-9055

0010 RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE                        0020 CONDOS FOR SALE                       0030 CONDOS FOR RENT                                0030 CONDOS FOR RENT                                0040 HOUSES FOR RENT                               0043 1 BEDROOM
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                                                    Balcony. 613-837-8833                                                                                                                              EXECUTIVE LIVING IN NEW EDINBURGH
                                                                                                      CLOSE TO PARLIAMENT HILL                             ROCKCLIFFE PARK/LINDENLEA                                                                                                                                                                         OPPORTUNITY
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                                EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—18


                            Party Time
                                                                                                         China
Embassy Photos: Avinash Gavai




                                                                                                                                                                                                          5
                                                                 Goodbye                                                                                                                                The Chinese Embassy threw a reception at
                                                                                                                                                                                                        the mission on Dec. 8 celebrating the arrival
                                                               Ambassador                                                                                                                               of their new ambassador, Junsai Zhang.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Embassy Photos: Sam Garcia
                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. Guomei Yin, wife of Mr. Zhang; Mr.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Zhang; Caroline Linke; and her hus-
                                 1                                  Ludin                                                                                                                                    band, Australian High Commissioner
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Justin Brown.
                            On Dec. 7, Afghan Ambassador                                                                                                                                                5. Ottawa Mayor Jim Watson with Peter
                            Jawed Ludin hosted his farewell                                                                                                                                                  Kent, minister of state for the Americas.
                            reception at the Château Laurier.                                            4                                                                                              6. Russian Ambassador Georgy                     6
                            1. German Ambassador Georg                                                                                                                                                       Mamedov has a word with Mr. Zhang.
                                Witschel; Mr. Ludin and his
                                wife Zuhra Ludin; and Sabine                                                                                                                                  Kenyan High Commissioner Simon
                                Witschell, wife of Mr. Witschell.   2                                                                                                                         Wanyonyi Nabukwesi hosted an
                            2. Biljana Gutic-Bjelica, ambassa-                                                                                                                                event at the St. Elias Centre on
                                dor of Bosnia-Herzegovina, with                                                                                                                               Dec. 13 to mark his country’s
                                Nepalese High Commissioner                                                                                                                                    Independence Day.
                                Bhoj Raj Ghimire.                                                                                                                                             14. Evelyn Nabukwesi, wife of the
                            3. Turkish Ambassador Rafet                                                                                                                                           Kenyan high commissioner;
                                Akgänay; Scott Taylor, editor of                                                                                                                                  Mamadou Diawara, ambassador
                                Esprit de Corps magazine; and
                                Sri Lankan High Commissioner
                                                                                                         10                             Greece                                                    of Mali; and Mr. Nabukwesi.
                                                                                                                                                                                              15. Mrs. Nabukwesi; Guyanese
                                Chitranganee Wagiswara.             3                                                                                                                             High Commissioner Rajnarine
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Singh; Togo Ambassador




                                                                                                                                                                 Embassy Photos: Sam Garcia
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bawoumondom Amelete; out-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  going DFAIT chief of protocol
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Robert Peck; Kamal Seth, retired
                                                                                                                                                                                                  major of the Kenyan armed forc-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  es; Mr. Nabukwesi; and Mrs. Seth
                                                                                                                                                                                                  collectively cutting the Kenyan        14
                                                                                                        11                                                                                        independence day cake.

                                                                                                       Greek Ambassador Eleftherios Anghelopoulos organized a
                                                                                                       lunch at the Arona Meze Restaurant celebrating the food
                                                                                                       of Greece and Betty, Eleni, and Samantha Bakopoulous’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Kenya
                                                                                                       cookbook 3 Sisters Around the Greek Table on Dec. 10.
                                                                                                       10. The Bakopoulous sisters with Mr. Anghelopoulous
                                                                                                            and Michael Tatsis, the chef for the event.
                                                                                                       11. A sampling of Greek food products was showcased.


                                                                                                               European Union
                                 7                                      Slovenia




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Embassy Photos: Sam Garcia
                                                                                                         12
                                                                                                                                                                                                15
Embassy Photos: Sam Garcia




                                                                                                                                                                 Embassy Photos: Sam Garcia




                                                                                                                                                                                                First Nations
                                 8                                        9
                            The Slovenian ambassador hosted a party at his Rockcliffe Park residence     13
                            celebrating the 20th anniversary of Slovenia’s independence on Dec. 9.
                            7. Norwegian Ambassador Else Berit Eikeland; Slovenian Ambassador          The EU delegation hosted a Christmas concert at Notre
                                 Tomaz Kunstelj; and his wife Tea Kunstelj.                            Dame Cathedral on Dec. 11.
                            8. Maria Angelica Bothamley, wife of the Argentine ambassador; Rina        12. Madeleine Brinkmann, wife of the EU ambassador;
                                 Gavai, wife of India’s high commissioner; and Madeleine Therese           Veronika von Nostitz-Tait; and EU Ambassador
                                 Brinkmann, wife of the EU ambassador.                                     Matthias Brinkmann.
                            9. Mr. Kunstelj sharing a joke with Dutch Ambassador Wilhelm Geerts.       13. The Christmas choir in full swing.                                                  16

                                 Premium Rental Apartments

                                                    BEAUTIFUL PARK SETTING
                                               Y Indoor Pool Y Exercise Room Y
                                                   Y Granite counter tops Y
                                               Y 6 Appliances Y Window Blinds Y
                                                   Y Strip Hardwood Floors Y                                                                  17
                                                                                                                                            The Assembly of First Nations invited Ottawa’s diplomatic
                                                                                                                                            corps to a cultural exchange at the Canadian Museum of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Embassy Photos: Avinash Gavai




                                                                                                                                            Civilization on Dec.13.
                                                                                                                                            16. Portuguese Ambassador Pedro Luis Baptista
                                                                                                                                                 Moitinho de Almeida; Panamanian Ambassador
                                                                                                                                                 Francisco Carlo Escobar Pedreschi; Danish
                                                                                                                                                 Ambassador Erik Vilstrup Lorenzen; Finnish
                                                                                                                                                 Ambassador Risto Ensio Piipponen; and his wife
                                                                                                                                                 Leena Piipponen.
                                 613.741.4411 www.terrassesgabrielle.com www.globegeneral.ca                                                17. First Nation dancers.                                                             18
                                                                                                                                            18. National Chief Shawn Atleo addressing the audience.
                                                                                                                                                                                         EMBASSY, Wednesday, December 15, 2010—19


                                                                                                                                                                                                      Envoys & Events

Francophone Africans
surprised at Canada’s
Anglo tilt: Envoy
                                                                     Mr. Anguilé says he really focused on
                                                                 fostering partnerships between his country
                                                                 and Canada on natural resources. Gabon
                                                                 is the fourth-largest oil producer in sub-
                        CARL MEYER                               Saharan Africa, but getting the stuff out of
                                                                 the ground isn’t easy. A small population of
                                                                 1.5 million, and rainforest covering 85 per
                              Diplomatic                         cent of the country means Gabon needs to
                              Circles                            benefit from professional partnerships with
                                                                 experienced countries like Canada.



G
          abonese Ambassador Andre                                   Some of this has been happening:
          William Anguile arrived in Ottawa                      Canadian Natural Resources, a big oil-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Embassy Photo: Carl Meyer
          in September 2007, only a few                          sands player, has so far invested roughly
          months after the Harper government                     $3 billion in Gabon. And the African nation
announced its Americas Strategy, a new dip-                      has natural resource delegations that trav-
lomatic focus on the Western hemisphere.                         el directly to Toronto, says Mr. Anguilé. But
    In the aftermath, several Canadian dip-                      he says more needs to be done.
lomatic missions in Africa were closed, the                          “Trade is very important, development is
number of African nations receiving Canadian                     very important. If Canada is one of the main
                                                                                                                                 Gabonese Ambassador Andre William Anguile.
assistance was cut, and there was a sense                        actors in the continent that will probably
among the African diplomatic corps that                          help us prevent more wars and dismay on
Canada was disengaging from the continent.                       the continent.”                                                     In Addis Ababa, Mr. Anguile will be                              the forefront and the cradle of the United
    “As you know, through the many inter-                            Looking back on his time in Canada, Mr.                     Gabon’s man in Ethiopia, with concurrent                             Nations, was not voted in this time for the
views that you have conducted in the past                        Anguile says one thing that surprised him                       representation to Kenya, Tanzania, the                               first time in 60 years.”
year,” says Mr. Anguilé, now “the African                        was the fact French is not used throughout                      African Union, the Economic Commission for                               He says that while there were many
group in general has a kind of concern with                      the country. As an ambassador from a franco-                    Africa and the United Nations Environment                            factors contributing to Canada’s rout, the
regard to Canada’s involvement in Africa.”                       phone country, he had expected to be greeted                    Program in Nairobi.                                                  country should take it as “a wake up call”
    As he prepares to leave at the end of the                    with “Bonjours” wherever he went—a misper-                          Shifting from bilateral to multilateral                          that “people need Canada back on the inter-
month for a new posting in Addis Ababa,                          ception he says is shared by many other dip-                    “is going to be a big change, of course,” he                         national scene.”
Mr. Anguile says that “although we’ve been                       lomats from French-speaking countries.                          says, especially since Ottawa was his first                              Other than politics and policy, one of
very well reassured by our friends and poli-                         “Before coming to Canada, people think                      posting as head of mission. But he has a                             his regrets as a lover of wildlife was that he
ticians, we still would like to see a better                     that there’s an equal balance, Francophone                      career of diplomacy under his belt, working                          could not get to Churchill, Manitoba, the
presence of Canada on the continent.”                            and Anglophone,” he says.                                       at the UN headquarters in New York and                               self-styled “Polar Bear capital of the world,”
    Not that Mr. Anguile’s three-year post-                          “So wherever you go, [you’d think] peo-                     in their office in Guinea-Bissau, as well as                         to see their main attraction.
ing was all doom and gloom. Far from it.                         ple would speak French and English, either                      being a foreign office staff member, so he                               In addition, he wasn’t able to participate
He describes his time in Ottawa as “very                         way. And when you come here, you realize                        believes he’s ready for it.                                          in Foreign Affairs’ northern tour for diplo-
enthralling” and “very intense.”                                 that [there’s] only a few pockets.... People                        In mentioning the UN, Mr. Anguile says                           mats because the trips conflicted with events
    “When it’s your first posting, you                           are a bit taken aback when they’re not used                     he followed Canada’s bid for a seat on the                           in his professional life. He was, however,
always try to perform even better than                           to it, when they don’t expect that.”                            Security Council with interest since Gabon                           able to see other parts of the country, recall-
your predecessors, if possible,” he says,                            Himself fluent in both languages ever                       was elected to a non-permanent seat on the                           ing fond memories of his travels to British
adding he would not have been able to                            since he had the opportunity to study                           Council itself in 2009, and that he was sur-                         Columbia, Quebec and New Brunswick.
succeed without strong support from                              English in Ireland as a young man, Mr.                          prised it did not succeed.                                               He says if he returns to Canada he will make
Canadian friends and officials in the                            Anguile says multilingualism “is the new                            “I must admit that we were all very                              sure to make seeing polar bears a priority.
Department of Foreign Affairs.                                   trend in Africa.”                                               sad to see that Canada, who has been at                                          cmeyer@embassymag.ca


                                                                                                                                     Concert: Celebrate the Newborn King—The



OTTAWA Listings
                                                                                                                                                                                                      TUESDAY, JAN. 11
                                                                                                                                 Metropolitan Bible Church Choir presents its annual cantata
                                                                                                                                 “Celebrate the Newborn King.” 6 p.m. Metropolitan Bible                  The Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty 2010
                                                                                                                                 Church, 2176 Prince of Wales Dr. 613-238-8182.                       Review Conference—Paul Meyer, former Canadian
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ambassador for disarmament, will discuss “The Nuclear
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Non-proliferation Treaty 2010 Review Conference: Outcome
                                                                                                                                 MONDAY, DEC. 20                                                      and Outlook.” Presented by CIPS. 2 p.m. Free. Room
   Submit your Ottawa-based event to listings@embas-             p.m., free. IDRC, W. David Hopper Room, 150 Kent St., 8th
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3120, Desmarais Building, 55 Laurier Ave. E. http://www.
symag.ca or fax to 613-232-9055 by Friday at 5 p.m.              floor. Register to www.idrc.ca/events-muasher                       Exhibition: A Brush with War—Works by 64 artists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      socialsciences.uottawa.ca/cepi-cips/eng/about.asp
                                                                                                                                 who witnessed Canadian military history from 1946-2008.
WEDNESDAY, DEC. 15                                                    Screening: Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His
                                                                                                                                 Ongoing until March 20. Canadian War Museum, 1 Vimy
                                                                 Lives—A dying farmer is visited by ghosts from his past and
     The Netherlands celebrates Kingdom Day, which                                                                               Place. www.warmuseum.ca
                                                                 is concerned that his past acts constitute bad karma. Dir.
marks the signing of the charter of the Kingdom of the
                                                                 Apichatpong Weerasethakul. In Thai with English subtitles.
Netherlands in 1954. For information on any celebrations,                                                                                                                                               Local and International Moves
                                                                 4:15 p.m. Bytowne Cinema, 325 Rideau St. 613-789-3456
call the embassy at 613-237-5030.                                                                                                TUESDAY, DEC. 21
                                                                 or www.bytowne.ca
     Minoan Palatial Culture: Priniatikos Pyrgos,                                                                                    Christmas with the Chamber Players of
Crete—A lecture by Rebecca Mullin Megarry of Trinity                                                                             Canada—Enjoy some Christmas music with the Chamber
College, Dublin, in which she will display newly exca-           FRIDAY, DEC. 17                                                 Players of Canada. Program includes music by Corelli and               150 offices in over 50 countries 45 years
vated material and offer a look at the lost civilization of
                                                                     Concert: Celebrate the Newborn King—The
                                                                                                                                 Brahms. 8 p.m. $20. Dominion-Chalmers United Church, 355               of experience relocating the international
the Minoans. Presented by the Archaeological Institute of                                                                        Cooper St. www.chamberplayers.ca                                         diplomatic and expatriate community.
                                                                 Metropolitan Bible Church Choir presents its annual cantata
America, the Greek Embassy, the Canadian Institute in
                                                                 “Celebrate the Newborn King.” 7 p.m. Metropolitan Bible
Greece, the Canadian Institute for Mediterranean Studies and
                                                                 Church, 2176 Prince of Wales Dr. 613-238-8182.
the Parnassos Hellenic Cultural Society. 7:30 p.m. Auditorium,                                                                   SATURDAY, JAN. 1
Library and Archives Canada, 395 Wellington St.                                                                                       Cuba celebrates its Liberation Day. This marks the day
      Film Screening—A special presentation of the world’s       SATURDAY, DEC. 18                                               when Fidel Castro took power in 1959. Call the embassy for
first Inuktitut-language film on climate change Qapirangajuq:                                                                    information on any celebrations at 613-563-0141.
                                                                      Screening: The Infidel—A man suddenly discovers
Inuit Knowledge and Climate Change. The screening will           that he is Jewish after the death of his mother. He seeks out       Haiti celebrates its Independence Day. It gained inde-
be followed by a Q&A with director Zacharias Kunuk and           the only Jew he knows—a depressed, Afro-American cab driv-      pendence from France in 1804. To find out about any cel-
researcher/filmmaker Ian Mauro. 7:30 p.m. Westin Hotel, 11       er—to learn more about being Jewish. Dir. Josh Appignanesi.     ebrations, please call the embassy at 613-238-1628.
Col. By Dr. 613-238-8181 ext. 276                                UK, 2010. 2:15 p.m. Runs until Dec. 22, check schedule for
                                                                                                                                      Sudan celebrates its National Day. It gained independence                       For a free estimate on your move,
THURSDAY, DEC. 16                                                show times. Bytowne Cinema, 325 Rideau St. 613-789-3456
                                                                                                                                 from both the U.K. and the Egyptian Republic in 1956. For informa-     or information on customized storage solutions,
                                                                 or www.bytowne.ca
    Bahrain celebrates its National Day. It gained indepen-                                                                      tion on any celebrations, please call the embassy at 613-235-4000.              call now 613 853 7120, or 866 870 1004,
dence from the U.K. in 1971.                                                                                                                                                                                           or email osverdlin@crownrelo.com
    Kazakhstan celebrates its Independence Day. It gained        SUNDAY, DEC. 19
                                                                                                                                 TUESDAY, JAN. 4
independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. For information          Chorus Ecclesiae Christmas Concert—Carols and                                                                                                                     On parle francais aussi
on any celebrations, call the embassy at 613-788-3704.                                                                               Myanmar celebrates its Independence Day. It gained
                                                                 Gregorian Chant conducted by Lawrence Harris. 3 p.m. &                                                                                  Vancouver Calgary Montreal Ottawa Toronto
                                                                                                                                 independence from the U.K. in 1948. For information on any
    IDRC Lecture—Marwan Muasher will discuss                     8 p.m. $15. Cloister of the Dominican Convent, 96 Empress                                                                             Well-connected. Worldwide.TM www.crownrelo.com
                                                                                                                                 celebrations, please call the embassy at 613-232-9990.
“Redefining Arab Moderation.” Presented by IDRC. 2-3:30          Ave. 613-567-7729

				
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